closelj, about the Indian society. During the eighteenth century the Indian contact nit11 the British was chiefly confined to matters of trade, despit...

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Chapter V % I


Eighteenth century had witnessed the steady expansion of British trade followed b j political pomer in India. It also facilitated the British to know more closelj, about the Indian society. During the eighteenth century the Indian contact nit11 the British was chiefly confined to matters of trade, despite the enthusiasm shonn bj Orientalists like Jones and Colebrooke in ancient Indian literature and histor). This interaction, in the beginning of the nineteenth centurq. pcrnleated to other levels of activities too. One of the consequences of this interaction was the emergence of a new class of Indians ivith a high regard for British culture and a determination to eliminate the evils that had crept into Indian socictj. This transformation in the attitudes of a group of people was clearly ~ i s i b l ein the education provided for Dwrkanath Tagore by his father. He n a s sent to a school )!here western subjects were taught, instead of to a pntcrscrin. In the early years of the nineteenth century, Indians saw English

education as a passport to official appointment and as a tool of commerce.' As n a s in the case of Dwrkanath. Western education produced a class of young men with high regard for western culture. Dwrkanath, no doubt, admired western culture. at the same time worked in collaboration with Rain Mohan Roy for the regeneration of India. He participated in the parties of his British


Michael Edwards, British Inclia 1772-1947 (Delhi: Rupa and Company, 1967)29.

colleagues and entertained thenz in his parties too. Though the interaction h~ith the British seemed inevitable due to his business interest, it could not be ignored for the sake of business interest alone. In fact, he adinired the British May of life and it n a s said that he wanted to educate his fifth son in England. After the death of his nifc. hc stayed more or less permanently in England till death overtook him.' The intimacq of Dwrkanath Tagore with the English and for the same reason, his alienation from traditional way of life reflected upon his domestic life. Digambari Dcvi !\horn he married at the age of seventeen (when she mas nine). utterly refused to co-operate with him. Brought up in a very conservative fa-,mil)., she coilid not tolerate her husband's deviation from tradition. A question arose in her mind whether. as an orthodox Hindu lady. she would live in the saine house nirh a husband who mixed freely with foreigners or should she live

Finally. she made up her mind to stay with her husband in

the same house so that she could serve her husband and keep her pativrata intact; but decided to keep away from any physical contact with him. It was said that even if by accident she touched him, i~nlnediatelyshe would purify herself by bath. Indeed, Digambari's religious obstinacy might have annoyed Dnrkanath who was a diligent, energetic man with full of innovative ideas. His

Hironrnoy Banerjee, The Tagores of Jorasanko, Trans. Biplab K. Mazulndar (New Delhi: Gyan. 1995) 18.

business nith the Easl India Company officials and the management of his vast zamindari occupied hiin most of the time and he was little concerned with what was happening in the zenar7a. 1 Dnrkanath's firnil) can be taken as one of the many traditional Indian families affected b) the impact of western ideals in the early years of the nineteenth centus). Iie might have desired some changes in the family too, on Western lines: but it seemed out of place on account of his wife's extreme religiosit).. Hiographicnl accounts of Dmrkanath showed that he respected his %Life's15-a) of life and hc did not cause any inconvenience to her other than a reti~salto change his \\estern life style. Since more Indian youths came out of schools. collcgcs. and universities where western subjects formed the curriculum. it nas on11 a matter of time for the educated Indians in the urban areas to look at the lift. of their women scornfully. Indian women stood in cornplete contrast to English \\omen. They were rarely seen out of their inner quarters. Illiterate. secluded and superstitious, Indian wives stood nowhere as con~panionsof their English educated young husbands. If Indian society carried on the mol-ernent for women's emancipation almost a century without losing spirit, the deterrnination of western educated Indian Inen contributed much to it. They wanted to make Indian women fit for a society where western ideals and values were the symbols of modernity and progress. Raja Ram Mohan


Krishna Kripalani,harknnath Tagore. A Forgotterz Pioneer. A Life (New Delhi: National Book Trust, 1980) 26.

