Class XII

Agriculture (Theory ) ... These soils develop deep cracks in summers particularly in ... It is followed in rice and The furrow length varies from 13m ...

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Sample Question Paper Agriculture (Theory) Class XII Time : 3 hours

M. M : 70

General Instructions : (i) All questions are compulsory. (ii) Marks for questions are indicated against each of them. Q.1

(A) Define commercialisation of agriculture. Give its two objectives. Name two major commercial crops of India. 1+2+2=5 (B) Write five major soil groups of India. Give two major characterstics of alluvial soils. 3+2=5 Q.2 Write brief notes on the following : 2x5=10 (i) Soil tilth (ii) Black cotton soils (iii) Two green manuring crops. (iv) Cultural methods of weed control. (v) Raising fertilizer use efficiency. Q.3

(A) Fill in the blanks: 5 (a) Scientific name of berseem is ___________________________. (b) Cyperus rotundus is propagated through ________________. (c) Zinc deficient soils in North India normally needs application of ___________ to __________ kg/ha of Zinc-Sulphate. (d) Percent content of P2O5 in single super phosphate is _____________. (e) Place of origin of wheat is __________________.

Q.3

(B) Differenciate between the following : (a) Cereals and Legumes (b) Soil texture and soil structure (c) Flood irrigation & Furrow irrigation. (d) Drilling of seeds & dibbling of seeds. (e) Transplanted rice and direct seeded rice.

Q.4

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Describe the cultivation of rice and groundnut crop under the following heads: 2x5 (i) Scientific name. (ii) Place of origin. (iii) Seed rate per hectare. (iv) Processing of the produce for the market. (v) One major insect and one major disease.

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Q.5

Q.5

(A) Match the following: Crops (i) Gladiolus (ii) Banana (iii) Roses (iv) Merigold (v) Cannas

5 Propagated by (i) Seed (ii) Corm (iii) Suckers (iv) Budding (v) Rhizomes

(B) Differentiate between the following: (i) Trees and Shrubs (ii) Annuals and Perennials (iii) Cutting and Layering methods of Propagation (iv) Training and Prunning (v) Hedges and Edges

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Q.6

Describe the cultivation practices of cauliflower and gladiolus on the following points: 2x5 (i) Scientific name (ii) Seed rate per hectare (iii) Processing for the market (iv) Manuring Schedule (v) Name of one major insect and one major disease.

Q. 7.

Describe the cultivation of Mango and Guava on the following points. (i) Scientific name. (ii) Two major propagation methods. (iii) Two important commercial varieties. (iv) One major insect and one major disease. (v) Manuring schedule for bearing plant/tree.

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2x5

Answering Scheme Agriculture (Code No. 068) Theory Paper Class XII Time : 3 hours

M. M : 70

General Instruction : (i) All question are compulsory (ii) Marks for questions are indicated against each of them. Q.1 (A) (a) Commercialization denotes growing of crop(s), the produce of which may be processed for value addition and marketing locally, nationally and/or internationally for higher profits whenever such a demand exists. In practice a large contiguous area in a region is put under such a commercial crop(s). This may be achieved through diversification of the existing cropped area and cropping patterns through substitution with the area specific commercial crops. (b) Two major objectives of commercialization of agriculture are : (i) To augment the total income of the farmer per unit area and input applied to the commercial crop. (ii) All the field and management operations are common for commercial crops hence crop management is economical. (c) Two major commercial crops are : (i) Cotton (ii) Sugarcane (B) Five major soil groups of India are : (i) Alluvial soil (ii) Black cotton soil (iii) Red Lateritic soil (iv) Red soil (v) Hill soil Characteristics of alluvial soil are : (i) These are extensively deep soils formed by alluvial deposits by major rivers. These are sandy loam to clay loam in texture. (ii) These soils are neutral to moderately alkaline in reaction (ptt 6.5 to 7.5) and are mostly calcarious in sub-soil (strata) Q.2. Short Notes (i) Soil Tilth: It represents the physical condition of the soil with respect to planting and growth of field crops. Tilth means the cultivation of soils, primary tillage for preparation of soil, for pre planting/preseeding i.e., preplanting cultivation. Secondary tillage which denotes cultural operations carried out for sowing/ planting/ interculturing / earthing up etc. 3

