Engaging Minds, Exchanging Ideas

IPS Survey Assessment of situation of difference in Singapore Household survey conducted between Dec 2012 –April 2013 4131Singaporean Residents –(most...

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Engaging Minds, Exchanging Ideas

ENGAGING MINDS, EXCHANGING IDEAS

Insights from the IPS Survey on Race, Religion and d Language L Mathew Mathews, PhD Senior Research Fellow Senior Research Fellow Institute of Policy Studies Engaging Minds, Exchanging Ideas

Discourse on Differences “Imagined  C Community”:  it ” Different people  having to share a having to share a  common destiny

Maintain  vigilance →  i il → exploitation of  sensitivities can  destroy destroy  Singapore.

‘Fault Lines’ in  Singapore Society 

The other side of the coin: Need to  Need to acknowledge new  forms of identities  based on cultural based on cultural  capital, digital  divide and Socio  Economic Status Economic Status

Many  Singaporeans no  longer entrenched  in racial, religious  or linguistic  identity.

Engaging Minds, Exchanging Ideas

IPS Survey IPS Survey Assessment of   situation of  difference in  Singapore

Household survey  conducted between conducted between  Dec 2012 – April 2013

4131 Singaporean  Residents – (most citizens)

Engaging Minds, Exchanging Ideas

{ Salience of Identity } Country you came  from Language

What is important  to one’ss identity? identity? to one

Religion

Race Engaging Minds, Exchanging Ideas

How important are each of the items below to  your overall sense of identity i.e. who you are? your overall sense of identity i.e. who you are? 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

70.7%

57.0%

65.9%

55.2% 72.6%

79.1%

23 9% 23.9%

21 1% 21.1% 23.0%

18.0% 11 3% 11.3% Race

21.8% Religion

19.2%

11 1% 11.1%

8.1%

Official  mother  tongue

Language  used most  frequently

Unimportant/Somewhat unimportant

15.9%

20.9%

5.0% Singapore Country family  came from

Somewhat important

Important/Very important / Engaging Minds, Exchanging Ideas

How important is the country your family came  from to your overall sense of identity i.e. who from to your overall sense of identity i.e. who  you are? 80.0% 70.0%

67.7%

66.6%

Malay

Indian

64.0%

60 0% 60.0% 50.0%

50.8%

40 0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0% Chinese

Others

I Important/Very important /V i Engaging Minds, Exchanging Ideas

Proportion of citizens and PRs who claimed  that the countries where their families came  h h h h f l from are important to their identities 80%

74% 68%

70%

63%

61% 60% 50%

49%

40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

Chinese

Malay Local‐born citizens

Indian

New PRs (<10 yrs) ( y ) Engaging Minds, Exchanging Ideas

How important is race to your overall sense of  identity i.e. who you are? identity i.e. who you are? 60.0% 51.9% 50.0% 40 0% 40.0% 28.4%

30.0%

25 0% 25.0%

22.8% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0% Chinese

Malay

Indian

Others

V i Very important Engaging Minds, Exchanging Ideas

How important is religion to your overall sense  of identity i.e. who you are? of identity i.e. who you are? 80.0% 70.1%

70 0% 70.0% 60.0% 50.0%

36.9%

40.0%

33.0%

30.0% 20.0%

15.6%

10.0% 0.0% Chinese

Malay

Indian

Others

Very important Engaging Minds, Exchanging Ideas

Proportion of younger and university‐educated  Malay respondents who consider religion very Malay respondents who consider religion very  important to identity 100.0% 90.0% 80.0% 70.0%

64.8%

63.5%

18‐25 years

University‐educated

60.0% 50 0% 50.0% 40.0% 30 0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0% V i Very important Engaging Minds, Exchanging Ideas

* Singaporeans identify  strongly with Race,  l i hR Religion & Language

Prejudice Assuming there has been  g prejudice, how has it  fared in the past 5 years? fared in the past 5 years?

