En ny ontologi, en ny politisk ekonomi?

Lucretius's De Rerum Natura is a treatise on physics. In general, the subsequent commentary of both critics and translators has refused to consider as...

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En ny ontologi,

en ny politisk ekonomi? Karl Palmås

TAP 2007-03-09  

 



... an orphan line of thinkers who were tied by no

direct descendence but were united in their opposition to the State philosophy that would nevertheless

accord them minor positions in its canon. Between Lucretius, Hume, Spinoza, Nietzsche, and Bergson

there exists a "secret link constituted by the critique of negativity, the cultivation of joy, the hatred of

interiority, the exteriority of forces and relations, the denunciation of power" ●

 

 

Massumi (2004: x)



... an orphan line of thinkers who were tied by no

direct descendence but were united in their opposition to the State philosophy that would nevertheless

accord them minor positions in its canon. Between Lucretius, Hume, Spinoza, Nietzsche, and Bergson

there exists a "secret link constituted by the critique of negativity, the cultivation of joy, the hatred of

interiority, the exteriority of forces and relations, the denunciation of power" ●

 

 

Massumi (2004: x)

Ontologi

 

 



when atoms are travelling straight down through

empty space by their own weight, at quite

indeterminate times and places, the swerve ever so

little from their course, just so much that you would call it a change in direction. If it were not for this

swerve, everything would fall downwards through the abyss of space. No collision would take place and no impact of atom on atom would be created. Thus

nature would never have created anything ●

 

 

Lucretius



Lucretius's De Rerum Natura is a treatise on physics.

In general, the subsequent commentary of both critics and translators has refused to consider as such, avoiding the nature of things as they really are,

relating the knowledge given in the text to some

unknowing prehistoric era, and discoursing instead

about morality and religion, about politics and liberty.

[...]



Western science has consistently not chosen Lucretius.

 

 



Serres (1982: 98-99)



Serres argues that Lucretius's De Rerum Natura is a

valid treatise in physics when interpreted within the

framework of fluid dynamics. Vortices, turbulences, and

the clinamen as described by Lucretius become the

starting points for an extended reflection on history and on a possible new scientific spirit ●

 

 

Harari & Bell (1982: xxxix)



Without the declination, there are only laws of fate,

that is to say, the chains of order. The new is born of the old; the new is only the repetition of the old. ●

 

 

Serres (1982: 99)



The angle of inclination cures the plague, breaks the chain of violence, interrupts the reign of the same,

invents the new reason and the new law, foedera

naturae, gives birth to nature as it really is. The

minimal angle of turbulence produces the first spirals

here and there. It is literally revolution. Or it is the

first evolution toward something else other than the

same. Turbulence preturbs the chain, troubling the flow of the identical ●

 

 

Serres (1982: 100)



For Lucretius, and for us as well, the universe is the global vortex of local vortices. ●

 

 

Serres (1982: 117)



The universe of Epicurus and Lucretius is a reconciled one in which the science of things and the science of

man go hand in hand, in identity. I am a disturbance, a vortex in turbulent nature. ●

 

 

Serres (1982: 121)



life deviates from equilibrium. How can this be

explained materially? By visible and tangible phenomena that can be produced in experiments on flows; by analogy with the concrete model. ●

 

 

Serres (1982: 102)



The fact that the declination has been mocked, that it

seemed [...] a fiction, as Cicero says, and that we

have remained blind to such a simple phenomenon is really quite normal [...]



Until the beginning of this century, no one could bring himself to describe flow in all its concrete complexity. ●

 

 

Serres (1982: 102-103)



physicists after Newton concentrated first on solving simple problems that were tractable using his

equations and laws of motion (because they were the easiest problems to solve), thermodynamicists

concentrated at first on studying equilibrium systems ●

 

 

Gribbin (2005: 30)



Nonlinear systems generally cannot be solved and

cannot be added together. In fluid systems and

mechanical systems, the nonlinear elements tend to be the features that people want to leave out when they try to get a good, simple understanding. [...]

