Content Metal Cutting 1.0 Pengenalan

usually referred to as cutting processes (single point or ... SINGLE POINT CUTTING TOOL ... Different types of chips are formed for shear strain...

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Metal Cutting

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Assoc Prof Zainal Abidin Ahmad

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Dept. of Manufacturing & Industrial Engineering Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

3.0 29 March 2008

Content 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

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1.0 Introduction

Alat Pemotong Bendalir pemotongan Proses Melarik Proses Mengisar Bentuk, Bentuk, had terima dan kemasan permukaan Kebolehmesinan Pemilihan keadaan pemotongan Pertimbangan rekabentuk produk dalam pemesinan Assoc Prof Zainal Abidin Ahmad

Pengenalan 1.1 Pengkelasan proses pemesinan logam 1.2 Mengapa logam dipotong Mekanik Pemotongan Logam 2.1 Prinsip am 2.2 Pembentukan serpihan 2.3 JenisJenis-jenis serpihan 2.4 Sudut satah ricih 2.5 Daya pemotongan 2.6 Analisis daya pemotongan Kehausan dan Hayat Alat Pemotong

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Machining is the removal of stock material from an initial form (usually a block or bar of material). Traditional or “chip“chip-forming” machining processes remove material by using mechanical energy and are usually referred to as cutting processes (single point or multiple point). The machine used is named Machine Tools. The nonnon-traditional or “chip“chip-less” processes use electrical, thermal or chemical energies to remove metal.

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1.0 Introduction

SINGLE POINT CUTTING TOOL

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1.0 Introduction

MULTI-POINT CUTTING TOOL Schematic illustration of a (a) horizontalhorizontal-spindle columncolumn-andand-kneeknee-type milling machine. (b) a verticalverticalspindle columncolumn-andand-kneeknee-type milling machine. 29 March 2008

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1.1 Machining Processes Classification

1.0 Introduction Turning

Drilling

NT Horizontal Milling Vertical Milling

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1.2 Mengapa Logam Di Potong There are commercial and technological reasons which make machining one of the most important manufacturing processes. „

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ACCURACY Highest of all manufacturing processes, close tolerances can be achieved. Small amount of materials removed, smooth surface finishes Precise tools, dies, moulds can be made.

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1.2 Mengapa Logam Di Potong „

1.2 Mengapa Logam Di Potong

HIGHLY FLEXIBLE – variety of work materials Shape can be programmed. Regular geometries (flat planes, round holes, cylinders) can be easily machined. Irregular geometries (screw threads, TTslots) can be cut using various tool shapes and tool paths. Many different parts can be made on one machine (general purpose).

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Any arbitrary shape can be machined by combining several machining operations in sequence. „

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LOW COST TOOLING Contour is generated by path of tool rather than its shape, in most cases Cutting tools are mass produced in standardized shapes/geometry Economical for small quantity production

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Disadvantages of metal cutting „

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2.1 General Principles

Removal of material – become scrapped and waste Machining is relatively a slow process Need highly skilled operators High capital cost – machine, cutters, workholders, workholders, jigs and fixtures Not suitable for high volume production

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Cutting is often used as a secondary manufacturing process to produce dimensional tolerances, surface textures and geometrical features that cannot be produced by casting, forming or powder processing. Cutting can be economically used as a primary manufacturing process if (a) production volumes or (b) material costs are low. Most cutting processes that involve physical contact with hard tooling can be modelled as a wedged shaped single point cutting. cutting.

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Basic cutting geometries z z x x y y

Orthogonal (2D) „

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Oblique (3D)

Orthogonal → Provides insight for understanding Oblique → Complex

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Orthogonal cutting in a lathe

Basic Cutting Geometry

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Orthogonal cutting: the cutting edge of the tool is straight and perpendicular to the direction of motion. Oblique cutting: the tool edge is set at angle. Assoc Prof Zainal Abidin Ahmad

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Orthogonal cutting zone geometry tc

Important Angles - Shear angle: φ - Rake angle: α - Relief angle: ε

Chip Shear plane

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α

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2.2 Pembentukan Serpihan „

2.2 Pembentukan Serpihan

The basic principle is the use of a cutting tool to form a chip removed from the part (by shear). It requires the relative motion between the tool and part. „ The primary motion is called speed, v, and the secondary motion is called feed, f. „ The cutting tool needs to cut into the part, called the depth of cut, d. „

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2.2 Pembentukan Serpihan

A process in which a wedgewedge-shaped tool engages a workpiece to remove a layer of material in the form of a chip. chip. As the cutting tool engages the workpiece, the material directly ahead of the tool is sheared and deformed under tremendous pressure. pressure. The deformed material then seeks to relieve its stressed condition by fracturing and flowing into the space above the tool in the form of a chip. The deformation of a work material means that enough force has been exerted by the tool to permanently reshape or fracture the work material. If the material is reshaped, it is said to have exceeded its elastic and plastic limits. limits. A chip is a combination of reshaping and fracturing.

