CSR and Developing Countries What scope for government action? Public policy and public sector actors in middle and low-income countries are increasingly confronted with issues related to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). This paper presents the range of opportunities that exist for them to mitigate negative impacts of CSR but also to harness its potential positive benefits for public policy. Government involvement is illustrated through examples of policy instruments and programmes promoting CSR in developing countries.
The concept of corporate social responsibility
Corporate social responsibility
(CSR) aims both to examine the role of business in society, and to maximise the positive societal outcomes of business activity. In practice, much of the business activity that has so far been labelled ‘CSR’ has been driven by the concerns of investors, companies, campaign groups and consumers based in the world’s richest countries. National CSR agendas in middle and low-income countries have been less visible internationally, and have often not been labelled ‘CSR’. The result has been CSR practices that are largely framed in rich countries, then internationalized and transferred to other businesses and social settings through international trade, investment, and development assistance. The strategic challenge for governments
A publication of the Policy Integration and Analysis Branch of the Division for Sustainable
at national and local levels is how best to shape
countries have accelerated a process of adapta-
Department of Economic and Social Affairs
an agenda that has been largely market-driven and responsive to concerns of rich country stakeholders. Over the past five years or so, governments, companies and NGOs in many middle-and-low-income
This Brief is based on a background paper prepared by Halina Ward, Emma Wilson, and Lyuba Zarsky, from the International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), and Tom Fox (UNDP).
What CSR is…and is not At its broadest, CSR can be defined as the overall contribution of business to sustainable development — it is in that sense that it is used here. Defining corporate social responsibility in more detail than this remains a vexed issue. In practice views differ based on two factors. First, the extent to which importance is placed on the centrality of the ‘financial business case’ for responsible business behaviour in defining the scope of CSR practices — i.e. the extent to which tangible benefits to companies must be demonstrable. Secondly, the extent to which government is seen to have a role in framing the agenda — and how. A minimum standard for CSR might be that businesses fulfil their legal obligations or, if laws or enforcement are lacking, that they ‘do no harm’. A median approach goes beyond compliance, calling for businesses to do their best, where a ‘business case’ can be made, to contribute positively to sustainable development by addressing their social and environmental impacts, and potentially also through social or community investments. A maximum standard points toward the active alignment of internal business goals with externally set societal goals (those that support sustainable development).
tion of the developed-country-driven CSR agenda
This is particularly a concern when certification
through greater direct engagement. CSR movements
requirements, or the cost of meeting supply chain
and initiatives have emerged in countries such as
requirements, harm the local small or medium-
China, India, South Africa, the Philippines and Brazil,
sized enterprises that represent the large majority
among others. Governments of some middle-income
of enterprises and account for a significant part of
countries facing major social challenges have explic-
employment in developing countries.
itly sought to engage business in meeting those challenges, as with Black Economic Empowerment in
The experience of business-to-business standards
South Africa, or Presidential encouragement of busi-
is that costs and benefits tend not to be equitably
ness efforts to tackle poverty in the Philippines.
distributed along value chains, with costs of private standards borne by producers whereas benefits
In developed countries too, there is increasing rec-
accrue to the retailer. These issues are partly rooted
ognition among companies that a ‘one-size fits all’
in bargaining power disparities between producers
approach to CSR in operations around the world is
and buyers. Similarly, assurance schemes say very lit-
ineffective in responding to the business drivers of
tle about the responsibilities of sourcing companies;
socially responsible behaviour. The result has been
the onus is on the producer to comply. Depending on
reinvigorated focus on themes of greater importance
the strength and durability of ties, however, between
in middle and low-income countries — including the
buyer and supplier, the former may have an incentive
value of sustainable local enterprise and the role of
to assist the latter with compliance. Further problems
business in poverty reduction.
arise for supplier firms that have to comply with mul-
Why developing country governments should be interested in CSR
tiple, even conflicting, codes of different buyers. Another concern is that CSR standards imposed
There are two broad sets of justifications for public
through supply chains can supplant domestic legisla-
sector actors in middle and low-income countries to
tion. This may be because they are more closely
engage with CSR: defensive and proactive. The two
linked to commercial outcomes (market access)
are not mutually exclusive: a policy initiative that
than domestic legislation that reflects less stringent
initially has a defensive justification may quickly
standards or because, where there is weak public
become part of a proactive strategy of engagement.
sector capacity, they are more likely to be monitored and enforced than domestic legislation.
