Coconut Processing Research and Development

COCONUT PROCESSING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ATIH S. HERMAN, A. BASRAH ENIE AND G.H.9. TJIPTAOI ... Technology, July 3 1 St to August 2"d. 1 984. 2, Th...

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COCONUT PROCESSING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ATIH S. HERMAN,A. BASRAHENIE AND G.H.9. TJIPTAOI

Institute for Research and Development of Agro-Based Industries (IRDABN, Bogor, lndonesia

ABSTRACT lndonesia is the second largest coconut producing country among the APCC member states, and its production was around 1.9 million tonnes in 1983. The main utilization of the coconut within the country is for coconut milk and cooking oil. So far there is only a small utilization of coconut by-products. Cooking oil is produced industrially by pressing the copra, and through "klentik" at homeindustry level. While coconut milk is prepared at every home individually. industrialization of coconut processing is needed to improve the utilization of coconut as well as to improve the consumption pattern of coconut and the programme of industrialization through the development of agro-based industry. To support the programme, lRDABl has been conducting various research and development projects on the improvement of traditional coconut processing industry, as 'well as i n product diversification. Products (commodities) which have been studied up to 1983 are copra, cooking oil, preserved coconut milk, coco-honey, coco-beverage, nata de coco, charcoal and activated charcoal, liquid smoke, and single cell protein from coconut water. The programme of IRDABl's R & D in the near future is to study the techno-economic possibility of establishing the coconut processing industry or coconut-based industrial complex, situated at the production area.

INTRODUCTION

1. lndonesia is the second largest coconut producing country among the APCC member countries, after the Philippines. Its production in 1 9 8 3 is presumed t o be about 1.9 million tonnes copra equivalent. This figure seemingly will increase in the near future, due t o various national projects such as the establishment of a coconut nucleous estate, hybridization etc. 2. The utilization of coconut in lndonesia is mainly based on its milk and cooking oil. Coconut milk is used in daily cooking and is prepared a t every house individually while the oil is prepared either by pressing the copra (dry process) or by the w e t process t o produce the "klentik" oil. The projection of coconut production and utilization up t o 1 9 8 8 is shown in Table 1.

Table 1. The projection of coconut production and utilization, 1983 - 1988 (000 tonnes copra equivalent).

1983

1984

1985

1986

1987

Production

1,869.9

2,015.0

2,177.0

2,315.9

2.656.7

2,914.1

ons sump ti on^)

1,401.6 486.4 112.1 821.1

1,708.3 529.8 136.7 978.9

1,845.5 640.4 147.6 1,057.5

1,891.1 656.2 151.3 1,083.6

2,045.3 709.7 163.6 1,172.0

2,208.6 776.4 176.7 1,265.5

468.3

306.7

331.5

424.8

611.4

705.5

Coconut milk " Klentik" oil Copra Export

1988

Source: Directorate General of Estate Crops. Presented at International Symposium and Exposition on Agricultural Products Processing and Technology, July 3 1 St to August 2"d. 1984. 2, The utilization of coconut into santan: 34.7%, klentik oil: 8%. and copra 57.3% of the total consumption.

3. Since the main utilization of coconut is only that related to coconut milk and cooking oil, the part of the fruit which is fully used at present is only the meat. There is only a little utilization of coconut by-products, although the figures are large as shown in Table 2. 4. To support industrialization through the development of agro-based industries, all agricultural produce including the by-products should be treated as raw materials for the industry. To maximize the utilization of coconut, efforts should be made to develop coconut processing industries that also include its by-products. 5. With respect t o coconut processing industries that exist within the country and presuming that coconut production is increasing, the pattern of coconut processing should be projected at: a. increasing the utilization of the coconut; b. supporting the consumption pattern of coconut products; and c. supporting the programme of industrialization. 6. As a selected major commodity, coconut processing has been studied at the lRDABl since the seventies, and various research and development projects have been carried out on it. The main objective of these studies is to support the development of the coconut processing industry within the country.

APPROACH

7. To define the priorities of what is needed and what commodities are to be studied, the lRDABl drew up a diagram in the form of a "family tree" of selected agricultural produce. This diagram shows every possibility of processing or every chain of processing for the product, horizontal as well as vertical. The "family tree" processing of coconut is shown in Figure 1.

Table 2. Coconut by-products (thousand tonnes).