Roy, pioneer of the mo~ementfor uomen's emancipation, did not have this broad idea of transforming tradition bound Indian woman to a lady with sufficient qualification for a society modernized by the etiquette of British societlS.Therefore. Ram Mohan Roy turned his back to women related issues ~viththe abolition of suti in 1839. The main objective of his ~irulentcampaign against scrti \$as to inahe Indian women and society free from an inhuman and unci\.ilized practice. I-Ionever. the campaign for women's emancipation did not rncet its cnd i\ith the abolition of suti. It acquired inomentum with the support

of \+estern educated Indians.

The campaign against \\idowhood can be considered as an outcorne or almost an ine~~itablc consequence of the abolition of snti. From an economic point of vie\$. the custom of sari removed the burden of maintaining the midom. It also relieved the possible stain of the consequence of unprotected sexuality of ~iicfons. 'I'hus, the abolition of sati raised the question of maintenancc and control of the unprotected sexuality of widows. Though Vidyasagar took up the cause of widows. out of his humane feelings, one cannot ignore the undercurrents of those above said factors in the campaign for \tido\v marriage. A review of the movement against widowhood indicated that it did not achieve much success. Indeed, one can blame the conservatisln of a traditional society for not being able to achieve the desired result. Even the educated Indians could not break off the shackles of absurd practices. Nonetheless, the movement e~nyoweredgirl-widows, like Subhakha. to express

their intense desire lo get remarried. Subhakha, a sixteen-year-old widow, was an ininate of Sister Subhalakshrni's Widows' Home. One day, the Sister received a letter from a syrnpathiser of widow marriage requesting her to select for him a widow in the Home for him to marry. She dismissed any prospects of marriage and found the topic not worth discussing. However. Subhakha approached the Sister direcrly and said, "I should like to marry that man."


The education of widows and girls in general found more supporters than in the case of widow marriage. While education of widows provided priority to vocational education. girls' education did not intend to prepare them for any vocation. The purpose of girls' education was to make them good wives and mothers. The rudiments of reading, writing and a little arithmetic, hygiene, needlework, embroidery and knowledge in Bengali, the vernacular as well as English were regarded as being more than adequate for them6 The educated young Indians seemed very particular about the education of their wives. If their girl wives were illiterate at the time of marriage, they themselves tutored the girls. When Govind Vasudeo Kanitkar (1 8 154- 1904) married Kashibai (1861-1948), she was illiterate. He wanted his wife to be educated to


Cited in Monica Felton, A Child Widow's Story (London: Victor Gollancz and Limited. 1966) 82. Malavika Karelkar, .'Kadarnbini and the Bhadralok. Early Debates over Wornen's Education in Bengal." Economic and Political Weekcly Vo1.xxi.No. 19, Apri1.26 1986:

acconipany him when he attended or participated in public functions.' Kashibai herself was not bothered of her ignorance or illiteracy. She showed an inclination for reading when her husband detested her ignorance. It indicated that ignorance of Indian women was no longer encouraged and the image of Indian uomen as venerated in the early or first half of nineteenth century was not entertained in the second half of the century. Rasundari Debi's (1 808-1896) reminiscence threw light on this change in the image of woman during the nineteenth century. When she came to her in-laws' house she was only twelve years old and illiterate. She explained those days thus: '-1 never thought of worldly affairs. my one thought was how to do all my work and how to please everyone. Nonetheless, it is deplorable that I was not allowed to educate myself because I was a woman. How very lucky are girls of this generation! These days many try to educate their daughters. Whatever other laay say, I think this is a most positive d e ~ e l o ~ r n e n t . " ~ Indians. who were exposed to western ideals and desired for a change in the existing social set-up during the early years of nineteenth century, did not attempt a change in their private spheres. Their intimacy with British friends, their respect and adulation of western ideals and way of life was confined to the public realm. As a matter of fact. women were found too hostile to any


Y.D.Phadke, Women in Muharushtra (New Delhi: Maharashtra Information Centre, 1989)23. 'cited in Tanika Sarkar, Words to Wi12. The Making of Amar Jiban. A Modern Azitobiograpliy (New Delhi: Kali for Women, 1999)163.

innovations in their life on western lines, as they had spent their life in seclusion and utter ignorance. As more young Indian men got into western education, they did not admire the ignorance and seclusion of their women. One can observe the introduction of western ideals in private spheres too during the second half of the nineteenth century. Laksh~nibaiTilak described with a subtle humour in her autobiography Smriti Chitre, her husband Warnanrao Tilak's. attempt to transform their house on western lines. She

Tilak began his shopping. First household necessities arrived. Ebeqthing Itas of new, foreign fashion. cups and saucers, spoons. forks and knives, sugar pot. milk pot, butter pot, kettles. soup-plates. dinner plates, flower pots and wash hand basins. He bought a great deal of furniture. I did not even know the names or the use of the various things. and he never considered it. I did not like to see these strange pots and vessels before my eyes. 'Why have you filled the house with breakable China?'