The defensive justification relates to minimizing the potential adverse effects of CSR on local communi-
Tensions can also arise because CSR standards are
ties, environments and markets when it is imposed
frequently designed and applied with little or no
through international supply chains and investment.
input from governments or firms in supplier coun-
Governments of some major middle-income eco-
tries. As a result, standards may do little to achieve
nomic powerhouses such as China have undertaken
social and environmental goals in exporting coun-
a variety of initiatives to ensure that CSR practices
tries. For example, EU Ecolabelling Regulation criteria
with impact in their countries are tailored to national
for paper products became controversial in the
economic and social interests.
1990s because they favoured energy efficiency, not use of renewable energy sources such as hydropower
Codes of corporate conduct and certification
which were important for producers in Brazil.
schemes applied in international trade have become particular areas of concern. Codes of conduct
Ill-thought-out CSR activities on the ground also
implemented through supply chain requirements
have the potential to generate or exacerbate social
and enforced through audits can provide positive
tensions at local level. For example, social invest-
opportunities for niche marketing by producers and
ment programmes that focus exclusively on indig-
suppliers based in middle and low income countries.
enous people may serve to heighten social tensions
But they can also act as a barrier to market access.
between indigenous and non-indigenous members
Sustainable Development Innovation Briefs February 2007
of mixed communities. Also, they might prioritize
part through the creation of local inspection capacity
issues that are most subject to international cam-
intended to reduce the cost of certification needed
paign pressure. For example, community action
in those markets. And Colombia’s Mercados Verdes
groups have complained that multinationals working
programme, which is designed to incentivise produc-
on Sakhalin have prioritized spending on research
tion of environmentally friendly goods and services
into the endangered Western Pacific grey whale over
that are competitive in international markets is seen
support for local socio-economic development.
by commentators as a leading example of public sector support for sustainable markets in Latin America.
The proactive justification for public sector actors to engage with CSR is provided by the opportunity to
Foreign investment offers potential to transfer
increase the domestic public benefits of CSR prac-
technical expertise to local enterprises. Many large
tices in economic, social and environmental terms.
companies (encouraged by governments) are interested in exploring practical mechanisms for enhanc-
In countries whose export sectors are closely associ-
ing the input of local enterprises, and locally hired
ated with consumers’ social, health or environmen-
workers, into their projects. In some cases, this is
tal concerns (e.g., in agriculture and textiles), there
encouraged through investment incentives (e.g. in
may be positive opportunities for governments to
Nigeria) or through the terms of foreign investment
facilitate market access gains for their producers.
contracts (e.g. with oil industry investors in Azerbai-
For example, the government of Zambia is working
jan). In others, various kinds of partnership initiative
with the WTO/UNCTAD International Trade Centre
seek to transfer knowledge and expertise, including
and the Utz Kapeh Foundation to improve access to
on environmental and social issues, between large
high value markets for Zambian coffee growers, in
and small companies.
Finally, a number of analysts and governments are also beginning to explore the
‘Citizens’ Economic Empowerment’ in Zambia
hypothesis that promotion of CSR in the
An important new development in Zambia is the government’s promotion of ‘Citizens’ Economic Empowerment’ (CEE). Inspired by South Africa’s Black Economic Empowerment legislation, CEE focuses on broad-based economic empowerment and is intended to broaden participation among Zambian citizens in the economy. The Zambian parliament has passed an Act which refers inter alia to business ownership, employment, procurement and training, as well as reporting by businesses using a CEE scorecard, which is to be developed at sectoral level.
domestic economy can bring benefits for competitiveness as a whole. The extent to which this happens, however, is likely to depend on the sector and country-specific features. More broadly, there is also scope for public sector actors in middle and low-income
The challenge for the government is to implement the Act without harming investor confidence or increasing undue administrative burdens for businesses in terms of implementation and reporting and for the government in terms of monitoring. Procurement offers one such opportunity. Increasing local procurement is already on the agendas of some businesses operating in Zambia, primarily to improve access to supply and to reduce costs. The government has already created positive incentives in some areas, e.g. through tax breaks for certain products with high local content.
countries to harness enthusiasm for CSR to
Reporting against sectoral scorecards alone is unlikely to be enough to achieve the desired outcomes of the Act in terms of stimulating local enterprise. As it develops, the policy could go further, creating further incentives for companies to invest in their employees or develop local suppliers, and using companies which successfully do so to demonstrate how businesses can contribute to the CEE agenda.
tive, public sector engagement with CSR
help deliver public policy goals and priorities. These avenues will be explored below.
