CHAPTER 2 2. DESCRIPTION OF THE TERMS 2.1 Novel

2.1 Novel . The novel is a work of prose fiction written in the narrative, usually in story form. The word comes from the Italian, novella which means...

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CHAPTER 2 2. DESCRIPTION OF THE TERMS 2.1 Novel The novel is a work of prose fiction written in the narrative, usually in story form. The word comes from the Italian, novella which means “a story or piece of news.” The novel is literary form of the most popular in the world. This form of literature is the most outstanding, because the vast power of communication in society. As literature, the novel can be devided into two groups, namely the work seriously and works of entertainment, but not all are able to provide entertainment could be called serious literature. A serious novel that he demanded not only a work of beautiful, attractive, and this also provide entertainment for us. But he also demanded more than that. The novel is novel primary requirement is taken it must attract, entertain and bring people out of complacency after reading. The novel is also a fictional work that describes a world which contains a life model idealized, imaginative world, built as its intrinsic elements like story, plot, character, setting, point of view, and so on, which is overall narative. Edgar V. Roberts and Henry E. Jacobs in their literary books : An Introduction to reading and writing (1995:49) said that novel is a fictional long prose work. In English, novel is adopted from French and Italy to describe these works and differentiate them from middle century and classical romance as a something new.

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In their books, they also said that there are four fiction aspects, fictional works consist of common elements, they are character, plot, structure, and theme. 2.2 Characters In fiction, a character maybe defined as a verbal representation of a human being. Through action, speech, description, and commentary, authors portray character that are worth caring about, rooting for, and even loving, although there are also characters you may laugh at, dislike, or even hate. The characters in a story are the characters involved from the beginning until the ending part of the story (plot). Edgar V. Roberts and Henry E. Jacobs (1995:51) said that character is natural facsimile from the human with all good and bad characteristics. A story is usually related to big conflict of the character. It is probable to involve interaction with another character in complicated situation, or with idea or ordinary condition. The character may win, lose, or relevant. He or she can learn and become better for experience or maybe lose point and no change. Furthermore, according to Edgar V. Roberts, character is the verbal realization from human, personality which determines thoughts, statements, also attitudes. The writer got interactions between character and environment through interview, action, and also comments (1988:64). 2.3 Plots Plot is the structure of serial incident, idea, or story. Novel story takes place through various plots and conflicts. Plot maybe defined as a story’s sequence of incidents, arranged in dramatic order. One is tempted to insert the

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word “chronological.” But doing so would exclude many stories that depart from this strict ordering of events. The plot is decided by three essential elements: events, conflict, and climax. Edgar V. Roberts said that plot is any conflicts between two powers: between humans and themselves, with other humans, or with nature or supernatural power (Roberts, 1983: 42). The parts which the conflict raising is climax. If we can make a brief description about the plot of the story, we can use it as instrument to define the theme of the story. A story usually has one plot, but it also has additional plots which frequently called as lower plots. 2.4 Structures Structure refers to how to make plot. Chronologically, all stories are identical because they move from the beginning until the ending accordance with the time required for causes to create effects. Edgar V. Roberts and Henry E. Jacobs (1995:90) said that structure is the arrangement and placement of the material for activity. The structure describes how the writer manages and puts the material accordance with common ideas and the purpose of the activity. 2.5 Themes Theme is the main idea or thought as the basis of the story. Theme gives power and emphasizes the unity of storytelling and also tells about life in common context. Themes distilled from the motifs contained in the relevant work that determines the presence of events, conflict and situations. The theme became the basis of development of the whole story. A common theme has a generalization,

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wider and abstract. Principal themes as the meaning of work of fiction is not deliberately hidden because precisely this that is offered to the reader. However, the overall theme is the meaning of which supported his story by itself would be hidden behind a story that supports it. Edgar V. Roberts (1964:8) said that theme is the main idea of the writer will be communicated to the readers through the writer’s work. An integrated theme needs a main idea, which is stated in existence of the idea in the plot of story. Basically, a writer of literary works will begin a main idea, which is served in the plot of story. In the main idea can be inserted by some additional supporting ideas, and finally all the ideas are connected into an integrated literary work. 2.6 Intrinsic Approach Intrinsic Elements (intrinsic) are the elements that build the literary work itself. Elements are what because the literary present as a work of Martial Arts. Intrinsic elements (extrinsic) are the elements that are beyond the works of Matrial Arts, but indirectly affect the building or system of the organism’s Matrial Arts. Extrinsic elements of novel must be still seen as something important. Wallek&Warren (1956). Wallek and Warren (1975: 75) says that the approach is based on the intrinsic structural point of text and literature. This means the intrinsic approach emphasizes the inter text analysis by describing the elements of prose that described previously. Relationship with the art of literature and art of music is very diverse and complicated. Sometimes they influence each other. Theory of art

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and taste can be studied and related to the theory and literary tastes of artists. Besides the issue of sources and influences, inspiration and cooperation, there is another problem, namely literary works often produce the same results with the results of painting and musical. The term is just a vague metafon. Furthermore Wallek and Warren says, one approach is to find the purpose and theory of the artist creator. A more useful is based on the comparison of works of art, social and cultural background the same, can unravel the background of time, place setting and social background art and literature.

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