‐tive ti consequences  for society Heightens feelings  of animosity of animosity  between groups Reduces trust in  others others 

Engaging Minds, Exchanging Ideas

How much prejudice do you think there is today  in Singapore compared to 5 years ago? in Singapore compared to 5 years ago? 100% 90%

16.0%

10.0%

7.2%

17.4%

18.7%

32.1%

80% 70% 60%

46.8%

50 0% 50.0%

50.7%

47.1%

45.2%

50%

40 5% 40.5%

40% 30% 20%

37.2%

39.2%

Race

Religion

36.2%

42.9%

35.6%

10%

27.4%

0% M h l /L Much less/Less

Language

Gender

Ab About the same h

Age‐related

Nationality

M /M h More/Much more Engaging Minds, Exchanging Ideas

Perceptions of racial prejudice levels by race 100% 90%

14.1%

21.0%

19.5%

42.6%

43.1%

37.5%

36.3%

37.4%

Chinese

Malay

Indian

25.2%

80% 70% 60%

48 3% 48.3%

42.4%

50% 40% 30% 20%

32.3%

10% 0% M h l /L Much less/Less

Ab About the same h

Others

M /M h More/Much more Engaging Minds, Exchanging Ideas

Perceptions of religious prejudice levels by race 100%

8.7%

90%

15.1%

12.3%

41.1%

49.6%

15.3%

80% 70% 60%

52.6%

51 0% 51.0%

50% 40% 30% 20%

38.7%

43 9% 43.9%

38.2%

33.7%

Indian

Others

10% 0% Chinese Much less/Less Much less/Less

Malay About the same About the same

More/Much more More/Much more Engaging Minds, Exchanging Ideas

Perceptions of language prejudice levels by race 100% 90%

17.8%

21.3%

20.4%

21.5%

45.8% 8%

40.0%

46.7%

48.0%

36.4%

38.8%

33.0%

30.6%

Chinese

Malay

Indian

Others

80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% M h l /L Much less/Less

Ab About the same h

M /M h More/Much more Engaging Minds, Exchanging Ideas

Perceptions of gender prejudice by gender 100%

6 7% 6.7%

7.6%

50.0%

49.9%

43.3%

42.5%

Male

Female

90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% M h l /L Much less/Less

Ab About the same h

M /M h More/Much more Engaging Minds, Exchanging Ideas

Perceptions of age prejudice among tertiary‐ educated respondents by age educated respondents by age 100% 90%

13.7% 30.5%

80% 70% 60%

51.5% 30.6%

50%

More/Much more About the same

40%

Much less/Less

30% 20%

34.9%

38.9%

26‐35 years

51‐65 years

10% 0%

Engaging Minds, Exchanging Ideas

Perceptions of nationality‐based prejudice levels  among 26‐35 among 26 35 year year‐olds olds by race by race 100% 90% 33.3%

80% 70%

39.1%

46.2%

50.4%

60% 50%

39 7% 39.7%

40% 30%

33.7% 38.5%

34.7%

20% 10%

27.0%

27.2% 15.4%

15.0%

0% Chinese M h l /L Much less/Less

Malay Ab About the same h

Indian

Others

M /M h More/Much more Engaging Minds, Exchanging Ideas

Perceptions of nationality‐based prejudice  among university‐educated among university educated respondents by race respondents by race 100% 90% 80%

47.2%

43.8%

41.7%

46.3%

70% 60% 50% 40%

22.9%

33.3%

31.3%

33.1%

30% 20% 10%

33.4% 19.7%

22.4%

25.0%

Indian

Others

0% Chinese M h l /L Much less/Less

Malay Ab About the same h

more/Much more /M h Engaging Minds, Exchanging Ideas

Different                        

Li d E Lived Experiences i Perceived  discrimination of  discrimination  of others because of race,  religion and language. 

Also looked at  experiences on 

employment,  l t promotion. 

Everyday

Focus on the  ,  especially with respect to usage 

public services.

of 

Sensitivities towards  Sensitivities  towards particular scenarios

Engaging Minds, Exchanging Ideas

How respondents felt they are treated when using  public services compared with other races p p 100%

8.9%

8.9%

8.8%

8.3%

90%

9.9%

80% 70%

Much  better/Better

60% 50%

88.3%

87.3%

86.6%

88.4%

86.4%

40%

About the  same Much  worse/Worse

30% 20% 10% 0%

2.7%

3.7%

4.5%

3.3%

3.7%

When using  hospital services

At school or an  educational  institution

At a social service  agency if you  needed financial  assistance

At the courts

By the police if you  reported a crime or  were suspected of  having committed  an offence

