ENGLISH CORE CBSE CLASS XII

Recognising Literary Forms / Figures of Speech Name of Figure of Speech What it Means Example Alliteration Repeating a constant sound in close proximi...

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ENGLISH CORE CBSE CLASS XII

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BLUE PRINT OF QUESTION PAPER SECTION - A READING COMPREHENSION READING UNSEEN PASSAGES AND NOTE-MAKING

[30 Marks]

Two unseen passages with a variety of very short answer/ short answer or MCQ type questions to test comprehension, interpretation and inference. Vocabulary such as word formation and inference of meaning will also be tested. The total length of the two passages will be between 1100-1200 words. The passages will include two of the following. (a)

Factual Passages e.g., instructions, descriptions, reports.

(b) Descriptive interpretative text.

Passages

involving

opinion, e.g.,

argumentative, persuasive

or

(c) Literature Passages, e.g., extract from fiction, drama, poetry, essay or biography. A poem could be of 28-35 lines.  

The passage can be literary, factual or discursive to test comprehensions. The length of one passage should be between 600-700 words. A third passage of 400-500 words for note making and abstraction. SECTION – B WRITING SKILLS

(30 Marks) Short Answer Questions, e.g., advertisements and notices, designing or drafting posters, writing formal and informal invitations and replies. Long Answer Questions: Letter based on verbal/visual input. Letter types include 

Business or official letters (for making enquiries, registering complaints, asking for and giving information, placing orders and sending replies)



Letters to the editor (giving suggestions or opinion on issues of public interest)



Application for job

Very Long Answer Questions: Two compositions based on visual and/or verbal Input may be descriptive or argumentative in nature such as an article, a debate or a speech.

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SECTION C LITERATURE TEXTBOOKS AND LONG READING TEXTS

FLAMINGO / VISTAS / THE INVISIBLE MAN (40 MARKS) 

Very Short Answer Questions - Based on an extract from poetry to test the comprehension and appreciation. 

Short Answer Questions -

Based on prose/drama/poetry from the texts.



Long Answer Questions -

Based on texts to test global comprehension and extrapolation beyond texts to bring out the key messages and values.



Long Answer Questions -

Based on texts to test global comprehension along with analysis and extrapolation.



Long Answer Questions -

Based on theme, plot and incidents from the prescribed novels.

(THE INVISIBLE MAN) 

Long Answer Questions -

Based on understanding, appreciation, analysis and interpretation of the character sketch.

(THE INVISIBLE MAN)

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QUESTION PAPER DESIGN English CORE XII (Code No. 301) Typology Typology of questions/ learning outcomes

Time- 3 hours MCQ Very 1 mark Short Answer Questio n 1 mark

Short Answer Questi on 3 mark

Short Answer Questi on 4 mark

Long Answe r-1 80-100 words 5 marks

Reading Skills

6

16

1

-

1

Marks-100 Long Very Total Answer Long marks -2 Answer 120150-200 150 words words 10 marks 6 marks 30

-

-

-

1

-

1

2

30

30

-

4

4

-

-

4

-

40

40

6*1=6

20*1= 20

5*3=15

1*4=4

1*5=5

5*6=30

2*10= 20

100

100

Writing Skills

Literary Textbooks and long reading text/novel

Conceptual, Understanding Decoding, Analysing, Inferring, Appreciating, Literary conventions and vocabulary, summarising and using appropriate format/s Reasoning, appropriacy of style and tone, using appropriate format and fluency, inference, analysis, evaluation and creativity Recalling, reasoning, appreciating literary conventions, inference, analysis, evaluation, Creativity with fluency TOTAL

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Over all %

30

CONTENTS PART-I

SECTION -A [READING UNSEEN PASSAGE AND NOTE-MAKING] 1. Reading Unseen Passage 2. Note-making & Abstraction SECTION- B [WRITING SKILLS] 3. Short Compositions    

Advertisements Notices Designing or Drafting Posters Invitations and Replies

4. Letter Writing 5. Article/Speech/Debate SECTION -C[LITERATURE TEXTBOOKS AND LONG READING TEXTS] 6. Flamingo (Poetry) 7. Flamingo (Prose) 8. Vistas 9. Long Reading Texts : Novels 

The Invisible Man

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SECTION A

(30 Marks)

READING Reading Comprehension Note Making & Abstraction

Reading Comprehension (Two unseen passages to test comprehension, interpretation and inference) [12+10=22 Marks] S.NO.

CONTENT

NO.

PAGE NUMBER

1.

Discursive Passage

2

11-16

2.

Factual Passage

5

17-35

3.

Literary Poem

3

36-43

Note Making & Abstraction

[5+3=8Marks]

S.NO.

CONTENT

NO.

PAGE NUMBER

1.

Discursive Passage

1

48-50

2.

Factual Passage

9

51-70

GUIDELINES FOR ATTEMPTING SECTION A Reading Comprehension is defined as the understanding of a passage or a text. Basically, Reading Comprehension tests the reader’s ability to comprehend the content as well as style and theme of the passage. TYPES OF QUESTIONS The students are mostly tested on content-based questions which include factual questions and inferential questions. Some vocabulary questions are also asked from the passages. These questions include meanings, synonyms, antonyms etc., of words in the passages.

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Three types of passages will be designed to test the reading skills of students. These include (I)

Factual passages, e.g., instructions, descriptions, reports..

(ii)

Discursive passages involving opinion, e.g., argumentative, interpretative or persuasive text.

(iii)

Literary passages, e.g., an extract from fiction, drama, poetry, essay or biography.

STEPS TO BE FOLLOWED WHILE ATTEMPTING COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS Step 1 Skim once as rapidly as possible to determine the main idea before you look at the questions. Do not worry about words you do not know at this stage. Step 2 Underline the words that you do not understand to facilitate a complete understanding of the passage. This will enable you to solve the vocabulary questions quicker. Step 3 Look through the words carefully You are advised to maintain the order in which the questions appear in the test paper. Read intensively the portion relevant to the answer. Step 4 Concentrate on the vocabulary items and puzzle out from the context the meanings of those words you do not know. IDEAS TO FOLLOW WHILE SKIMMING 1. Read the title of the passage/poem very carefully, if given. Determine what clues it gives you about the passage/poem. 2. Watch for keywords like causes, results, effects etc. do not overlook signal words such as those suggesting controversy (e.g., versus, pros and cons), which indicate that the author is intending to present both sides of an argument. 3. Concentrate on the main ideas and ignore details. Most passages requires at least two readings. Before writing the answer, check the questions again to be sure you have really understood them.

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GUIDELINES TO ATTEMPT COMPREHENSION PASSAGE 1. First of all read the passage quickly study the questions given at the end of your passage.

2. Start your second reading of the passage. This reading should be thorough. Underline key sentences or words related to the given questions.

3. An alternate method could be to go through the questions first, which gives a rough idea about the content or subject of the passage. It becomes easier to underline the keywords while going through the passage and will help to reach to the answers faster.

4. While answering the questions, try not to give vague or general answers; be specific; sometimes students use one general description when four or five points have to be made. Avoid general answers.

5. Write in short , simple sentences unless required to do otherwise.

6. Do not repeat yourself. This is a waste of time. Avoid using slang. Do not use vague words when a precise one will do.

7. Make sure that you use your own words as far as possible. This means that you must summarise and interpret information; never copy whole ‘chunks’ from the passage. 8. When answering factual questions. i.e., questions that involve words like ‘what’, ‘when’, ‘how’ and ‘why’, do not include information not given in the passage. While answering the ‘why’ question, you may begin your answer with ‘This is because……….’ or a similar phrase.

9. While answering vocabulary questions, determine the part of speech of the word. Your answer should have the same part of speech.

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Recognising Literary Forms / Figures of Speech Name of Figure of Speech Alliteration

What it Means

Example

Repeating a constant sound in close proximity to others, or beginning several words with the same vowel sound.

The phrase “buckets of big blue berries” alliterates with the consonant ‘b’.

Cacophony

The term in poetry refers to the use of words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sound.

Euphemism

Using a mild or gentle phrase instead of a blunt, embarrassing, or painful one. An implied comparison between two unlike things that actually have something important in common. Using a vaguely suggestive, physical object to embody a more general idea. The term metonymy also applies to the object itself used to suggest that more general idea. The use of sounds that are similar to the noise they represent for a rhetorical or artistic effect.

“Lick, crack, sick hack. The beggar harried her open back. Crash, bang, clang!! We want no parlay with you and your grisly gang who work your wicked will.”- Winston Churchill Saying “Grandfather has passed away” is a euphemism for “Grandfather has died.” “She is a fox”. This implies that the lady has the character traits as that of a fox.

Metaphor

Metonymy

Onomatopoeia

Pun

Refrain

Repetition

Rhythm

A play on two words similar in spelling or sound but different in meaning. A phrase, verse, or group of verses repeated at intervals throughout a song or poem, especially at the end of each stanza. Simple repeating of a word, within a sentence or a poetical line, with no particular placement of the words, in order to emphasis. It also has conn notations to listing the effect. It acts just like the beat does in music rhythm in poetry arises from the need for some words to be pronounced more strongly. They might also be stressed for -9-

“The pen mightier than the sword” suggests that the power of education and writing is more potent for changing the world than military force. For instance, the words like ‘buzz’, ‘click’, ‘rattle’ and ‘grunt’ make sounds akin to the noise they represent and are used both in prose and poetry. “A horse is a very stable animal”. (Here the pun is on the word ‘stable’. “For men may come and men may go, but I go on forever.” (This refrain is repeated after every stanza in Tennyson’s poem “The Brook”) I looked upon the rotting sea, And drew my eyes away; I looked upon the rotting deck, And there the dead men lay. (Rime of the Ancient Mariner) Half a league, Half a league (‘The charge of the Light Brigade’ by Tennyson)

Rhyme

Rhyme scheme

Simile

Synecdoche

a longer time, which sounds more pleasant to the mind, thus unconsciously creating identifiable patterns. This gives a musical effect to the literary piece. A matching similarity of sounds in two or more words at the end of a line, especially when their accented vowels and all succeeding consonants are identical. The pattern of rhyme. The traditional way to mark these patterns of rhyme is to assign a letter of the alphabet to each rhyming sound at the end of each line.

An analogy or comparison implied by using an adverb such as ‘like’ or ‘as’. This involves a part of an object representing a whole, or the whole of an object representing a part.

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“Once upon a time a frog/croaked away in Bingle Bog” (Vikram Seth’s poem “The Frog and the Nightingale”) “The glories of our blood and state -------------- a Are shadows, not substantial things; ------------ b There is no armour against fate; ----------------- a Death lays his icy hand on kings: ----------------- b Sceptre and crown -------------------------------- c Must tumble down, ------------------------------- c And in the dust be equal made ----------------- d With the poor crooked scythe and spade”----- d (Extract from James Shirley’s poem “Of Death”) The rhyme scheme for this stanza is ababccdd. “Friends are like chocolate cake, you can never have too many.” “Twenty eyes watched our every move.” Here, rather than implying that twenty different eyes are swivelling to follow him as he walks by, the author means that ten people watched the group’s every move.

PASSAGE 1 DISCURSIVE PASSAGE

FASHION IS A PROFILE PIC Read the passage carefully: 1. Fashion loves to embrace the new and is always quick to adapt to socio-culture developments. There is no question that this industry has welcomed the social network. The way we look at fashion has totally changed, thanks to Facebook, Twitter, Blackberry Messenger (BBM) and Instagram. And the way we report fashion has changed too. Fashion shows are streamed live, reviews on blogs are up minutes after a show, and online e-commerce stores make collections available minutes after a fashion show has ended. You can buy an outfit even before the next day's newspaper review is out. Twitter, of course, means that even the fashion reportage a paper carries is outdated. Today every fashion writer needs to learn the art of reviewing a show in 140 characters. Knowing your social media is as important as knowing your fashion. The fashion brands, retailers and magazines are well aware of this- and therefore they are all social media-friendly. 2. And often enough, social media will be more willing to push the envelope than traditional media. Recently, a leading fashion magazine made a fashion faux pas - the outfit they had put on their cover had appeared on another fashion magazine a year earlier, and as we all know repeating in fashion is a big no-no. Interestingly, most of the dailies decided to overlook the incident. Bloggers were not so forgiving and brought the error into the public arena. And it started a much-needed debate on the responsibility of fashion media. 3. Even when you look at electronic media, you will notice that unless it is a 'makeover show', most television channels shy away from showcasing fashion, style and luxury. And again social media is poised to fill the gap, with several YouTube channels launching this year all based around style. It seems social media believes that there is a demand for fashionbased content. However, social media has given anyone and everyone a right to an opinion. -Sujata Assoumull Sippy On the basis of your understanding of the passage answer the following questions with the help of the given options : 1X4=4] (a)

The way we look at fashion has changed, thanks to (i) Newspaper (ii) Television (iii) Facebook (iv) None of the above Ans. Facebook

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(b)

Fashion Writers need to learn the art of reviewing a show in (i) 140 words/Characters (ii) 200 words/Characters (iii) 300 words/Characters (iv) 150 words/Characters Ans. 140 words/Characters

(c)

Traditional media refers to (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

Magazines Newspapers Instagram Both (i) and (ii)

Ans. Both (i) and (ii) (d)

Meaning of 'faux pas' is (i) A social awkward or tactless act (ii) A selfish act (iii) A loving act (iv) A patriotic act Ans. A social awkward or tactless act

Answer the following questions briefly: (e)

[1X6=6]

What has the fashion industry 'welcomed'? Ans. Fashion industry has 'welcomed' the Social Network.

(f)

State any one way in which we report fashion today. Ans. Streamed live / reviews on blogs / YouTube channels etc.

(g) 'Bloggers were not so forgiving and brought the error into the public arena.' What error was brought into the public arena by the bloggers? Ans. Fashion faux pas made by a leading fashion magazine. (h)

What does fashion media shy away from? Ans. From showcasing fashion style and luxury.

(i)

How does an online e-commerce store help the fashion industry?

Ans. Makes fashion collections available minutes after a fashion show has ended. (j)

What has social media given anyone and everyone ? Ans. A right to an opinion. -12-

(k)

Find words from the passage which means the same as :

(1X2=2)

(i) The news as presented by reporters for newspapers, radio or television. (ii)

A merchant who sells goods at retail Ans. (i) (ii)

reportage retailers

(para 1) (para 1)

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Passage 2 Discursive Passage THE ARNAB CAST OF CHARACTERS Read the passage carefully: 1. There is a minor celebrity hood that comes with occasionally appearing on Arnab's show. In the oddest of places, strangers will walk up to me and ask, 'Don't I Know you from somewhere? ' There was a time when I would seriously consider the possibility, but I've come to realise that many people are really at home only in front of their TV watching Arnab, and in that sense I am an old acquaintance. 2. I had little inkling of this fate when I first started appearing on television to defend Open magazine's decision to publish the Radia tapes After that memorable television encounter where Barkha Dutt and Manu Joseph replayed the same conversation 20 times over, I was left to fend for the magazine on other channels. Initially, I agreed to continue appearing on Arnab's channel because the magazine's publisher insisted this was good publicity; it was only later that I saw some journalistic sense in doing so.

3. I say this despite harbouring no illusions about the nature of the show. It is a performance with Arnab as the director and the main character, and an audience swept along by the drama of what transpires. The form is defined by Arnab, the substance born out of the audience. This is an audience that comprises the section of middle class which is comfortable watching news on television in English. It is socially liberal, hence the anger against gharwapasi or those opposing Valentine's Day, but it is xenophobic in its nationalism, hence the noise about Pakistan or Greenpeace. If NDTV was the product of the scions of a particular elite telling the rest of the English- speaking class what to think, Times Now gives voice to what this class actually thinks, which is why this Prime Time clash was never much of contest. 4. In this theatre, journalists like me have a prescribed role: to endorse Arnab's opinion. Journalists perceived to be affiliated with a political party can't carry this off with any conviction. Those who remain are likely to endorse Arnab only when they genuinely agree with him, forcing the channel to cherry pick. I know I won't be asked to appear on a show about offloading a Greenpeace activist, because I'd then be at odds with Arnab.

5. What does this role offer those who accept it? The increased visibility lends their work greater value at a time personal branding is increasingly defining value in journalism. But I also see it as an opportunity to point out to a largely apathetic country that in 1984, Kamal Nath was at the head of a mob that burned two Sikhs to death a few 100 metres from Parliament. Or voice my apprehensions about Narendra Modi to a mass audience at a time the country seemed besotted with him. This is possible because Arnab's sole interest is his play, he is not a participant in the games most other anchors play out in Delhi. Interestingly, the roles come with no strings attached. No one's ever asked me not to be critical of Arnab, as I have been, or Samir Jain, as I continue to be. - Hartosh Singh Bal -14-

On the basis of your understanding of the passage answer the following questions with the help of the given options : [1X4=4]

(a) i. ii. iii. iv.

Arnab is a person who is a : TV news anchor Editor of a magazine Bollywood Hero None of the above Ans. TV news anchor

(b) i. ii. iii. iv.

The writer appeared on television to defend the following magazine: Caravan Open Outlook Frontline Ans. Open Magazine

(c) i. ii. iii. iv.

In Arnab's show, Arnab is the Director Villain Court Jester Audience Ans. Director

(d) i. ii. iii. iv.

What did the 'Open' magazine publish ? Watergate tapes Snoopgate tapes Radia tapes Cablegate tapes Ans. Radia Tapes

Answer the following questions briefly: (e)

[1x6=6]

What did the writer realize about the TV watching habit of his countrymen?

Ans. People are at home in front of their TV, watching Arnab. (f)

Why did the writer continue appearing on Arnab's Channel?

Ans. Because the magazines' publishers insisted this was good publicity. (g)

Which section of society watches Arnab's show ? -15-

Ans. Section of middle class which is comfortable watching news on television in English. (h)

Who is 'xenophobic' in its nationalism ?

Ans. Middle class is 'xenophobic' in its nationalism. (i)

Why do people appear on Arnab's show?

Ans. Increased visibility lend their work greater value. (j)

On which news channel does Arnab appear?

Ans. Times Now (k) Find words from the passage which mean the same as: (i)

An erroneous mental representation.

(ii)

A descendant or heir Ans. (i) (ii)

illusions

(para3)

scions

(para3)

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[1x2=2]

PASSAGE 1 FACTUAL PASSAGE A MISGUIDED PATRIOT Read the passage carefully: 1. Subhas Chandra Bose fulfilled a promise to his father that he would sit for the Indian Civil Service examination in London. He secured the fourth position in 1920 but then went on to fulfill his own wish. He resigned from the coveted service the following year, saying “only on the soil of sacrifice and suffering can we raise our national edifice”. Returning to India, he plunged into the national struggle and by 1923, was secretary of the Bengal State Congress and President of All India Youth Congress. 2. By 1927, he emerged, along with Jawaharlal Nehru, as leader of the new youth movement, which came into its own by playing a major role in the anti-Simon Commission agitation which swept India that year. He was also the chief organizer of the Calcutta session of the Indian National Congress (INC) in December 1928, which demanded that the goal of the congress be changed to ‘PurnaSwaraj’ or ‘Complete Independence’. 3. Imprisonment in the Civil Disobedience movement followed by bad health in 1932 took him to Europe where he observed European politics, particularly Fascism under Mussolini and Communism in the Soviet Union. He was impressed by both and believed that authoritarian rule was essential for achieving radical social goals. 4. In fact, it is in this period that political views of Nehru and Bose begin to diverge sharply, especially on the issue of Fascism and Nazism. Nehru was so vehemently opposed to Fascism that he refused to meet Mussolini even when the latter sought him out, whereas Bose not only met Mussolini but was impressed by him. Nehru was sharply critical of the growing danger to the world from the rise of Hitler. Bose, on the other hand, never expressed that kind of aversion to Fascism, and was quite willing to seek the support of Germany and later Japan against Britain. However, he was not happy with the German attack on Soviet Union in 1941, and that was one reason why he left Germany for Japan. For Bose, Socialism and Fascism were not polar opposites, as they were for Nehru. 5. In 1938, Bose was unanimously elected, with the full support of Gandhiji, as Congress president for the Haripura session. But the next year, he decided to stand again, this time as a representative of militant and radical groups. An election ensued which Bose won by 1,580 to 1,377 votes, but the battle lines were drawn. The challenge he threw by calling Gandhian leaders rightists who were working for a compromise with the British government was answered by 12 members of the working committee resigning and asking Bose to choose his own committee. Nehru did not resign with other members but he was unhappy with Bose’s casting of aspersions on senior leaders. He tried his best to mediate and persuade Bose not to resign. 6. The crisis came to a head at Tripuri in March 1939, with Bose refusing to nominate a new working Committee and ultimately resigning. The clash was of policy and tactics. Bose -17-

wanted an immediate struggle led by Gandhiji, whereas Gandiji felt the time was not ripe for struggle. 7. Having burnt his boats with the Congress. Bose went and then to Japan in 1943 to seek help in the struggle against their common enemy, Britain. He finally went to Singapore to take charge of the Indian National Army (INA) which had been formed by Mohan Singh in 1941 from Indian prisoners of war captured by the Japanese. The INA was clear that it would go into action only on the invitation of the INC; it was not set up as a rival Centre of power. Bose made this more explicit when on July 6, 1944, in a broadcast on Azad Hind Radio addressed to Gandhiji, he said, “Father of our Nation! In this holy war of India’s liberation, we ask for your blessing and good wishes”. -

Mridula Mukherjee

On the basis of your understanding of the passage answer the following questions with the help of the given options : [1X4=4]

(a)

Subhas Chandra Bose was secretary of the (i) Bengal State Congress (ii) All India Youth Congress (iii) Central India Youth Congress (iv) None of the above Ans. Bengal State Congress

(b)

(c)

In which year Subhas Chandra Bose was imprisoned in the Civil Disobedience Movement (i) 1928 (ii) 1930 (iii) 1932 (iv) 1934 Ans. 1932 Subhas Chandra Bose was not happy with the (i) Soviet Union attack on German in 1941 (ii) German attack on Soviet Union in 1941 (iii) Soviet Union attack on Japan in 1941 (iv) Japan attack on Soviet Union in 1941 Ans. German attack on Soviet Union in 1941

(d)

Indian National Army (INA) was formed by (i) Mohan Singh (ii) Subhash Chandra Bose (iii) Jawaharlal Nehru (iv) Mahatma Gandhi Ans. Mohan Singh -18-

Answer the following question briefly: (e)

[1x6=6]

Why did Subhash Chandra Bose resign from the Indian Civil Services?