Nonlinearity means that the act of playing the game has a way of changing the rules. [...]

That twisted changeability makes nonlinearity hard to calculate, but it also creates rich kinds of behavior

 

that never occur in linear systems.  



Gleick (1987: 23-24)



Naturvetenskapen valde Platon över

Lucretius, och därmed... ●







 

... ordning före oordning

... jämvikt före icke-jämvikt

... linjäritet före icke-linjäritet  



 

 

Turbulens

 

 

 

 

 

 



 

 

Konvektion

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Det finns gemensamma mekanismer för



hur flöden skapar entiteter med vissa

identiteter: tillblivelseprocesser följer vissa abstrakta mekanismer.



System kan röra sig mellan olika

attractors, genom bifurcations.

●  

Dessa existerar i en verklig virtualitet.  



 

 

Morphogenesis



För att särskilda “flödesmönster” – ordning istället för entropi – skall

uppstå spontant, utan någon extern

“masterplan”, krävs att energi (i någon

form) flödar genom systemet, som alltså

hålls ifrån jämvikt.

●  

Egenskaper / identiteter kan “emergera” ur immanenta processer.  



The problem is how to account for the ordered and creative nature of bodies and assemblages, for if

matter is chaotic, it can't account for order, but if it's passive, it can't account for creativity. Deleuze and Guattari's materialism avoids the forced choice of

matter's chaos or spirit's transcendent ordering by calling attention to the self-ordering potentials of

matter itself, as outlined in the researches of

complexity theory



 

DeLanda, Protevi & Thanem (2005: 3)  



To explain this inherent morphogenetic potential

without sneaking transcendental essences through the

back door, Deleuze and Guattari developed their theory

of abstract machines, engineering diagrams defining

the structure-generating processes that give rise to

more or less permanent forms but are not unique to

those forms; that is, they do not represent (as an

essence does) that which defines the identity of those forms.



 

 

DeLanda (1997: 263)

 

 

 

 

Politisk ekonomi

 

 



... an orphan line of thinkers who were tied by no

direct descendence but were united in their opposition to the State philosophy that would nevertheless

accord them minor positions in its canon. Between Lucretius, Hume, Spinoza, Nietzsche, and Bergson

there exists a "secret link constituted by the critique of negativity, the cultivation of joy, the hatred of

interiority, the exteriority of forces and relations, the denunciation of power" ●

 

 

Massumi (2004: x)



On a first, horizontal, axis. an assemblage comprises two segments, one of content, the other of

expression. On the one hand it is a machinic

assemblage of bodies, of actions and passions, an

intermingling of bodies reacting to one another; on the

other hand it is a collective assemblage of enunciation,

of acts and statements, of incorporeal transformations attributed to bodies.



 

 

Deleuze & Guattari (1988: 88)



despite the importance of genetic and linguistic

components for the consolidation of the identity of

biological or social assemblages, it is crucial not to conceptualize their links to other components as

relations of interiority. In other words, the interactions

of genes with the rest of a body's machinery should not be viewed as if they constituted the defining

essence of that machinery. [...] In an assemblage approach, genes and words are simply one more

component entering into relations of exteriority with a  

variety of other material and expressive components  

DeLanda (2006: 16)



Discipline and Punish poses two problems [...] On the

one hand, outside forms, is there a general immanent

cause that exists within the social field? On the other,

how do the assemblages, adjustments and

interpenetration of the two forms come about in a variable way in each particular case? ●

 

 

Deleuze (1999: 29)



these forms continue to come into contact, seep into

one another and steal bits for themselves: penal law

still leads back to prison and provides prisoners, while

prison continues to reproduce delinquency, make it an ‘object'



 

 

Deleuze (1999: 29)



the most important insight which goes beyond

economics is due to people like Michel Foucault. The

basic idea is that several of the key elements of mass

production are not of bourgeois origin but of military

origin. [...] As Foucault says, discipline increases the

the most important insight which goes beyond economics is due to people like Michel Foucault. The powers of the body in economic terms of utility but basic idea is that several of the key elements of mass production are not of bourgeois origin but of  military origin. […] As Foucault says, discipline increases the powers of the body in economic terms decreases them in political terms of obedience. How of utility but decreases them in political terms of obedience. How are we to change this oppressive  system if we are not even aware of its origins? […] As long as we call this system “Fordism” are we  are we to change this oppressive system if we are not not concealing its real sources? 

even aware of its origins? [...] As long as we call this system “Fordism” are we not concealing its real

 

  ●

sources?