I asked. He was always annoyed with such remarks. and would say, 'You have no appreciation,' using the English word. Having furnished the house, he turned his mind to clothes. He had four new suits made for himself. For me he had two 'gowns' made! 'What is this you have done?' I said, 'Why did you not bring me two saris instead of these?' 'You do not understand psychology. When a man has done something with great pleasure you should not cast him

down. This is why you and I never get on. You are never pleased with what I do. Each one of us had three pairs of boots made.. .I never in my life put on even an ordinary pair of sandals. Though I had received two or three lectures on 'psychology' and 'appreciation' I still said. 'Why this useless expense? If you had brought gold into the house instead. it could at least have been use in an emergency.0 The opposition of Lakshmibai Tilak to the introduction of these strange items

in their house appeared as accommodative. Indeed. she did not have any choice but to follow her husband's dictates. Ironically. the concept ofpativrata did a lot in liberating Indian woman from traditional practices and adapting her to the ideal of an emancipated woman!

Kamala Sathianadan's

suggestions for encouraging women's

education reiterated unambiguously the nature of women's emancipation envisaged in the nineteenth century. She observes: It must be shown them that it is worth while to be educated, here again what can be better than the influence of the husband? The Hindu wife thinks her husband a God. She will respect all his wishes. Consequently if he plainly shows her that it is his desire that she should be educated if he teaches her the value of literature by constantly reading or explaining to

~akshrnibaiTilak, I Follow aper. An Autobiography (Delhi: OUP, 1998) 193-94.

her passages from the best authors, she will do wonders to try to please him."' No doubt. the picture of the new woman, which evolved out of the discourse on e~nancipationduring the nineteenth century, was very much influenced by the paternal care of her husband. This could not be otherwise as women broke the purdah and started adapting the new life style befitting the refined tastes of the period with the help and support of their men. The life of Sudha Majurndar in the early quarter of' twentieth century a~nplyrepresented the new woman image produced as the result of the nineteenth century discourse on wornen. The developlnent of Sudha Majumdar's personality from a child-wife to a social activist undoubtedly was due to the loving care of her western educated, civil senrant husband. An esa~ninationof the male reformers' view on women's emancipation shows that they tried to effect a change in the prevailing state of women without causing ~nuchdamage to their domination in the societ?. To make it clearer. reformers' perception of emancipation was very much detennined by their magnanimity in relinquishing the privileges in society, which they enjoyed as being men. Viewed from this standpoint, reformers were not able to chaIlenge the patriarchal set up which is the source of both male doinination and women' degradation. Thus, women's emancipation, as perceived by the

l o Mrs.Karnala Sathianadan, "The Position of Woman in Ancient and Modem India," Indian Social Reform, ed., C.Y.Chintamani, Vol.1 (Madras: Thompson and Company, 190 1) 356.

reformers. did not achieve any remarkable change in the position of wo~nen except for the h c t that women were rescued from certain decadent customs. The British who enjoyed the privilege of dictating the rules and regulations of legislating on women's issue vacillated between their concern of political stability and their image of the most civilized nation in the world. In spite of the s~~perioricy of their civlization, the British society too could not provide women an equal role with Inen in society. Her role in society was subordinated to the interests of men. The kind of education prescribed for nineteenth century British women very clearly emphasized the subordination of women. Hannah More explicitly asserted the role of education in preparing them for playing a secondary role to her husband in future. She explained: The profession of ladies. to which the bent of their instruction shouId be turned, is that of daughters, wives, mothers and mistresses of families. They should be therefore trained with a 1ien

to these seheral conditions.. .. When a man of sense

coines to lnarrj. it is a companion whoin he wants, and not an artist. I t is not rnereiy a creature birho can paint. and play and dance: it is a being who can comfort and counsel him; one who can reason, and reflect, and feel, and judge; and act, and discourse, and discriminate, one who can assist him in his affairs. lighten his cares. soothe his soreness, purify his joys, strengthen his principles, and educate his children.''


