Engaging East Asian Integration

215 Index A ABF (Asian Bond Fund), 74, 122–23 ABMI (Asian Bond Market Initiative), 73–74 Accord, social contract, 137–38 ACMECS (Ayeyawady-Chao Phraya...

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Reproduced from Engaging East Asian Integration: States, Markets and the Movement of People edited by Takashi Shiraishi and Jiro Okamoto (Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2012). This version was obtained electronically direct from the publisher on condition that copyright is not infringed. No part of this publication may be reproduced without the prior permission of the Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. Individual articles are available at < http://bookshop.iseas.edu.sg >

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A ABF (Asian Bond Fund), 74, 122–23 ABMI (Asian Bond Market Initiative), 73–74 Accord, social contract, 137–38 ACMECS (Ayeyawady-Chao PhrayaMekong Economic Cooperation Strategy), 129 “actorhood”, 205 ADB (Asian Development Bank), 122–23, 161 “Admission of Mainland Professionals”, 191 “Admission of Talents scheme”, 187 ADMM Plus (ASEAN Defence Ministers’ Meeting-Plus), 5 AFTA (ASEAN Free Trade Area), 59–60, 103, 105–06, 110–13, 128, 135, 144, 209 “AFTA-CER linkage dialogue”, 145, 155 Agreement on the Comprehensive Political Settlement of the Cambodian Conflict, 143 Allison, Ann, 34 ALP (Australian Labor Party), 152

AJCEP (ASEAN-Japan Comprehensive Economic Partnership), 103 American imperium, 6, 9, 13, 23, 25–26, 30–31, 40–42, 194, 196, 211, 213 concept of, 15 regional world, and, 15–20 Americanization, 15, 33–40 definition, 35 Angkor Agenda, The, 149 apartheid, 19 APEC (Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation), 21, 59, 67–68, 129, 141–43, 148, 155, 157 ARF (ASEAN Regional Forum), 5, 129, 135, 144, 155 ASEAN+1, 103, 135 ASEAN+3, 2, 3, 5, 75–76, 87, 122, 127, 129, 147, 153–54, 196, 199 ASEAN-5, 98, 125 ASEAN+6, 3, 5, 100, 103–04, 120–21, 123, 127, 196, 199 ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations), 4–5, 7, 9, 32, 59–60, 72, 76, 98, 100–01, 106–07, 111–12, 115, 127–29,

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135–36, 138–39, 142–45, 147, 149, 152–56, 161, 172, 184, 194, 196–99, 203–04, 210 hub of FTA network, as, 103–05 sources of FDI, 57 ASEAN-Australia Summit, 152 ASEAN-CER FTA, 149, 153, 155–56 ASEAN Charter, 3 ASEAN-China FTA, 110, 113 ASEAN Community, 155 ASEAN Defence Ministers’ MeetingPlus, see ADMM Plus ASEAN Economic Ministers Meeting, 153 ASEAN Free Trade Area, see AFTA ASEAN-Japan Comprehensive Economic Partnership, see AJCEP ASEAN plus 3, see ASEAN+3 ASEAN plus 6, see ASEAN+6 ASEAN Post-Ministerial Conference (PMC), 144 ASEAN Regional Forum, see ARF ASEAN Single Window (ASW), 111–13 ASEAN-South Korea FTA, 110 ASEAN Summit, 144, 153 ASEAN Swap Arrangement (ASA), 75–77 “Asia Business Outlook Surveys”, 185 Asia-Europe Summit (ASEM), 76, 129, 151 Asian Bond Fund, see ABF Asian bond market, 7, 74–75, 122–23 Asian Bond Market Initiative, see ABMI Asian Development Bank, see ADB Asian economic crisis, 2, 4 Asian financial crisis, 72, 74–76, 78, 84, 122–23, 127, 129, 150

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emergence of East Asian regionalism, and, 146–47 “Asianisation of Australia”, 145 Asian regionalism, 27–29, 37 Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation, see APEC Association of Southeast Asian Nations, see ASEAN Australia Asian engagement, and, 136–55 economic reforms, 137–38 foreign policy, 136 immigration policy, 187 vehicle imports, 109 Australia-Indonesia Agreement on Maintaining Security, 151 Australian Council of Trade Unions (ACTU), 137 Australian Labour Party (ALP), 136 automobile industry, 107 avian flu, 78, 121 Ayeyawady-Chao Phraya-Mekong Economic Cooperation Strategy, see ACMECS B Bali bombings, 152 behavioural theories of geography, 17 “behind the border”, 64, 66 Bhagwati, Jagdish, 22 bilateralism, 14 Bilateral Swap Arrangement (BSA), 75–76 BIMSTEC (Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation), 129 BIS (Bank for International Settlements), 74 bond funds, inflows, 84 British hegemony, 17

