2.25. Social Welfare 2.25.1.
Social Welfare programmes are designed essentially to supplement
the larger effort for human development.
The objective is to improve the
quality of life and to cater to the special needs of vulnerable sections like children, women and the handicapped through organised and sustained developmental activities.
During the past few decades of planned
development, social welfare has acquired greater significance, as evinced through its widening interface with Government and increasing participation of voluntary agencies.
Upto the close of the Fourth Plan, most of the
programmes were ameliorative in nature.
From the Fifth Plan onwards,
emphasis was shifted to the promotion of preventive and developmental services. Programmes for promoting women's welfare received fillip. These included
opportunities to needy women and disabled persons to supplement their family income or to bring about their economic rehabilitation, condensed courses/ vocational training courses which prepared women for certain recognized examinations thus enabling them to qualify for specific jobs and acquire various skills, hostels for women, which helped in providing women from far-flung areas with stay and day care facilities for their children. 2.25.2.
Social Welfare encompasses a host of measures, which would fall
within the ambit of the term social security. Traditionally, social security means the protection which society provides for its members, through a series of measures against the economic and social distress that would otherwise be caused by the stoppage or substantial reduction of earnings resulting from sickness, maternity, employment injury, unemployment, invalidity, old age and health. 2.25.3.
In Tamil Nadu (as in other parts of the country), social security is
provided through both promotional and protective measures.
promotional social security includes poverty alleviation programmes, employment generation programmes, provision of basic needs and the public distribution system, protective social security includes entitlements to those affected by old age, disability, sickness, maternity, employment injury etc., which comprises contributory benefits in the form of pensions & -:153:-
retirement benefits to Government employees provident funds & other benefits for workers in factories and other commercial establishments, pensions for vulnerable groups and marriage & maternity or other social assistance for women . Welfare of women and children 2.25.4.
The status of women is reflected through indicators like literacy
level, work participation rate, gender development index (GDI) etc. The GDI is a summary measure, which has been found to be useful in comparing stages of gender development. 2.25.5.
The GDI (HDR 2003) for Tamil Nadu is 0.654 as against the All-
India value of 0.560 (HDR 2002).
This shows that Tamil Nadu’s
achievement in gender equality is better than that in the country as a whole. 2.25.6.
Sex ratio in Tamil Nadu in 2001 was 986/ 1000 as against 974/
1000 in 1991.
The juvenile sex ratio in Tamil Nadu is 939 according to
2001 census as compared to 948 in 1991 census. 2.25.7.
With regard to female literacy, the rate in Tamil Nadu has
increased from 27% in 1971 to 35% in 1981, 51% in 1991 and 64.55% in 2001. 2.25.8.
The female work participation rate has increased from 22.95% in
1971 to 32.41% in 1981 and to 34.41% in 1991 and it has reduced to 31.15% in 2001. 2.25.9.
The programmes, which have improved the status of women are
classified broadly into economic activities, welfare support, financial assistance etc.
Programmes are implemented for the rehabilitation and
welfare of widows, destitutes and deserted women by providing either direct assistance for marriage and in kind like supply of sewing machines etc. or indirect assistance in the form of training in vocational courses like computer, typewriting, shorthand and involving women in various cooperative societies for promoting self employment. The other programmes under implementation are creches, balwadies, and training-cum-production centres for women and institutional services for the needy women.
To help financially poor parents in getting their daughter
married and to promote the educational status of poor girls, Moovalur Ramammirtham Ammaiyar Ninaivu Marriage Assistance Scheme was implemented with effect from 1989.
It has now been revived and
implemented with an increase of Rs.5000/- i.e. from Rs.10,000/- to Rs.15,000/- per beneficiary (for girls above 18 years). 2.25.11. To prevent female infanticide and to discourage preference for male child as well as to promote family planning, girl child protection scheme is being implemented. It also ensures equal opportunity in education for girl children on par with male children. The cradle baby scheme was launched in Salem with the sole aim of eradicating female infanticide. This scheme was later extended to Madurai, Theni, Dindigul and Dharmapuri. For encouraging orphaned, abandoned and neglected destitute children, Govt has permitted to run 21 licensed agencies doing in-country adoptions and all the licensed agencies are authorised to handle legal adoptions. 2.25.12. In order mitigate the problems of the aged, Govt. gives financial assistance to 16 voluntary organisations, to run old age homes, 620 old age persons are provided food and shelter in these homes. To mitigate the sufferings of the Tsunami affected population of the worst affected coastal districts, various special welfare and relief measures viz., special service homes for adolescent girls and unmarried girls above 18 years, financial assistance scheme, psychological care and support programme has been implemented. 2.25.13. In order to provide social security to the aged/ physically handicapped/ destitute widows/ deserted wives and destitute agricultural labourers who have no means of subsistence and have no relatives, pension schemes are being implemented. The financial assistance provided to them has now been enhanced from Rs.200/- to Rs.400/- p.m. during 2006-07. Social Defence 2.25.14.
The fundamental duties and responsibilities of the Department
of Social Defence, is to ensure protection of children and women from neglect, maltreatment, abuse, exploitation etc and facilitate them to lead a
programmes for their reintegration into the mainstream society. therefore to ensure such intervention and
and It is
programmes in accordance with
the provisions of central legislations viz., the
Juvenile Justice (Care and
Protection of Children) Act, 2000 and the Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act, 1956. 2.25.15. There are totally 50 institutions out of which 8 observation homes (6 run by the Dept directly and 2 run by the NGOs funded by Govt), 31 children homes (11 run by the Dept directly and 20 by NGOs funded by the Govt.) for boys and girls, 6 protective/ vigilance homes, 2 special homes for boys and girls and 3 aftercare organisations are run by the Government and 20 by voluntary organisations.
These institutions provide care, treatment,
custody, educational and vocational training and rehabilitation to the children and women. The other ongoing programmes are: maintenance of homes, training to the inmates in various trades, functioning of the State level programme and monitoring cell etc. 2.25.16. The Directorate for Rehabilitation of the Disabled aims to provide comprehensive, rehabilitation services which include provision of special education, vocational training, placement in jobs, assistance for self employment and free supply of appliances to improve their mobility with the ultimate objective of making the handicapped self-reliant and
independent. According to National Sample Survey, the disabled constitute 1.9% of the total population. As per Census 2001, the total disabled population in Tamil Nadu State is 16.42 lakh. There are 25 special schools run by the Government, out of which 11 are for the blind, 2 preschools, 10 for
orthopaedically handicapped. Financial assistance given to physically handicapped persons has been enhanced from Rs.200/- to Rs.500/- per month. 2.25.17. The outlay approved for Social Welfare for Tenth Plan (2002-07) was Rs.200 crore.
During the Tenth Plan the anticipated expenditure is
reported to be Rs.2222.77 crore. The outlay proposed for the 11th Five Year
Plan is Rs.6020 crore. The agreed outlay for 2007-08 is Rs.997.53 crore. Of this, the outlays set apart for Scheduled Caste Sub Plan and Tribal Sub Plan are Rs.199.51 crore and Rs.35.41 crore respectively.