Hannah More, Structure on the Modern System of Fernale Education (1799) Quoted in Eighteenth Century Women. An Antholoa by Bridget Mill (London: George Allen and Unwin ,1984) 56.

AS part of the race of rulers, the British m omen in India were expected to keep up those fine qualities of women appreciated in British society. Margaret Maclnillan opined that even the wives of the ordinary soldiers who came out on the strength of their husband's regiments nere expected to behave ihemsel~cs." Indeed. the education that they received from girls' boarding schoois. nhich sprang up during the second half of eighteenth century shaped the girls to behale properly in the cit ilized societies. They were instructed in cooker). nezdle\.lrork. drawing, music/dance. French language and rudimentary fonn of arithmetic. 'These schools devoted exclusively to the acquisition of omainenta! accomplishments. No doubt, a British lady with these kinds of accomplishmenis appeared before the educated Indians as a dazzling angel and a node! to bc imitated compared to the illiterate and secluded Indian woman. Woman's role in he domestic reaitn was given prominence than her role in other fields in British societt eyen in thc last quarter of nineteenth century. It \\as generally accepted that the role of wife and inother was incompatible with a career. not on14 because of the time and energy required, but also because of the i e q diWrsnt qualities and chamcteristics it demanded." Interestingly, the image of Indian woman ekolved from the emancipation of nineteenth century


Margaret Macrnillan, Women of the Raj (London: Macmillan, 1996)


Jane Lewis, Women in England 1870-1950. Sexzinl Divisions and Social Change (London: Indiana University press, 1984) 9 1. l3

did not surpass the Victorian ideal of womanhood, which dominated the British society till the turn of the nineteenth century. The British projected themselves as the protectors of Indian women by rescuing them through legislation that banned customs like sati, widowhood and early marriage. A close analysis of their role in the movement for women's emancipation revealed that they approved of women's emancipation in so far as it did not affect their political interests in India. The British did not take side with either the supporters of women's emancipation or the opponents of it in order to avoid any serious threat to their political power in India. They kept a neutral attitude till the debate on a particular issue related to women took a clear indication of the stance of the public. They prepared the legislation in such a way that it did not in any way antagonise public opinion against: the British. It seemed that the primary concern of the British was the safety of their empire in India than a genuine concern for women. Thus. the British did not try to impose their image of women in India. When a demand rose from the Indian public for a change in the position of their women, the British drafted the legislation according to the nature of their demand. It was only because of the dogged persistence of the western educated Indian subjects that they were compelled to move.'' No doubt. the movement for women's emancipation


Rehana Ghadially, ed., Women in Indian SocieQ. A Render. (New Delhi: Sage, 1988) 85.

under the most civilized nation in the world could not transform the Indian woman to one of substance. While men, both Indian and British were guided by their own interests in effecting a favourable change in the state of women, female reformers were forced to articulate their views and implemented their programmes for women's emancipation either within the parameters set by the male reformers or within the structural framework of patriarchy. As part of the oppressed lot, their views on women's emancipation assume a special significance. Indeed, nomen refonners' views on their emancipation and their efforts to implement them threw light on their whole hearted and pragmatic approach to women's emancipation compared to that of men. Even the female protagonists in the fictions of nineteenth century momen novelists succeeded in presenting inore accurately the inner conflict of women in relation to men and society. The reason might be their instinctive perception and insight into the women's reactions and perplesities and the cornplex working of their inner selves and their emotional involvement and disturbances." A perusal of the activities of male reformers indicated that they concentrated more on improving the condition of widows. Unlike the male refonners, women reformers did not show much enthusiasm in arranging and celebrating widow marriages. When a proposal came from Dondo Keshav Karve to marry Godubai, the first inrnate of


K.Meera Bai. Women's Voices. The Novels of Indian Women Writers (New Delhi: Prestige, 1996) 19.