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British Malaya, 24 Bundesbank, 41 Bush, George W., 40, 149, 212 “Button Plan”, 137 C Cairns Group Initiative, 140–41, 155 Cambodian Problem, 155 capitalism, 32, 36, 40–41 Asian market networks, in, 27–30 ethnic, 15, 23 CEPT (Common Effective Preferential Tariff), 105–08, 113 CER (Closer Economic Relations), 145, 149, 155 Certificate of Origin (Form D), 111–12, 125 isues of, 113–14 Chiang Mai Initiative, 2, 75–76, 122, 127, 147, 194, 202–03 China economy, 3–4 exports, 2 role in regional integration, 51–52 Chinese business networks, 27–28 Churchill, Winston, 40 Clark, Helen, 153 Closer Economic Relations, see CER Cold War, 13, 16–17, 23, 31, 33 Common Effective Preferential Tariff, see CEPT communism, 24 Conference on Security and Cooperation, 144 constitutional tolerance, 30 containment, strategy, 17 “creative destruction”, 26 cross-border migrant workers, 161 cross-border trade, 64, 73 “cultural creolization”, 36

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currency crisis, 5 customs clearance, 111, 115 D Doha round, 21–22 “Decent Work for All”, 200 Declaration of Bogor, 21 de Gaulle, Charles, 195 “Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Corridor Project”, 123 depopulation, 117 Deposit Guarantee Scheme, 198 domino theory, 24 Downer, Alexander, 151 E Early Harvest programme, 108–09, 112 Early Voluntary Sectoral Liberalization (EVSL), 148 East Asia Australia’s engagement, and, 136–55 concept of, 127, 156 FTAS/EPAs, of, 130–31, 147 integration processes, 128–36, 161–62 multilateral cooperation frameworks involving, 132–34 East Asia Industrial Corridor Project, 123 East Asian Community, 5, 154–55 East Asian crisis, 55 East Asian Economic Group (EAEG), 144, 155 “East Asian miracle”, 139 East Asian production networks, 51, 88 East Asian Renaissance, An, 47 East Asian regionalism, 39–40, 59

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East Asia Summit, 3, 5, 153–56, 204, 210 East Asia Vision Group, 2 East Timor, 150–51 East-West Economic Corridor, 114–15, 210 economic partnership agreements, see EPAs “economic rationalism”, 145 Economic Review and Policy Dialogue, 76 Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia, see ERIA economies of scale, benefits of, 47, 72 Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU), 185, 191 EEA (European Economic Area), 21 EFTA (European Free Trade Association), 21 Eichengreen, Barry, 197–98, 206 EMEAP (Executives’ Meeting of East Asia-Pacific Central Banks), 74, 122–23, 126 Employer Nomination Scheme (ENS), 187 Employment of Foreign Workers Act, 188 “Employment Passes”, 188 EPAs (economic partnership agreements), 116, 120, 125, 128–29, 202 East Asian states, of, 130–31, 147 equity funds, inflows, 84 ERIA (Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia), 3, 121 Euroamerica, 34 European Commission, 140–41 European Council, 29

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“European federalism”, 30 European Free Trade Association, see EFTA European regionalism, 29 European Union (EU), 2–3, 21–22, 29, 32, 41, 59–60, 87, 100, 111, 114, 120, 140–41, 147, 155, 161, 197–98, 213 Evans, Gareth, 139, 142–44, 150 Executives’ Meeting of East AsiaPacific Central Banks, see EMEAP F “fair trade”, 21 fascism, 16 financial integration, 59, 72–77 risks associated with, 83–85 First World, 13 food-autarky, 86 food security, 81–83 foreign direct investment (FDI), 55–57, 64, 69, 72, 79, 88, 116 foreign workers dependence on, 174 percentage of, 179–81 free trade agreements (FTAs), 22, 68, 80, 97, 100, 108–10, 112–13, 115–16, 120, 125, 127, 128–29, 135, 141, 148–49, 152–53, 155, 202–03, 209 ASEAN as hub of FTA network, 103–05 East Asian states, of, 130–31, 147 formation of network, 103–05 impact on trade, 105–10 Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA), 21, 149 Free Trade Area of the Asia Pacific (FTAAP), 4, 120, 203