Potential roles of governments in the CSR agenda From a sustainable development perspecpotentially spans social, economic and environmental spheres, including issues of corruption, poverty reduction and human rights. The goals of public sector engagement in CSR are likely to differ from country to country. They might be structured in
Sustainable Development Innovation Briefs
relation to the underlying drivers for public engage-
increasingly required to export to OECD markets,
ment in CSR.
especially the EU. In addition, some OECD-based multinationals, for example, in the chemicals indus-
A first broadly defined goal of public engagement in
try, require ISO 14000 certification of all their
CSR is the alignment of business activities and public
suppliers. Governments can facilitate market access
policy to achieve societal goals. A clear government
by providing support to domestic SMEs in meeting
vision of how it wants to address issues where there
these requirements — sometimes in partnership with
are potential trade-offs between economic, social
and environmental considerations, as in the case of the use of the country’s natural resource endowment
Governments can work — preferably with business,
for socio-economic development, may increase the
labour and NGOs — to raise the CSR content and
likelihood of success of corporate contribution to
profile of major exported products and services, per-
national development. National sustainable develop-
haps developing domestic certification or labelling
ment or regional economic development strategies
schemes. To facilitate trade, however, it is important
offer an opportunity for governments to offer clear
to work towards ‘mutual recognition’ of different
signals as to public policy priorities, as do negotiated
codes and schemes.
contracts or concessions between foreign investors and host country governments. In Trinidad and
The government of Cambodia is focusing its national
Tobago, BP, the government and the local Centre for
strategy for development of the textiles sector on
Energy Enterprise Development (CEED) have identi-
creation of a niche market for the country by estab-
fied a number of upstream activities which offer
lishing a national reputation as a trade and invest-
both sustainable business opportunities for smaller
ment location that is associated with good labour
companies and provide a high impact on national
practices. The Vietnamese government has also been
development through the transfer of skills and tech-
experimenting to this end (Box 3).
nologies used in extraction operations. BP has agreed to purchase the required services from local suppli-
Governments can also use the CSR agenda to
ers rather than to import them. The public policy
promote socially responsible forms of business
context for this initiative lies with the government’s
practices by domestic enterprises, regardless of their
2005 documents Vision 2020 and the Strategic Devel-
engagement with the international economy. Many
opment Plan for the country’s energy sector.
governments, in collaboration with donor agencies, support enterprise development activities designed
CSR also has clear potential links with government
to promote healthy local enterprise, building skills
strategies aiming at ensuring better access of certain
and supporting formalization of those that are
categories of citizens to the economy. One example of such strategy is the Citizen Economic Empowerment in Zambia, which aims in particular at increasing local participation in economic activities (Box 1). Governments may seek to align national investment promotion strategies with ‘responsible’ foreign investors (Box 2). In foreign investment contract negotiations, public sector negotiators may seek to make the most of foreign investors’ expertise in social investment, education or training. Another broad concern for governments is to address market access for domestic enterprise. The
Box 2 Investment promotion agencies and responsible business In Peru, the responsibilities of Pro Inversion, the private investment promotion agency, include “To attract investors able to transfer state-of-the-art technology and to take responsibilities with respect to the development of their social environment” and “To assist in the disclosure, among potential investors, of the role and social commitment they have with the environment and people”. The goal of the agency’s work is expressed as being: “to foster competitiveness and sustainable development in Peru to improve the welfare of the Peruvian people”.
ability to meet rising environmental standards is
Sustainable Development Innovation Briefs February 2007
informal. Another challenge for governments is to
develop initiatives to help transfer positive learning and capacity-building on environmental and social issues from export-oriented domestic enterprises or foreign investors to those that are not exportoriented.