Ans. Subhash Chandra Bose resigned from Indian Civil Service because he thought that ‘only on the soil of sacrifice and suffering can we raise our national edifice’. (f)

Who all played a major role in the Anti-Simon Commission agitation?

Ans. Subhash Chandra Bose and Jawaharlal Nehru played a major role in the AntiSimon Commission agitation. (g)

What was the demand of Indian National Congress in December 1928?

Ans. The Indian National Congress demanded that the goal of the congress be changed to ‘PurnaSwaraj’ or ‘Complete Independence’. (h) What were the issues which lead to differences in political views of Nehru and Bose? Ans. Nehru and Bose diverged sharply, on the issue of Fascism and Nazism. (i)

When was Subhash Chandra Bose elected as Congress President and with whose support?

Ans. Subhash Chandra Bose was elected as Congress President in 1938 with the support of Gandhiji. (j)

What was the address by Bose to Gandhiji on Azad Hind Radio?

Ans. Bose addressed Gandhiji as ‘Father of Nation’ on Azad Hind Radio.

(k) Find words from the passage which means the same as: (i) (ii)

to be in jail to elect a leader Ans.

(i) (ii)

(Para 3) (Para 5)

imprisonment election

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[1x2=2]

PASSAGE 2 FACTUAL PASSAGE A SIGHT FOR SORE EYES Read the passage carefully: 1. For lasting and clear eyesight, eyes need care in the form of preventive measures, a continuous life-long exercise. Eyes don't just see, they do the talking. This is why of all our senses the most precious is eyesight. Eyes need care in the form of prevention, and knowing some preventive methods in eye care can make your eyes look bright and healthy and leave you with excellent eyesight. 2. How do we keep eyes bright and healthy? Eat good helpings of vegetables, fruits, omega-3 fatty acids, beta carotenes with vitamins A, C and E, enjoy good sleep and avoid direct sunlight. Therefore, good habits and good general health care does play a major role in eye care. Eyes are windows to the human body; while you look out through this window, we, the eye doctors, can look in to find conditions such as glaucoma, abnormal blood pressures, diabetes, heart diseases and other health concerns much before you notice its adverse impact, and help you take preventive measures.

3. It is never too early to begin eye checkups. Throw a torchlight from different directions and look for fixation in newborns and, if in doubt, take the baby to an eye specialist. By the time a child is four, it is imperative to have a check up every year to look for squint, signs of opacity brought in by cataracts and minus or plus powers to decide whether or not glasses are needed. Ultraviolet- protective sunglasses from childhood can help protect eyes from the harmful UV rays. Once in the teens, contact lenses can be worn in place of glasses, but never sleep with them on as they reduce the supply of air and blood to the cornea and can damage eyes. When in 20s, you can get rid of glasses with lasers, Lasik or permanent contact lenses.

4. An emerging and alarming trend is the Computer Eye Syndrome, which appears to be catching on in early adult life. We cannot escape the use of computers but, sadly, our eyes are not designed to cope with these screens. Continuous staring at the monitors reduces blinking, causes strain to the eyes and can lead to dry eyes as well. Therefore, it is always better to take a break of 10 minutes every hour and look at distant objects such as the landscapes or even television. 5. Glaucoma or raised pressure in eyes and diabetic retinopathy are silent killers of eyesight. Therefore, checking eyes once every six months is essential. If afflicted with diabetes, diet, exercise and drugs are to be remembered in that order to keep the doctor away. 6. Around the age of 40, more or less everybody requires reading glasses, a condition known as presbyopia. But now you can get rid of these glasses as well, with lasers called INTRACOR and SUPRACOR. One can develop cataract- defined as the loss of transparency in the natural lens of the eye - at any age, but it usually strikes in old age. It's treated by replacing the opaque lens with an artificial lens called the intraocular lens. The latest in -20-

cataract removal techniques is called femtosecond laser assisted cataract surgery, which is blade-free, hands-free and makes the operation precise, safe and accurate. 7.

That said, eye care is, inevitably, a continuous exercise through life. - Dr Kasu Prasad Reddy

On the basis of your understanding of the passage answer the following questions with the help of the given options : [1X4=4] a. We keep our eyes bright and healthy by: (i) playing in the sun (ii) wearing spectacles (iii) rubbing our eyes frequently (iv) eating good helping of vegetables and fruits Ans. eating good helping of vegetables and fruits b. By examining the eyes, the doctors can detect health conditions like : (i) fractures (ii) sinus (iii) glaucoma (iv) transilitis Ans. Glaucoma c. Eye checkups should begin : (i) at the time of birth (ii) at school (iii) only when a person complaints (iv) when a person is above 50 years of age. Ans. at the time of birth d. We should not wear contact lenses for long hours, as they might harm the: (i) Retina (ii) Cornea (iii) Tear Glands (iv) None of the above Ans. Cornea Answer the following questions briefly:

[1x6=6]

(e)

State any two ways in which we can keep our eyes bright and healthy.

Ans.

a. Eat vegetables and fruits. b. Omega 3 fatty acids. c. Vitamins A,C, E -21-

(f)

What will prevent eyes from harmful UV Rays?

Ans. UV protection sunglasses. (g)

Excessive Computer usage causes which problem ?

Ans. Computer Eye Syndrome (h)

What is 'presbyopia' ?

Ans. Around the age of 40 almost everyone requires reading glasses this condition is known as 'presbyopia'.

(i)

What are 'INTRACOR' and 'SUPRACOR'?

Ans. Lasers (j)

What is 'Cataract'?

Ans. 'Cataract' is the loss of transparency in the natural lens of the eye. (k) Find words from the passage which means the same as :

[1x2=2]

a. Grievously affected especially by disease

(Para 5)

b. By necessity

(Para 7)

Ans. (i) (ii)

afflicted inevitably

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PASSAGE 3 FACTUAL PASSAGE A TOOL FOR WORLD PEACE Read the passage carefully: 1. After a long and arduous struggle to popularise yoga, the world is now waking up to its wonders. Upon my arrival in New York on the evening of June 20, the Art of Living volunteers and the officials at the Permanent Mission of India informed me that the weather forecast predicted heavy rains, even thunderstorms over the next 24 hours. There was concern on their faces as they continued with preparations for the International Day of Yoga celebrations at the United Nations headquarters and Times Square. I remained confident that this momentous day would go well. 2. To the delight of the organising teams, the sun came out just as we arrived at the venue. The UN Secretary General and his wife, the President of the General Assembly, and many ambassadors participated in the programme. UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon even said, "We should do this before every negotiation, so that we can work with a calm mind".

3. WHO has warned that depression will become the biggest killer after HIV/AIDS by 2030. Today, an estimated $150 billion is spent on mental illness and depression in the US alone. While the remission rate through medical treatments is less than 14 percent, a study has shown that the remission rate will be 64 percent through meditation and yoga. I suggested to the Secretary General that if countries around the world spend 1 percent of their defence budget on peace education and peace-building through yoga and meditation, it would make a significant difference. 4. In terms of the way forward, we cannot have all and sundry teach anything in the name of yoga. We need to bring quality control and standardisation in teaching. Like cell phones have enhanced comfort and connectivity, yoga can take you to a whole new level. It can be used as a powerful tool in conflict resolution and trust building. 5. When we started our efforts to bring this ancient wisdom to the fore, it was not easy. There was a lot of prejudice against yoga and even meditation. Today, meditation posture has become synonymous with relaxation and comfort. Earlier, the younger generation in the western world would often struggle to convince their parents to open up to the benefits of yoga. Perhaps, this declaration by the UN will make their job easier. - Sri Sri Ravi Shankar On the basis of your understanding of the passage answer the following questions with the help of the given options : [1X4=4] a. The remission rate for depression through medical treatment is less than (i) 20 percent (ii) 14 percent (iii) 15 percent (iv) 24 percent -23-

Ans. 14 percent. b. The declaration by the UN will make the job of Art of Living volunteers (i) tougher (ii) easier (iii) harder (iv) comfortable Ans. easier. c. Where was International Day of Yoga celebrated in USA? (i) WHO Headquarters (ii) United Nation Headquarters and Times Square (iii) White House (iv) Central Park Ans. United Nation Headquarters and Times Square d. Who arrived in New York on the evening of June 20. (i) Shankaracharya (ii) Sri Sri Ravi Shanker (iii) General Ban Ki-moon (iv) Naredra Modi Ans. Sri Sri Ravi Shanker. Answer the following questions briefly. (e)

[1X6=6]

What did the weather forecast predict for the city of New York?

Ans. The weather forecast predicted heavy rains. (f)

Who all participated in the International Day of Yoga celebration?

Ans. UN Secretary General and his wife, the President of the UN General Assembly and many ambassadors participated in the programme. (g)

Who is the founder of 'The Art of Living'?

Ans. Sri Sri Ravi Shanker is the founder of 'The Art of Living'. (h)

What warning has the WHO issued?

Ans. WHO has warned that depression will become the biggest killer after HIV/AIDS by 2030. (i)

How can Yoga be used as a powerful tool?

Ans. Yoga can be used as a powerful tool in conflict resolution and trust building. (j) What was the role of the younger generation in the western world to promote Yoga? -24-

Ans. The younger generation in the western world struggled to convince their parents to open up to the benefits of yoga. (k) Find words from the passage which mean the same as :

[1X2=2]

i) decrease, less severe

(para 3)

ii) tough, difficult

(para 1)

Ans. (i) (ii)

remission arduous

-25-

PASSAGE 4 FACTUAL PASSAGE DELHI'S TRUNK CALLS Read the passage carefully: 1. Twenty-six-year-old Verhaen Khanna is not your garden variety green crusader. He's on a mission to cure 'tree blindness'- the habit of not looking at trees. "People just walk past them," he complains, at his New Friends Colony residence office, clad in Batman pyjamas and bathroom slippers. Khanna, as part of New Delhi Nature Society which he set up last year, is educating Delhities about trees in a unique way- by teaching them how to climb them. 2. A generation ago, the practice was commonplace but with today's increasingly indoor living, learning to scale the neem next door sounds like a spot of daredevilry. Anuj Wadhwa, a 26 year old garment exporter learnt to shimmy up trees a few months ago. "Spending time with nature and climbing trees become a spiritual exercise for me. Once you're in a tree, you become part of its ecosystem, which includes birds, insects, fruits and flowers, " says Wadhwa who can spend 40-45 minutes hanging out on tree branches, sometimes with a cup of green tea in hand. 3. But it's all about barking up the tree right. "It depends on how and where you sit," Khanna points out. "You have to find a cosy nook, maybe a Y-or a V-shaped branch. Find a hook to rest your arm. Or, you can lie down. It can get so comfortable that I have to warn people from falling off to sleep." A trained commercial pilot, Khanna organizes periodic campouts around Delhi - Jahanpanah city forest near GK-II, Asola Sanctuary, Lodhi Garden, Nehru Park, colony parks in New Friends Colony, Maharani Bagh, GK-I etc.- where he not only teaches members how to climb trees, but also to make a fire, count GPS satellites and stars. 4. While Khanna provides tents and other equipment on these free jaunts, participants have to bring their own food. The tree-lover funds his woody ambitions with his day job as business developer, and as a light painting artist at OLE India- a collaborative of professionals and free thinkers. He has also uploaded tree-climbing tutorials on YouTube. When climbing a straight trunk (coconut or palm), ascend using both arms in tandem (like in a hug) instead of alternating them. But banyan trees, with thick, low lying branches and vines offer a relatively easy climb. 5. Anyone can join NDNS and it's free. The year-old society has been attracting members through word of mouth and sight- the image of men and women sitting atop trees in various city parks. Khanna has organized six outdoor camps in the past year and has taught around 30 people to climb trees. Once up, he briefs participants about the tree and its ecosystem. Details like what kind of fruit and flower it bears, their benefits, the shape and size of leaves, kinds of insects, birds and squirrels living on it, any folk tales associated with it are discussed and shared. Khanna says books, internet and hands-on experience working on farms is the source of his tree knowledge.

-26-

6. Tarun Mal, an agriculturist who lives in Gurgaon and runs a farm in Alwar, says the first time he climbed, he was scared of falling. "But once you're inside the canopy, it's a different world and you don't want to come down," he says. For Masrat Khan, a communication expert, the experience brings out the child in her.When not scaling trees, NDNS members are busy doing "guerilla gardening"-planting hardy local tree varieties like neem, babul and jamun wherever possible and often without permission. Their mission to cure tree blindness continues. -

Shobhita Dhar

On the basis of your understanding of the passage answer the following questions with the help of the given options : [1X4=4] (a)

Verhaen Khanna is on a mission to cure (i) Night blindness (ii) Tree blindness (iii) Colour blindness (iv) None of the above Ans: Tree blindness

(b)

Spending time with nature and climbing trees has become a (i) spiritual exercise (ii) physical exercise (iii) aerobic exercise (iv) All the above Ans: spiritual exercise

(c)

When climbing a straight trunk use (i) both arms in tandem (ii) both legs in tandem (iii) both arms and legs in tandem (iv) None of the above Ans: both arms in tandem

(d)

When not scaling trees, NDNS members are busy doing (i) Tree Gardening (ii) Flower Gardening (iii) Guerrilla Gardening (iv) None of the above Ans: Guerrilla Gardening

Answer the following question briefly:

[1x6=6]

(e) What do you mean by ‘tree blindness’? Ans: The habit of people to not look at trees. -27-

(f) What education is being imparted to Delhiites by Verhaen Khanna? Ans: Verhaen Khanna is educating Delhiites about climbing trees. (g) What is Anuj Wadhwa’s opinion about nature and climbing trees? Ans: In Anuj Wadhwa’s opinion, spending time with nature and climbing trees is a spiritual exercise. (h) What do you become when you are in a tree, according to Wadhwa? Ans: Once you are in a tree you become part of its ecosystem, which includes birds, insects, fruits and flowers. (i) Who all can join NDNS and what do they teach? Ans: Anyone can join NDNS. They teach people how to climb trees etc. (j) What varieties of trees are planted by the NDNS members?? Ans: Hardy local tress like neem, babul, and jamun etc. (k) Find words from the passage which means the same as: i. ii.

Biological Environment Excursion

(Para2, 5) (Para 4)

Ans: i. ecosystem ii. jaunt

-28-

[1x2=2]

PASSAGE 5 FACTUAL PASSAGE TOWERS OF CONCERN 1. India has over 400,000 telecom towers at present, but the growth in the number of towers is just 3 percent annually, which compares poorly with the over 12 million subscribers added by industry every year. Telecom service providers say that a "health scare" among the public is what prevents additional towers from coming up in large numbers. What is the truth in this? 2. A Bio-Initiative Report in 2012 pointed towards health hazards due to radiation from cell towers. The most common of these are sleep disorder, headache, irritability, concentration problem, memory loss, depression, hearing loss and joint problems. More severe problems include seizures, paralysis, miscarriage, irreversible infertility and cancer. Many countries have lower radiation norms, says Girish Kumar, a professor in the electrical engineering department of IIT-Bombay. For instance, Austria has a radiation limit of 1 milliwatt per square metre. In countries such as Russia, China, Italy and Poland, the allowed limit is 100 milliwatt per square metre. "If mobile coverage is possible in these countries, then there is no reason why we cannot have low radiation levels in our country," says Kumar.

3. There was a wave of protests in Mumbai over possible radiation effects of cell phone towers. The protests grew after film actor Juhi Chawla stepped in to first get towers right opposite her home in Mumbai's Malabar Hill removed, and subsequently mobilised support from the public and activists to launch a full-fledged awareness campaign against cell phone towers. She wanted telecom companies to lower radiation levels on towers near residential areas, put a cap on the number of antennae, and place towers at a distance from buildings. Meanwhile, reports on the ill-effects of radiation poured in. For instance, residents of the Sree Samarth building in Dadar's Parsi colony claimed that they saw six cases of cancer in the building in a period of just three years, allegedly caused by radiation from telecom towers in the area. 4. The link between the towers and cancer was not proved in any of the cases, but they set panic bells ringing in government circles. In 2014, the Department of Telecommunications undertook a study on radiation levels through its Telecom Enforcement Resource and Monitoring (TERM) wing in Mumbai. It addressed the public's grievances and reassured them that operators are indeed adhering to the prescribed norms on radiation. Union Telecom Minister Ravi Prasad also told INDIA TODAY that there are no conclusive studies to prove that radiation from these towers is a health hazard.

5. The American Cancer Society, a non-profit organisation, says that radiation levels from cell phone towers are low since the towers are mounted high above ground level and signals are transmitted intermittently . Unless someone is exposed directly in front of the antennae, the radiation impact would be limited, the society says. - M.G. Arun

-29-

On the basis of your understanding of the passage answer the following questions with the help of the given options : [1X4=4] a. The growth in the number of towers in India is (i) 2 percent annually (ii) 3 percent annually (iii) 4 percent annually (iv) 5 percent annually Ans. 3 percent annually b. The most common health hazards due to radiation are (i) sleep disorder, headache (ii) memory loss, depressions (iii) hearing loss, joint problems (iv) All of the above Ans. All of the above c. Department of Telecommunications conducted a study on radiation level through its (i) Telecom Monitoring Resource Wing (ii) Telecom Enforcement Resource and Monitoring (iii) Telecom Radiation Enforcement Wing (iv) Telecom Radiation Vigilance Department Ans. Telecom Enforcement Resource and Monitoring. d. Which cancer society says that radiation levels from cell phone are low(i) Indian Cancer Society (ii) Russian Cancer Society (iii) American Cancer Society (iv) African Cancer Society Ans. American Cancer Society Answer the following questions briefly.

[1X6=6]

(e) How many telecom towers are present in India and what is the growth rate annually? Ans. There are 40000 towers at present and the growth rate is 3% annually. (f)

Name any three common and two severe health diseases due to radiation.

Ans. The three common health diseases due to radiation are sleep disorder, headache and memory loss and two severe health diseases due to radiation are paralysis and cancer. (g)

What is the allowed limit of radiation in Austria, Russia, Italy and Poland?

Ans. The allowed limit of radiation in Austria is 1 milliwatt per square metre and 100 milliwatt per square metre in Russia, China, Italy and Poland. -30-

(h) What was the ill-effects of radiation faced by the residents of Dadar's Parsi colony? Ans. The ill-effects of radiation faced by the residents of Dadar's Parsi colony was six cases of cancer in the building in a period of just three years. (i)

Which department of telecommunication undertook a study on radiation?

Ans. Telecom Enforcement Resource and Monitoring (TERM) department of telecommunication undertook a study on radiation. (j)

Which film actress protested over radiation effects of cell phone towers?

Ans. Juhi Chawla protested over radiation effects of cell phone towers. (k) Find words from the passage which mean the same as :

[1X2=2]

(i)

emission

(para 2)

(ii)

complaint

(para 4)

Ans. (i) (ii)

radiation grievance

-31-

PASSAGE 6 FACTUAL PASSAGE Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow: UNCHANGED FACE OF STUDENTS AGITATION (1) What is new yesterday becomes obsolete today. Everything moves at a fast pace. But strangely enough, students ‘strikes have not changed a wee bit. May be because of the fact that out of about 3,000 students in a college, only a handful comes equipped with books or a pen. (2) The only perceptible change is that a majority of them come on expensive motorbikes and quite a few carry mobiles in their hands. (3) Small wonder that whenever any small group of so-called student leaders persuades these time-pass students to go on a strike may be on as flimsy an issue as that of the size of a samosa in the canteen, they readily oblige. (4) In fact, just a few “hai hai” calls are sufficient to gather a number of giggling groups that soon turn into a mob. (5) Let us have a closer look at the student agitation that has rocked city colleges now for weeks. (6) A recent fee hike and alleged disparity in fund collection among local colleges affiliated to Punjab University is reported to be the “immediate cause”. (7) Its immediacy can well be gauged from the fact that the first installment of the hiked fee was deposited by students a few months ago without a moan! (8) Waste of valuable teaching time apart, a few ill-advised students went to resorting selfinflicting violence for the “cause”! All this led to a volatile situation that embarrassed the university authorities, being the venue of the strike. (9) The situation eased temporarily after the intervention of politicians, who met the authorities that be and issued high sounding statements in favour of the student community. (10) Fund, fee or samosa, whatever the issue, the student community should realize that while losing valuable paid learning time, they cannot justify their demand for reducing the alleged financial fee/fund hike. (11) Before asking for concessions or fee-fund reduction, they should grab what they have already paid for it. It is high time that they ask for more teaching hours than what is stipulated for them. Paying for 100 lectures and asking for 65 is simply a ridiculous demand and not worth a strike. (12) Until Indian parents stop paying, at time through their nose, for the higher education of their children, who should start learning only after themselves, the situation, perhaps, will not change. a) On the basis of your reading of the passage, answer the following questions in your own words as far s possible. Use one or two sentences only for each answer: (9 Marks) i) What strange thing does the author mention in the paragraph?