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Friedman, Thomas, 32 functionalism, 195, 202 “Functional Theory”, 195 Fund of Bond Funds (FoBF), 74 G G3 institutions, 74 Gan, S.K., 35 GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade), 22, 138, 140–41, 146 GDP growth rate, by country and region, 99 geopolitics, 17 Goh Chok Tong, 149 global financial crisis, 1, 3–4, 9, 78, 161, 194, 201 globalization, 6, 15, 31–33, 47, 137 definition, 31 graduates, number of, in recent years, 184 Great Depression, 38, 125 Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS), 62, 210 “Green Card” programme, 186 GTAP model, 121 H Haas, Ernst, 195 Hamilton, Gary, 29 Hardt, Michael, 16 Hatoyama, Yukio, 5 Haushofer, Karl, 17 Hawke, Bob, 136, 139, 141–43, 148 “Hello Kitty”, 34 horizontal networks, 28–29 “Howard Doctrine”, 151 Howard, John, 136, 145–46, 149–53, 210 hub-and-spoke regionalism, 80, 89 human rights, 29

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I ideational theories of geography, 17 IDE-JETRO (Institute of Developing Economies-Japan External Trade Organization), 1–2 Ikenberry, John, 25 ILO, 185, 200–01 IMF, 76–77, 98, 147, 151 Immigration Control and Refugee Recognition Act, 188 immigration policy, 160, 162, 201 comparison of, 186–89 points-based system, 187 imperialism, 16 incrementalism, 195 India, economy, 3 Indochina, 24 Indonesia-Australia Security Cooperation Framework Agreement, 152 Institute of Developing EconomiesJapan External Trade Organization, see IDE-JETRO “institutional integration”, 127 institutionalization, 30 intermediary trade, 113 “international interdependence”, 31–32 internationalization, 6, 15, 28, 31–33 definition, 31 international trade theory, 54 intra-industry trade (IIT), 52–53, 55, 88 intraregional trade, 128, 144, 161 expansion, 110 ratio, in East Asia, 101 investment, liberalization of, 115–17 investment ratios of major Asian countries, 124 IOC-ARC framework, 129 Isuzu Thailand, 122

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J Japan ageing society, 116–17 Co-Prosperity Sphere, 27 economy, 3 foreign labour, and, 175, 181, 208–09 GDP, 126 immigration law, 188, 190–91 migrants to, 167–68, 170 pension fund, 197 role in regional integration, 51–52 trade balance, 119 strategies, for growth, 120–25 Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC), 123 Japan Center for Economic Research, 3 Japanese business networks, 27–28 Japanese Chamber of Commerce, 115 Japanese companies, 209 Asia, and, 102, 117–19 overseas earnings, 118 reorganization of, 105–08 “Japanese model”, 33 Japanese Occupation, 38 Japan Institute for Labour Policy and Training, 117 Japanization, 15, 33–40 Japan-Thailand EPA (JTEPA), 116 JETRO (Japan External Trade Organization), 100, 111, 114, 119, 121, 123 K Katzenstein, Peter J., 3, 6 Kan, Naoto, 5 Keating, Paul, 136, 139, 142–43, 145, 148, 150 keiretsu, 29

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Kennan, George, 17 Keynes, John Maynard, 205 “knowledge economy”, 177 Korean War, 25, 195 Kuomintang, 24 L Labour Agreements, 187 land transportation, 114–15 Lehman Brothers, 1, 4, 97 Leng Than, 35 liberal democracy, 29 logistics study, 65–66 M Maastricht Treaty, 141 Mahan, Alfred Thayer, 17 Mahathir Mohamad, 2, 144 Malaysia, foreign workers and, 172 materialist theorists, 17 Memoranda of Understanding on Counter-Terrorism, 152, 154 memory politics, 195 Mercosur, 21, 32 METI (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry), Japan, 100, 117 MFN status, 146 Miami Declaration, 21 “middle mass”, 34 “middle power”, 140 migrants, distribution of educated, 169 migration, liberalization of, 115–17 “Millennium Round”, 148 “minilateralisms”, 14, 22 Mitrany, David, 195 multilateralism, 14, 30, 148 N NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement), 21, 49, 60, 141, 161, 203

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nationalism, 24 National University of Singapore, 34 NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization), 20, 26, 32 Nazi Germany, 41 Negri, Antonio, 16 “Neo-functional Theory”, 195 “new international trade theory”, 47 Newly Industrialized Economies (NIEs), 72–73, 83, 88, 98, 138–39 New Rome, 41 New World, 35 Nikkeijin, 188, 191 Nissan model, 211 “Nixon Doctrine”, 6, 14, 20–21, 203 Noboru, Takeshita, 2 non-territorial “Empire”, 16 noodle bowl phenomenon, 209 North American Free Trade Agreement, see NAFTA nuclear bomb, 24 O Obama, Barack, 4, 40 Obama Doctrine, 203–04 ODA, 123 OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development), 81, 89, 173–79, 181–82, 185–86, 208 Asian professionals in, 162–66, 190 oil crisis, 137 Old World, 35 “open regionalism”, 79, 196 Orwell, George, 17 “Other-Americanization”, 36 outsourcing, 69