A multiplicity of policy instruments Work carried out by IIED for the World Bank Group’s CSR Practice has identified five distinctive (if generic) roles for public sector engagement with CSR: regulation; facilitation; partnership; endorsement; and demonstration. In practice, there are no bright lines between them, and many of the policy instruments governments wanting to promote a CSR agenda can use could be considered as expressions of more than one of these government roles. The range of policy instruments used by governments to promote goals related to CSR is wide and reflects varying policy approaches as well as economic circumstances. Some governments may prefer
Increasing national competitiveness by stimulating CSR performance in the Vietnamese garment and footwear industries In an effort to increase national competitiveness through improved CSR practice, the Vietnamese Government assigned the Vietnamese Chamber of Commerce and Industry (VCCI) to provide CSR-related support services to businesses. ActionAid Vietnam (AAV) has been raising awareness and developing employees’ CSR skills as well as promoting good CSR practice among employers. Following an initial pilot with the footwear industry in 2005, AAV, together with VCCI, the Ministry of Labour, Invalids and Social Affairs (MOLISA) and other government ministries, organized the ‘Corporate Social Responsibility Award 2006’ for the footwear and garment industries. The award aims to increase the competitiveness of Vietnamese businesses by providing an incentive for them to enhance their reputation for good CSR performance.
interventionist approaches. Others may prefer to work with the grain of market drivers, including con-
existing minimal standards, are two of the main
sumer interest or civil society pressure. The factors
duties of governments. The dominant notion of CSR
that may determine the course of action taken by
as being principally market-driven and voluntary in
any individual government include capacity con-
nature can on occasion hamper government progress
straints; the size of domestic markets for products
in setting minimum requirements for business
potentially affected by CSR concerns; the degree of
behaviour. For example, in China, multinational cor-
export orientation of the economy in sectors affected
porations have lobbied heavily against current moves
by international CSR drivers (e.g. agriculture, textiles,
to tighten labour legislation, which is a government
pharmaceuticals); the presence of enterprises willing
response to concerns that social unrest could result
to champion change; and the degree to which differ-
from widening income disparities.
ent stakeholders are comfortable working in partnership for commonly defined outcomes.
Company reporting on environmental and social issues is an increasing subject of legislation in
In the broadest sense of CSR, the entire body or
high income countries. There are so far few (if any)
social and environmental legislation in any coun-
specific examples of comprehensive CSR reporting
try can be seen as an expression of public sector
requirements in middle and low income countries.
engagement with CSR. Other areas of legislation
But reporting requirements on specific issues, such
including competition policy, basic investment
as the Black Economic Empowerment scorecard in
and enterprise frameworks, and rights of access to
South Africa, are more common.
information and public participation in decisionmaking are also important parts of the ‘enabling
Cooperative environmental management approaches
environment’ for CSR.
— in which environmental regulators negotiate staged approaches to environmental improvement
In this respect, devising minimal standards, espe-
and compliance, or give credit for strong envi-
cially for labour and environment, and enforcing
ronmental management systems in the form of
Sustainable Development Innovation Briefs
reduced inspections — are also an area of public
the overall administration of the scheme as among
policy innovation. But they can be controversial
the reasons, making it susceptible to being weakened
when they are seen as undermining strong regu-
by frequent changes in government personnel.
lation, or reducing scope for citizen scrutiny of environmental policy implementation.
Another wide array of instruments at the government’s disposal is through taxes and payment
One example is the Mexican Environmental Pro-
schemes. A range of tax mechanisms have found
tection Agency’s (PROFEPA) Industria Limpia pro-
their way into national approaches to incentivising
gramme, which is based on firm-specific negotiated
socially desirable business practices. For example,
agreements towards plant-based environ-
mental improvements, combined with a certification and labelling scheme. The programme is designed to attract the “leader” firms in corporate social responsibility to show leadership by example. But take-up of the programme has been limited in some sectors, such as electronics. The reason may be that the business benefits are unclear, since for companies selling into the European, Japanese or US markets, Mexican standards are less important than the standards of those importing countries. According to PROFEPA, lack of interest also stems from the fact that the requirement to quantifiably demonstrate full compliance is difficult and costly. Governments are also increasingly engaged in shaping the ‘self-regulatory’ tools of CSR, through engagement in industry-led labelling or certification schemes. In China, officials have actively endorsed efforts to make the country a standard-setter, not simply a
Company-Community agreements in Western Siberia The Khanty-Mansiisk Autonomous Region (or Yugra) lies in north-western Siberia and 2% of the population is indigenous, with about 2,000 living permanently on the land. The Yugra Charter sets out the role of the provincial government, including implementation of social development programmes; ensuring benefits to communities from resource exploitation; and facilitating training and work placements for indigenous skilled workers. Regional legislation passed in 1989 and 1990 requires that agreements be signed between developers and indigenous resource users, which cover such areas as construction of power lines, housing and cultural facilities; provision to each household of a snowmobile, motorboat, electric generator, spare parts, building materials, fuel and a quarterly financial compensation payment; financing for higher education, health treatment, specialist training and work placements; and the transport of food to migrating herders and of traditional craft products to markets. Virtually all the companies working in the area have their own charitable foundations which sponsor indigenous projects. The regional government runs an annual competition for the best performing oil and gas company, ‘Black Gold of Yugra’, which includes a special prize for the best work with indigenous peoples.