(ii) Black cotton soils: Two major characteristics of these soils are : (a) These are derived from deccan drop, which are known as regur or black cotton soil. These are loam to clay in texture, have high water holding capacity (WHC). (b) These soils develop deep cracks in summers particularly in areas consisting primarily of predominantly montmorillonitie type of clay varying between 40 and 60 percent. (iii) Green manuring crops: Major Green Manuring (GM) crops are: (a) Sannhemp (b) Dhaincha Both crops are grown in South-west (monsoon season during summer months under irrigated conditions. These are ploughed into the soil by flowering stage (30-40 days after sowing), but before sowing the next crop. They add organic matter and add 70 to 80 kg nitrogen per hectare by biologically fixing free atmospheric nitrogen. (iv) Cultural methods of weed control are : (a) These are used to provide weed free condition to the crops. (b) Use clean tillage equipment (c) Intercultural operations (d) Hand weeding (e) Intercropping (v) Raising of fertilizer use efficiency : (a) Applying fertilizers based on soil test values. (b) Use organic manures, green manures. (c) Incorporation of crop residues (d) Include legumes in crop sequences. (e) The proper method of application. Q.3

(A) Fill in the blanks: (a) Trifoleum alexandrinum (b) Nuts (c) 20 - 25 kg Zinc sulphate/ha (d) 16 percent P2O5 (e) Central Asia

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Q.3

(B) Differentiation: (a) Cereals Cereals are big crops belonging grass family (gramineal) which are grown for food purposes, edible portion is highly starchy. It is botanically cariopsis. Cereal means grains of rice, wheat, barley, maize, sorghum, millets etc.

Legumes The word legume is derived from the latin word legre (to gather) because pods are harvested (gathered) by hand, these belong to family Leguminoseae. These have nitrogen fixing nodules on their roots and they fix nitrogen through Rhizobium. Legumes crops are all pulses e.g. pigeonpea, gram, pea etc.

(b) Soil Texture Soil texture is an expression of the distribution of various particles present in the soil. A soil may be described as coarse, medium or fine (heavy) textured depending on predominance of different primary soil particle sizes e.g. sand (coarse and fine), silt and clay. There are textural classes like clay, sandy clay, loam, clay loam, loamysand etc.

Soil Structure The combination of arrangement of primary soil particles into secondary particles i.e. groups of aggregates mostly bounded together by cementing agents like organic matter into secondary aggregates of varying sizes and shapes like platty, prismatic, columnar, granular, crumb.

(c) Flood Irrigation Flooding the soil with irrigation is watersurface irrigation method. Prior to applying flood irrigation, proper levelling and grading of land is a must. Normally, water use efficiency is low in flood irrigation particularly in canal command areas. It is followed in rice and other water loving crops. It causes water logging and salinization of soil. There are very heavy losses. Flood irrigation is substituted by gated pipes, surface irrigation

Furrow Irrigation In furrow irrigation water is diverted to a head ditch or a pipeline along the upper edge of the field and then it is diverted into a parallel furrow running down with flow. It is adopted in a variety of slopy crops and topography. The longer the furrow, heavier is the percolation losses of water. The furrow length varies from 13m in sandy soil to 300m in heavy soils.

(d) Drilling of seeds The practice of placing of the seeds in rows at a proper row to row and plant to plant spacing using a uniform seed rate and controlled soil depth with or without covering the seed with soil. It is done by pora (funnel) method or by mechanical seed-drill or by

Dibbling of seeds Dibbling is method of sowing or planting of crop seeds in the hole made manually by using a dibbler by which specific spacing of optimum plant population is manitained. This is used for planting of seeds of vegetables and field crops like cole crops, rice, maize etc. Dibbling machines are easily available.

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fertiseed-drill. The objective is to obtain the optimum plant population per unit area and to economise on seed rate. (e) Transplanted Rice

Q. 4

Q.5

Direct seeded Rice

This is the best system of rice culture. In this system the land is ploughed 2-3 times with 5-6 cm standing water in the field called puddling. The aim of puddling is to soften the soil for easy planting of seedlings. It reduces infiltration losses of water and leaching of nutrients. Seedlings from the nursery should be healthy, 4-5 leaf stage of 20-25 cm height. Two-three seedlings per hill be planted keeping the depth of 2-4 cm at 15x15 cm spacing.

Direct seeded rice may be grown under wet or dry seeding condition. Wet seeded rice is sown on a puddled seed bed with pre-germinated seed after draining excess water from the field to ensure good germination and stand of the crop. The seed is usually sown broadcast either by hand or using seed drill. The seed rate is maintained at 80-100 kg/ha. In dry seeded rice seeds are broadcast or sown by pora method or by a seed drill. The major disadvantage of direct seeded rice are bird and insect damage, seeds may be washed away by heavy rain, weed problem is high and hard, that is why yield of direct seeded rice is low.