Engaging Minds, Exchanging Ideas

Proportion of respondents who have ever felt  racially discriminated against regarding a job or racially discriminated against regarding a job or  job promotion  30.0% 26.4% 24.2%

25.0%

22 3% 22.3%

20.0% 15.0% 10.0% 5.7% 5 0% 5.0% 0.0% Chinese

Malay

Indian Yes

Others Engaging Minds, Exchanging Ideas

Proportion of respondents who have ever felt  linguistically discriminated against when linguistically discriminated against when  applying for a job by race 100% 90%

4 3% 4.3% 14.6%

12.8%

7 1% 7.1%

13.0%

22.4%

80% 30.2%

70%

23 1% 23.1%

60% 50% 40%

81.1%

30%

57 0% 57.0%

70.4%

63.9%

20% 10% 0% Chinese N Never/Rarely /R l

Malay S Sometimes i

Indian

Others

Of /V Often/Very often or always f l Engaging Minds, Exchanging Ideas

How hard do you think people with different language  preferences have to work in order to have a prosperous  life in Singapore? 60.0% 52 3% 52.3% 50.0% 41.2%

44.4%

40.0% 29.3%

30 0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.8% 10.0% 0.0% English

Mandarin

Malay

Tamil

Dialect

H d /M h h d Harder/Much harder Engaging Minds, Exchanging Ideas

How hard do you think people with different language  preferences have to work in order to have a prosperous life in  Si Singapore? ? 60.0% 50.0%

50 0% 50.0%

52.0%

51 0% 51.0%

44.0%

41.0% 40 0% 40.0%

52.0%

50 0% 50.0%

41.0%

36.0% 28.0%

30.0% 21.0% 20.0% 13.0%

8.0%

10.0%

7.0%

6.0%

0 0% 0.0% English‐speaking Mandarin‐speaking Malay‐speaking

Much less/Less hard than others

Tamil‐speaking

Dialect‐speaking

As much as others

Harder than/Much more than others Engaging Minds, Exchanging Ideas

Perceptions of respondents by race on how hard people with  English‐speaking preferences have to work in order to have a  prosperous life in Singapore lif i Si 100% 90%

10.0%

17.0%

17.0%

47.0%

50.0%

37.0%

36.0%

34.0%

Chinese

Malay

Indian

14.0%

80% 70% 60%

52.0%

45.0%

50% 40% 30% 20%

41 0% 41.0%

10% 0% Much less/Less hard than others

Others

As much as others

Harder than/Much more than others / Engaging Minds, Exchanging Ideas

Perceptions of respondents by race on how hard people with  Mandarin‐speaking preferences have to work in order to have a  prosperous life in Singapore lif i Si 100% 90% 80%

33.0%

23 0% 23.0%

23 0% 23.0%

16.0%

70% 47.0%

60% 50% 40%

49.0%

47.0%

28.0%

31.0%

Malay

Indian

54.0%

30% 20% 10%

37.0%

13.0%

0% Chinese

Much less/Less hard than others

Others

As much as others

Harder than/Much more than others Engaging Minds, Exchanging Ideas

Perceptions of respondents by race on how hard people with  Malay‐speaking preferences have to work in order to have a  prosperous life in Singapore lif i Si 100% 90% 80%

41.0%

41.0%

39.0%

40.0%

52.0%

52.0%

51.0%

52.0%

7.0%

8.0%

9.0%

8.0%

Chinese

Malay

Indian

Others

70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

Much less/Less hard than others

As much as others

Harder than/Much more than others / Engaging Minds, Exchanging Ideas

Perceptions of respondents by race on how hard people with  Tamil‐speaking preferences have to work in order to have a  prosperous life in Singapore lif i Si 100% 90% 80%

44.0%

41.0%

46.0%

44.0%

50.0%

52.0%

48.0%

51.0%

5.0%

7.0%

6.0%

6.0%

Chinese

Malay

Indian

Others

70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

Much less/Less hard than others

As much as others

Harder than/Much more than others / Engaging Minds, Exchanging Ideas

Perceptions of respondents by race on how hard people with  dialect‐speaking preferences have to work in order to have a  prosperous life in Singapore lif i Si 100% 90% 80% 70%