DeLanda, Protevi & Thanem (2005)



We are in a generalized crisis in relation to all the

environments of enclosure – prison, hospital, factory,

school, family. [...] everyone knows that these

institutions are finished, whatever the length of their

expiration periods. It's only a matter of administering their last rites and of keeping people employed until

the installation of the new forces knocking at the

door. These are the societies of control, which are in the process of replacing disciplinary societies. ●

 

 

Deleuze (1990)



There are no totalities, such as “society as a whole”,

but a nested set of singular (unique, historically

contingent) beings nested within one another like a Russian Doll.



DeLanda, Protevi & Thanem (2005)

the most important insight which goes beyond economics is due to people like Michel Foucault. The basic idea is that several of the key elements of mass production are not of bourgeois origin but of  military origin. […] As Foucault says, discipline increases the powers of the body in economic terms of utility but decreases them in political terms of obedience. How are we to change this oppressive  system if we are not even aware of its origins? […] As long as we call this system “Fordism” are we  not concealing its real sources? 

 

 



The last three or four centuries have witnessed an intense homogenization of the world (biologically,

linguistically, economically), a fact that in itself would

seem to recommend the injection of a healthy dose of heterogeneity into the mix. ●

 

 

DeLanda (1997: 272)



Deleuze and Guattari do not deny that human subjects can initiate novel and creative action in the world.

However, they refuse to mystify this creativity as

something essentially human and therefore non-natural.

For them, the creativity of consistencies is not only natural, but also extends beyond the human realm. Bonta & Protevi (2004: 5)

 

 



Despite the fact that meshwork-generating processes are active today in several parts of the globe,

hierarchical structures enjoy a commanding, two- or

three-hundred-year lead [...] But even if the future

turns out to belong to the hierarchies, this will not

occur because a “law of capitalism” somehow

determined the outcome from above. [...] If command

structures end up prevailing over self-organised ones,

this itself will be a contingent historical fact in need of explanation in concrete historical terms. ●

 

 

DeLanda (1997: 99)



Bonta, M. & J. Protevi (2004) Deleuze and Geophilosophy. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. ●

DeLanda, M. (1991) War in the Age of Intelligent Machines. New York, NY.: Zone.



DeLanda, M. (1997) A Thousand Years of Nonlinear History. New York, NY.: Zone. ●

DeLanda, M. (2002) Intensive Science and Virtual Philosophy. London: Continuum.

DeLanda, M. , J. Protevi & T. Thanem (2005) ‘Deleuzian Interrogations: A Conversation with Manuel DeLanda, John



Protevi & Torkild Thanem’, Tamara: Journal for Critical Postmodern Organization, Vol. 4, No. 4.



DeLanda, M. (2006) A New Philosophy of Society: Assemblage Theory and Social Complexity. London: Continuum. ●



Deleuze, G. & F. Guattari (2004 {1988}) A Thousand Plateaus. Capitalism and Schizophrenia. London: Continuum. ●





Gleick, J (1987) Chaos: Making a new science. London: Penguin.

Gribbin, J. (2005) Deep Simplicity: Chaos, complexity and the emergence of life. London: Penguin. ●

 

Deleuze, G. (1999) Foucault. London: Continuum.

Harari, J.V & D.F. Bell (1982) 'Introduction', in M. Serres Hermes.

Serres, M. (1982) Hermes: Literature, science, philosophy. London: Johns Hopkins University Press.