Cultivation of rice 1. Oryza sativa 2. South East Asia 3. 80-100 kg/ha (Direct seeding) 20-25 kg/ha (Transplanting) 4. Cleaning, drying, grading, bagging and labelling 5. Rice stem borer Rice blast

Cultivation of groundnut 1. Arachis hypogea 2. Brazil 3. 80-110 kg/ha (Bold seeded) 60-75 kg/ha (Small seeded) 4. Cleaning, Drying, grading, bagging and labelling 5. Pod borer Tikka disease

(A) Match the following : 1. Gladiolus 2. Banana 3. Roses 4. Marigold 5. Cannas -

corm Suckers Budding Seed Rhizome

(B) Differentiation : (i) Trees and Shrubs a) Trees are perennial, tall with marked trunk. The height of full grown trees is normally more than 15 feet. b) They grow for several years, bear flowers and fruits. c) They provide us fruits, shelter, shade, fuel wood & timber wood. 6

d) Mostly used as specimen for avenue plantation. Examples - Neem, Sisham, Peepal Shrubs a) They produce beautiful flowers at eye level and fragrant shrubs at nose level.Their height is normally below 10’ b) Display their beauty by richly coloured flowers, beautiful shape, handsome and variegated foliage. c) They are very popular in gardens for boundary wall, screening purposes to hide unwanted places like manure pits, dust bins and also to separate the area as ladies corner or children corner. d) They have branches from the base and thus grow densely. e) Cutting back or pruning their growth is very important to improve the perfomance of the plant. Examples - Chandani, Kaner, Jetropha, Raat ke Rani, Acalypha (ii) Annuals and Perennials Annuals or seasonals are the group of plants which complete their life cycle in one season or one year. They exhibit a good show of blooms at low cost & labour. Examples: Pansy, Petunia, Marigold, Calendula. Perennials are those group of plants which servives for several years. Examples: Raat ki Rani, Roses, Bougainvillea etc. (iii) Cutting and layering methods of propagation a) The cuttings are first detached from the scion plant and then rooted while in layering, the branch is first rooted on the scion plant and then detached. b) The percentage of success is more in layering than in cutting. c) Propagation of plants through cutting is easier and economical while through layering, it is expensive and cumbersom. (iv) Pruning and training of plants Training primarily concern the form and its purpose is to establish the frame work of the plant with systemic distribution of various parts on support to obtain maximum benefit. The plant is provided or tied with some support. This is more common in plants having tender growth and climbing habit. Its requirement is mostly in the initial stage of plant growth. For example, in grapes and chrysanthemum. Pruning comprises the removal of certain parts of the plant affecting the physiological function in promoting better quality products. It also assists in a better distribution of the produce and to maintain it in a managable form. In this respect it also facilitates training. Pruning is normally practiced in the dormant stage of the plants. Example - Roses, Apple. (v) Hedges and edges Hedge: a) When shrubs are planted on boundary for fencing, it is called as hedge. b) They can be trimmed to get different shapes. c) They are normally taller in height which is more than 2’ and hard in nature. 7

d) They are mostly used for protection purposes. Example - Cleridendron inermii, Hibiscus species, Bougainvilleas. Edges a) When low growing perennial plants are grown on the border of plots or beds they are called as edges. b) These hardly grow up to 20-30 cm. c) They are also planted around rockery, big trees, alongside walks, pathways and to divide the area. d) They are mostly herbacious in nature. Example - Iresine, justicia. Q.6

(A) Cauliflower i) Scientific name - Brassica oleracea ii) Seed rate per/ha - 500 to 700 gram iii) Processing for the market : At harvesting stage the head should be compact. The plant is cut off well below the head so that the stub thus left protects the head from damaging. Cauliflower heads are tender and damaged easily, therefore, their leaves around the head should be cut about 1-2 inches above the head and packed securely in baskets for the market. iv) Manuring schedule : a) At the time of field preparation - 200 q. of F.Y.M/compost 60kgN, 80kg. P2O5 and 80 kg K2O/ ha b) About 15 days after transplanting - 60Kg N/ha v) Insect Diamond back moth