(1 Marks)

Ans. Everything else has change with time but students’ strikes have not changed a wee bit. ii) What does the author means by “time-pass” students? -32-

(1 Marks)

Ans. By “time-pass” students, the author means students who go to college to while away their time and not to study. (i) How do students turn into a striking mob?

(1 Marks)

Ans. A petty issue and just a few “hai hai” calls are sufficient to gather a number of giggling groups that soon turn into a mob. IV) Does the author find the “immediate cause” of a strike to protest fee hike to be valid cause? Give textual evidence in support of your answer. (2 Marks) Ans. No, according to the author fee hike was not a valid cause for a protest because it was not “immediate” enough to warrant such a protest. In fact the students had paid the first instalment off the hiked fee a few months ago without a moan. V) How did this strike adversely affect the students and the university authorities? (2 Marks) Ans. It resulted in the loss of valuable teaching time and caused an embarrassment to university authorities. Beside, a few students resorted to self inflicting violence. IV) ‘A ridiculous demand’. What demand is referred to here? Why has it been called ridiculous? (2 Marks) Ans. The demand of asking for 65% lectures as criterion for examination eligibility. It is ridiculous in the sense that students pay for 100% lectures and is therefore not worth a strike b) Find words from the above passage which mean the same as: (3 Marks) (i) Weak and fragile (Para 2-3) Ans. Flimsy (ii) A great difference (Para 5-8) Ans. Disparity (iii)Specified or fixed (Para 10-11) Ans. Stipulated

-33-

PASSAGE 7 FACTUAL PASSAGE Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow: (1) By absolute standards, people are slow readers. Yet, they differ widely in reading rates. Some gulp books by taking in a hundred words or more within a minute; other plod along through weeks or more. However, there is nothing to prove that slow readers retain and comprehend the reading matter better. (2) Now, it is a fact that the reading rate can be improved by exercise. During the second World War ,British psychologists developed a technique(aircrafts potter classes) by which people could bbe taught to identify enemy airplanes in an instant. Thousands of Englishmen could spot a German plane from a faint sithouette at a glance. This prompted some investigators to look for techniques that would teach people to read faster. For the first time this was done at Harvard University in the US after the Second World War and classes were organized for businessmen wishing to learn fast reading. Now, such classes are conducted at many factories, offices and firms in many countries. (3) A widely held opinion is that when a person reads, his eyes sweep smoothly across the page. Actually, during an hour of continuous reading, his eyes remain fixed for an average of 57 minutes, and only move in the remaining three minutes. The greater the number of words the reader can cover during a stop and the better he comprehends them, the faster the reading. Precisely this goal is sought in training people to read fast. With appropriate techniques and simple gadgets(like a tachistoscope, or phaseflasher), your reading rate can be stepped up five to ten times or even more. (4) It appear that fast reading should be started at school when children have not picked up had reading habits(especially sub vocalizing), that is the tendency to form words with their vocal chords. It is a well-known fact that a drawing, a diagram or a photograph will usually carry more information than a printed text taking up the same area. A person grasps this graphic information all at a time. This ability is mainly utilized in technical publications, but not to the full extent yet. In all probability, a happy combination of printed graphic matter can be found for each class of information and for each bracket of readers to give a maximum rate of information input to a person’s brain. Coupled with fast reading, this may raise the rate of information tens or even hundreds of times. a)On the basis of your reading of the passage, answer the following questions in your own words as far s possible. Use one or two sentences only for each answer (9 Marks) i) What aspect according to the author does slow reading hold? Ans. Most people are slow readers. But slow reading does not mean better comprehension and retention of the reading matter. ii) How can read speeding be increased? Ans. One should read greater number of words in one stop.

-34-

iii) Which technique was developed during the Second World War? How did this technique prompt investigators to look for techniques that would help people read faster? Ans. A technique called aircraft spotter classes was developed during the Second World War (i) (ii) (iii)

What is the difference written material and a drawing or diagram or photograph? What is the widely help opinion about reading? Why should fast reading habits be taught early at school?

(a) Find words from the above passage which mean the same as: (3 Marks) (i) Understand (Para 1) Ans. Comprehend (ii) Keep back (Para 2) Ans. Retain (iii) Added to (Para 4) Ans. Coupled

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LITERARY PASSAGE POEM 1 A LUCKY THING High up in a hawthorn tree a robin perched, where he could see into a coop of wire and wood. Inside the coop a farmer stood Flinging grain upon the ground. Twelve fat chickens gathered round. The robin, singing, cocked his head and watched the chickens being fed. He saw it was a lucky thing To be a chicken: Farmers bring You golden grain, scoop after scoop, If you’e a chicken in a coopA lovely coop with nesting boxes Safe from cats and crows and foxes. The chickens In the coop could see The bird. They heard his melody And clucked it was a lucky thing To be a robin who could sing A song upon a hawthorn tree. They watched him through the woven wire. They saw him fly up high, and higher. Twelve fat chickens Scratched the floor. The farmer closed And latched the door. - Alice Schertle On the basis of your understanding of the poem answer the following questions with the help of the given options : [1X4=4] a. The robin feels …….. the chickens because they are safe from predators and do not have to look for their food. (i) happy about (ii) sorry for (iii) envious of (iv) None of these Ans. envious of b. Which one of the following situations is similar to the situation described in the poem? (i) An insect hopes to escape being eaten by a frog. -36-

(ii) A dog wishes to catch the cat living nearby. (iii) A squirrel hopes to gather enough food for winter. (iv) A cow wishes to run free with wild horses. Ans. A cow wishes to run free with wild horses. c.

Identify the rhyme scheme of line 1-6. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)

aabbcc abcd abbcc adccd

Ans. aabbcc d.

Whom did the farmer feed? (i) robin (ii) crows (iii) foxes (iv) chickens Ans. chickens Answer the following questions as briefly as possible. [1x6=6]

(e)

What does the poet convey through this poem?

Ans. The poet conveys the thought that people often wish for things that others have. (f)

What is the chickens’ attitude towards the robin?

Ans. The chickens feel that the robin was lucky to be free to fly wherever he wanted to and was able to sing a song when he wanted to. (i)

Why did the farmer close and latch the door after feeding the chickens?

Ans. The farmer closed and latched the door after feeding the chickens so that no predators could attack the chickens. (ii)

From what three predators are the chickens safe?

Ans. The chickens are safe from cats, crows and foxes. (i) Which other relationship mentioned in the poem is most similar to the relationship between the coop and the chicken? Ans. The relationship between hawthorn tree and the robin is most similar to the relationship between the coop and the chickens. (j) Identify any one example of alliteration from the poem.

-37-

Ans. Scoop after scoop / golden grains / woven wire / high and higher. (k) Find the words in the given poem which convey the similar meaning to [1x2=2] (i) (ii) Ans :

enclosure throwing (i)

coop

(ii)

flinging

(stanza 1) (stanza 1)

-38-

LITERARY PASSAGE POEM 2 LINES WRITTEN IN EARLY SPRING Read the given poem carefully. I heard a thousand blended notes, While in a grove I sat reclined, In that sweet mood when pleasant thoughts Bring sad thoughts to the mind. To her fair works did Nature link The human soul through me ran; And much it grieved my heart to think What man has made of man. Through primrose tufts, in that green bower, The periwinkle trailed its wreaths; And’ tis my faith that every flower Enjoys the air it breathes; The birds around me hopped and played, Their thoughts I cannot measure:But the least motion which they made It seemed a thrill of pleasure. The budding twigs spread out their fan, To catch the breezy air; And I must think, do all I can, That there was pleasure there. If this belief from heaven be sent, If such be Nature’s holy plan, Have I not reason to lament What man has made of man? -William Wordsworth On the basis of your understanding of the poem answer the following questions with the help of the given options : [1X4=4] a.

What is the mood of the poet in these lines? (i) amused (ii) pessimistic (iii) melancholy (iv) bewildered Ans. melancholy -39-

b.

What ‘seemed a thrill of pleasure’? (i) birds hopping and playing (ii) the budding twigs (iii) nature’s holy plan (iv) nature’s music Ans. birds hopping and playing

c.

d.

Where is the poet sitting? (i) by the river (ii) in a grove (iii) on a boat (iv) in a forest Ans. in a grove Who hopped and played around the poet? (i) children (ii) birds (iii) rabbits (iv) peacocks Ans. birds Answer the following questions as briefly as possible. e.

[1x6=6]

What was the poet’s mind filled with? Ans. Pleasant thoughts of nature bringing sad thoughts to mind.

f.

Why was the poet sad? Ans. The poet was sad because of the destruction man has caused to nature.

g.

Identify the rhyme scheme of the poem. Ans. abab

h.

What thoughts grieved the poet’s heart? Ans. ‘What man has made of man’.

i.

What were the budding twigs doing? Ans. The budding twigs were spreading out their leaves to catch the breeze.

j.

Why does the poet have reason to lament?

-40-

Ans. The poet has reason to lament because nature’s holy plan is for all plants and animals to be happy, but man has ruined the environment by exploiting it for his selfish needs. (k)

Which word in the poem means the same as (i) windy (ii)

sprouting leaves

Ans. (i) (ii)

[1x2=2] (stanza 5) (stanza5)

breezy budding

-41-

LITERARY PASSAGE POEM 3 THE LITTLE BLACK BOY My mother bore me in the southern wild, And I am black, but O! my soul is white; White as an angel is the English child: But I am black as if bereav'd of light. My mother taught me underneath a tree And sitting down before the heat of day, She took me on her lap and kissed me, And pointing to the east began to say. Look on the rising sun: there God does live And gives his light, and gives his heat away. And flowers and trees and beasts and men receive Comfort in morning joy in the noonday And we are put on earth a little space, That we may learn to bear the beams of love, And these black bodies and this sun-burnt face Is but a cloud, and like a shady grove. For when our souls have learned the heat to bear The cloud will vanish we shall hear his voice. Saying: come out from the grove my love & care, And round my golden tent like lambs rejoice. Thus did my mother say and kissed me, And thus I say to little English boy. When I from black and he from white cloud free, And round the tent of God like lambs we joy: - William Blake On the basis of your understanding of the poem answer the following questions with the help of the given options : [1X4=4] a. The mother and the boy belonged to which area? (i) southern Wild (ii) eastern part (iii) England (iv) northern part Ans. southern wild -42-

b. Where are the mother and boy sitting? (i) on a chair (ii) under the tree (iii) near the river (iv) on a bench Ans. under the tree c. Identify the figure of speech in line no. 3, ‘White as an angel’. (i) metaphor (ii) simile (iii) alliteration (iv) repetition Ans. simile d. Who is calling out to the black people? (i) sun (ii) clouds (iii) trees (iv) God Ans. God Answer the following questions:-

[1x6=6]

(e) Why did the black boy call his own soul white? Ans. because white is associated with good things. (f)

Sunlight on earth is received by whom? Ans. flowers/trees/beasts/men.

(g) How did the mother teach her boy? Ans. by taking him on her lap under the tree and by kissing him. (h) Which figure of speech is used in ‘beams of love’? Explain. Ans. Metaphor as God’s love is compared to the rays of the sun. (i) Why do the black people have sun-burnt face? Ans. because black people are more loved by God so more sunlight falls on them. (j) When will the clouds vanish? Ans. The clouds will vanish when the voice of God is heard. (k) Write down the words from the poem which means the following (i) To give birth

(stanza 1)

(ii) Small forest

(stanza 4)

Ans. (i) (ii)

bore grove -43-

[1x2=2]

NOTE MAKING Tips to prepare Notes: 1. Prepare notes using phrases only, never use complete sentences 2. The topic sentence of each paragraph is the main point and ideas affiliated to it are Sub points- one or more, depending on the concepts in the paragraph. 3. Each sub-point may or may not have supplementary ideas which become sub-subpoints. 4. Provide an appropriate title for the notes or the summary or abstract, as given in the question. 5. Include a minimum of 4-6 distinctly different recognizable short forms i.e. abbreviations of the words in the notes. 6. Cover all the important points in the notes meaningfully to prepare the abstract/summary in about 80-100 words. 7. Write the summary or abstract in complete sentences in a paragraph.

INDENTATION OF NOTES All similar level points should maintain the same distance from the margin. Left hand margin heading 

Write the heading/title in block letters.



Underline the heading/title.



Do not give a one-word title.

For Example, the title of a passage on “Darwinism” could be Need For Universal Darwinism A. Main Point 1. Sub-points 1.1 Follow the indented format 1.2 Don’t write complete sentences 1.3 Use abbreviations and symbols where required. 1.4 Notes should not be very long. 1.5 ………………………….. 1.5.1 Sub-sub-sub point 1.5.2 Sub-sub-sub-point 2. Sub-point 2.1 Sub-sub point 2.2 Sub-sub point B. Main point …..

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KINDS OF FORMATS Different kinds of formats may be used, depending on the theme of the passage. FORMAT I Mixed Indent with Examples A. Reasons 1. can’t rem’ber much inf’ w’out wrtng 2. help mem – exams 3. can consult B. Characteristics 1. short 2. main pts only 3. note form (i) no cmplt sent (ii) divs and sub-divs (iii) use of abbr and symbols 4. understandable FORMAT II Indented Roman Numerals A. Reasons i. can’t disc’vr inf’ w’out knwng ii. help rem’ber- points through notes iii. can consult B. Characteristics I. Short II. Main pts only III. Note form (i) No complt sent (ii) divs and sub-divs (iii) use of abbr and symbols IV. understandable FORMAT III Indented Decimals A. Reasons 1.1 can’t rem’ber much inf’ w’out wrtng 1.2 help mem-exams 1.3 can consult B. Characteristics 2.1 short 2.2 main pts only 2.3 note form 2.3.1 no cmplt sent 2.3.2 divs and sub-divs 2.3.3 use of abbr and symbols 2.4 understandable -45-

ABBREVIATIONS Use standard abbreviation and symbols as far as practicable a. First letters of names must be capitalized. e.g., USA, Darwin, Mumbai etc. b. Common abbreviations should be used. e.g., sc for science, Mr, Mrs, Dr, Govt, etc. c. Common symbols should be used. e.g., +ve, -ve, -(approaches), (rising), (falling). =(equal), = (equivalent), etc. d.

Figures should be used in measurements. e.g., 100kg, 1000mm, 100ml, 100’, 10” etc.

e.

When making your own abbreviations, try to keep the main sounds of the word. e.g., edn for education, ddvlpt for development

f. Retain the suffix, so that when you are going over the notes later, you may understand the full form of the abbreviation. e.g., ednl (educational), progve(progressive). g. As a general rule, headings should not be abbreviated. You can use abbreviations in main points, sub-points etc. h. Ideally, you do not require more than 4-5 words to be abbreviated in a passage besides the common abbreviations. Some Common Abbreviations Abbreviations

Words

Abbr

abbreviation

avt

aviation

fmly

family

pnt

point

engr

engineer

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HOW TO SUMMARISE A GIVEN PASSAGE  Read (First Read) Read the passage very carefully and critically. Read the passage straight through. Do not stop to look up anything that gives you trouble at the first reading. You should get a feel for the author’s tone, style and main idea.  Reread (Second Read) Rereading should be active reading. Underline the topic sentences and key facts with pencil. Label the areas that you want to refer to as you write your summary. Also label the areas that you find irrelevant. Identify areas that you do not understand and try to clarify those points.  One Sentence at a time Now write the main idea of each paragraph in one welldeveloped sentence. Make sure that what include in your sentence are key points, not minor details.  Write a Thesis Statement The key to a well-written summary is the Thesis Statement. A quality Thesis Statement could either express one main idea or assert your conclusions about the subject. Generally, a thesis statement consists of the following parts  a clearly identifiable topic or subject matter, and  a succinct summary of what you have to say about that topic.  Ready to Write You can use Thesis Statement as the introductory sentence of your summary, while your other sentences can make up the body. In fact, a good summary should give ideas, facts or points in the order in which they are given in the original text. Add some transition words such as then, however, also, moreover etc, that help with the overall structure and flow of the summary. The following tips will help you to write a good summary i) Write in the present tense (preferably in active voice). ii) Be Concise summary should be within the words limit (about 80 words) and should be coherent without any errors in logic. Don’t put your opinions, ideas or interpretations into the summary.  Check for Accuracy Reread your summary and make sure that you have accurately represented the author’s ideas and key points. Make sure that your summary does not contain your own comments.  Revise Revise your summary for style, grammar and punctuation. Correct all the errors in composition and rewrite it if needed.

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PASSAGE 1 DISCURSIVE PASSAGE

1.

On a serious level, when was the last time you remember keeping your emotions solely

to yourself, when a disaster struck? Or was averted? Agreed, humans are social beings who need feedback based on their social interactions. But, in today’s times, where people-men and women alike-thrive on social approval, it feels like your happiness is on a leash depend on social media, or society

at large. A person could possibly go to any extent to seek

attention. Lying, cheating, manipulating, constantly blabbing or being intentionally silent, are all a part of the process to be the centre of attention. Everyone want to be liked and be popular. Attention gives a pleasurable high and does wonderful thing to one’s ego and selfworth. It is when to seeking exceeds normalcy that the trouble begins. Both too much of attention and the lack of it are obvious signs of trouble.

2.

Also known as Histrionic Personality Disorder, attention-seeking is an attempt to

desperately attract the attention of other people, typically by disruptive or excessively extrovert behavior. To find an attention-seeker around you, look for someone who says, “I want to kill myself,” after a mere bad day at work, or simply throws a tantrum for not being given enough time. Taking on the role of a victim or a damsel-in-distress is a typical trait of an attention-seeker. Simply put, attention-seekers are the drama queens we come across frequently in our life. According to clinical psychiatrist, Dr Harish Shetty, from Hiranandani Hospital, Mumbai, “Attention-seeking is not exactly a disorder. We all want approval in some way or the other from the people we are around with. It massages our ego and therefore, has a feel-good factor to it. Seeking approval enhances our identity.” He explains how attentionseeking, if casual, can be encouraging, “but once out of control, if the persons’ obsession sets in, the trouble that follows ruins a person’s relationships and eventually their peace of mind.”

3.

Attention-seeking generally happens in a large magnitude to people who blame others.

The blaming is a type of coping mechanism the attention-mongers feel is essential to justify the mistakes they refuse to own up to. Dr. Shetty elaborates, “People who are narcissistic will seek attention in a larger than life manner like dramatizing even the smallest of things that happens to them. Also, adults who have been spoilt as children will have a lesser sense of responsibility towards other as well as themselves, so are more likely to be narcissistic.” This behavior can be seen in adults who have had an unpleasant past, i.e. they have been ignored, neglected bullied, or abused in may way before. They gradually start becoming addicted to it. They think making up for all the years of unfairness they have faced as a child -48-

is best done by seeking attention. They pre-teen years are extremely significant as they mould the child he or she is to become when they fully grow up. Frustration, anger, and disturbing relationships ensue if there is an excess of this behavior. The person can also grow to be extremely anxious and develop an nervous anxiety. Dr. Shetty adds, “Mostly seen in kids, this behavior generally tends to die out with age. But as adults, people suffering from a terminal illness, ones who have faced a huge loss in business, break-ups or divorces, also portrary such behavior. If not handled with maturity, it worsens. But, when someone faces a challenge, they think they are incapable of handling, it can amplify uneasiness in them and they resort to playing the victim all the time. A lot of other causes, however are varied and highly subjective.” (a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it, using headings

and

sub-headings.

Use

recognizable

abbreviations

(wherever

necessary – minimum four) and a format you consider suitable. Also supply an appropriate title to it.

5

TITLE : YOUR ATTENTION PLEASE NOTES 1. Crave Attentn. 1.1 keeping your emotions 1.2 need feedback on social interactn. 1.3 thrive social approval 2. Extent to Seek Attentn. 2.1 lyng. 2.2 cheatng. 2.3 manpul. 2.4 constantly blabbng. or being intentionally silent 3. What exactly is attentn. seeking? 3.1 attempt to desperately attract the attentn. 3.2 person’s obsession sets in 3.3 want approval in some way or the other 3.4 massages our ego, has a feel good factor 4. Once out of control 4.1 ruins a person’s relationship and peace of mind 4.2 person grows anxious 5. Why it happens? 5.1 blame others 5.2 likely to be narcissistic 5.3 had an unpleasant past

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Key to Abbreviation 1.

attentn.

-

attention

2.

interactn.

-

interaction

3.

lyng.

-

lying

4.

cheating.

-

cheating

5.

manpul.

-

manipulating

6.

&

-

and

7.

blabbng.

-

blabbing

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in about 80 words.

3

Everyone wants to be liked and be popular. Attention gives a pleasurable high and does a wonderful thing to one’s ego and self-worth. It is when the seeking exceeds normally that the trouble begins. Both too much of attention and the lack of it are obvious signs of trouble. Also known as Histrionic Personality Disorder, it attracts the attention of other people, typically by disruptive or excessively extrovert behaviour. But once out of control, if the person’s obsession sets in, the trouble that follows ruins a person’s relationships and eventually their peace of mind. This behaviour can be seen in adults who have had led an unpleasant past i.e. they have been ignored, neglected, bullied or abused in many ways before. If not handled with maturity, it worsens. Instead of ridiculing the person, they should be sympathized with and treated with compassion.

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PASSAGE 2 FACTUAL PASSAGE Read the passage carefully.