49.0%

46.0%

41.0%

41.0%

44.0%

48.0%

5.0%

11.0%

11.0%

10.0%

Chinese

Malay

Indian

Others

56.0%

60% 50% 40% 30% 20%

39.0%

10% 0%

Much less/Less hard than others

As much as others

Harder than/Much more than others / Engaging Minds, Exchanging Ideas

How often respondents had been upset by racial or  religious tension in the last two years religious tension in the last two years 100%

5.3%

90% %

5.2%

14 2% 14.2%

5.3% 13 6% 13.6%

16.1%

23.8%

22.8%

24 1% 24.1%

80% 70% 60%

7.4% 19.9% 21.4%

50%

Very often or  Very often or always/Often Sometimes

40% 30%

56.6%

58.3%

54.6%

Rarely

51.3%

20%

Never

10% 0%

Someone insulting  Someone insulting  Someone trying to  Someone  my race or racial  my religious beliefs convert me to a  challenging my  customs religious beliefs and  religious belief practices Engaging Minds, Exchanging Ideas

Overall I feel that Singapore is free from racial tension Overall I feel that Singapore is free from religious tension 15.9% 18 7% 18.7%

Strongly Agree

43.9% 42.4%

Agree

26.2% % 27.7%

S Somewhat Agree h A

10.7% 10 7% 8.8%

Somewhat disagree

3.3% 2.4%

Strongly disagree 0.0%

10.0%

20.0%

30.0%

40.0%

50.0%

Engaging Minds, Exchanging Ideas

How comfortable respondents are of different racial groups (public sphere) Local‐born  Local‐born  Local‐born  Local‐born  Chinese Malay Indian Eurasian

New  Singaporean  Chinese  originally  from China

New  Singaporean  Indian  originally  from India

New  Singaporean  Malay  originally  from the  region

As your  colleague in  the same the same  occupation

96.0% 92.9% 93.2% 93.5%

84.9%

85.5%

87.6%

y As your boss

93 8% 83.1% 93.8% 83 1% 84.2% 84 2% 91.1% 91 1%

74 0% 74.0%

73 7% 73.7%

77 0% 77.0%

As your  employee As your next‐ As your next‐ door‐ neighbour

94.9% 90.1% 90.6% 92.8%

83.0%

83.5%

85.5%

95 4% 92.7% 95.4% 92 7% 90.9% 90 9% 93.7% 93 7%

81 2% 81.2%

82 1% 82.1%

86 8% 86.8%

As the  majority of  j it f people in  Singapore

91.2% 71.9% 71.3% 71.0%

51.4%

51.2%

55.2%

*figures represent cross‐cultural acceptance levels, whereby the responses of members of a particular racial group fg p p , y p f f p g p are excluded in calculating acceptance levels for that particular race Engaging Minds, Exchanging Ideas

How comfortable respondents are of different racial groups (private sphere) Local‐born  Local‐born  Local‐born  Local‐born  New Singa‐ Chinese Malay Indian Eurasian porean Chinese  originally originally  from China

New Singa‐ porean Indian  originally originally  from India

New Singa‐ porean Malay  originally originally  from the  region

Spouse

61.0%

35.1%

36.6%

55.5%

47.6%

32.9%

36.0%

Brother/sis ter‐in‐law

71.0%

55.1%

55.7%

69.2%

58.4%

48.7%

53.8%

Close  friend

91 5% 91.5%

84 7% 84.7%

83 0% 83.0%

85 5% 85.5%

77 4% 77.4%

74 6% 74.6%

78 1% 78.1%

*figures represent cross‐cultural acceptance levels, whereby the responses of members of a particular racial group are excluded in calculating acceptance levels for that particular race Engaging Minds, Exchanging Ideas

60.0% 51.9% 50.0% 44.0% 38 5% 36.9% 38.5%

40 0% 40.0%

32.3% 30.0% 20.0%

19.0%

10.0% .0% I am fine if people around  I am fine if a public speech  I am fine if a service staff  me speak a language I do  k l Id i is made in an official  d i ffi i l does not speak to me in  d t kt i not speak language that I do not  English in a shop on  speak  Orchard Road  Agree/Strongly agree