‘taker’ of standards developed elsewhere. CSC9000T, a textile industry standard, was devel-
in both Uganda and Zambia, reduced excise duty
oped within the China Textile and Apparel Council
rates were granted for a beer produced with locally
with government endorsement and adopted in 2005.
sourced smallholder-produced sorghum rather than
It is based on Chinese legislation and provides a
imported barley. This reduced rate was the crucial
management system for companies wishing to be
element in allowing the local brand to compete with
global brands, whose total costs were lower. Many middle and low-income countries also provide tax
The institutional design of labelling schemes may on
incentives of various kinds for philanthropic or
occasion hamper positive outcomes. India’s volun-
charitable donations by businesses.
tary product labelling scheme, Ecomark, was adopted in 1991 at the initiative of the Indian Parliament.
Foreign investment contract negotiations offer
But the initiative has not been successful, with just
opportunities for governments to set clear expec-
12 manufacturers applying for the Ecomark license
tations for investor contributions to skills and
in the 15 years since its adoption. The Indian NGO
enterprise development, and technology transfer.
CUTS cites heavy reliance on government agencies in
The terms of these agreements (which are often
Sustainable Development Innovation Briefs February 2007
not publicly available) may on occasion explicitly
able enterprises through the marketplace, as well as
address companies’ community and social invest-
to expand markets for sustainable products. Local
and regional government could equally make use of public procurement to promote CSR. For example,
Rights of public participation have long been
the municipal government of Shenzhen, China, has
recognized as key instruments of sustainable
recently expressed interest in directing its public
development. In the field of CSR, public sector
procurement to promote CSR (Box 6).
actors can help by mandating public participation in defined circumstances relating to private sector
Clear public policy frameworks on matters related
investment. Legislation can help to secure benefits
to international trade and investment or domestic
for communities at local level by requiring negoti-
enterprise development can help to steer voluntary
ated agreements between companies and communi-
CSR activities to meet public policy goals. For exam-
ties. Legislation on Social Responsibility Agreements
ple, improving CSR is listed as a priority work area
between holders of forest concessions and local com-
of China’s Ministry of Commerce under the heading
munities in Ghana and agreements between natu-
“transforming trade growth pattern”. And Shanghai’s
ral resource companies and local communities in
11th five-year plan, adopted in 2006, gives CSR the
Western Siberia (Box 4) are examples. Communities
status of ‘an integral part of public governance’.
need to be able meaningfully to take part as negotiatmore than simply setting overall policy frameworks
Conclusion: leveraging CSR to support public policy goals
by working to support efforts to ensure that commu-
From the limited experience over the last few years,
nities are aware of their rights and have capacity to
some lessons nonetheless emerge. CSR offers real
secure positive outcomes.
opportunities for the governments of middle and low-
ing partners. Thus, public policy makers should do
income countries to change the terms on which they Partnerships are potentially a valuable way for
interact with business. Engagement with CSR can help
public sector actors to seek to combine the skills
to develop capacity within public policy and regula-
and competences of public and private sector actors
tory institutions, to free up existing resources, and to
as well as civil society in areas of broad societal
leverage additional resources through partnership.
concern such as HIV/AIDS (Box 5) or sustainable economic development.