1. Pre- colonial history of Bengal is closely linked with the emergence, growth and decline of Murshidabad. It has governed all the proceedings of the 18th century eastern India and provided the platform from which the colonial interests had launched themselves and subsequently became an imperial power in 1857. 2. It is quite obvious that such a socio- political stage has enormous potential to engage any visitor from far and wide through its myriad cultural landscape. A seat of power of such a scale attracts lot of wealth, creativity and activity. For example the annual revenue of Bengal paid to the Mughal Emperor amounts to One Crore Sicca Taka-in early seventeenth century was an unbelievable amount. In a cunning strategy move, Murshidkuli Khan shifted the administrative power centre of Bengal to the Bank of Bhagirathi- the prime life force of North India and almost in the geographic centre of the province in 1701. 3. One primary policy decision triggered series of subsequent events. Sensing the potential for enhanced financial opportunity, trading community from 'Nagore' town in the Rajput State of Jodhpur migrated to Bengal. They settled in the areas of Mahimapur, Jyaganj and Azimganj and got themselves known as 'Shaherwali Community'. Over the years the accumulated enormous wealth and became an important factor governing the economy of Bengal. Mughal Emperor acknowledged their importance and had conferred the title 'Jagat Seth' (cashier of the world). Jainism spread rapidly with the prosperity of the community in the localities of Azimganj, Jiyaganj and Katgola. While Murshidabad was being built according to the Muslim traditions, Hindu philosophies governed the development of the Jiyaganj, Azimganj. 4. In fact four of the important Jain Tirths in Bengal, three lies at Azimganj- Shree Chintamoni Parswanath Bhagwan, Jiyaganj- Shree Sambhavnath Bhagwan, Katgola-Shree Adinath Bhagwan. 5. The large havellis, mansions, palaces, gardens lay neglected and weathered. It draws today certain amount of History, cultural enthusiast and that too on a day visit. Whereas its enormous potential for cultural tourism and pilgrimage remained unexplored. Its old trade links and networks also lay dormant for the want of sponsors. 6. The circuit of Mushidabad-Jiyaganj-Azimganj is just waiting for the right kind of initiative and public support for its revitalization. Cultural tourism appears to be the right catalyst to trigger such an initiative. 7. No tourism initiative is sustainable unless it gains the support of its local community. Community initiatives are best when it rides on the pride for themselves and have a deep -51-

rooted attachment for the place. Fortunately the Shaherwali Community have a very strong social network bonded by the common religion of Jainism. They are very proud of their legacy and command large parcels of land Heritage buildings, artefacts and are quite committed for its restoration. Being mainly a trader's community they value their assets and understand the need for its conservation. To them assistance of any kind is important and they also realises that unless they obtain public support their individual effort is not sustainable. (a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it, using headings and sub-headings. Use recognizable abbreviations (wherever necessary – minimum four) and a format you consider suitable. Also supply an appropriate title to it. 5 TITLE: Bengal- Heritage Unparalleled I.

NOTES Emergence, Growth and Decline of Murshidabad 1. Imperial power proceedings 1.1 govrnd the proceedngs of the 18th century 2. Enormous otential 2.1 through its myriad cultural landscape 2.2 power attracts wealth, creativity and activity 3. Cunning strategical move 3.1.Murshidkuli Khan shifted power to Bank of Bhagirathi.

II.

Sensing Potential for enhance 1. Financial & trading opportunities 1.1 attracts tradng community 1.2 Nagore town

III.

Spread of Jainism 1. Shaherwali Community 1.1 strong social network 1.2 proud of legacy 1.3 enormous potential for cultural tourism and pilgrimage 1.4 deep rooted and attchmt. 2. Proud of legacy 2.1 heritage buildng. 2.2 artefacts 2.3 quite committed for restoration 3. Need of consvrtn. 3.1 obtain public support 3.2 individual effort not sustainable

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. (b)

Key to Abbreviation proceedngs proceedings govrnd governed enhancemnt enhancement attachment attachment restoratn restoration buildng. building & and Consvrtn conservation

Write a summary of the passage in about 80 words.

3

Pre-colonial history of Bengal is closely linked with the emergence, growth and decline of Murshidabad. It is quite obvious that such a socio- political stage has enormous potential. In a cunning strategical move Murshidkuli Khan shifted the administrative power centre from Bengal to Bank of Bhagirathi. Over the years they accumulated enormous wealth and became an important factor governing the economy of Bengal. Mughal Emperor acknowledged their importance. Jainism spread rapidly with the prosperity of the community. Its enormous potential for cultural tourism and pilgrimage remained unexplored. Fortunately the Shaherwali Community have a strong social network bonded by the common religion of Jainism. Being mainly a trader's community they value the assets and understand the need for its conservation with public support.

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PASSAGE 3 FACTUAL PASSAGE Read the passage carefully. 1. A vast blanket of pollution stretching across South Asia is cutting down sunlight by 10 percent over India, damaging agriculture, modifying rainfall patterns and putting hundreds of thousands of people at risk, according to a new study. 2. The startling findings of scientists working with the United Nations Environment Programme indicate that the spectacular economic growth seen in this part of the world in the past decade may soon falter as a result of this pollution. 3. Research carried out in India indicates that the haze caused by pollution might be reducing winter rice harvests by as much as 10 percent, the report said. 4. “Acids in the haze may be falling as acid rain, have the potential to damage crops and trees. Ash falling on leaves can aggravate the impact of reduced sunlight on earth’s surface. The pollution that is forming the haze could be leading to several hundreds of thousands of premature deaths as a result of higher levels of respiratory diseases,” it said. Results from seven cities in India alone, including Delhi, Mumbai, Ahmedabad and Kolkata, estimate that air pollution was annually responsible for 24,000 premature deaths in the early 1990s. By the mid-1990s they resulted in an estimated 37,000 premature fatalities. 5. “The haze has cut down sunlight over India by 10 percent (so far)—a huge amount! As a repercussion, the North West of India is drying up,” Prof. V. Ramanathan said, when asked specifically about the impact of the haze over India. Stating that sunlight was going down every year, he said, “We are still in the early stage of understanding of the impact of the haze.”

6. Asked whether the current drought in most parts of India after over a decade of good monsoon was owing to the haze, he said, “ It was too early to reach a conclusion. If the drought persists for about four to five years, then we should start suspecting that it may be because of the haze.” 7.

India, China and Indonesia are the worst affected owing to their population density,

economic growth and depleting forest cover. The preliminary results indicate the buildup of haze, a mass of ash, acid, aerosols and other particles is disrupting weather systems, including rainfall and wind patterns and triggering droughts in western parts of the Asian Continent. The concern is that the regional and global impacts of the haze are set to intensify over the next 30 years as the population of the Asian region rises to an estimated five billion people.

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(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it, using headings

and

sub-headings.

Use

recognizable

abbreviations

(wherever

necessary – minimum four) and a format you consider suitable. Also supply an appropriate title to it.

5

Title: Global Impact of Pollution NOTES 1. Effects of pollution is S.E. Asia 1.1 cutting 10% sunlight over India 1.2 damaging agriculture 1.3 modifying rainfall pattern 1.4 many people at risk 2. Revelations of UNEP 2.1 eco. growth may falter of pollution 2.2 haze van cause premature deaths 2.3 acid rain can damage crops & trees 3. Impact of haze over India 3.1 rise in respiratory diseases 3.2 has cut down sunlight over India by 10% 3.3 N.W. India is drying up 4. Impact on India, China & Indonesia 4.1 worst affected  of height density of population 4.2 affecting eco. growth 4.3 depleting forest cover 5. Its results 5.1 weather systems can be disrupted 5.2 wind patterns will be disturbed 5.3 can trigger droughts in W.Asian continent

Key to Abbreviations S % UNEP Eco. N.W. & W 

-

South percent United Nations Environment Programme economic North- West and West

-

because

-55-

(b) Write a summary of the passage in about 80 words. 3 The harmful effect of pollution can be seen across South Asia. This is most likely to falter the spectacular economic growth. The presence of acids in the haze can reduce winter harvest by ten percent. The pollution forming the haze can led to many premature deaths and has also cut down the sunlight over India by ten percent. The droughts in India could also be because of the haze . The worst affected countries are India, China and Indonesia because of their population density , economic growth and depleting forest cover. The main concern is that the regional and global impacts of haze are said to intensify over the next thirty years due to increase in population by five billion.

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Passage 4 FACTUAL PASSAGE Read the passage carefully. 1. Despite all the research everyone of us catches cold and most of us catch it frequently. Our failure to control one of the commonest of all ailments sometimes seems ridiculous. Medical science regularly practises transplant surgery and has rid whole countries of such killing diseases as Typhus and the Plague. But the problem of common cold is unusually difficult and much has yet to be done to solve it. 2. It is known that a cold is caused by one of a number of viral infections that affect the lining of the nose and the other passages leading to lungs but the confusing variety of viruses makes study and remedy very difficult. It was shown in 1960 that many typical colds in adults are caused by one or the other of a family of viruses known as rhinoviruses, yet there still remain many colds for which no virus has yet been isolated. 3. There is also the difficulty that because they are so much smaller than the bacteria which cause many other infections, viruses cannot be seen with ordinary microscopes. Nor can they be cultivated easily in the bacteriologist’s laboratory, since they only grow within the living cells of animal and plants. An important recent step forward, however, is the development of the technique of tissue culture, in which bites of animal tissue are enabled to go on living and to multiply independently of the body. This has greatly aided virus research and has led to the discovery of a large number of the viruses. Their existence had previously been not only unknown but even an unsuspected. 4. The fact that we can catch cold repeatedly creates another difficulty. Usually a virus strikes only once and leaves the victim immune to further attacks. Still we do not gain immunity from colds. Why? It may possibly be due to the fact that while other viruses get into the bloods stream where anti-bodies can oppose them, the viruses causing cold attack cells only on the surface. Or it may be that immunity from one of the many different viruses does not guarantee protections from all the others. It seems, therefore, that we are likely to have to suffer colds for some time yet. a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognizable abbreviations (wherever necessary – minimum four) and a format you consider suitable. Also supply an appropriate title to it. 5 Ans: Title: No Control Over Common Cold NOTES 1. How to control com. cold 1.1 no cure to control it 1.2 cure avail. for Typhus & Plague 1.3 prob. of com. cold not yet solved 2. Reasons for cold -57-

2.1 it is a viral infec. that affects nose-lining 2.2 caused by fmly. of viruses called Rhinoviruses 2.3 for certain colds no viruses hv yet bn isolated 3. Prob. of identifying viruses 3.1 smaller than bacteria so can’t be seen with ordinary microscopes 3.2 cannot be easily cultivated in bacteriologists lab  grow within the living cells of plants & animals. 4. Div. of tissue culture aided by 4.1 bits of animal tissue go on living 4.2 multiply independently off the body 4.3 has led to discovery of large no. of viruses 4.4 their existence previously unknown and unsuspected 5. No imm. fm. cold 5.1 viruses causing cold attacks only on surface & not blood stream 5.2 cannot be opposed by anti-bodies 5.3 imm. fm. one virus doesn’t guarantee protection fm. all 5.4 you hv to suffer fm. cold for some more time

Key to Abbreviations 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

com. & avail. prob. infec. fmly. hv bn lab.

– – – – – – -



dev. no. fm imm.

b) Write a summary of the passage in about 80 words.

common and available problem infection family have been laboratory because development number from immunity

3

Despite having the cure to killing – disease like Typhus and Plague it seems ridiculous that medical science has not done much yet to solve the problem of common cold . this is because the study of viruses remains confusing as they cannot be seen with ordinary microscopes. Now with the development of the technique of tissue culture a large number of viruses have been discovered whose existence was earlier unknown. We keep catching cold and never -58-

become immune to it because the viruses causing cold attack only on the surface unlike other viruses that get into the blood stream and so can be opposed by anti-bodies.

PASSAGE 5 FACTUAL PASSAGE Read the passage carefully. The monsoon is such a welcome respite from the scorching summer thanks to the overcast sky, gentle rain and lush greenery all around. Almost all of us love to savour spicy and crunchy food items such as fritters (pakoras) and chaats like panipuri, sevpuri teamed with cutting chai as the rainwater lashes against the window pane. However, the season also brings along a lots of diseases such as dengue, malaria, conjunctivitis, typhoid, viral fever, pneumonia, gastrointestinal disturbances, diarrhea, food poisoning, cholera, cough and cold and jaundice due to bacteria in the environment. The challenge lies in going about your daily routine without falling ill. If you suffer from low immunity, you are at a higher risk of contracting these diseases. However, the right dietary tips can strengthen you immunity and help you say hale and hearty.

1.

Due to the humid climate, you may not feel too thirsty and consume just one litre of

water every day. But you need to be well hydrated as sweat doesn’t evaporate quickly in monsoon. Consequently, this prevents the body from releasing heat. So consume a lot of water as it helps to flush out toxins from the body. Ensure that the water is clean, pure and safe to drink. Avoid aerated drinks; instead consume warm beverages such as green tea with holy basil leaves, ginger, pepper and honey as they have anti-bacterial properties. A bowl of hot vegetable soup is also a good option. The hot beverages increase your body temperature (which will in turn give you warmth) while the ingredients will boost your immunity.

2.

Consume fruits such as cherries, bananas, apples, pomegranates, plums, litchis and

pears as they are packed with anti-oxidants and are rich in vitamin A,E, C and minerals. Vegetables such as cauliflower, potatoes, cluster beans, lady’s finger, kidney beans pigeon pea and sprouted grains get spoilt easily due to the humidity. So, they should be avoided. Opt for cooked or steamed veggies. Avoid salads as they comprise raw vegetables that contain active bacteria which lead to various infections and affect the body’s immunity. Avoid strong smelling or extra sweet fruits such as mangoes and jackfruit that attract flies as their excess intake can cause skin irritation and stomach ache. It’s also important to store vegetables the right way during the rains. Do not wash the veggies thoroughly before storing, as the moisture -59-

will attract pathogenic fungus. These bacteria can spread to other susceptible food items as well, making them unhygienic. Instead, pat dry and store separate food items in different containers. Buy them in limited portions and use them as soon as possible.

3.

Dehydration makes your hair brittle and scanty. So hydrate yourself. Zinc and iron help

to keep your tresses healthy and beautiful. Consume nuts, eggs and walnuts to maintain hair strength. Walnuts are rich in biotin and vitamin E, which are excellent antioxidants. Proteins are important for hair strength too. So add curd to your diet, as it is a great source of protein. Amla juice, organs and other citrus foods are rich in vitamin C. Vitamin C keeps your hair strong as it helps in production of collagen that among other things strengthens the hair capillaries (ensuring proper nutrient supply to our hair). Also, ensure that you wash your locks on alternate days and cover them well during the monsoon. Dried apricots, roasted sunflower seeds and lentils are better foods to consume during monsoon than other iron-rich foods which are susceptible to microbial attack. Do not forget to eat yummy corn on cob as corn is also rich in iron and zinc.

4.

So, the secret to enjoy the rains, without the fear of affecting your health is to go light

on eating. Have a safe and healthy monsoon.

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it, using headings and sub-headings. Use recognizable abbreviations (wherever necessary – minimum four) and a format you consider suitable. Also supply an appropriate title to it. 5 TITLE : EAT RIGHT STAY FIT NOTES 1. Scorchng. summer 1.1 overcast sky, gentle rain and lush greenery. 1.2 brings host of diseases 2. Stay Well-Hydrated 2.1 humid climate - not feel too thirsty 2.2 flush out toxins 2.3 ensure purity of water 2.4 avoid aerated drinks 3. Switch to a Balanced Diet 3.1 Consume fruits packed with ant.oxdt. 3.2 Rich in Vit. A, E, C and minerals 3.3 avoid following things: 3.3.1 vegetables - get spoilt easily -60-

3.3.2 Salads contng. active bacteria 3.3.3 Strong. smlg. or extra sweet fruits 3.3.4 washing veggies before storing 4. Maintain your tresses 4.1 hydrate yourself 4.2 consume Zn and Iron 4.3 Biotin and Vit. E- antioxidants 4.4 eat Protein, Vit C 4.5 wash locks on alternate days Key to Abbreviations 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

storng. scorchng. smlg. ant.oxdt. vit. contng. Zn

-

storing scorching smelling antioxidants vitamin containing zinc

(b) Write a summary of the above passage in about 80 words.

3

The monsoon is such a welcome respite from the scorching summer. Almost all of us love savour spicy and crunchy food items. However, the season also brings along a host of diseases such as dengue, malaria, conjunctivitis etc. due to humid climate, one may not feel too thirsty and consume just one litre of water everyday. So consume a lot of water and it helps to flush out toxins from the body. Consume fruits which are packed with anti-oxidants and are rich in vitamin A, E, C and minerals. Do not eat vegetables get spoilt easily due to the humidity. Avoid strong smelling or extra sweet fruits. Dehydration makes your hair brittle and scanty. Zinc and iron help to keep your tresses healthy and beautiful. Proteins are important for hair strength. Vitamin C helps in production of collagen that strengthens the hair capillaries. Also ensure that you wash your locks on alternate days.

-61-

PASSAGE 6 FACTUAL PASSAGE Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow: Research has shown that the human mind can process words at the rate of about 500 per minute, whereas a speaker speaks at the rate of about 150 words a minute. The difference between the two at 350 is quite large. So a speaker must make every effort to retain the attention of the audience and the listener should also be careful not to let his mind wander. Good communication calls for good listening skills. A good speaker must necessarily be a good listener. Listening starts with hearing but goes beyond. Hearing in other words is necessary but is not a sufficient condition for listening. Listening involves hearing with attention. Listening is a process that calls for concentration. While, listening, one should also be observant. In other words, listening has to do with the ears, as well as with the eyes and the mind. Listening is to be understood as the total process that involves hearing with attention, being observant and making interpretations. Good communication is essentially an interactive process. It calls for participation and involvement. It is quite often a dialogue rather than a monologue. It is necessary to be interested and also show or make it abundantly clear that one is interested in knowing what the other person has to say. Good listening is an art that can be cultivated. It relates to skills that can be developed. A good listener knows the art of getting much more than what the speaker is trying to convey. He knows how to prompt, persuade but not to cut off or interrupt what the other persons have to say. At times the speaker may or may not be coherent, articulate and well organized in his thoughts and expressions. He may have it in his mind and yet he may fail to marshal the right words while communicating his thought. Nevertheless a good listener puts him at ease, helps him articulate and facilitates him to get across the message that he wants to convey. For listening to be effective, it is also necessary that barriers to listening are removed. Such barriers can be both physical and psychological. Physical barriers generally relate to hindrances to proper hearing whereas psychological barriers are more fundamental and relate to the interpretations and evaluation of the speaker and the message. (a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes in points only, using abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply a suitable title. Ans (a) Title: Human Mind (i) Processing 500 wpm (b) Retain the Attn. (i) Audience

(ii) Speaking 150 wpm

(ii) listener

(c) Good Comm (i) Hearing or listening (ii) Attention

(iii) Concentration (iv) interpretation -62-

(d) Listening barriers (i) Physical Hindrance (ii) Psychological

(iii) Interpretation (iv) Evaluation

(b) Write the summary of the above passage in 80 words. Summary- Researched have proved that the difference between processing and speaking rate is 350 wpm which is quite larger. Attention of the audience and listener should not wander. A good speaker must necessarily be a good listener. Good listening is an art that can be cultivated. For effective listening Physical and psychological barriers must be removed. In short, Good communication is necessary for an interactive process. Abbreviation: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

6. Phy. – Physical 7. Psy.- Psychological 8. Fund.- Fundamental 9. Barr.- Barrier 10. Devd. - Developed

Comm.-Communication w.p.s.- Word per minute Attn.- Attention Neces- Necessary Conc.- Barrier

PASSAGE 7 FACTUAL PASSAGE

Read the passage given below: Fasting is said to bring a host of benefits, provided it’s done under medical supervision. Doctors explain how to go about it. Food is to the body what fuel is to a motor vehicle. It provides energy, helps repair and rejuvenation and confers many other benefits. A lot of research has been done and cleansed. While fasting, the natural process of toxin excretion continues, while influx of new toxins is reduced. The energy usually used for digestion is redirection to immune function and cell growth. Fasting helps you heal with greater speed, cleanses your liver, kidneys and colony, purifies your blood, helps you lose excess weight and water, flushes out toxins, clears the eyes and tongue and cleanses the breath. Another research says fasting, even occasionally, helps in de-toxification. Through fasting we restrict digestive activity and so energy is utilized to cleanse different systems. Fasting improves metabolism, sharpens the senses, calms the mind, helps lose weight, improves general immunity, improve concentration and metal clarity. Fasting , if understood and done under supervision, has tremendous benefits and impacts one at various plants; mental, emotional, physical and spiritual. Specifically it serves as an aid to effective de-toxification, helps in repair and rejuvenation offers rest to the gastro-intestinal system and promotes mobilization of excess fat.