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During machining, the material is removed in form of chips, which are generated by shear deformation along a plane called the shear plane.

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Regardless of the tool being used or the metal being cut, the chipchip-forming process occurs by a mechanism called plastic deformation. deformation. This deformation can be visualized as shearing, shearing, that is when a metal is subjected to a load exceeding its elastic limit, the crystals of the metal elongate through the action of slipping or shearing, which takes place within the crystals and between adjacent crystals. This action is similar to the action that takes place when a deck of cards is given a push and sliding or shearing occurs between individual cards.

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2.2 Pembentukan Serpihan „

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The fundamental mode of material removal in cutting is by chip formation. The stages involved in chip removal are: workpiece moves relative to a cutting edge, which then penetrates the surface, the workpiece material near the surface is sheared by the the cutting edge to form a chip.

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2.3 Types of Chips

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2.3 Types of Chips

Three types of chips (Left to right). Discontinuous, continuous and continuous with built-up-edge 29 March 2008

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2.3 Types of Chips

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2.3 Types of Chips

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2.3 Types of Chips

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2.3 Types of Chips

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2.3 Types of Chips „

Built Up Edge (BUE) „

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2.3 Types of Chips

BUE

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Some of the cut material will attach to the cutting point. This tends to cause the cut to be deeper than the tip of the cutting tool and degrades surface finish. Also, periodically the built up edge will break off and remove some of the cutting tool. Thus, tool life is reduced.

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Built Up Edge (BUE) „

built up edge can be reduced by: Increasing cutting speed „ Decreasing feed rate „ Increasing rake angle „ Reducing friction (by applying cutting fluid) „

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Orthogonal cutting model tc

Important Angles

A cutting model is required to be able to predict the angle at which a chip will shear and to relate this angle to the angle the tool tip makes with the workpiece. An understanding of these relationships will lead to a prediction of chip types and therefore provide control over surface finish. finish. This is particularly important, in an automated system, when a computer is required to set up cutting parameters for particular workpiece. The basic mechanics of cutting can be studied by developing a twotwo-dimensional or orthogonal cutting model.

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2.4 Sudut Satah Ricih „

BUE

- Shear angle: φ - Rake angle: α - Relief angle: ε

Chip Shear plane

− + Motion

α

w

Tool to

φ

ε

Work piece 39

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Persamaan sudut satah ricih „

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Shear angle - chip thickness

Is the plane where slip occurs to begin chip formation. A plane which separate the deformed and undeformed crystal structure of the work material. Based of a simplified orthogonal cutting model, shear angle can be accurately estimated. As an indicator or parameter on the mechanics of metal cutting. Terangkan 3 cara untuk mendapatkan nilai bagi tebal serpihan

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This indicates that as the rake angle decreases and/or as the friction at the tooltool-chip interface increases, the shear angle decreases, and the chip is thus thicker. The rake angle α can thus be used to control the chip thickness.

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The chip thickness is an important dependent variable in singlesingle-point machining. Thicker chips mean that higher cutting energy is required. More of the input power is converted to heat because of the increased shear strain. Different types of chips are formed for different chip thickness and this significantly influences the final surface finish.

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2.5 Daya Pemotongan

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Daya Pemotongan

ASSUMPTIONS „ process adequately represented by twotwo-dimensional geometry „ tool is perfectly sharp tool only contact workpiece on its front (rake face) „ primary deformation occurs in a very thin zone adjacent to the shear plane „ cutting edge is perpendicular to cutting direction „ the chip does not flow to the side „ continuous chip without built up edge „ tool cutting edge is wider than the workpiece „ minimum work principle applicable 29 March 2008

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Three Sets Of Forces „ Forces acting on the cutting edge, Fc, Fc, Ft, Fr „ Forces at the cutting edgeedge-chip interface, F, N „ Forces on the shear plane, Fs, Fn Three Laws Of Mechanics Applicable „ The law of addition and resolution of vectors „ Newton first law on the equilibrium of forces „ Newton third law on the action and reaction of forces 43

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The cutting force

The cutting force

ƒ Externally applied forces

ƒ Forces on the tool P

Fn

Fc Fc – Cutting force, Ft – Thrust force

F

Ft

F – Friction force, Fn– Normal force 29 March 2008

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The cutting force

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The cutting force

ƒ Forces on the chip

ƒ Merchant’s theory Fs

Fs Fco

Fco R λ – friction angle

Fs – Shear force, Fco– Compressive force 29 March 2008

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λ

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λ -α F c

α Ft

F

Fn Assoc Prof Zainal Abidin Ahmad

Merchant’s Circle 48

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