Somewhat/Strongly disagree Engaging Minds, Exchanging Ideas

Proportion of university‐educated respondents  by race who agree/strongly agree to "II am fine if  by race who agree/strongly agree to  am fine if people around me speak a language I do not  speak" speak 70.0% 60 0% 60.0%

58.7%

57.1%

55 8% 55.8%

50.0%

42.6%

40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0% Chinese

Malay

Indian

Others

University‐educated Engaging Minds, Exchanging Ideas

60.0% 51.9% 50.0% 44.0% 38 5% 36.9% 38.5%

40 0% 40.0%

32.3% 30.0% 20.0%

19.0%

10.0% .0% I am fine if people around  I am fine if a public speech  I am fine if a service staff  me speak a language I do  k l Id i is made in an official  d i ffi i l does not speak to me in  d t kt i not speak language that I do not  English in a shop on  speak  Orchard Road  Agree/Strongly agree

Somewhat/Strongly disagree Engaging Minds, Exchanging Ideas

Proportion of respondents by race and education  who agree/strongly agree to "II am fine if a public  who agree/strongly agree to  am fine if a public speech is made in an official language that I do  not speak"  not speak 66.7%

70.0% 60.0%

52.8% 47.5%

50.0% 40 0% 40.0%

40.6% 35 7% 35.7%

32.3% 26.9%

30.0%

29.5%

20.0% 10.0% 0.0% Chinese

Malay B l Below secondary d

Indian

Others

D Degree & above & b Engaging Minds, Exchanging Ideas

Perceptions of university‐educated respondents  by race on "II am fine if a service staff does not  by race on  am fine if a service staff does not speak to me in English in a shop on Orchard  Road" Road 80.0% 70.0%

66.8%

65.4%

58.9%

60.0% 48.6%

50.0% 40.0% 30.0%

30.0% 23 2% 23.2%

21.2%

20.0%

15.6%

10.0% 0.0% Chinese

Malay

Strongly disagree/Somewhat disagree

Indian

Others

Agree/Strongly Agree Engaging Minds, Exchanging Ideas

“Perceptions on Moral Issues” Other perceived  vices ie. gambling

Reproduction

Opinions p on Morality

Marriage

Sexuality Sexual Orientation Engaging Minds, Exchanging Ideas

How do you feel about these social issues? 100% 90%

8 4% 8.4% 21.6%

80% 70%

11.3%

33.3%

15.5%

22.0%

60%

22.3%

50% 40% 30%

12.0%

80.3% 56.4%

72.5% 44.4%

20% 10% 0% Sexual relations  before marriage

Sexual relations with  Living with a partner  Having a pregnancy  someone other than  before marriage outside of marriage marriage partner marriage partner Always wrong/Almost always wrong Only wrong sometimes Not wrong most of the time/Not wrong at all Engaging Minds, Exchanging Ideas

How do you feel about these social issues? 100% 90% 80%

11.3% 10.5%

70%

15.7%

24.2%

11.5% 14.7%

60% 50% 40% 30%

78.2%

72.9%

61.1%

20% 10% 0% Sexual relations between  The adoption of a child by a  ttwo adults of the same sex o adu ts o t e sa e se gay couple gay coup e

Gay marriage

Always wrong/Almost always wrong Only wrong sometimes Not wrong most of the time/Not wrong at all Engaging Minds, Exchanging Ideas

How do you feel about these social issues? 100% 90%

22.5%

80%

13.5% 17.3%

70% 60%

34.4%

50% 40% 69 2% 69.2%

30% 20%

43.1%

10% 0% Divorce

Gambling

Always wrong/Almost always wrong Only wrong sometimes Not wrong most of the time/Not wrong at all Engaging Minds, Exchanging Ideas

Proportion of informants who feel these social issues to be always wrong/almost always wrong to be always wrong/almost always wrong. Religion/  Sexual  Budd‐ relations…  hist before  marriage between  two  adults of  the same  sex  with  h someone  other  than  th marriage  partner

Taoist

Muslim

Protest‐ Other  No  Hindu Catholic ant religion religion

45.3% % 44.6% % 88.3% % 74.4% % 64.8% % 74.9% % 57.6% % 37.8% %

74.5% 77.4% 93.3% 84.5% 79.0% 85.8% 78.8% 64.6%

75.6% 79.0% 92.1% 87.3% 86.5% 89.7% 90.9% 70.7% Engaging Minds, Exchanging Ideas

Proportion of informants who feel these social issues to be always wrong/almost always wrong to be always wrong/almost always wrong. Budd‐ hi hist