Sarda Sadan, Pandita Rainabai did not shon much interest to pursue the proposal. She opined, "lvfr.Karve does not look very strong and healthy. He is short and frail. He does not earn a good salary at the college. Besides, he has a mehe-pear-old son.'*'6 she advised Godubai to wait a pear to take a decision in the matter. The marriage was conducted with the full co-operation and participation of the inmates of Sarada Sadan and. Pandita Ramabai mas there to direct and manage the function. But for Ramabai, widow marriage did not mean a celebritq function to remove the apprehensions of people about widow marriage. As a matter of fact, she did not conduct the marriage of anyone of her inmates for the above said reason. Her aim was the rehabilitation of widows and if she found that the widow mould be able to lead a happy life through marriage, she consented to it. A number of widow ~narriagescelebrated under the auspices of male refonners did not produce the desired results as the refonners paid little attention to ensure the happiness of wido\vs through a thorough enquiry being made to knolv the whereabouts of bridegrooms before marriage. Ramabai's intention was very evident from the priorities she provided for training in different crafts to the inmates of her Widows' home. She found through careful observation that the chief needs of Hindu women are selfreliance and education. Evaluating her achievement in giving wornen a life

"kited in Padrnini Sengupta, Panclita Rar~zabaiSaraswati. Her Life arzd Work (New Delhi: Asia Publishing House, 1970) 189.

through training in different crafts in her Home, she said, '.Eighty five of the old and new girls are either married or earning their living as teachers and workers in different places. Over two hundred girls promised to be good schoolteachers because of their "native" intelligence. Sixty were learning to be cooks and forty were mastering the weavers' trade and over iifiy could semi their own garments."" Pandita Ra~nabaiwas found more radical than anyone of the contemporary wornen refonners both in her views about emancipating women from degradation and in her attempt to realise those ideals. While sister Subhalakshrni refused to solernnise the marriage of the inmates of her Widows' Home to avoid the suspicion of the orthodox elements about her

identification/association with reform. Pandita Ralnabai celebrated the remarriage of her first inmate discarding the opposition of the orthodox. When the proposal came from Dondo Keshav Karve, Ramabai was found more concerned with the girl's happiness in the proposed marriage than the opposition of the anti refos~nparty. In the opinion of Parvathi Athavale, one of the conte~nporariesof Pandita Ramabai, "Women should try to come out ol' their present degradation by involving some home based industries and if unmarried women wished to remain so, working for society, she should remain under the protection of


Her preference to a protected life for

17cited in Meera Kosambi, Pandita Ramabai ThroughHer-Own Wou& (New Delhi: OUP, 2000) 153. l 8 Mrs.Parvati Athavale, Hindu Widow (an autobiogapl?~), Trans. Rev.Justin E.Abbot (New Delhi: Reliance Publishing House, 1986) 148-49.

women might be due to her own experience in life. She started her career as a social activist under Dondo Keshav Karve and conti~luedto work under his constant guidance and inspiration throughout her career as a social activist. On the other hand, Pandita Ramabai's career as a social reformer shomed that she rarely came under the influence of any male reformer of her period. Though very much aware of the criticism of her conversion to Christianity. she did not hesitate to relinquish Hinduism for Christiani~.Ramabai's conversion shoclted Indian society and it eventually deprived her of the support of male reformers in her actibities. She did not lose her strength and the successful ~nanagernent of Widows' Homes with a number of inmates with multifarious activities under Rarnabai's direction and guidance showed that male reformers could not bully her for deviating from their line of thinking. The writings of women like Pandita Rainabai and Tarabai Shinde indicated pioneering attempts in relating the degradation of women in the nineteenth century to the sastl-ic interpretation of the ideal womanhood. In the opinion of Ramabai. the low7 estimate of women's nature in the sacred literature was the root cause of the seclusion of woinen in India. She blamed Manu, one of the ancient Indian lawgivers, than anyone else for the low status accredited to women. The high respect that sastras bestowed on women was nothing but to appease her. She observed, "I can say honestly and trustfully that I have never read any sacred book in Sanskrit literature without meeting this kind of hateful statement about women. True, they contain here and there a kind word

about them, but such words seem to me a heartless ~nockeryafter h a ~ i n g charged them, as a class, with crime and evil deeds."" Tarabai Shinde's work,