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P Pacific War, 38 Pan-Asian Bond Index Fund (PAIF), 74 Pax americana, 37 Pax nipponica, 37 Pax sinica, 37 Pempel, T.J., 35 Philippine Overseas Employment Administration, 172–73 Philippines, new-hired professionals, 173, 190 Plaza Accord, 1, 88 popular culture, 32, 34, 36–37, 39 population projection, in selected countries, 182–84 “prediction model”, 175–79 “pre-emptive military strikes”, 152 preferential tariff rates, 108, 112, 114, 204 preferential trade agreement, 54, 72, 89 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), 185 protectionism, 7 R rare earth, 6 RCEP (Regional Comprehensive Economics Partnership), 103, 120 “Red Book”, 143 regional GDP per capita, 48–49 regional institutional orders, 23–27 regional integration, 78–79   benefits of, 47–58 “Regional Linked Admissions”, 191 regional pivots, 14 regional policy initiatives, 20–23 Regional Sponsored Migration Scheme (RSMS), 187

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regional trade agreements (RTAs), 68 risk of proliferation, 79–80 rent-seeking behaviour, 27 Rules of Origin, 79, 89 issues of, 112–13 S SARS, 78 savings ratios of major Asian countries, 124 SCO (Shanghai Cooperation Organisation), 129, 135 SEATO (Southeast Asia Treaty Organization), 26 sea transportation, 114–15 Second World, 13 Sedgwick, Mitchell, 28 “Self-Americanization”, 36 September 11 attacks, 16, 152, 154 services industries, 86 services trade liberalization, 68–69, 71 Seventh Infantry Division, 20 Short-Term Liquidity Facility, 77 Singapore foreign workers and, 171, 183 permanent residence, granting of, 191 Singapore Medical Council, 188 Single European Act, 141 “Sinicization”, 7, 15, 33–40 “Skilled-Australian Linked”, 187 “skilled workers”, meaning of, 208 Social Dialogue, 200–01 socialism, 2, 13 South Korea, foreign workers and, 171 Soviet Union, 16, 19, 21, 23 disintegration of, 13 expansion, 24

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space, as social construct, 17–18 “spaghetti bowl phenomenon”, 113 Special Zones for Structural Reforms, 188 Stead, William, 35 Steinberg, Philip, 18 supporter states, 14 Surin Pitsuwan, 194 T Taiwan, foreign workers and, 172 “tariff-jumping”, 79 territorial conflicts, 18 territorial “empire”, 16 territorial issues, 6 terrorism, war against, 150 Thailand business community, 28 foreign workers and, 172 Thailand-Australia FTA, 108–09 Thailand-India FTA, 108–09, 112–13 “third force”, 140 Third World, 13, 22 Thurow, Lester, 22 TPP (Trans-Pacific Partnership), 4, 120 trade diversion, risk of, 79 trade facilitation, 110–11 trade openness, 80–81 trade unions, 137–38 Trans-Pacific Partnership, see TPP Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership (P4), 203 transparency, in trade policy, 66–68 trans-shipment corridor, 212 Treaty of Amity and Cooperation (TAC), 210 Treaty on European Union, 141 triangular trade, 2, 4, 24 tripolar regional world, 22 Truman Administration, 24 TV imports, in the Philippines, 107

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U United Nations (UN), 145, 176 United Nations Transitional Authority, 143 United States car industry, 33 financial crisis in, 84, 97, 125, 202 GNP, 25–26 hegemony, 4 multilateral strategy, 24 strategic interests, 19–20 UN Population Division, 182 “unstructured trade”, 83 urban population, 3 Uruguay Round, 140–42, 148, 157 U.S. Federal Reserve, 75–76 U.S. Treasuries, 73, 88–89 V vertical organizations, 28–29 Vietnam War, 14, 195

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W Wal-Mart, 197 Weiler, Joseph, 30 Westernization, 35 White Paper, 146, 150 Woolcott, Richard, 157 Workplace Practices Surveys, 185 World, Bank, 122–23, 176, 194 World Customs Organization (WCO), 111 World Development Report, 47 “world’s growth centre”, 98 World War II, 16–17, 21, 23, 25, 35, 97–98, 137, 146 World War III, 23 WTO (World Trade Organization), 2, 21–22, 66, 80, 111, 145, 148 X xenophobia, 195 Z “zero-sum games”, 139

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