Living with  a partner  before  marriage 32.9% Pregnancy  outside of  marriage 66.5% Adoption  Adoption of a child  by a gay  56 0% 56.0% couple Gay  marriage marriage 

Taoist i

Muslim li

Hindu i d

Protest‐ C h li Catholic ant

Other  religion li i

No  religion li i

28.0% 78.7% 59.6% 52.3% 61.7% 51.5% 29.9% 66.1% 89.4% 84.2% 76.7% 83.4% 78.8% 62.7%

60 3% 72.3% 60.3% 72 3% 54.2% 54 2% 62.3% 62 3% 75.1% 75 1% 51.5% 51 5% 48.3% 48 3%

70.9% 71.6% 88.9% 70.1% 68.7% 81.6% 63.6% 59.7% Engaging Minds, Exchanging Ideas

Proportion of informants who feel these social issues to be always wrong/almost always wrong to be always wrong/almost always wrong.

Protest‐ Other  No  Buddhist Taoist  Buddhist  Taoist Muslim  Muslim Hindu Hindu  Catholic Catholic  ant  ant religion  religion religion religion 

Divorce 

36.6% 34.7% 54.5% 54.9% 55.4% 59.3% 54.5% 30.6%

Gambling  g

60.0% 58.7% 90.7% 78.0% 74.2% 79.2% 81.8% 61.9%

Engaging Minds, Exchanging Ideas

State Management g & Harmony C‐M‐I‐O C MIO framework Restriction of  usage of  dialects in  public sphere

“Pigeon‐ Pigeon holing”

Is this an  issue for  Singaporeans g p

? Engaging Minds, Exchanging Ideas

Preferred Ethnic Label Compared to NRIC Racial  Classification of Singaporean Citizen Respondents Classification of Singaporean Citizen Respondents Personal Identification (y)/ As identified by (y) y NRIC (x) Chinese Malay

Chinese Malayy Indian Peranakan Chinese Malay Chinese‐Malay Malay‐Indian Javanese Ceylonese Tamil (Various Categories) y Boyanese Eurasian Filipino Singaporean

96.5% 0.2% .0% 2.1% 0 4% 0.4% .0% 0.1% .0% 0.5% .0% .0% .0% 0 1% 0.1%

Indian Boyan Eurasian Filipino Javanese

0.9% 0.8% .0% 85.7% 1.6% 76.5% 0.2% 87.0% .0% 0.2% .0% .0% 3 2% 0.3% 3.2% 0 3% 5 5.9% 9% 2.0% 5.0% .0% 4.9% .0% 5.9% 0.1% 0.6% .0% 1.8% 4.1% .0% 0.9% .0% 11.8% .0% .0% .0% .0% .0% .0% .0% 0% 0.5% 0 5% .0% 0%

11.1% .0% .0% .0% .0% .0% 11.1% .0% .0% 0% .0% 0% .0% .0% .0% .0% .0% .0% .0% .0% .0% .0% 77.8% .0% .0% 100.0% .0% 0% .0% 0%

.0% 32.3% .0% 6.5% .0% 0% .0% 61.3% .0% .0% .0% .0% .0% .0% 0%

Engaging Minds, Exchanging Ideas

Proportion of Chinese by age groups who claim that the  dialect/language of their ethnic sub‐group dialect/language of their ethnic sub group (regardless of whether  (regardless of whether they speak it or not) is important/very important 60.0%

53.9% 47.3%

50.0% 40.0%

56 5% 56.5%

35.0%

38.4%

30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0% 18‐25 yrs

26‐35 yrs

36‐50 yrs

51‐65 yrs

>66 yrs

I Important/Very important /V i Engaging Minds, Exchanging Ideas

Proportion of Chinese by age groups who claim  that their official mother tongue is that their official mother tongue is  important/very important  68.0%