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The crucial point to note is the difference between fasting and starvation. Research suggests there are major health benefits to calorie restriction. Among other things it slows down the aging process. According to the US National Academy of Sciences, other benefits include stress resistance, increased insulin sensitivity and increased lifespan. Glucose is the body’s primary fuel source and is essential for the brain’s functioning. When denied glucose for more than 4-8 hr the body converts glycogen stored in liver into a usable form of fuel and supplements, it with small amounts of protein. This will last for up to 12 hr. before the body turns to glycogen stored in muscles. If glucose is still denied at this point, the body continues to use the fat for as long as it is available. If the fast is not broken, starvation occurs, as the body begins to use protein for fuel. Death can occur if fasting is pursued to the point of complete starvation (a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it points only using abbreviations wherever necessary. Supply a suitable title. 1. Food (i) Fuel to a body (ii) Provide energy (iii) Repair (iv) Rejuvenation 2. During fasting (i) Digestive org. rest (ii) Clean body mech. (iii) Toxin (a) Toxin excretion continues (b) Influx of new toxin reduced 3. Cleansing action (i) Eyes, Tongue, Breath 4. Improvements (i) Metabolism (ii) General immunity (iii) Clam, mind (iv) Concentration (v) Slow down aging process (vi) Increase insulin sensitivity 5. Function of Glucose (i) Main fuel source (ii) Help in brain functioning 6. Fasting Benefits (i) Fasting healing (ii) Cleansing act.-liver, kidneys, colon (iii) Purified blood (iv) Loss excess weight (v) Tremendous benefits-Mental, emotional, physical, spiritual 7. Death (i) Complete starvation -64-

Abbreviation used: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Med –medical Dr- Doctor Reju- rejuvenation Dig – Digestive Res – Reduced Imm- immune

7. Res –Research

8. Sup- Supervision 9. Concent- Concentration 10. Phy. – Physical 11. Hr -hour 12. Ins- Insuline 13. Diff- Difference 14. Sppl- Supplements

PASSAGE 8 FACTUAL PASSAGE

Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow: Government have seized on tourism as a way of creating employment and bringing income – preferably foreign exchange-into troubled economies. For years tourism capacity to filter wealth through communities has been a major argument in its favour. The tourist spend on accommodation, food, and souvenirs, bringing income to the suppliers of these goods and services, whose money way in term circulate through the economy. But if the hotels are foreign- owned, local peoples to little to gain. Nor are they better off if tourists, though, stay among them but come prepared to be self suffiecient.In both cases tourists are strongly resented by the locates, who see use increase in prices as the only visible result of feturisms economic impact. Job creation is another advantage of tourism of government subsidies tourism projects in the exception of increasing employment opportunities in new hotels and restaurants. But such work is frequently poorly paid and is seasonal. Local people may be neither willing to do small and mean unskilled job nor highly trained enough to be managers or tour operators. They stand on the side line by foreign staff and migrants fill the vacancies. Social tension surface all to easily in such situations. Any kind of change bringing tensions, and economic development tends to increase the generation gap. The young learn new skills while the older generation finds its traditions devalued or rejected. Tourists bringing with very different culture and ideas. Their dress and behaviour may attractive to the younger generation but not to older one. On the beaches and bar trips of the Asia, Africa and the Pacific you can see how readily young people have been lured from their villages by the promise of bride light and money. In relation to the environment, even the most blundered tourism enthusiant is faced with the truth that tourist destroyed the very things they have come for. In Kenya, a country that depends heavily on tourism, there is a real danger of ‘tourist pollution’ in the most popular game parks. Animals in the Masai mara reserved are constantly distributed by tourist buses, -65-

their pray scattered, their feeding grounds damaged. If the animals disappear, so many tourism. (a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using heading and sub-headings. Use recognizable abbreviation wherever necessary. Ans. Tourism way of creating employment

Notes: 1. Advantages: 1.1 Earning Forex. 1.2 Bringing come to the suplr of food and souvenirs. 1.3 Job creation. 1.4 Govt. subsidies tourism project. 2. Disadvantages: 2.1 Eco D’vpment brings generation gap. 2.2 Tourists bring with them different cultures and ideas. 3. Envmt Degradation: 3.1 Tourists destroy things 3.2 Animals in MMR are constantly disturbed by tourist buses. Abbreviation used: 1. Forex- Foreign Exchange 2. Suplr- Supplier 3. Govt- Government 4. Eco- Economic 5. D’vpment-Development 6. MMR-Masai Mara Reserve 7. Envmt-Environment (b) Write the summary of the passage in not more than 80 words using the notes made and also suggest a suitable title. Ans: - Tourism, Boom or Curse Government sees tourism an opportunity of creating employment and bringing income especially for ex. into economy. Job creation is another common advantage of tourism. Government and restaurants. Tourist bringing with different cultures and ideas. Any kind of change bringing tension and economic developments tends to increase the generation gap . In relation to the environment, tourist destroys everything they come in contact with. For ex. In -66-

Kenya country that depends heavily on tourism, there is real danger of tourist pollution. Animals in Masai reserved are constantly distributed by buses. The situation is unique, if animals disappear, so may tourism. PASSAGE 9 FACTUAL PASSAGE

Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow Everyone needs of holiday, both to relax and to have a change of environments. The holiday makers feel relax and fresher and at the end of the holiday and look forward resumption of their duties, be it at school, office or factories, with renewed vigour. This is the reason why all establishment grand their employees annual leave with the end of the academic year, the schools and universities grand their pupils a long holiday during midsummer. This will last until early September when the new school turn starts. Of course the parents will like to take the advantage of this and take their leave to coincide with the children “vacation. This has become a traditional holiday session in most European countries particularly in England. With the coming of the august ,the traditional holiday session in Britain reaches its peak points and most of the holiday resorts are packed to capacity in order to avoid the crowd, some prefer to take their holiday a little earlier facilities so warrant .those who have already taking their holidays can console themselves not only with reflections on the happy days spent in the country, at the sea side or abroad but also with the thought that holiday expenses are over for the year and that why taking and earlier holiday they have missed august rush. The main thing, of course, is the weather and that is would be hazardous to prophesy. But whatever the weather is like, the essence of the holiday for most is the care free atmosphere in which it can be enjoyed. “Take all you needs but leave your worries behind “is the sound advice for the holiday maker. Private worries are not always easy to escape from. However ,ever the pessimist would admit that for the moment things appear brighter than they have been. Holiday time is surely a time for shading serious preoccupations and seeking the pleasure’s that appeal to us it is true that we may not always succeed in finding them, indeed there are people who maintain that the great the things about the holiday is that it gives you an ampler appreciation of home comforts/ a view no doubt more widely held among the elderly than you. a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using heading and sub-headings. Use recognizable abbreviation wherever necessary. Ans -Note making Holiday time-the essence of pleasure 1. Annual leave 1.1 to relax -67-

2.

3.

4.

5.

1.2 change of env 1.3 look frwd to resume duties traditional holiday session 2.1 mid summer 2.2 parents coincide leave with children 2.3 holiday resorts fully pack “d Early holiday 3.1 avoid crowd 3.2 reflect ‘n on the happy days spent 3.3 holiday expenses over Quality of holiday 4.1 w/o care atmosphere 4.2 leave worries behind 4.3 things appear brighter benefits of holiday 5.1 a)shed serious preocc. 5.2 seek”g pleasures that appeal us 5.3 ampler apprctn of home comforts

b) Write the summary of the passage in not more than 80 words using the notes made and also suggest a suitable title. Ans. Summary Holiday time-the essence of pleasure Everyone needs a holiday to relax and refresh so as to resume their duties with renewed vigour with the end of the academic year, the schools and universities grand their pupils a long holiday during midsummer. Parents will like to take their leave and coincide with the children’s vacation. This is the traditional holiday session in England. In order to avoid the crowd some prefer to take their holiday earlier. The essence of holiday is that it is time for shedding serious preoccupation and seeking pleasures PASSAGE 10 FACTUAL PASSAGE Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow Leadership does not exist without followership. A leader has to be accepted by the group which the former is supposed to lead. To gain acceptability the leader should cause an emotive impact on the group members. The strength of character exhibited by leader makes them dear to their followers. A leader is one who effectively inspires followers to achieve worthwhile things. What character of the leader motivates the followers? It is not pomp and show nor flattery nor sanctioning more incentives. Pomp and show creates a sense of awe and the leader is deified rather than emulated. Flattery is unrealistic, and cannot serve as a long term motivational tool. A leader styles should be one that can be emulated by all irrespective of cadre, class and calibre. -68-

Simplicity is once day to day conduct is the only thing that can be adopted by all. When the leader is simple, he is counted as one belonging to the group of which he is the leader. That’s enough to motivate the people. Motivation is the innate quality that enables and individual or group to contribute unlimitedly with limited means. It is the proved prerogative of enlightened human being. A leader needs to assume the role of the guide “quintessential of full feeling the role knowledge ability. Technical and administrative knowledge of the guide in balance quantity and of right essential. The technical knowledge is to waste to acquire by a leader. At best he is either “jack of all” or “master of few”. But he has to master the human relations aspect of administration in all detail. And we the leader is good at this his guidance is sought and accepted, then be fulfils the role the guide. The leader is a negotiator and outside the organization. The leader shapes people and moulds character. To achieve this the leader should maintain equanimity. Equanimity. Is keeping one self poised and balanced at all times. a leader is simply great, if he can mould his followers with his frame of mind .he does this by his own example.

a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it using heading and sub-headings. Use recognizable abbreviation wherever necessary. Also suggest a suitable title. Ans. Quantities of a leader 1.

2

3

Leadership – 1.1 Does not exist without followership 1.2 A leader to be accepted by the group Strength2.1 strength makes the leaders dear to their followers 2.2 leaders styles to be emu’ted 2.3 simp’ty must Role3.1 assume the role of a guide. 3.2 Tech’cal and admire know’dge required. 3.3 He should be either ‘jack of all ‘than or ’master of few’. 3.4 Leader shapes people character . 3.5 Required equa’mity’.

Abbreviation. used: 1. Acc’pted-accepted 2. St’ngth-strength 3. Emu’ted-emulated -69-

4. Simp’ty-simplicity 5. Tech’cal-technical 6. Admi’ve-administration 7. Know’dge-knowledge 8. Equa’mity-equanimity b) Write the summary of the above passage in 80 words. Ans Summary Leadership does not exist without followership. He is supposed to be accepted by the group he leads. The strength of the character exhibited by leaders makes then dear to their followers. Leader’s style should be run that can be emulated by all irrespective of cadre, class and calibre. Simplicity is another factor. When the leader is simple, he is counted as one belonging to the group of which he is the leader. It is enough to motivate a people. a leader is also supported to assume the role of a guide technical and administrative knowledge of the guide in balanced quantity and off right kind are essential. He should be either ‘jack of all’or’master of few’ The leader shapes people and moulds character. To achieve this the leader should maintain equanimity. A leader is considered great, if he can mould his followers with his frame of mind .he does this by his own example.

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SECTION B

(30 Marks)

WRITING SKILLS  One Short Answer Question : Advertisements/Notices/Designing or Drafting Posters/ Invitation & Replies 4 Marks 

One Long Answer Question :Letter Writing



Two Very Long Answer Questions : Article/Debate/Speech

6 Marks

2x10=20 Marks S.NO.

CONTENT

1.

Advertisement

PAGE NUMBER 72-83 84-90

2.

Notice Writing

3.

Poster Designing

4.

Invitation and Replies

5.

Letter Writing

91-101 102-113 114-135

136-146 6.

Article 147-157

7.

Speech

8.

Debate

152-163

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SHORT COMPOSITIONS (Advertisements/Notices/Designing or Drafting Posters/ Invitation & Replies) ADVERTISEMENT The word advertisement means a public notice or an announcement asking for or offering services, advertising goods for buying or selling (property, household goods, vehicles) etc. Advertisements are also used for giving information about missing persons, pets, goods and so on. The written draft of an advertisement is termed as copy. Advertisement is a very important tool for promotion of sales and services Advertisements are of two types : 1. Classified Advertisements 2. Commercial or Display Advertisements Classified Advertisement You will come across classified advertisements in the columns of newspapers and magazines. Important features of a Classified Advertisement are:    

No blocks, no design and the language used should be factual. Simple, formal and to the point. Comprehensive, yet must not leave any important matter. Never be too lengthy (confine to the word limit).

GUIDELINES FOR DRAFTING CLASSIFIED ADVERTISEMENTS     

Advertisements should always be drafted in such a way that they attract the readers to go through them. Advertisements should always be meaningful and interesting so that they can attract the attention of the readers. Advertisements should always be simple and effective language. Advertisements should always be brief and to the point. The name of the advertiser and the advertised product should be properly highlighted.

Tip:- To develop expertise in drafting advertisements, students are advised to read classified advertisement column of leading newspapers.

Marking Scheme: Format:

Suitable heading/classification e.g., Situations Vacant.

1 Mark

Content:

Subject matter including contact address, phone number.

2 Mark

Expression: Grammatical accuracy, spelling, suitable style.

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1 Mark

There is penalty of marks for exceeding the word limit.

Important Tips To be followed Classified Advertisements    

Clearly state the category at the top, e.g., 'For Sale', 'To Let', etc. Give all necessary details in points using commas. Give contact address, name and telephone number. Put the matter in a box.

Kinds of Classified Advertisements 1. Situation Vacant 2. Lost and found 3. Sale and Purchase 4. Accommodation Wanted 5. Educational 6. Placement services 7. Matrimonial 8. To Let 9. Tuitions 10. Packers and Movers 11. Travels and Tours

       

Situation Vacant Begin with ‘Wanted’ or ‘Required’ Name of the company, post and no. of vacancies Age and sex of the candidate Qualification and experience Other details Pay scale and perks Mode of applying Contact address and phone no. SITUATION VACANT WANTED experienced male or female teachers for the post of ‘Assistant Teachers’ for XYZ School .Candidates having Masters Degree in English with B.Ed. may apply within 15 days of this advertisement. Candidates are expected be fluent in English with pleasant personality. Interested -73-

candidates are requested to apply through e-mail with complete resume.

2.

Lost and Found      

4.

Begin with ‘Lost ’ or ‘Found’ Specify item. Brief physical description. When / where lost or found. Reward if any Contact address and phone no.

For Sale    

For sale/purchase etc Type of accommodation / vehicle /article / household items. Brief physical description Contact address & phone number.

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5.

To Let     

7.

Begin with ‘Wanted’ or ‘Available’ Type of accommodation Brief description Rent expected Contact address & phone no.

Travels and Tour 

Begin with ‘Package Available’ etc



Name of travel agency



Destination and duration



Details of package-food/ boarding/lodging/sightseeing etc



Cost and discount if any.



Contact address and phone no.

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Display Advertisements:  

These are designed for commercial purposes. Require more space, hence are costly. Must be attractive with visuals, catchy phrases and slogans

Main features:        

Must be attractive with a catchy caption, heading or sub-headings. Figurative language (alliteration and metaphors especially). Proportionate spacing of fonts with different sizes. Usually attractive with catchy slogans, punch lines, witty expressions, pictures or sketches. Special offers or discount, if any. Details of the product or event given in a clear, precise way. Give name, contact number and address of the advertiser. Present the matter in a box.

Example:

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Draft an advertisement for commercial sale.

Draft an advertisement for a school:

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Draft an advertisement on soap:

Draft an advertisement on car sale:

Draft an advertisement on book sale:

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Draft an advertisement on Art Exhibition:

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Unsolved Examples: 1. Draft an advertisement for Fashion Square offering upto 50% discount on your apparels. 2. Draft the advertisement in not more than 50 words announcing the Annual Sale of a furnishing House. 3. Draft, in not more than 50words, an advertisement for a dance festival which will bring together Dance troupes from all over the country. 4. Draft an advertisement in not more than 50 words for Educational Institutions inviting students to join their classes promising to fulfil their dreams. 5. Design an advertisement for launching sale promotion of consumer items. Solved Examples: 1.

.

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NOTICE WRITING A Notice is a written or printed information or news announcement. Notices are either displayed at prominent places or published in newspapers/magazines. A notice is always brief and to the point. Points to be followed while writing Notices          

Adhere to the specified word limit of 50 words. Write the word ‘NOTICE’ at the top. Name and place of the school, organization or office issuing the notice should be mentioned. Give an appropriate heading. Write the date of issuing the notice. Clearly mention the target group (for whom the notice is to be displayed). Purpose of the notice. Mention all relevant details (date, venue, time). Mention whom to contact for extra information. Signature, name and designation of the person issuing the notice. Put the notice in a box.

Format of a Notice : A notice is always written in a box.

NAME OF THE INSTITUTION/ORGANIZATION/OFFICE, PLACE NOTICE DATE SUITABLE HEADING Content : Target group- for whom the notice is. Date, time, venue and all important details and any extra information needed. (Body of the Notice 50 words)Answer the questions- For whom, what, when, where , when how, by whom + additional information. Signature (Name) Designation

Word Limit : 50 words Marks : 4 Marks

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Format : Name of the organization/Notice/Heading/Date/Signature with name and Designation [1 Mark] Content: For whom (Target group)?What? When? Where? Agenda etc.

[2 Marks]

Expression: Coherence, spellings and grammatical accuracy

[1 Mark]

Examples:

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Q.3 As Mihir Dixit,Manager of Swaroop Resots,write a notice in about 50 words warning people to remain indoors as land slides are anticipated due to heavy rains. Ans.

Q.4 Q5.

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Unsolved Examples 1. You are secretary J.P Narian , housing society, RWA. Meerut. Draft a notice in not more than 50 words stating that the second installment of maintenance charges falls due on 31st March 20….and requesting members to pay before the due date. Sign as Anil/Anita. 2. You are Sports Secretary of Lalwani Public School, Udaipur. Draft a notice in not more than 50 words for your school notice board asking your students to give their names for participation in various events to be held on the Annual Sports Day of your school. Invent all details and sign as Lalit/Lalita. 3. You have lost your leather wallet containing your Examination Entry Ticket for Class12, while travelling by bus from Bansankari to M.G Road in Bengaluru. Draft a notice to be published in Deccan Herald. You are Pranav/Praveen,12 Gandhi Road ,Bengaluru. 4. As Principal of Sardar Patel Vidyalaya , Lucknow , draft a notice in not more than 50 words informing students of the change in school timings with effect from the 1 st of October .State valid reason for change. 5. As secretary of the ‘Eco Club’ of St.Anne’s School, Ahmedabad.Draft a notice in not more than 50 words informing the club members about the screening of Al Gore’s film, ‘Inconvenient Truth’ in the school’s audio visual room.

Solved Examples:

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POSTER DESIGNING A POSTER is a large notice announcing or advertising something. It generally creates social awareness about any problem or needs. It also conveys a social message in an eye catching way. Format or Layout of a Poster: i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. ix. x.

Visually attractive. Catchy heading/title. Use a slogan or short verse. Use clauses. Make sketches or matchstick figures. Use persuasive language. Theme should be clear. Word limit 50 Tense form generally used is either present tense or future tense. Name of the issuing authority or the organizes is a must.

Marking Scheme: 4 Marks 1. Content - 2 Marks 2. Expression- 2 Marks

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Q1.You are Aditi/Aditya Sahani,Head Girl/Boy of RBP School,Gaziabad.Preapare a poster about the importance of books for putting in the school library.

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Q2. Indian School Of Drama is organizing a festival of drama featuring some award winning plays on 23rd,24th and 25th August 20xx at Siri Fort Auditorum,New Delhi. Honourable Minister of North Eastern Development has consented to be the Chief Guest. Draft a poster to be displayed in different areas of your locality.

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Q3. 7th April is observerd as World Health Day, to promote ‘ Keep healthy and do physical activity everyday’draft a poster.

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Q4. Recent studies have proved that burning crackers is a waste of money and is a burden for children who are working in a fire factory. On behalf of Delhi Police,draft a poster requesting people to ‘Say No to Fire Crackers’.

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Q5. Draft a poster on ‘Say No to Drugs’.

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Unsolved Examples. 1. Design a poster informing the students about awareness to keep vehicular emission under control. 2. Draft a poster on malnutrition, quit India movement. 3. Draft a poster on World environment day. 4. Draft a poster on ill effects of plastics on the environment. 5. Draft a poster on ‘prevent Malaria, Save Life’. Solved Examples:

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INVITATION AND REPLIES

INVITATION: To invite someone for an occasion, we use the written form of INVITATION. Invitations are generally printed cards through which we invite our guests on some auspicious occasions like wedding, birthday , wedding anniversary, house warming, inauguration of a shop/factory, etc. Invitations are of two types:  

Formal Informal

These can be printed on cards or can be drafted in the form of letters. Main Characteristics: An invitation contains complete information. It answers the questions: who, whom, when, where, what time and for what. The important components of an invitation, therefore, are: 

Occasion



Name(s) of the invitee(s)



Name(s) of the host(s)



Date, time and venue



Name(s) of the chief guest or special invitees, in case of an official invitation.

Format of Formal Invitations In case of formal invitations, each of the following is written in a separate line with fonts of varying sizes.   

 

Names of the hosts Name of the invitee (in case of a formal letter of invitation) Formal phrase of invitation, for example: a. Request the pleasure your benign presence/company b. Seek your auspicious presence c. Solicit your gracious presence on the auspicious occasion Date, time and venue of the event. Occasion/reason of the invitation.

Marking Scheme: Word Limit : 50 Words Marks : 4 Marks 

Format

[1 mark] -102-



Content relevance- Name of the person(s) who is inviting, the invitee, day, date, chief guest, occasion, etc. [2 Marks]



Expression: Grammatical accuracy, language

[1 Mark]

Characteristics of Formal Invitations: 1. Meant for a lot of invitees:          

These are written in the third person. In case a VIP is invited as the chief guest, the name of the VIP must appear prominently. Name of the invitee is not to be included. The addressee's address is to be written only on the envelope. Simple present tense is to be used. The date of writing is not to be given. There is no signature of the host. The abbreviation RSVP (French: Répondez S’il Vous Plaît) i.e., 'Please reply' is written below on the left side with name(s), address and phone number of the host(s). Put the invitation into a box. Do not exceed 50 words.

2. Meant for an individual (a formal letter of invitation)   

Include the name of the invitee. These are to be written on run-on lines. The sentence is not broken into different words/phrases. Other details are similar to mass-scale invitations.

Writing Informal Invitation Informal       

Written in a letter form, in informal format. Such letters are very persuasive in nature. Written in the first person. Salutation is 'Dear+name'. Complimentary close 'Yours sincerely '. Date of writing the invitation is given. Sender's address appears on the left hand side. Various tenses used to suit the sense.

REPLIES:

Accepting or Denying -103-

Formal: Follow a set formula   

formula words: 'kind invitation', 'great pleasure', 'regret', etc. Use third person ('they') instead of first person ('I', 'We') Address of the writer and the date to be written.

Informal:  Accepting or Denying  Like an ordinary letter  Do not use any formal expressions, but use informal words and expressions.  Use first person ('I', 'We').