A Comparison between Women and Men is a classic example of women's efforts to reveal the demonstration of gender discrilnination recorded in the

sastras during the nineteenth century. She asked: -'Did the authors of the sastrns keep their satage glares just for women? They really use their heads. these authors of sastras, whcn they made all this up. All lery comfortable for them.'""' She explained through an anecdote fiom Rainayana, how the concept of patlvrata was utilized for the advantage o l men2' Obviously, women refonners like Pandita Ramabai and writers like Tarabai Shinde understood the fact that nlen were the custodians of sastric laws, the device b j which men kept women under control. Considering this fact, wornen reformers' fight was not only against the custo~nswhich deprived nomen of her independence but also against the dominant male who dictated the laws and norms of society based on the sastrlc lams. Tarabai Shinde testified to this attitude of the male thus: "Starting from your childhood you collect all the rights in your own hands and nomankind you just push in dark comer fir from the real world, shut up in


Cited in Meera Kosambi. Pandita Ramabui Through Her Own Wovds (New Delhi: OUP. 2000) 153.

''Tarabai Shin&, A Comparison between Women and Men Sri Shivaji Press, 1882) 90.

" See appendix x for details.


purdai7. frightened, sat on, dominated as if she was female slave."" Throughout her essay, Tarabai Shinde argued for women's equal share with men. She refused to accept the superiority of men in gender relation. She said, *-What'sgood for a man ought to be good for wornan as well."" While Tarabai Shinde found the privileges enjoyed by Inen to be cause of the degradation of women, Pandita Ramabai tried to relate women's deprivation of rights to the institutions in the society through which men received power to suppress women. When Ramabai observed that caste rules, ancient custolns and priest craft \\ere too po\verful to be beaten up through education and philosophies, she must have indirectly meant the hypocritical and half-hearted attempts of many male reformers in effecting a change in the deplorable condition of women. One can not deny the influence of those elements in the activities of male reformers in diverting and diluting the true purpose of reforms. This prompted her to remark thus: "If anything has been done by anybody at all, it Lvas through those people who have come under the direct influence of Chri~tianit~."'~ Though expressed sarcastically, Tarabai Shinde too favoured the British for the cause of women's emancipation. In her view, with the coming of'th3 British government, women had got the gift of education, and 77

-- Tarabai Shinde, 87

'' Ibid., 88. "cited in Cletnentina Butler, Pandita Ratzabai Sarnswati. Pioneer irz the Movement for the Education of the Child Widow of India (New York: Fleming, 1922) 42.

their mind !%as made strong enough to face all sorts of tnental and practical circumstances with courage. Tarabai Shinde must have reached this conclusion after having observed the hue and cry over women's emancipation and it's effect on the condition of women. She understood that it 'i.tTasdifficult and almost itnpossibie for male reformers to d e b the sast18as for the advantage of \+omen because; under the sastric injunctions they could dictate rules and regulations to control nornen. Rarnabai uas prudent enough lo understand the undercurrents of the ideologj behind momen's emancipation during the nineteenth centuq. The court decree against Rukhinabai provoked Rarnabai to allege that both British and Indian Inen were against women. She said -'We car-inot blatne the British government for not defending a helpless woman: it is only fultilling its agreement made with the male population of ~ndia."" The attempt in favour of a positive change in the prevailing state of women during the nineteenth century undoubtedly indicated the determination of Indian society for progress. Reformers were in general, eloquent in criticizing the low status of women and the need for a change. I-Iowever. they differed widely in their views on the nature of the position that a woman should occupj in society after rescuing her from anolnalous practices. Private spheres of reformers to some extent helped to trace the practical aspects of the "new woman image" projected in the public. While male refonners applied their


Cited in Padmini Sengupta, Pandita Rarnabai Sareaswati. Hev Lve and Work (New Delhi: Asia Publishing House. 1970) 170.