67.0%

66.0% 64 0% 64.0%

63 2% 63.2%

63.5%

51‐65 yrs

>66 yrs

62.0% 60 0% 60.0% 58.0%

59.1% 57.8%

56.0% 54.0% 52.0% 18‐25 yrs

26‐35 yrs

36‐50 yrs

I Important/Very important t t/V i t t Engaging Minds, Exchanging Ideas

Proportion of respondents by race who agree/strongly  agree that "Users of dialects/languages of ethnic sub‐ groups should be given more recognition that those they  have now" 40.0% 35.0%

33.8% 30.2%

30.0%

23.3%

25.0% 20.0%

17.0%

15.0% 10.0% 5.0% 0.0% Chinese

Malay

Indian

Others

Agree/Strongly agree / Engaging Minds, Exchanging Ideas

How much do you agree with the following  statements?  statements? 80.0% 70 0% 70.0% 60.0% 50.0%

The government is  responsible for linguistic  harmony in Singapore

70.6% 63.9% 57.8% 45.8%

The government should  not try to influence my  personal language use

40.0% The government is  responsible for racial and  p religious harmony in  Singapore

30.0% 20.0%

The government has done  The government has done well to improve  integration of new  g g p immigrants in Singapore.

10.0% 0 0% 0.0% Agree/Strongly agree

Engaging Minds, Exchanging Ideas

Proportion of respondents who agree/strongly agree  that "The government should do more to curb the use of  Singlish in Singapore" 45.0%

40.9%

40.6%

40 0% 40.0%

Malay

Indian

Others

40.0% 35.0% 30.0%

29 3% 29.3%

25.0% 20.0% 15.0% 10.0% 5.0% 0.0% Chinese

A Agree/Strongly agree /S l Engaging Minds, Exchanging Ideas

Proportion of respondents aged 18‐25 years by race who  agree/strongly agree to "We need more legislation and  policies to safeguard racial and religious harmony" 80.0% 67.9%

70.0% 60 0% 60.0% 50.0%

48.6%

50.0%

Indian

Others

42.6% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0% Chinese

Malay

Engaging Minds, Exchanging Ideas

The government should give preferential/special  treatment to minority groups ‐ by race 60 0% 60.0% 52.0% 50.0%

45.4% 40.8%

40.0% 33.6% 29.7%

30.0% 23.5%

31 3% 31.3%

25.5%

Agree/Strongly agree Agree/Strongly agree Strongly diagree/  S Somewhat disagree h t di

20.0% 10.0% 0.0% Chinese

Malay

Indian

Others Engaging Minds, Exchanging Ideas

Perceptions of respondents aged 18‐25 years by race on  "The government should give preferential/special  treatment to minority groups" 60.0%

55.5% 51.7% %

50.0%

45.5%

40.0%

35.2%

30 0% 30.0% 20.0%

24.9%

27.8%

27.8%

19.1%

10.0% 0.0% Chinese A Agree/Strongly agree /S l

Malay

Indian

Others

S Strongly disagree/somewhat disagree l di / h di Engaging Minds, Exchanging Ideas

Perceptions of university‐educated respondents by race  on “The on  The government should give preferential/special  government should give preferential/special treatment to minority groups” 70.0% 58.7%

60.0%

51.8% 50 0% 50.0% 38.5%

40.0%

33.7% 28.8%

30.0% 20 0% 20.0%

36.4% 28.6%

20.1%

10.0% 0.0% Chinese A Agree/Strongly agree /S l

Malay

Indian

Others

S Strongly disagree/somewhat disagree l di / h di Engaging Minds, Exchanging Ideas

Should formulation and practice of public policy heed  sentiments of the 

MAJORITY or minority?

↑ sensitivity y to minority  erode principle  of fairness? Engaging Minds, Exchanging Ideas

* Public morality not easily  Public morality not easily disengaged from religious  disengaged from religious beliefs and values Realistic to expect future d b t to t continue ti t debates to maintain secularity? Engaging Minds, Exchanging Ideas

“All-out” strategy to deal with nationality based prejudice warranted?

Need heavy enforcement on xenophobic p tendencies in the cyber y world?

Engaging Minds, Exchanging Ideas

Ti Time to acknowledge t k l d

as part of life.

Requires continued  q management? Engaging Minds, Exchanging Ideas

ENGAGING MINDS, EXCHANGING IDEAS

Thank You Mathew Mathews, PhD Senior Research Fellow Institute of Policy Studies [email protected] Engaging Minds, Exchanging Ideas