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INVITATIONS A. FORMAL INVITATIONS 1. Draft an invitation on behalf of Mr. and Mrs.Ahluwalia for Mr.Sudhir Karan, which they may use to invite their friends and relatives for the marriage of their daughter Gurleen to Gurpreet at the gurudwara near their home.

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2. You are a student of Neelgiri public school, Ooty. The school is holding its annual function. Write an invitation on behalf of the Principal of your school inviting the important persons of the town to attend the function to be held on August 17, 2015 at 10.00am.

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INFORMAL INVITATIONS

1. Mr. and Mrs.Ahluwalia are inviting Mr.Sudhir Karan, their friend on theoccassion of their daughter’s marriage Gurleen to Gurpreet.Write an informal invitation.

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2. Invite your classmate on the occasion of inauguration of her ‘Florence Exclusive

Outlet’.

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RESPOND TO INVITATIONS 1.Accepting the invitation: You are Sudhir. You have been invited to attend the wedding of your friend’s daughter. Respond to the invitation accepting the invitation.

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2. You are Sudhir. You have been invited to attend the wedding of your friend’s daughter. Respond to the invitation declining the invitation.

Unsolved Examples : 1. Your grandparents are celebrating the Golden Jubilee of their marriage. Draft an invitation for friends and relatives. Invent other details. 2. You are a class XI student.Draft an invitation for the management and staffinviting them to the farewell party of Class XII students. Invent all necessary details. 3. You are the captain of your school Sports Team,Panchkula.Your school is going to organise a summer camp for training students in different sports.Write a formal invitation to Abhinav Bhindra, the ace shooter to inaugurate the camp on May 15 th at 10:00 a.m. 4. You are the secretary of the Rotary Club,Delhi.Draft a formal invitation to be sent to the members to a musical night to pay tribute to gazal king, Jagjit Singh on Arpril 19th___ at 5:30 p.m. atKamani auditorium. 5. You have been invited as a judge to an Inter-School Debate on the topic ‘Nuclear energy is more misused than used’. Send a reply confirming your acceptance.

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Solved Examples:

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LETTER WRITING LETTER The most common form of a written communication is the letter. Letters should have a format that goes with the latest conventions. Types of Letters: Informal Letters- These are letters written to close associates. Formal Letters- These are: a. Business or Official letters (for making enquiries, registering complaints, asking for and giving information, placing orders and sending replies). b. Letters to the editor(giving suggestions on an issue). c. Application for a job. Points to remember while drafting letters:    

         



Write the letter in full block format (i.e., to the left). State your reason for writing in the first paragraph and stay on track. Always include specifics that will help ease the recipient’s task. For instance, if you are writing to a bank, mention your account number. If you refer to other correspondence, quote date of the letter(s), reference numbers, file numbers, order numbers, cheque number with date. Include copies, whenever possible. Gently and respectfully direct the recipient’s course of action. It may be strongly worded, but always be courteous and use polite language and pleasant tone. Self-introduction should be avoided. Informal expressions, greetings or contracted forms of words should not be used. The language should be simple, straight forward and to the point. Leave a line/additional space between paragraphs since no indentation is followed. Open punctuation to be followed (no punctuation marks to be used). Do not mix up the old format and the new format. In letters to the Editor: Do not ask the editor to solve the problems. In job application letters, Curriculum Vitae (CV)/ Bio-data/ Resume should be written. It should not be included in the body of the letter but after the complimentary close, as an enclosure. In the letter to the Editor, use ‘yours truly’ or ‘yours sincerely’, as the complimentary close.

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1. BUSINESS LETTERS     

Making enquiries/ asking for information Replying to enquiries/giving information Placing orders and sending replies Cancelling Orders Letters registering complaints

2. Official Letters   

Registering Complaints Making Enquiries Making request/appeal

3. Letters to the Editor  

Giving suggestions on issues of public interest. Expressing views on an issue already raised in an article/ write-up/in a published letter.

4. Letters of Job Application  Application Sender's Addressfor : a job Devi Enclave Raj Ram Marg Bangalore-21 Date : 24 July 20XX Address of the Addressee: The Director//Mr/Mrs Global Enterprises, 8th cross, Victoria Layout, Bangalore Subject : Salutation:

................................................................. Sir

Content: Introduction : Body : Conclusion : Signatory: Yours faithfully: Name

:

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Marking Scheme: Word Limit : 120-150 words Marks : 6 Marks Format: Proper Layout- Sender's address, Date, Receiver’s address Subject, Salutation, Complimentary close. 1 Mark Content: Relevant ideas to be presented in a coherent way. Use connectors appropriately, divide into paragraphs. There should be minimum three paragraphs.

3 Marks

Expression: Grammatical accuracy, spellings

2 Marks

No marks will be given for the format if the content is wrong.

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BUSINESS LETTERS 1. Enquiry -

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2.

Complaint -

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3. Placing an Order You are the Manager of ‘the Chef’. Write a letter to the Manager of ‘The cottage India Emporium’ placing your order for furnishings and upholstery items for your restaurant.

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4. Reply to ‘Placing an Order – You are the Manager of the Vats Sports Company. Write a reply to the above letter giving the information regarding delay in supply of some items. Vats Sports Company 23, Hapur Road Meerut-250002 Ref No.- SG/258/2015 28th July, 2015 The Sports Secretary Jagjiwan Memorial School 12/100, Patparganj Delhi-110092 Subject : Delay in delivery of some items against your order dated 25 th July, 2015 Sir With reference to your above order, we regret that two of the goods you had ordered, i.e. football and cricket bats, are presently not in the stock. However, we shall be receiving these items in a couple of days’ time. This would delay the delivery of the goods by just two days. All the goods will be delivered to you by 2 nd August, 2015. The inconvenience caused is regretted. Please be assured about the quality and excellent packing of the goods. Your truly Rajat Jain Manager

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OFFICIAL LETTERS 1. You are Anuj Mittal. Write a letter to the General Manager of BSNL requesting him to send you the list of phone calls made from your phone. 11, sector 3 Rajendra Nagar Ghaziabad-211010 10th June, 2015 The General Manager Ghaziabad Telephone Exchange BSNL Ghaziabad-211002 Subject : Request for List of Telephone Calls Sir I am a resident of Rajendra Nagar, Ghaziabad. The phone number 0120-2265298 has been installed in my name at my residence, 11, Sector 3, Rajendra Nagar, Ghaziabad-211010. I have not been receiving the list of phone calls made along with the bill sent to me every month. I am enclosing a copy of the last bill. I request you to kindly resume the said service to me. I shall be grateful if you make this facility available to me at the earliest. Yours sincerely Anuj Mittal Encl. Copy of the bill (paid) for the last month.

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LETTERS TO THE EDITOR

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2.Write a letter to the editor of a newspaper about noise pollution in your city No, 7, ABC Colony, Ghaziabad-211008 14th March, 2015

The Editor The Times of India New Delhi-110 001 Sir Subject : Problems faced due to noise pollution I would like to draw the kind attention of the concerned authorities towards increasing problem of noise pollution. It is causing great damage to the health problem of the city. It leads to irritation, loss of sleep, rest and peace. It is harmful to physical and mental health of people. Frequent loud noise affects the working efficiency of the people. Persistent noise pollution causes a loss of sense of hearing. Increasing noise pollution is a big threat to the health and fitness of the people, if the noise pollution is allowed to go unchecked it may rob the people of their hearing capacity, creasing number of vehicles on the roads, rising growth of factories, construction work, loudspeakers used on various occasions, rock and pop music, etc. are various factors responsible for causing noise pollution. Noise control laws are openly violated. It is the time that the authorities should awake against the danger of noise pollution. They should strictly enforce the noise control laws. The noise producing factories located in the residential areas should be shifted to far-off places without any delay. The use of loudspeaker should be stopped after specific time. Above all, public needs to be aware and cooperative against the danger of noise pollution because without public cooperation authorities cannot make much difference. It is earnestly hoped that concerned authorities will take immediate and urgent necessary action against those responsible for noise pollution to relieve the people from the harmful effects of noise pollution. Thanking you Yours faithfully

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JOB APPLICATION

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LETTER OF COMPLAINT 1. Write a letter to the Police Commissioner complaining about the late arrival of the police when a theft was committed in your neighbourhood.(word limit 200)

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3. You are interested in doing a short-term course in computer graphics during your holidays. Write a letter to the Director, Easy Computers, enquiring about their short-term courses and asking for all the necessary details. You are Naresh/Nandini. 79, RK Puram New Delhi-110045 12th April, 2015 The Director Easy Computers South Extension II New Delhi 110048 Subject : Require Details of Short-term Course in Computer Graphics Sir This refers to your advertisement in the Times of India dated 10 th April, 2015 informing about the short-term computer courses you are conducting. I am a graduate in Science and plan to take up a job in the line of software. Specifically, I am interested in the course on computer graphics and similar other courses in this field. Please send me details of the short-term courses you are conducting particularly those that start around 1st May 2015. I will appreciate it if you could forward me more details of the computer graphics course, including duration, fees, etc. Thank you Yours sincerely Naresh Kumar

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4. You are Neeta/Naveen of 43, Ram Nagar, Meerut, studying at a coaching centre in Lakshmi Nagar, Delhi. You need accommodation for yourself. Write a letter to the Manager of Paying Guest Service, 15 Aditya Complex, Lakshmi Nagar, Delhi inquiring about the details such as the type of accommodation, monthly charges, facilities provided etc. 43, Ram Nagar Meerut-250005 16th August, 2015 The Manager Paying Guest Service 15, Aditya Complex, Lakshmi Nagar Delhi-110063 Subject : Required Paying Guest Accommodation Sir I have joined ABC coaching centre near Lakshmi Nagar area. For this reason I need accommodation for next one year. My civil services examination is in November, 2015. I will be needing a separate room with bathroom attached from August 2015 to November 2015. You are requested to supply the details of the type of accommodation available, facilities provided and the monthly charges for the room. Also confirm if such a room is available. Room can be reserved for the mentioned period of time. Confirmation of these details from your end will enable me to finalise other arrangements. Yours truly Naveen

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5. Write a letter to the Station Master, Anand, informing him about the loss of your suitcase which you realized only on alighting at Anand. You travelled by Navjivan Express from Chennai to Anand. You are Priya/Prasad of 12, Kasturi Bai Street, Chennai-20. 12, Kasturi Bai Street Chennai-500020 20th May, 2015 The Station Master Anand-388001 Subject : Loss of Suitcase in Train SirI am a resident of 12, Kasturi Bai street, Chennai-20. On 19th May, 20XX, I travelled from Chennai to Anand by Navjivan Express. I had three suitcase with me. But when I alighted at Anand, I realized that one of my suitcase was missing. At that moment, I was helpless. I became alarmed because in the missing suitcase, all my certificates and other valuables were kept. Please treat this letter as letter of complaint and act accordingly. I hope for an immediate response from your side to find my suitcase. Yours sincerely Prasad Rangrajan Mobile no 097665XXXXX

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Unsolved Examples: 1.You have recently opened a restaurant , ‘The Invitation’ in the Model Town. Write a letter to the Manager of the cottage ‘India Emporium’ enquiring about the latest furnishings and upholstery items for the same. Sign as Hari Dutt. 2.The Silver Academy offers a course in Gemology and Accessory design after plus two. You are Neela/Netish Joshri. Write a letter to the Director asking about the course,future prospects etc 3.Write a letter to the Editor ‘The Times of India’ New Delhi,about the frequent traffic jams in Gurgaon especially during the rains stating the problems faced by the people and also suggesting ways to cope with it.You are Pradeep/Priti,12 Sewa Colony, Gurgaon.. 4.There is flood of advertisement on television channels these days. Useless commodities and even superstitious beliefs are promoted through glamorous and exaggerated presentations. Write a letter to the Editor, New Indian Express, about the negative influence such as advertisements have on the minds of the people. You are Radha /Ramesh of Mayur Vihar,Lucknow. 5.You are Raman/Ritu ,a member of Parent Teacher Association of Little Valley Senior Secondary School, Hyderabad. Write a letter to the Principal of the school asking him to introduce vocational stream in the school providing facility of teaching such subjects as Computers, Insurance etc so that students may not needlessly continue academic studies. You are residing at 15 Anand Colony, Hyderabad.

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Solved Examples:

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Article An article is an expression of one’s thought on an issue or a subject logically and coherently written in meaningful paragraphs. Points To Remember:        

Give a title that catches the attention of the reader. Begin with a striking opening sentence which addresses that readers and gets them interested in the topic. Present a strong argument for your ideas supporting it with evidences or elaboration. Use linking devices (‘however’, ‘therefore’, ‘although’, ‘even though’, ‘in order to’) to make the composition appear a whole. Introduce a new point at the beginning of each paragraph that follows to strengthen your ideas. Develop your ideas as much as you can to make them interesting and substantial. Conclude with your strongest point. Use passive voice, humour, emotive language, rhetorical questions to provide a specific effect.

Format of an Article TITLE/HEADING:

Eye Catching, illustrating the central themes

BY LINE:

Writer's Name under the title towards the right from the centre

INTRODUCTION:

A comprehensive introduction touching upon on the plus and minus of the topic. Establish the context Put the topic in perspective Draw reader's attention. Specify and delimit your topic Put a rhetoric question or give some startling facts, statistics or quotation

CONTENT:

Spell out the various aspects to the topic-merits, demerits causes, consequences, effects, advantages, disadvantages

TOPIC WINDING UP: Give your opinion, comments, criticism, recommendations CONCLUSION:

Conclude with a hope, a warning, an appeal or a call for an action

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Marking Scheme: Word Limit : 150-200 words Marks :

10 Marks

Format (Title +Writer's name): Content:

1 Mark

(logical organization, relevance). Credit should be given for the candidate's creativity in presenting his/her own ideas 4 Marks

Expression: 5 Marks. (2 ½ + 2 ½ ) Accuracy, Grammatical, appropriate words & spelling:

2 ½ Marks

+ Fluency, coherence and relevance of ideas and style:

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2 ½ Marks

Sample Examples :

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Q) Incidents of child abuse are on the rise,resulting into increasing number of child’s deaths per day.Write an article in about 150-200 words on the topic ‘Child Abuse”.

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Unsolved Examples:

1.You are a member of the environment club of your school.After visiting many places you have realised that it is the need of the hour to protect the environment. Write an article on this topic to create awareness among the people.(word limit:125-150 words) 2. Write an article to be published in ‘The Hindu’ on how younger generation is crazy about fast food,little realising the health hazards involved in it.Also suggest some remedies.You are Jyoti/Jagan. 3.’Direct to Home’ lessons relayed on TV channels are no substitute for actual classrooms. Write an article in about 125-150 words on ‘Can DTH Classrooms can ever replace schools and colleges?’ You are Deepak/Deepti. 4.In all almost all big cities in the country there is a mushroom growth of slums where people are living in inhuman conditions. Write an article in about 125-150 words)on this problem suggesting steps to deal with it. You are Komal/Kartik. 5. Global warming has adversely affected the climate of the world.For the survival of humanity,the environment has to be protected at any cost. Write an article in about 125-150 words on ‘Need for green Earth through Environmental Protection’.

Solved Examples:

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SPEECH Point to be Remembered: 

  

The introduction should not be very lengthy. The main topic should be taken up as quickly as possible. Use concrete terms and tangible examples. Avoid abstract phrases which are quite vague. Use simple and familiar language. The conclusion plays a very important role in the success of a speech. Give your own conclusion on the topic in a telling manner. Marking scheme is the same as for the Article. Write ‘Thank you’ at the end of the speech.

Format:

      

Heading or Title (Optional) Formal Address Introduction Establishing the context and expression Adverse effects and values Conclusion Formal thanks to audience

Marking Scheme: Word Limit : 150-200 words Marks :

10 Marks

Format (Title +Writer's name): Content:

1 Mark

(logical organization, relevance). Credit should be given for the candidate's creativity in presenting his/her own ideas 4 Marks

Expression: 5 Marks. (2 ½ + 2 ½ ) Accuracy, Grammatical, appropriate words & spelling:

2 ½ Marks

+ Fluency, coherence and relevance of ideas and style:

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2 ½ Marks

SPEECH

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Unsolved examples: 1.You are Malik/Manju.You are much concerned about the poor quality of the unhygienic food supplied at some of the fast food centres in your locality,which is highly detrimental to health.Write a speech in about 125-150 words on this issue highlighting the health hazard that may be caused. 2.’Down to Earth’,an environmental awareness magazine has launched a marathon ‘clean Your City Campaign’. As an active participant, Write a speech in about 125-150 words to be read in the morning assembly urging students to participate in the campaign. 3. You are the Minister of Tourism.Write a speech in 125-150 words regarding the growth of tourism industry.

Solved Examples:

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DEBATE Format:

    

Formal Address Introduction : Against or For the motion Arguments against or for the motion Conclusion Formal thanks

Marking Scheme: Word Limit : 150-200 words Marks :

10 Marks

Format : Formal Address + Formal Thanks Content:

1 Mark

(logical organization, relevance). Credit should be given for the candidate's creativity in presenting his/her own ideas 4 Marks

Expression: 5 Marks. (2 ½ + 2 ½ ) Accuracy, Grammatical, appropriate words & spelling:

2 ½ Marks

+ Fluency, coherence and relevance of ideas and style:

DEBATE

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2 ½ Marks

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Q.2 Write a debate in about 150-200 words on the topic ‘Homework should be Abolished’.

HOMEWORK SHOULD BE ABOLISHED For the Motion Respected Chairperson, honourable judges, members of staff and friends I stand here today to speak for the motion that homework should be abolished. At the very outset I’d like to raise this question – Is that homework to be done by the parents, the tutor, or the already overburdened student ? In my opinion, homework is rarely done at home. It is most often copied in the bus, in between classes, or these days reproduced over the telephone. I submit, in fact, that homework often becomes such a burden in my families, the parents decide to do it in the speediest and most convenient manner. As a result, older children, private tutors, or even parents themselves set to work completing it. Further, I feel very strongly that homework checks a child’s physical, emotional and social development. It simply programmes students to become competitive. I should like to draw your attention to the fact that this monster – homework – becomes a thing of fear and finally becomes a holiday horror. I fail to understand why my worthy opponent has

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chosen to support something that consumes so much of the student’s free time and energy, both in term-time and holiday-time. My final argument is that it is of limited value. The type of homework most often set is dull and mechanical, so as to keep students busy at home as in school. I support the motion that homework should be abolished.

Against the motion Respected Chairperson, honourable judges, members of staff and friends I stand here today to speak against the motion of the topic that ‘Homework should be Abolished’. My knowledgeable opponent has submitted that homework is not a desirable thing. But may I ask how the teacher is to check and assess the work of the student if not through homework? I strongly oppose the view that homework is done by parents, tutors or other children. On the contrary, if homework is constructive, and stimulating, it becomes such a pleasurable activity. I don’t think that homework checks a child’s growth. Instead, it builds children’s selfconfidence, and gives them a sense of achievement. In class, most of the time has to be spent learning from the teacher or working groups. There simply isn’t enough time for the teacher to allow students to work silently and individually. This, I submit, is the great value of homework – that it encourages students to deepen their understanding of topics covered in class, by working quietly and privately on a motivating task. I strongly reject the view that homework has to be dull and mechanical. Instead, homework is usually thought-provoking. It is always interesting, if done in the right spirit. Homework is an essential part of education. It is good for us as it is enjoyable. Thank you all.