However, the experience shows that partnerships are no easy fix to the most difficult policy challenges, often requiring considerable investment of time and sometimes also financial resources. Public sector actors should assess carefully the level of ongoing commitment that is required before entering into partnerships that may effectively be unsustainable. Partnership initiatives that involve major commitments of public resources may be vulnerable in the event of economic downturns. Governments around the world are typically largescale consumers themselves. Whilst international public procurement rules need to be factored into decision-making, public procurement offers real potential for governments or state enterprises to
The Africa Comprehensive HIV/AIDS Partnership (ACHAP) in Botswana The Africa Comprehensive HIV/AIDS Partnership (ACHAP) was established in 2001 as a formal partnership between the drug company Merck, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the Government of Botswana. ACHAP works with government agencies, development partners, the private sector and civil society. The aim is to develop and implement a national comprehensive HIV/AIDS strategy, with the goal of decreasing the spread and mitigating the impact of HIV/AIDS in Botswana. The initiative includes capacity building and strategic planning within government institutions. As of December 2005, total spending on the programme was just over 45 million USD. The strength of ACHAP lies in its full integration with government strategy and its ability to harness private-sector expertise in support of national efforts to address HIV/AIDS.
express their interest in CSR or socially prefer-
Sustainable Development Innovation Briefs
However, CSR defined only or primarily in rich countries could have limited benefits for — or in some cases create obstacles to — sustainable development. SMEs in particular may need some assistance in responding to CSR demands from foreign buyers. The governments and citizens of low and middle income countries would do well to set the CSR agenda for themselves, taking the best of what has evolved to date and of what their business communities already have to offer. Governments may derive greater developmental benefits from CSR where there is a national strategy framework which explicitly recognizes its potential contribution and seeks to align CSR with development goals.
Box 6 Public procurement and regional government: Shenzhen In March 2006, the Shenzhen Municipal Bureau of Labour and Social Security published a report on CSR in Shenzhen and announced that it would be working to produce guidelines on CSR by the end of the year. A press report suggests that the guidelines could include provisions refusing to give contracts to companies that do not shoulder social responsibility, or refusing to subsidize such firms. A spokesman for the municipality was quoted in the Shenzhen Daily saying that “The city government’s annual procurement reaches more than 2 billion yuan (US$241 million). It should make full use of its economic influence to promote corporate social responsibility (CSR).”
Foreign investors bring with them expertise on CSR that could be tapped more effectively to strengthen domestic capabilities; contractual arrangements and public-private partnerships are two ways of doing so. For each potential intervention, there is a need to assess the likely costs and benefits and possible undesirable side effects. Governments should avoid the tendency to over-engineer policy responses. More generally, there is a need to ensure that CSR-related interventions are seen as contributing to an enabling and predictable environment for private sector activity. If they are ill-conceived or represent an extra burden for business that is not justified by the business benefits, they are unlikely to succeed.
Innovation Briefs The Innovation Briefs series provides insights into the most recent policy-relevant research on emerging challenges to sustainable development, with the objective of broadening the knowledge base of policy makers in responding to those challenges.
United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs Division for Sustainable Development Policy Integration and Analysis Branch 2 UN Plaza New York, NY 10017 Voice: (1-917) 367-3269 Fax: (1-212) 963-1267 E-mail: [email protected]
www.un.org/esa/sustdev/innovationbriefs/index.htm 06-39457—February 2007—1M
Key Reading Simon Zadek, Peter Raynard and Cristiano Oliviera, Responsible Competitiveness: Reshaping Global Markets Through Responsible Business Practices, AccountAbility, 2005 Steve Bass, Dilys Roe and Bill Vorley, Standards and Sustainable Trade: A Sectoral Analysis for the Proposed Sustainable Trade and Innovation Centre, IIED et al 2002 Tom Fox, Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) and Corporate Social Responsibility: A Discussion Paper, IIED, 2005 Tom Fox, Halina Ward and Bruce Howard, Public Sector Roles in Corporate Social Responsibility: A Baseline Assessment, World Bank Group, 2002 Wilfried Luetkenhorst, Corporate Social Responsibility and the Development Agenda: the case for actively involving small and medium sized enterprises, Intereconomics, May/June 2004 Jane Nelson, The Public Role of Private Enterprise, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, 2004 Halina Ward, Public Sector Roles in Corporate Social Responsibility: Taking Stock, World Bank Group, 2004 Kevin Gallagher and Lyuba Zarsky, The Enclave Economy: Foreign Investment and Sustainable Development in Mexico’s Silicon Valley, Cambridge: MIT Press, 2007 Ann Tallontire and Bill Vorley, Achieving fairness in trading between supermarkets and their agrifood supply chains, Briefing Paper for the UK Food Group, 2005