Coconut for milk preparation1) protein2'

oil2) coir3) Coir fibre4) Coir dust51 Shell6) Coconut water7) Coconut for " kientik" oil" protein8' 0i18) coir3) Coir fibre4) Coir dust5) ~hell~l Coconut water7) Coconut for copra7) coir3) Coir fibre4) Coir dust5) Shell6) Coconut water7)

1,289.4 2,320.9 464.2 1,624.6 1,044.4 1,508.6

1,285.6 2,314.1 462.8 1,619.9 1,041.3 1,504.2

1,389.0 2,500.2 500.0 1,750.1 1,125.1 1,625.1

1,508.4 2,715.1 543.0 1,900.6 1,221.8 1,764.8

1,783.4 3,210.1 642.0 2,247.1 1,444.5 2,086.6

1,971.0 3,367.8 709.6 2,483.5 1,596.5 2,306.1

Total Protein Oil Coir fibre Coir dust Shell Coconut water

17.1 50.9 677.7 2,378.7 1,529.2 2,208.9

19.3 56.7 702.6 2,459.1 1,580.8 2.283.5

22.5 67.1 783.6 2,743.0 1,763.4 2,547.1

23.0 68.8 833.7 2,918.0 1,875.9 2,709.6

24.9 74.3 956.4 3,200.2 2,151.9 3,108.3

27.1 81.2 1,052.7 3,684.4 2,368.5 3,421.2

l 1 Copra equivalent. 31

The fibre contains 2.4% protein and 8.5% oil, calculated from the weight of coconut used. 1.8 ton per ton of copra.

4,

0.36 ton per ton of copra.

2'

5, 1.26 ton per ton of copra. 71

0.8 1 ton per ton of copra. 1.17 ton per ton of copra. Fibre and curd contains 4.8% protein and 8.58% oil, calculated from the weight of coconut used. Source: Somaatmadja, D. 1984.

Agriculture

Processing chain

Consumer

Hosp~tals,houses, hotels Car factortes Bu~ld~ng cndustrtes Charcoal

Houses Food industries, chemical industries Food industries Chemical industries Chemical industries Food industries. houses Food industries, houses Houses Houses

Fibre

Feed Food industries, houses Chemical industries Feed Food industries 'Feed

Notes: x : Commodity already been studied at the IRDABI

Food industries, Chemical industries.

I

I Fig. 1.

" Family tree" processing of the coconut.

8. By using the "family tree", work can be carried out t o determine which commodities are industrially processed allready, what is the relation w i t h other industry, how is the condition, what needs t o be done t o improve the process as well as the quality of the product, etc. The diagram is also used t o decide which new commodity needs t o be created or made, why, what needs t o be studied, etc. With this mechanism, all research at the lRDABl is applied research, and is carried out only if it could be developed and used by the industry.

COCONUT R. & D. UP TO 1 9 8 3 9. Research and development, which has been conducted up until 1 9 8 3 are concerns : a. Improving the quality of traditional coconut products i.e. copra and cooking oil (12, 15, 251. b. Developing new products (product diversification), including : - preserved coconut milk (14, 1 6, 1 8, 26). - by products from coconut milk and oil processing, such as cocohoney, coco-beverage, utilization of oii cake and residual fibre (16, 20, 23). - establishing a new method for oil extraction ( 1 9). - activated charcoal from the shell and its by-product, i.e. liquid smoke (22, 24). - nata de coco from coconut water (17). These products are denoted by (x) in figure 1.

10. Coir is the only part of coconut which was not specifically studied until 1983, because the rubberized fibres are already handled by another institute (Research lnstitute for Estate Crops). By scanning the available data, some of which was the result of work performed by the Research lnstitute for Estate Crops, an industrial profile for rubberized coir fibre was fard t o be already published.

PROGRAMME OF COCONUT R. & .D. IN THE NEAR FUTURE

1 1 . With respect to previous studies,' the coconut R. & D. programme at the lRDABl will be linked t o the techno-economic study of the establishment of coconut processing industries either at the centre of production or in the consumer area. For the centre of production, study is being carried out on the possibility of establishing a coconut-based industrial complex.

'

To support these industries (especially the small-scale ones), some R. & D. will be projected on providing of prototypes of simple machines and equipment that are needed.