Q.3 Write a debate in about 150-200 words on the topic ‘Capital Punishment has No Place in a Civilized Society’. CAPITAL PUNISHMENT HAS NO PLACE IN A CIVILIZED SOCIETY For the Motion Respected Chairperson, honourable judges, members of staff and friends I, Anshu, stand before you to speak for the motion on ‘Capital punishment has no place in a civilized society’. I feel that capital punishment is a sign of uncivilized human behaviour. The sole basis of this argument is that when we can’t give life to any one, what right do we have to -155-

take it of others? This means even the state has no right to take away the life of a person. Capital punishment actually kills a person by inches before it is given. I personally feel that death sentence comes as a relief. I find these arguments hollow and unfortunate. Life, we must know, is precious and it is once-in-a-life opportunity. It must be preserved at all costs. A death sentence gives no chance of repentance and reformation. Nor does it give any noble message to the people at large. Man is no animal and he has the capacity to be reformed through choosing a right path. Sometimes his anger overpowers him and due to that he commits sinful activities. But when he repents, it is all over by then. I am of the opinion that such a person must be given a chance to improve his lost status through repentance. This never means that his crime should go unpunished. But he should be given a chance to reform. Capital punishment is no remedy. Thank you all. Against the Motion Respected Chairperson, honourable judges, members of staff and friends I, Anupam, stand before you to speak against the motion on ‘Capital punishment has no place in a civilized society’. I am of the opinion that if someone has fallen so low in the human scale that he is no more an animal. He commits crime like animals. Naturally he must be dealt with those measures that domesticate animals. Secondly, I find that when man has fallen so low, he can’t leave his animalism at any cost. In this way, he loses all chances of reformation. I find, honourable judges that he has no right to live in the human society. He simply becomes a danger to other peace-loving citizens of his society. My knowledgeable friend has stated that a man who has tasted the blood has the possibility of reforming himself. But I would ask him, can a beast of prey change into a non-preying beast? Never, honourable judges. Such persons should be dealt with the laws of nature or the famous one: ‘eye for an eye’. The most important thing is the presence of ear in the human beings before going criminal. In the middle-east countries crimes are simply non-existent because of this fear. And capital punishment is that instrument of causing fear in the minds of the people. With them we can maintain a crime-free society. Thank you all. Q.4 Write a debate in about 150-200 words on the topic ‘ Mall Culture in Cities have a Positive Aspect for Teenagers’ Mall Culture in Cities - Positive Aspects For the Motion Respected Chairperson, honourable judges, members of staff and friends I, Zeeshan, stand before you to speak for the motion on the topic ‘Mall Culture in Cities have a Positive Aspect for Teenagers’. Shopping malls are becoming integral part of cities. Every corner of a city has at least one shopping mall in it. They are fast emerging as new hallmark of new development. -156-

Teenagers love to visit malls with their friends and family. Air-conditioned atmosphere provides a big relief from sweltering heat one has to face while shopping in markets in summers. The neat and clean, safe and secure building helps teenagers to forget the stress and pressure of schools and colleges enjoy free time in a relaxed way. Shopping malls help teenagers to shop for anything under the sky under one roof. All their favourite things like Junk Jewellery, latest DVD, newly released books all are available there. They can take electronic item of any brand without caring about bargaining as the articles sold in malls are of quality brands with fixed price tags. Window shopping, the best way to learn about latest products in market is best done in malls. Teenagers with their peer are seen window shopping at showrooms of famous brands there. Shopping malls also provide perfect place to give and enjoy parties McDonalds, Pizzahuts, KFC and many such eating joints have their outlets in malls. It is becoming a new trend among teenagers to celebrate birthdays, friendship days and many such occasion in the company of whole gang of their friends in shopping malls. Shopping malls with their movie theatres provide another way of enjoying holidays with friends and family. One can watch latest movie in cool and relaxed atmosphere of such theatres. Thus shopping malls are emerging as the most favourite place for teenagers to hang around in the company of their loved ones without worrying about heat or hunger. Against the Motion Respected Chairperson, honourable judges, members of staff and friends I, Zeenia, stand before you to speak against the motion on the topic ‘Mall Culture in Cities have a Positive Aspect for Teenagers’. Mushrooming of shopping malls in every nook and corner of cities is becoming a nuisance for common people. Teenagers suffer most because of increasing mall culture in cities. Everything about malls is detestable. Their imposing structure and lucrative exterior symbolise the superficiality of city life with increasing materialistic outlook of its people. They seem to be blot on social growth of people. Youngsters, especially teenagers spend their valuable and hard earned money of their parents in malls. Shopping malls are harmful for health of the visitors. The air inside the malls is due to its being air-conditioned without proper ventilation. The air inside it contains fumes from its eating joints besides breathed out air of the crowd there. Shopping malls are heavy on the purse also. Most of the showroom in malls charge higher prices in comparison to those in open markets as they have to pay higher rents. It costs many times more to watch movies or buy things here. Shopping malls encourage western culture among teenagers. They get lured by the glossy advertisements about the eating joints there and want to give parties in them instead of at home. They thus, harm teenagers as they get away from Indian values like partying at -157-

home with parents. To conclude, one can say it emphatically that today's teenagers under the bad influence of western culture , encouraged by malls, spend their valuable time and hard earned by roaming around aimlessly and many a times anonymously in malls in the name of window shopping. They want to show off to their friends their spending powers and western outlook at the cost of time and money.

Q.5 Write a debate in 150-200 words on the topic ‘Relevance and Desirability of Coaching Centres’. RELEVANCE AND DESIRABILITY OF COACHING CENTRES For the Motion Respected Chairperson, honourable judges, members of staff and friends Today I, Sumit, stand before you to speak for the motion on ‘Relevance and Desirability of Coaching Centres’. You’ll see that today’s world is simply of neck-break competitions. Against one seat in a medical or engineering institute there are hundreds of applicants. Herein comes the coaching centre. If a boy or a girl shows very good score in the competitive examination, his or her chances for admission are bright. So I don’t think anything is wrong with these coaching centres. There are many plus points in favour of these centres. The most important is that only the bright, intelligent and deserving students get admission in prestigious and professional colleges. If average students get into them without any competitive examination, then they’ll not be successful at all in life. You’ll say that these coaching centres charge very heavily as tuition fees. Then most of them are ‘teaching shops’ and their aim is only to mint money. This can’t be applied onto every coaching centre. A student can choose which coaching centre is suitable for him or seeing his or her paying capacity. A light side is that even in life one needs to be conscious of what’s good or bad for him or her before he or she decides to choose. These centres, indeed, provide coaching in such a way that even an average student can show good results. If it were not so, many of them would already have been closed. So I am of the opinion that they should stay. Thank you all. Against the Motion Respected Chairperson, honourable judges, members of staff and friends Today I, Krit Kumar, stand before you to speak against the motion on ‘Relevance and Desirability of Coaching Centres’ in today’s society. My knowledgeable friend has laid down -158-

before you some good reasons favouring the desirability of these coaching centres in today’s world. You’ll see yourself that these centres are multiplying day-by-day. Their growth indirectly tells the sad story of school and college education. In direct words, I would say that school and colleges are not functioning as they should. So these coaching centres are there at their cost. I feel that if these educational institutions function in the right spirit, these coaching centres don’t need to be there. For that our teaching fraternity is responsible together with the administration. Honourable judges, in my opinion, these coaching centres are teaching shops’ only. These show rosy paths to the unsuspecting students and try to trap them into their net. Then these start making money from them on one count or the other. These are centres for ‘misguiding’ the students. That’s why, many centres disappear overnight when their realities are out. My knowledgeable friend has spoken favourably about prestigious coaching centres. But their fees are so high that many sstudents can’t afford them. What I want is that those centres which mint money without doing good should be punished. Then school and college education should be improved. Thank you all.

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Unsolved Example : 1. Write a debate in about 125-150 words on ‘Teachers are subjected to humiliation by the society’. You are Ramesh/Roma of BPS,Mathura Road, New Delhi. 2. Forward your arguments in favour and against the topic “Is tradition a waste for the youth? ”A debate competition has been arranged in your school. You are Sushil/ Sushila.( 125-150words) 3. An inter-school debate competition is being arranged on the topic’ Globalisation-its positive and negative impacts’. You are Sukumar/ Sukanya of Maxwell International School,Greater Kailesh,New Delhi. You are selected to participate in the contest.Write a debate in about 125-150 words. 4. You are Mohan/Mohini of St. Xavier Senior Secondary School, New Delhi. Your school has arranged a debate on the Republic Day.The topic is “Justice delayed is justice denied”.Write a debate in about 125-150 words. 5. You are Arun/Aruna of Mahananda Public School,Chirag Delhi.You have been nominated from your school to attend a contest debate on ‘We are prisoners to the gaol of physical comforts’.( 125-150words)

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Solved Examples:

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SECTION C

(40 Marks)

LITERATURE TEXTBOOKS AND LONG READING TEXT

S.NO.

CONTENT

PAGE NUMBER

1.

Flamingo – Prose

168-187

2.

Flamingo – Poetry

189-212

3.

Vistas

213-232

4.

Novel – The Invisible Man

233-294

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SECTION C LITERATURE TEXTBOOKS AND LONG READING TEXT - 40 Marks FLAMINGO / VISTAS / THE INVISIBLE MAN MARKS) 

(40

Very Short Answer Questions - Based on an extract from poetry to test the comprehension and appreciation. 4 Marks 

Short Answer Questions -

Based on prose/drama/poetry from the texts. 12

Marks 

Long Answer Questions -

Based on texts to test global comprehension and extrapolation beyond texts to bring out the key messages and values. 6 Marks



Long Answer Questions -

Based on texts to test global comprehension along with analysis and extrapolation. 6 Marks



Long Answer Questions -

Based on theme, plot and incidents from the prescribed novels. 6 Marks

(THE INVISIBLE MAN) 

Long Answer Questions -

Based on understanding, appreciation, analysis and interpretation of the character sketch. 6 Marks

(THE INVISIBLE MAN) FLAMINGO PROSE:

     

NAME OF THE LESSON

WRITER’S NAME

The Last Lesson Lost Spring Deep Water The Rattrap Indigo Going Places

(Alphonse Daudet) (Anees Jung) (William O Douglas) (Selma Lagerlof) (Louis Fischer) (A.R Barton)

POETRY: POET’S NAME

NAME OF THE POEM -165-

    

My Mother At Sixty-Six An Elementary School Classroom in a Slum Keeping Quiet A Thing Of Beauty Aunt Jennifer

(Kamala Das) (Stephen Spender) (Pablo Neruda) (John Keats) (Adrienne Rich) VISTAS

     

NAME OF THE LESSON

WRITER’S NAME

The Tiger King The Enemy Should Wizard Hit Mommy On the Face Of It Evans Tries an O- Level Memories of Childhood

(Kalki) (Pearl S. Buck) (John Updike) (Susan Hill) (Colin Dexter) (Zitkala- Sa and Bama)

LONG READING TEXT: Novel THE INVISIBLE MAN - H G Wells  

Long Answer Questions - Based on theme, plot and incidents from the prescribed novels. Long Answer Questions - Based on understanding, appreciation, analysis and interpretation of the character sketch.

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FLAMINGO PROSE SECTION

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1. THE LAST LESSON -ALPHONSE DAUDET SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS Answer the following questions in 30-40 words each: Q.1 Describe the effect on life at school, produced by the passing of Alsace and Lorraine into Prussian hands. The order from Berlin to teach only German in the schools of Alsace and Lorraine perturbed the French greatly. Now they realized how important French was. The humdrum inside and outside the class was missing. The silence of the graveyard welcomed each one. Students and village people had a common people feeling of terror and of learning German under pressure. All were settled to take the last lesson seriously. They realized their blunder of not taking French seriously before. All sat with grim faces and their dislike for M. Hamel changes to admiration. Even M. Hamel presented a different facet of his personality. He wished he could teach the entire French in the Last Lesson. His patriotic fervour when he wrote 'Viva La France' inspired the French to earn their freedom back. Q.2 How was M. Hamel a different teacher while giving his last lesson? The personality traits of M. Hamel underwent transition due to changed environment. The order from Berlin had paralyzed the senses of all French people. Franz saw a different image of M. Hamel. He was calm, gentle, highly emotional and patriotic on the last day. On reaching late to school, Franz was not reprimanded but allowed inside the classroom. His approach to teaching was serious and professional. He did not even spare himself. For the casual attitude toward French. Franz and the villagers were no less careless about learning it. He advised all to guard the French language as it was comparatively superb. He continued to teach till the bell sounded the end of it. Finally he grew emotional and wrote 'Viva La France' on the blackboard and in silence instructed all of them to depart. Q.3 What changes did the narrator find in the school when the order from the Berlin came? The order from Berlin shocked the French. It stated that from henceforth only German would be taught at Alsace and Lorraine. The whole environment was tense. The narrator found that the sonorous rapping on the table, and other peculiar loud noises were no more. All mute faces were writing busily disturbing the calm of the place. The villagers had occupied the back benches to attend M. Hamel's class. He was also attired in a formal outfit. His attitudinal change found him gentle in reprimanding everyone present. Including himself for being casual to the most logical language, French. Everyone was engrossed in learning and Hamel made them realize their mistake. Q.4 How was the scene in the school in the morning of the last lesson different from that on other days?

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The school scene was utterly different. Silence pervaded everywhere. Even the noisy classroom breathed quiet ambience. M. Hamel had worn special dress meant for special occasions. He taught in a different style that each one seemed to understand. The village people had also joined them for the last lesson. Q.5 What was the mood in the classroom when M. Hamel gave his last French lesson? The environment in the classroom was highly unusual. The presence of the villagers aroused anxiety. There was an absolute calm for all to feel remorseful of the harm they had done to their mother tongue- French; the most beautiful language by being careless about it. All were awestruck by the orders from Berlin and worked quietly. Q.6 Why did M.Hamel write ‘Vive La France’ on the blackboard? Ans. M.Hamel was patriot to the core. On his last day of his French lesson, he was trying to give the villagers all that he knew. On hearing the sound of the drill, he knew it was time for him to leave. Overcome with emotions, he went to the blackboard and wrote ‘Vive La France’. Q7. What had the narrator counted on to enter the school unnoticed? Ans. The narrator had not prepared his lesson well and was late for school. As he hurried toward his class, he was counting on the commotion to get to his desk without being noticed but that day everything was as quiet as a Sunday morning. Q8. “This is your last French lesson”. How did Franz react to his declaration of M.Hamel? Ans. The words were like a thunder clap! The order had come from Berlin that German was to be taught in the districts of Alsace and Lorraine and Franz was shocked to hear the declaration that the lesson on that day was going to be their last French lesson. Q.9 Mentions two things about M.Hamel that surprised Franz on his last day at school. Ans. On his last day at school, Franz noticed that M.Hamel was dressed in his beautiful grren coat, his frilled shirt and the little black silk cap which he never wore except on inspection and prize days. The other things that he noticed were that he explained the lesion very patiently that day. It seemed as it he wanted to give them all that he knew in one go. LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS: Answer the following questions in 120-150 words: Q.1 Describe the change in the attitude of Franz towards his language and his teacher. Initially Franz is reluctant to go to school. He has never been a sincere and devoted student. He fears that his teacher, M Hamel would scold him because he had not learnt his lesson. He finds his son teacher strict and austere. When he reaches school, he is surprised because M Hamel speaks kindly to him. He is still confused and absorbing the situation, when M Hamel announces that it is to be their last French lesson. Poor Franz now regrets not mother tongue and now he would never be able to learn it. His books, which were a nuisance to him, suddenly seem like old friends. The thought -169-

that he would never see M Hamel again makes him forget all about his crankiness. He begins to feel very sorry for his teacher. Q.2 Explain "M Hamel was an epitome of patience that day- A true patriot." M Hamel was very patient that day. He did not remark on Franz's being late. He did not scold Franz when he could not recite the rules of participles. In fact, he blamed all of them, including himself, for neglecting the study of their mother tongue, the French language. That he was a patriot is demonstrated by the fact that he praised the French language for its clarity, logic and beauty and exhorted his audience to hold fast to it. M Hamel had been teaching for forty years in the school, so everyone was overwhelmed by emotions at the time of his leaving the school. But M Hamel maintained utmost dignity and composure. He exhibited strong courage and patience and listened to every lesson to the last. Finally, at the end of the lesson, he wrote on the blackboard, 'Vive La Franc e!', meaning 'long live France', which showed that he was a true patriot. Q.3 Everybody during the last lesson is filled with regret. Comment. Ans. During the last French lesson, everybody was filled with regret. Feelings and emotions were riding high! Franz was taken abck when told that was his last French lesson. He regretted not having learnt his lessons on time and having missed the opportunity to learn his mother tongue. There were village people sitting quietly on the back benches in the classroom. The old Hauser had brought his old primer face. M, Hamel himself was filled with regret. He admitted that he shouldn’t have sent the students to water the flowers instead of asking them to learn the lesions. He also blamed the parents for not having taken their mother tongue seriously and now it was too late. Q.4 How different from usual was the atmosphere at school on the day of the last lesson? Ans. On the day of the last lesson, the school wore a different look. Usually, at the start of the school, it would buzz with activity which one could hear in the streets. The opening and closing of desks, the lessons repeated in unison, very loud and the teacher’s great ruler rapping on the table were commonplace but on the last day of the French class, all was still. Poor Franz had counted on the commotion to get into the class without being seen but nothing of the sort happened. The class was quiet. M. Hamel was dressed formally and the back benches which otherwise used to remain empty were fully occupied by the villagers. The atmosphere was sober and charged with emotions all around. Q.5 How did the order from Berlin change the situation in the school? Ans. The order from Berlin stated that the French districts of Alsace and Lorraine had passed into Prussian hand, hence the children needed to study German instead of French as per the directive from Berlin. So, that day was to be the last day of French class as also the last day of their French teacher M. Hamel, who was very upset at the turn of events. The usual bustle of the school was missing; there was given new copies with ‘France Alsace’ written on them which looked like little flags floating everywhere in the school-room. All the village adults occupied the back benches of the classroom and were working quietly. -170-

VALUE BASED QUESTION: Answer the following question in 120-150 words: Q.1 "Then he turned to the blackboard, took a piece of chalk and bearing on it with all his mighty, he wrote as large as he could 'Vive La France'!" After reading the lesson you begin to feel that the Indian youth lack the spirit of patriotism. Write an article in about 120-150 words on the need of a patriotic spirit amongst the youth in India. India is the land of people like Mahatma Gandhi and Bhagat Singh, people who devoted their whole lives in serving their motherland. But in modern India, their thoughts have become a shadow of their previous self. The word 'patriotism' has faded 'patriotism' has faded away from the heats of the youth. The youth remains so much immersed in their superficial world that they have no interest in or intention of reflecting upon the idea of patriotism. However, if they can channelize their energy into something positive, India will surely become a super power as there is a lot of potential in the youth of our nation. The youth need to tap their limitless energy in the service of the nation and make an effort for the better and bright future of India, our motherland.

2.

LOST SPRING, STORIES OF STOLEN CHILDHOOD -ANEES JUNG

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS: Answer the following questions in 30-40 words: Q.1 What is Saheb looking for in the garbage dumps? Where has he come from and why ? Ans. Saheb hopes to find gold, some coins, a one-rupee note even when a ten-rupee note or other valuables from the garbage pile. He hails from Dhaka in Bangladesh and since his home and fields had been destroyed by the storm, he had to migrate. Q.2 Garbage to them is gold. Why does the author say so about the rag pickers? Ans. Garbage was gold for both adults and children. It helped the adults to earn a living while for children it was 'lucky dip' where they could find coins, notes or valuables to enjoy life. Q.3 What does the writer mean when he says, 'Saheb is no longer his own master'? Ans. Saheb was no longer his own master. He was subjected to poverty and had to scrounge the heaps of garbage to eke out a means of livelihood. His desire to study remained a mere dream. Q.4 Is it possible for Mukesh to realize his dream? Justify your answer. Ans. Mukesh aspired to become a motor mechanic. He wished to think differently and denounced the philosophy to walk miles together to learn where born only for the profession -171-

of bangle-selling. He was determined to walk miles together to learn the fundamentals to the trade. Q.5 What does the title ' Lost Spring ' convey? Ans. The beauty of the childhood is trampled under the burden of hard life. Saheb and Mukesh did not experience any spring in their lives due to the responsibilities of their families to supplement their income. They were derived education and pushed into family professions. They lost the spring in their lives. Q6. What was Mukesh’s dream? In your opinion, did he achieve his dream? Ans. Mukesh’s dream was to be a motor mechanic. He wanted to drive a car. In my opinion, determined as he was to break free from the vicious circle of poverty and dared to dream differently he would certainly achieve his dream one day. Q.7 How is Mukesh’s attitude different from that of his family? Ans. Mukesh dares to dream. He has a never say die spirit and wants to live a different life, whereas his grandmother, father, elder brother and all others are resigned to their fate. They feel it’s their destiny and believe that it is their ‘God-given lineage’ to be born in the caste of bangle makers. Q.8 what are the problem faced by the bangle makers? Ans. The problem faced by the bangle makers are that they have to work in glass furnaces with high temperatures, in dingy cells without air and light. The workers lose sight at an early age due to bad posture and long working hours. Unfortunately, there is no one to listen to them. Q9. How was Saheb’s life at the tea stall? Ans. Although Saheb was getting eight hundred rupees and meals at the tea stall, he had lost that carefree look. He was now under the burden of the steel canister that he was carrying and was no longer his own master. Q10. What does the writer mean when she says, ‘Saheb is no longer his own master’? Ans. The writer mean that till Saheb was a rag picker he was a carefree boy, who would work and had time for himself. But the time he joined the tea stall, he started working under somebody else and had to follow what his master would say. Thus he had no times for himself and was no longer his own master.

LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS: Answer the following questions in 120-150 words: Q.1 Give a brief account of life and activities of the people like Saheb-e-Alam settled in Seemapuri.

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The author's acquaintance with Saheb and other barefoot rag pickers introduced her to Seemapuri. It is a slum area located on the periphery of Delhi. The residents of Seemapuri consist of people who left Bangladesh in the 1971 war and are basically refugees. Saheb's family is among them. The area consists of mud structures, with roofs of tin and tarpaulin. It does not have facilities of sewage, drainage or running water. About 10000 rag pickers live here. Their only means of livelihood is rag picking. Thus, for them the rags are as valuable as gold, for their survival depends on these. When Anees visits that place, she comes to know that these rag pickers have lived here f or more than thirty years without any identity. They do not have permits but do have ration cards, thanks to the selfish whims and wishes of the politicians. With these they can get their name on the voter's lists and also buy grains for themselves at a subsidised rate. Q.2 'Lost Spring' explains the grinding poverty and traditions that condemn thousands of people to a life of abject poverty. Do you agree? Why/ Why not ? Yes, I do agree that 'Lost Spring' narrates the grinding poverty and traditions that condemn thousands of people have succumbed. The story written by Anees Jung revolves around the pitiable condition of poor children who have been forced to live in the slums and work hard in dirty conditions. The first part tells the writer's impression about the life of poor rag pickers who have migrated from Bangladesh but now are settled in the Seemapuri area of Delhi. The second part narrates the miserable life of the bangle-makers in the town of Firozabad. The stark reality of these families is that, in spite of back-breaking hard work that they put in, they cannot have two square meals a day. Besides, false and blind belief in traditions does not let their children take up other respectable and better paying jobs which will improve their financial situations. Q.3 The bangle-makers of Firozabad make beautiful bangles and make everyone happy but they live and die in squalor. Elaborate. Ans. The bangle-makers of Firozabad make beautiful bangles which are worn by women all across but the joy of wearing bangles is derived at the expense of the labour of millions of working children who are condemned to live a life of abject poverty and exploitation. The bangle makers live and die in poverty. Their homes are hovels with crumbling walls, wobbly doors and no windows. They have not been able to send their children to school and the children help them in welding pieces of coloured glass into circles of bangles. Their eyes are more adjusted to the dark than to the light outside. Working in the hot furnaces all through the daylight hours, they often end up losing the brightness of their eyes and for them there is no light even at the end of the tunnel. VALUE BASED QUESTION: Answer the following question in 120-150 words: 1. Most of us do not raise our voice against injustice in our society and tend to remain mute spectators. Anees Jung in her story, 'Lost Spring' vividly highlights the miserable life of street children and bangle makers of Firozabad. She wants us to act. Which qualities does she want the children to develop? -173-

Anees Jung wants the children to become free from the vicious cycle of poverty into which they have fallen due to the middlemen, sahukars and law enforcement officials. She wants them to be bold enough to raise their voice against their oppressors. She wants them to be fearless and optimistic so that they can dream of taking up other occupations, just like Mukesh, who wants to be a motor-mechanic. She wants to become them free from their traditional occupation so that they can realise their life's ambitions. She sees the spark of such a quality in Mukesh, who is willing to go to any lengths to become a motor-mechanic. She wants some people to help them develop these qualities so that they can be free from injustice and exploitation take up other respectable and better paying jobs which will improve their financial condition.