paternalislic pressure in inducing their women relatives for a change in their existing condition. women accepted it as a .-great concession" that derived from men's magnanimity. and a reflection of the progressive attitude of the most civilized people in power. Even women reformers were unable to recognize the fact that the process of emancipating women was attempted and carried out within the precincts of a patriarchal colonial state by a patriarchal native society. The ambiguity in defining women's position in the nineteenth century is also revealed in the conteinporary literature. Both Bankiln Chandhra Chatterjee and Rabindranath Tagore were not able to provide a respectable life to the widons in their fiction. When they transgressed the established norins of widons' life style, their accomlnodation in the society appeared impossible. Rohini. protaeonist in Bankiln's novel Krisiznakanter 's Will and Binodini. protagonist in Rabindranath Tagore's novel Binodini represented widows who showed boldness in transgressing the traditional restrictions imposed on them. but ended their life in shame and seclusion. In the portrayal of women as wives too, the writers could not offer a choice of an alternative life for thein outside marriage. When Binodini wrecked Asha's married life. Asha spent the rest of her life in reading and learning at home. Brharnar. protagonist in Bankiln Chandhra's novel Kristznuknnter's

Will could not withstand the separation of

her husband and died prematurely. Kapalakundala, the unconventional heroine in Bankirn's noveI Knpakz~ncinlaprovided the picture of a woman with an

independent self. Her premature death before allowing her to experiment with the ideals of married life is a dilemma confronted by Bankirn in giving space to the individuality of women in married life. The portrayal of women protagonists in fiction reflected the ambiguity encountered by reformers in allotting a place befitting women in the changed scenario. In spite of a century long struggle for e~llancipatingwomen, the Indian uo~nan'simage was entangled in the ancient ideal of Sita and Savitri. Wo~ncn'semancipation in the nineteenth century did not bestom on women an independent stance in the society. It is true that she was rescued from the anomalous practises like sati.widowhood and early marriage as a result of the unprecedented preoccupation of the nineteenth century with women's emancipation. The controversy on the age of consent in the last quarter of the nineteenth century and the subsequent legislation mhich fixed the age of consent as low as tnelve years showed that Indians had to go a long way in elnancipaline nomen fro111all kinds of bondage. The rise of nationalism in the last quarter of the nineteenth century diverted the attention of the reformers from nornen's issues. The speech delivered by K.T.Telang before the Students Literary and Scierltific Society on 22nd February 1886 provided a clear indication of the diversion of interest froin social issues to political activities. He said: '-1 say we must and ought to devote the greater portion of our energy to political reform. but so as to still keep; alive a warm sympathy for social


The new cult of patriotism discouraged all attempts to modernize

Indian wornen on Western lines by applying non-Indian values. Commenting on the double advantage derived from the consequences of the new interest displayed by reformers on women's emancipation Sumit Sarkar remarked: "Patriotism in nationalist activity implied social prestige rather than social ostracism reducing the need for conscious efforts at inter-personal adjustments within the family."" The Indian reformers were no longer arnused to see an emancipated Indian \\loman as a replica of English woman. The earlier infatuation of the educated Indian towards the refined, elegant and educated English \\:oman had given up for an Indian image of an emancipated woman. A look at the life of Digambari Devi in the first half of the nineteenth

century and that of Sudha Majumdar in the early years of the twentieth century throws light on the change in the life of women as a consequence of the 's in the nineteenth century. While movement for ~ i ~ o ~ n e nemancipation Digambari represented the picture of a con\ientional woman, Sudha reflected the picture of an emancipated woman. Her life as a social activist came as a result of her stay with her husband in a nuclear family. This was possible as the Indian joint family system itself turned unpopular with the introduction of the

" K.T.Telang.

"Must Social Refblm Precede Political Reform in India," lnciinn Social Reform, ed.. C.Y.Chintamani, Vol. 1 (Madras: Thompson and Company, 1901) 309.

" Sunmit Sarkar. A Critique qf Colonial India (Calcutta: Papyrus, 1985)

nuclear hrnily system of the British. Sudba's civil servant husband was definitely influenced by the British connection in his decision to take Sudha along with him uherever his official work took him. She had no choice but to follow him. Here. one should take note of two factors, which determined the parameters of vvoimen's emancipation in the nineteenth century. In the first case, women's question formed a part of the male reformers' response to the changes in their society, economy and polity as a result of colonial administration. It is very clear w h y the contours of women's emancipation were shaped so as not to alter the prerogatives of men. i n the second case. wornen mere responding to the changes effected in the life of their men and farnilies Apparently. wornen's perception of their emancipation was entangled in their traditional attitude towards Inen and family. In brief. Wornen's question in the nineteenth century was determined within the space where the patriarchal Indian socict~mediated with the patriarchal colonial state.