COCONUT PUBLICATION BY IRDABl 12. Somaatmadja, D. and D. Ali, 1 9 6 8 . Coconut Processing I. Processing of Coconut lnto Copra And Diferent Products. Communication No. 1 5 0 . Chemical Research Institute, Bogor (English). 1 3 . Somaatmadja, D., D. Ali, A. Dachlan, H. Wiriano and F.X. Sukawi. 1 9 7 2 . Protein Isolation and Its Technology I. The Protein of Coconut and Cassava Leave. Communication No. 1 5 3 . Chemical Research institute, Bogor. (Indonesia). 1 4 . Somaatmadja, D., D. Ali, A. Ghani, A.S. Herman, H. Wiriano and A. Dachlan. 1 9 7 3 . Protein Isolation and Its Technology II. Coconut Protein. Communication No. 1 55. Chemical Research Institute, Bogor. (Indonesia). 15. Somaatmadja, D., E. Djubaedah and D. Ali. 1 9 7 4 . Coconut Processing !I. The Chemical Preservation of Copra. Communication No. 168. Chemical Research Institute, Bogor. (Indonesia). 1 6 . Somaatmadja, D., A.S. Herman and A. Mardjuki. 1 9 7 4 . Coconut Processing Ill. The Preservation of Coconut Milk. Communication No. 162. Chemical Research Institute, Bogor. (Indonesia). 1 7 . Herman, A.S., A.B. Enie and M.S. Pardijanto. 1 9 7 5 . Coconut Processing IV. The Fermentation of Coconut Water lnto Nata De Coco. Proceeding of Food Technology Seminar II. p. 2 6 6 - 2 9 3 . (Indonesia). 1 8 . Herman, A.S., M.S. Pardijanto and Husniaty. 1 9 7 7 . Coconut Milk Concentration by Gravitation and Vacuum Evaporation. Proceeding of Food Technology Seminar I l l . p. 4 1 1 - 4 2 3 . (Indonesia). 19. Herman, A.S., M.S. Pardijanto and F.X. Sukawi. 1 9 7 7 . Coconut Processing VI. The Extraction of Coconut Oil and Coconut Protein By Churning. Communication No. 1 8 6 . Chemical Research Institute, Bogor. (Indonesia). 2 0 . Enie, A.B., T. Darmiati and D. Somaatmadja. (19 7 7 ) . Coconut Water as a medium for single cell protein production. I. Effects of pH and Incubation Temperature on the yields of Rhizopus spp. Mycelium. Proceeding of Food Technology Seminar 111. p. 4 6 0 - 4 6 9 (Indonesia). 21. Herman, A.S., D. Somaatmadja and M.S. Pardijanto. 1 9 7 9 . The Preservation of Fresh Coconut Meat. Proceeding of Food Technology Seminar IV. (Indonesia). 2 2 . Widjaya, A.P. and D. Somaatmadja. 1 9 8 0 . The Processing of Activated Charcoal by Dry-Destillation of Coconut Shell. Communication No. 1 9 0 . Chemical Research Institute, Bogor. (Indonesia).

23. Somaatmadja, D., D. Ali and A.S. Herman. 1 9 8 0 . The Utilization 6f Santan Cake and Copra Cake For Food. Communication No. 196. Chemical Research Institute, Bogor. (Indonesia). 24. Widjaya, A.P. and D. Somaatmadja. 1 9 8 0 . The Use of Liquid Smoke of Coconut Shell Charcoal In The Preservation of Dried-Salted Fish. Communication No. 1 9 1. Chemical Research Institute, Bogor. (Indonesia). 25. Somaatmadja, D. 1 9 8 0 . Fats and Oils Industry in lndonesia Communication No. 1 9 2 . Chemical Research Institute, Bogor. (English). 26. Dachlan. A., D. Sutrisniati and S.D. Sirait. 1 9 8 3 . The Development of Preserved Coconut Milk Processing. Project Report 1982119 8 3 . (being published). (Indonesia). 27. Somaatmadja, D. 1 98 4 . Coconut Processing Industries, National Conference on Coconut, Medan. (Indonesia).

SUMMARY 28. Indonesia is the second largest coconut producing country among the APCC member states, and its production was around 1.9 million tonnes in 1 9 8 3 . The main utilization of the coconut within the country is for coconut milk and cooking oil. So far there is only a small utilization of coconut by-products. 29. Cooking oil is produced industrially by pressing the copra, and through " klentik" a t home-industry level. While coconut milk is prepared a t every home individually. 30. Industrialization of coconut processing is needed t o improve the utilization of coconut as well as t o improve the consumption pattern of coconut and the programme of industrialization through the development of agro-based industry. 31. To support the programme, IRDABI has been conducting various research and development projects on the improvement of traditional coconut processing industry, as well as in product diversification. Products (commodities) which have been studied up to 1983 are copra, cooking oil, preserved coconut milk, coco-honey, coco-beverage, nata de coco, charcoal and activated charcoal, liquid smoke, and single cell protein from coconut water. 32. The programme of IRDABl's R. & D. in the near future is t o study the techno-economic possibility of establishing the coconut processing industry or coconut-based industrial complex, situated at the production area.