Q.6

Diseases Damping off

(B) Gladiolus i) Scientific name - Gladiolus grandiflorus or G hybride ii) Seed rate/ha - 1,50,000 corms iii) Processing for the market: Processing of the spikes : Its spikes for the maket are harvested when basal floret of the spike shows colour. Their havesting is done leaving about 6’’ from the ground level and immediately kept in the bucket of water. Their 1 or 2 lowest leaves are removed for easy handling. For local market after grading the spikes according to the length, bundles of 20 spikes are made with the help of rubber bands. News paper sheets are used to protect the rubbing of flowers. For long distance market, these spikes are graded and packed in cardboard boxes measuring 100x25x10cm. Processing of the corms : After lifting the corms their leaves and old corms are removed. Treated with 0.2% bavistin for 30 m, dried in shade for 2-3 weeks. Sale can be done at this stage also. Otherwise keep in cold storage after packing either in gunny bags or shallow wooden crates till next planting season. These can be sold at this stage also or sown in the field.

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iv) Manuring Schedule 500 Kg/ha FYM or compost one month before planting. NPK - 150 : 150 : 200 Kg/ha at the time of planting. 75 kg N/ha at 3 leaf stage. 75 kg N/ha at 6 leaf stage. (v) Major insect Thrips

Major disease 1. wilt or color rot

Q.7. Cultivation of Mango and Guava: Mango Mangifera Indica

Guava Psidium guajava

ii) Two major prapagation methods

Inarching Vencer grafting

lnarching Air layering

iii) Two important commercial varieties

Dashari, langara

Allahabad Safeda, Chittidar

iv) One major insect and disease

Mango hoppers Mango malformation

Fruit fly Guava wilt

v) Manuring schedule for bearing plant/tree

In the month of June

100-150 Kg. leaf mould 3 Kg. ground nut cake 2 Kg. Ammonium sulphate

i)

Scientific name

100-150 fym/ha 8 to 10 Kg N 2 Kg P 1 Kg K

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Marking Scheme Subject : Agriculture Class - XII Q. No.

Expected Answer/Value Points

Distribution of Marks Total

Q.1

(A) Define commercilization of agriculture. Give its two objectives Name two major commercial Crops of India (B) Write five major soil groups of India Write two major characteristics of alluvial soils

1 2 2 3 2

Q.2

Short Notes: (i) Soil Tilth (ii) Black cotton soils.

2 2

(iii) Two green Manuring Crops. (iv) Cultural Methods of weed control (v) Raising of fertilizer use efficiency.

2 2 2

(A) (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

Fill in the blanks : Trifolium - alexandrinum Nuts 20-25 kg Zinc Sulphate/ha 16 percent P2O5 Central Asia

1 1 1 1 1

(B) (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

Differenciate between the following: Cereals and Legumes Soil Texture and soil Structure Flood irrigation and furrow irrigation Drilling of seeds and dibbling of seeds Transplanted Rice and Direct seeded Rice

1 1 1 1 1

Q.3

Q.4

Cultivation of Rice (i) Oryza sativa (ii) South East Asia (iii) 80-100 kg/ha (Direct seeding) 20-25 kg/ha (Transplanting) (iv) Cleaning, drying grading, bagging and labelling

Cultivation of Groundnut Arachis hypogea Brazil 80-110 kg/ha (Bold seeded) 60-75 kg/ha (small seeded) Cleaning, Drying, grading, bagging and labelling 10

1,1 1,1 1,1

1,1

(v) Rice stem borer, Rice blast Q.5

Pod borer Tikka disease

(A) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v)

Match the following: gladiolus Banana Roses Marigold Cannas

(B) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v)

Diffenitiate between the following: Treesand shrubs Annual and Perennials Cutting and layering Training and Prunning Hedge and Edges

(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v)

Cultivation of Cauliflowers Brassica - aleracea 500g to 700g /ha Processing for Market Manuring schedule one major insect and disease

Cultivation of gladiolus Gladiolus grandiflorus 1,50,000 corms Processing for Market Manuring Schedule one major insect and disease

Cultivation of Mango Mangifera-indica Inarching, Vinear - grafting Dashari, Langra or any two varieties Mango hoppers, Mango Malformation In the month fo June 100-150 kg/fym 8-10 kg N 2 kg P 1 kg K

Cultivation Psidium - guajava Inarching, Air layering Allahabad safeda, chitlidar or any two varieties Guava wilt fruit fly 100-150 kg leaf mould 3 kg ground nut cake 2 kg Ammonium sulphate

Q.6

Q.7 (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v)

-

Corm Sucker Budding Seed Rhizome

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1,1

1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1

1,1 1,1 1,1 1,1 1,1

1,1 1,1 1,1 1,1 1,1