3. DEEP WATER -WILLIAM O DOUGLAS SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS: Answer the following questions in 30-40 words: Q.1 How did the drowning experience affect Douglas? Ans. Douglas had an aversion for water since his drowning incident when he was quiet young. It did not allow him t touch waters again. He felt he would be revisited by the same terror and his legs paralyzed due to the traumatic experience. Q.2 How did the instructor help Douglas to overcome his fear of water? Ans. Douglas had a hydrophobia due to his experience at YMCA pool. But the instructor helped him to tide over this fear. Douglas practiced swimming for weeks when a rope was tied to the belt. The training to exhale under water and to kick water with his feet, also helped him swim comfortably. Q.3 What did Douglas learn from his experience of drowning? Ans. Douglas had an almost fatal encounter in the waters when he was quiet young. It had so terrorized him that he developed a phobia for it and never tried taking a risk again. But fortunately, the guidance of his instructor and his self-confidence enabled him to overcome the fear of water and learnt to conquer the fear of the unknown. Q.4 How did the incident at the Y.M.C.A. pool affect Douglas? Ans. Douglas had a horrifying experience in the YMCA pool which continued to haunt him. He was tossed into a nine feet deep swimming pool by a 'bully' when he had just began to learn swimming. A sensation of death ran through him. He shouted for help in vain; but life smiled at him and he was saved. Q.5 Why was Douglas keen to overcome his fear of water?

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Ans. The misadventure at YMCA pool left Douglas a misfit due to his phobia for water. He was totally unhappy and wished he could get rid of the undesirable fear. Have resolved to overcome it, he practised the skill at lake went worth and also dived into the warm lake. No one could bully him now. Q.6 How did Douglas finally get rid of the fear he had of water? Ans. Finally, Douglas got rid of the fear of water by hiring the services of an instructor. The instructor understood the magnitude of the terror that gripped him and built a swimmer out of him with a sustained effort. Whatever residual fear he had, he was able to overcome that with his determination. Q.7 How did Douglas make sure that he conquered the old terror? Ans. With his grit and determination. Douglas made sure that he conquered the old terror. He hired the servicers of an instructor who built a swimmer out of him and whatever residual fear was left, he was able to overcome that with his confidence. Q.8 How did the instructor turn Douglas into a swimming? Ans. The instructor put a belt around Douglas which was attached to a rope that went through a pulley of an oveswarrhead cable. He would hold on to the rope and make Douglas go back and forth across the pool and made him practise till Douglas was able to shed his fear. Q..9 Why did Douglas’ mother recommend that he should learn swimming at the YMCA swimming pool? Ans. Douglas’ mother recommends that he should learn swimming at the YMCA swimming pool because it was only two or three feet deep at the shallow end, while it was nine feet deep at the other, the drop was gradual. Q.10 How did Douglas remove his residual doubts about his fear of water? Ans. Douglas went up to the Teiton to Conrad Meadows, up the Conrad Creek Trail to made Glacier, and camped by the side of Warm Lake. The next morning, he dived into the lake, and swam across to the other shore and back. This made him shout with joy and he was able to get rid of his fear of water finally. Long Answer type questions: Answer the following questions in 120-150 words: Q.1 How did Douglas develop an aversion to water ? Ans. William O. Douglas had developed an aversion to water when he was just a boy of three or four. His father took him to the beach in California. He and his father stood together in the surf. He was knocked down by the waves. He was buried in water. His breath had gone. There was terror in his heart at the overpowering force of the waves. He was frightened and developed a permanent fear for water. This fear revived when he was at the Y.M.C.A swimming pool. A big boy of eighteen tossed him into the deep end of the pool. He soon reached the bottom of the nine feet deep pool. But those nine feet were more like ninety. He -175-

was nearly drowned. His hands and legs were paralysed and rigid. His lungs ached and head pounded. When he came to senses, he found himself lying beside the pool, vomiting. William O. Douglas decided to get an instructor and learn how to swim. He went to a pool and practised five days a week. The instructor made him a perfect swimmer. He was not sure that all his terror had left. So he went to Lake Wentworth and dived off a dock. He had conquered his fear of water. Q.2 How did the instructor make Douglas a good swimmer? Ans. Douglas decided to get an instructor to learn swimming. The instructor started working with him five days a week, an hour each day. He put a belt around Douglas. A rope was attached to the belt that went through a pulley. The instructor held the rope and pulled Douglas back and forth, across the pool, making him practice. The instructor taught him to put his face under the water exhale, and to raise his nose inhale. Slowly and steadily Douglas was able to shed his fear of water, which was the greatest obstacle in his desire to swim. For weeks after this, his instructor made him kick with his legs. Initially his legs were not responding, but with time they relaxed and he was able to command his legs at his will. In this way, piece by piece, his instructor made Douglas a swimmer. Q.3 How did Douglas overcome his fear of water? Ans. At the age of three or four, Douglas was engulfed by waves from the sea, which started his fear of water. Then when he was ten or eleven years old, Douglas was tossed into a nine feet deep swimming pool by a foolish boy. He had a near drowning experience which further increased his fear. Determined to get rid of his fear, Douglas engaged an instructor under whom he practiced five days a week, an hour each day. The instructor tied Douglas with rope suspended from a pulley to overcome his fear. However every time when the instructor loosened his grip, Douglas's fear returned. It took him three months to overcome it. Next, the instructor taught Douglas to exhale under water and inhale by raising his nose. He was made to, kick at the side of the pool with his legs to build up stamina. Thus, Douglas spent six months with the instructor i.e. from October to April. Thereafter, he practiced on his own way by swimming across various lakes, finally overcoming his fear. Q.4 “.. there was terror in my heart t the overpowering force of the waves.” When did Douglas start fearing water? Which experience had further strengthened its hold on his mind and personality? Ans. When Douglas was three or four years old, he had gone with his father to the beach in California. Huge waves knocked him down and swept over him. He was buried in water, his breath was gone and he felt frightened. Since then he started fearing water. The YMCA pool incident further strengthened the fear in his mind taking a strong hold over his personality. One day as he was sitting at the edge of the pool, a big boy about eighteen tossed him into the deep water. He landed in a sitting water, frightened but not yet frightened out of his wits. Planned to come up but failed, thrice he attempted to come up to the surface but in vain. By now, he was seized by stark terror firmly and he let himself slip into oblivion only to be saved -176-

later but the fear of water had taken complete hold over him and he avoided it whenever possible. VALUE BASED QUESTION: Answer the following question in about 120-150 words: Desire, determination and diligence lead to success. Explain the value of these qualities in the light of Douglas' experience in 'Deep Water'. Ans. The terror of water followed Douglas wherever he went. To get rid of it, he made a strong determination. He decided to overcome his fear though his 'will'. He engaged an instructor who perfected him in swimming. the instructor gave him hundreds of exercises and taught him to exhale and inhale in water. The practice went on for three months and Douglas was able to counter his terror. Then after more exercises, the instructor ordered him to dive. He swam across and back lakes. He had now completely lost his fear of water. His desire, determination and diligence had succeeded in banishing his fear of water.

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4. THE RATTRAP -SELMA LAGERLOF

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS: Answer the following questions in 30-40 words: Q.1 Why did the peddler accept Edla's invitation? How did he feel? Ans. The peddler could not be persuaded by the ironmaster to visit his house as told by the father. Edla did a good job as she was warm, compassionate and friendly. The peddler accepted her invitation because of her amiable ways. Q.2 Did the stranger agree to go to the ironmaster's house? Why or why not? Ans. On the constant persuasion of the ironmaster the peddler was reluctant, to accompany him home to stay. He thought of his being discovered of the theft of thirty kroners. But on being accosted by his daughter, he accepted the invitation because of Edla's warmth and her understanding nature. Q.3 How did the peddler react when he saw that the ironmaster had recognised him as Nils Olaf, an old regimental comrade? Ans. The peddler had come to the Ramsjo Iron works to warm himself and sleep. On scrutinizing the face of the peddler, the iron-master misjudged him for an acquaintance. The peddler hoped for some materialistic gain. A couple of kroners would certainly make him feel good. Q.4 How did the peddler betray the confidence reposed in him by the Crofter in 'The Rattrap'? Ans. The crofter was a cool man. He entertained his guests to his heart's content, least bothered about their reactions. He offered porridge, supper and tobacco to the peddler. He played with him and also displayed his earnings. But his trust was betrayed. The peddler robbed him of the thirty kroners kept in his pouch. He made his way out of the house, least bothered of betraying the trust of z generous host. The evil in him had surfaced once again as he was not help to keep his image clean. He had deserted the crofter in a very cruel way. Q.5 Why did the peddler think that the world was a rattrap ? Ans. The peddler believed in the philosophy that the world was a rattrap. People get ensnared by the temptations it offers. The moment one touches the bait of materialistic joys, be is instantly trapped and condemned to the dark ways of the work. Q. 6 Why was the crofter so talkative and friendly with the peddler? Ans. The crofter was affectionate and generous but had nobody to talk to. He found someone in the peddler for company dispelling away his loneliness and behaved in a very friendly manner. -178-

Q. 7 What made the peddler finally change his ways? Ans. The peddler finally changed his way of life when he met the ironmaster’s daughter. H’er kindness, concern and understanding touched his heart and transformed him. Q.8 Why didn’t the stranger tell the ironmaster that he was not Nils Olof? Ans. The ironmaster made no efforts to reveal his real identity and let the ironmaster believe that he was an old acquaintance because he thought that he might get a couple of kronor from him in the bargain. Q.9 Who was the owner of Ramsjo iron mills? Why did he visit the mills at night? Ans. The ironmaster was the owner of Ramjo iron mills. His greatest ambition was to ship out good iron to the market. He would make his nightly rounds of inspection of the mill to see that work was done well. Q.10 Why did Edla plead with her father not to send the vagabond away? Ans. Edla pleaded with her father because she thought they had invited him over and now it was wrong on their part to ask him to leave. She also felt that they had a guest on Christmas eve whom they had promised cheer. LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS: Answer the following questions in 120-150 words: Q.1 How did the peddler feel after robbing the crofter? What course did he adopt and how did he react to the new situation? What does his reaction reveal? Ans. The crofter had treated the peddler with hospitality, and had even reposed his trust in the poor vagabond. Still the peddler robbed him and was quite pleased with his smartness. However, the fear of getting caught haunted him. So, he avoided the public highway and turned into the woods. It was a big and confusing forest, and due to approaching darkness, the peddler lost his way. He got exhausted moving around the same place, and was filled with despair. He began to feel that the forest was like a big rattrap and the thirty kronor he had stolen were like a set to tempt him. He felt helpless like a rat who had no way out of the trap in which they had fallen. His reaction reveals that he was feeling guilty for having stolen the crofter's money. His heart was filled with remorse and self-loathing for his act of weakness. Q.2 The story focuses on human loneliness and the need to bond with others. Explain. Ans. All the characters in the story suffer from loneliness and are dreary souls. First of all, the tramp appears to lead a sad, monotonous existence, left to his musings. He is always greeted by sour faces and cold words. The old crofter lives all alone in a cottage by the roadside. He is only too happy to get someone to talk to and get over his sense of loneliness. That's the reason why he is so generous and hospitable as a host. The ironmaster and his daughter, Edla also have no company for Christmas. The ironmaster takes the tramp home, mistaking him to be his old comrade and he, with his daughter, are -179-

happy to play perfect hosts to his friend. Thus, all of them have a strong desire for bonding and comradeship. The crofter is happy to be friends with peddler, although only for a night. Similarly, the ironmaster and his daughter have an opportunity to practice their Christian virtues of kindness, sympathy and hospitality. It is the bonding with the young girl that transforms the peddler Q.3 Describe the peddler’s different reactions to the ironmaster’s and his daughter’s invitations. Ans. The peddler reacted differently to and his daughter’s invitations, when the ironmaster’s the ironmaster invited him, mistaking him for his old regimental friend, the peddler refused as he was guilty of stealing the thirty kronor. He thought with that stolen money, going to the manor house would be like throwing himself voluntarily into the lion’s den. But at the same time, he did not reveal his identity expecting some money from the ironmaster. When Edla Willmansson invited him, her manner was friendly, warm and compassionate. He felt confidence in her when she said that he would be allowed to leave just as freely as he came. She requested him to stay with them for the Christmas eve. Her friendly and sincere manner dispelled all his fears, he felt reassured and accepted Edla’s invitation. VALUE BASED QUESTION: Answer the following question in 120-150 words: Q.1 There is a saying 'Kindness pays, rudeness never'. In the story, 'The Rattrap' Edla's attitude towards men and matters is different from her father's attitude. How are the values of concern and compassion brought out in the story, 'The Rattrap'? Ans. 'The Rattrap' is a story of a peddler who used to earn his living by selling small rattraps of wire. Since his business was not profitable, he resorted to petty thievery. Nobody treated him with kindness or respect. The first act of compassion was shown by the crofter who takes the poor peddler in. Bu the peddler stole his money and ran away. Later, he was given a place to stay by the noble ironmaster and his daughter. Though she was suspicious of him, they promised him Christmas cheer. When his truth was discovered, Edla fought with her father for the peddler. She not only requested her father to let the peddler stay for Christmas, but also treated him like a real captain. The peddler was highly touched by this act of concern and compassion and before leaving the house, left the money he had stolen. This shows that goodness is latent in the human heart which can be brought out by love, care and understanding.

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5. INDIGO -LOUIS FISCHER SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS: Answer the following questions in 30-40 words: Q.1 How was Gandhiji able to influence the lawyers? Ans. The lawyers realized their narrow-minded approach and selfish interests when Gandhiji declared that he was to be imprisoned for the cause of the share croppers. They resolved to fight for them. Q.2 How do we know that ordinary people too contributed to the freedom movement? Ans. Gandhiji undertook the battle in Champaran all because of a simple peasant named Raj Kumar Shukla. Be it the educated i.e. lawyers Prof. J.B. Kriplani and students or the illiterate peasants; all came together to contribute their mite to support Gandhiji to champion the cause of the peasants who were mercilessly exploited by the Britishers. Q.3 How did Shukla succeed in persuading Gandhiji to visit Champaran? Ans. Raj Kumar Shukla was bent on taking Gandhiji with him to Champaran. He expressed his blind faith in Gandhiji's, leadership. He also patiently waited for Gandhiji to finish his assignments and escorted him wherever he went. Gandhi's visit to Champaran thus, became compulsive. Q.4 How as Gandhiji able to influence the lawyers at Champaran ? Ans. The lawyer decided to return to their home town in case Gandhi faced arrest. Their callous attitude incited Gandhi to question their indifference t the cause of the poor peasants. It awakened their sense of duty and they were prepared for court arrest. Q.5 How did Gandhiji help the peasants of Champaran ? Ans. The peasants of Champaran faced oppression due to the evil designs of the landlords, Gandhiji helped them and agreed to a settlement of 25% refund to the farmers, making them aware of their rights. They also gained courage and confidence. Q.6 Why did Gandhi agree to the planters’ offer of a 25% refund to the farmers? Ans. The official inquiry assembled a hug quantity of evidence against the big planters. The planters offered to refund up to 25%. So Gandhi was agreed to settle the matter. Q.7 How was Gandhi treated at Rajendra Prasad’s house? Ans. When Shukla took Gandhi to Rajendra Prasad’s house, he was out of town. The servants knew Shukla as a poor farmer who was pestering their master to help the indigo share croppers. Seeing Gandhi with him they presumed him to be another farmer and allowed him to stay as Shukla’s companion.

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LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS: Answer the following questions in 120-150 words: Q.1 Why is the Champaran episode considered to be the beginning of the Indian struggle for Independence ? Ans. The Champaran episode was one of the major events in the struggle for Independence. It was in the course of this small but significant movement that Gandhiji decided to urge the departure of the British from India. A close examination of the problem of the Champaran peasants opened Gandhiji's eyes to the unjust policies of the British. He realised that people had to be made free from fear and only then could they be freed from foreign oppression. The spontaneous demonstration of the people proved that Gandhiji had the nation's support in his fight against the Britishers. The triumph of the civil disobedience at Champaran motivated the launching of the movement on a large scale during the freedom movement. Gandhiji's winning the case of sharecroppers proved that British authority could be challenged. Hence, the Champaran episode served as a stepping stone to Indian struggle for Independence. Q.2 Why did Gandhiji agree to a settlement of 25% refund to the farmers? How did it influence the peasant-landlord relationship in Champaran ? Ans. Gandhiji fought the case for the sharecroppers and the evidence that he collected was so overwhelming that the landlords were asked to repay. When Gandhiji asked for 50% repayment, the landlords offer to pay only 25% as they wanted to create a deadlock and thus prolong the dispute. To everybody's surprise, Gandhiji agreed on a refund of 25%. Gandhiji explained that the amount of refund was not important. What mattered was that the landlords were obliged to surrender a part of their money and with it, part of their prestige. The peasants saw that they had rights and defenders. They learned courage. Gradually, indigo sharecropping disappeared from the area and the land came back to the poor peasants. Q.3 The Champaran episode was a turning point in Gandhiji's life. Elucidate. Ans. The success of the Champaran episode made Gandhiji decide to urge the departure of the British from India. Gandhiji concluded that the root cause of the problem was fear, so going to law courts to solve and the dispute was useless. It brought him face to face with reality and he became aware of the miserable condition of the poor, illiterate farmers. He also realised the exploitation that lay beneath the policies of the Britishers. The spontaneous demonstration by the peasants was the beginning of their liberation from fear of British. Civil disobedience had triumphed for the first time in modern India. Gandhiji declared that British could not order him about in his own country. Thus, it was a turning point in his life, which also served as a source of strength motivation for his future movements.

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VALUE BASED QUESTION: Answer the following question in 120-150 words: Q.1 Exploitation is a universal phenomenon. The poor indigo farmers were exploited by the British landlords to which Gandhiji objected. Even after our independence we find exploitation of unorganised labour. What values do we learn from Gandhiji's campaign to counter the present day problems of exploitation? The weak have always and at all times been the victims of injustice and exploitation. Ans. We see two real examples of exploitation in our books. One is of the indigo sharecroppers at the hands of the British and the other is of the bangle workers of Firozabad. Numerous such incidents are also reported in the newspapers. Gandhiji taught us a very beautiful way to counter the problems of exploitation. The exploited are fear-stricken. The real relief comes for them when they get free from fear. Next is the path of non-violence and civil disobedience. Not bowing to the demands of the oppressor can do wonders for the exploited. Finally, Gandhiji's lesson in self-reliance is the most important to curb the menace of exploitation. Until one is self-reliant, one cannot fight against injustice.

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6. GOING PLACES -A.R. BARTON SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS: Answer the following questions in 30-40 words: Q.1 Why was Sophie jealous of Geoff's silence? Ans. Geoff, Sophie's elder brother was an apprentice mechanic. When he was silent, he was away somewhere in those places where she had never been. Since the brother's world was unknown to her, she craved to share his experiences. Q.2 Write a character sketch of Jansie. Ans. Jansie and Sophie were best friends but had contrasting natures. Jansie accepted the facts of life, was practical and not a dreamer. She wished to be apprized of all the details of Sophie's adventurous acts for a better understanding. Q.3 What did Sophie imagine about her meeting with Danny Casey ? Ans. Sophie was popular for her escapades. She cooked up the story of meeting the football prodigy, Danny Casey. She imagined their meeting at the Arcade where she asked for his autograph. But instead of an autograph, he asked her for a date. Q.4 Describe the character of Sophie's father and the role played by him. Ans. Sophie was fortunate to be blessed with the gift of hard working father. He cared to provide all comforts and facilities to the members of the family. He was also a sports enthusiast who took his family to watch United each Saturday. He was jovial and cheered Danny to score goals. He was practical and faced life squarely. He also counsels Sophie about her over-indulgence in day- dreaming and helps her face reality. Q.5 Jansie is just as old as Sophie but she is very different from her. Bring out the contrast between the two friends citing relevant instances from the story, 'Going Places' Ans. Jansie was a realist who guided Sophie when she was on the wings of her fantasies. Her practical bent of mind made her stand apart from the dream world of Sophie. Though Jansie and Sophie were of the same age-group but Jansie helped Sophie to manage her life sensibly. She made her realize that money was the deciding factor when one dreamt really big. She advised her to forget aspiring high if she was not determined to fulfil it. She was indeed a sincere friend who wished her to accept reality and walk for the biscuit factory. On the other hand, Sophie dreamt of becoming either an actress or a fashion designer. Her dream meetings with Danny Casey leave her shattered but fortunately, the members of her family help her to come out of the gloom. Q.6 Why did Sophie long for her brother’ affection? -184-

Ans. Sophie trusted her brother and was always interested in knowing certain areas of his life. She wanted to be admitted into affections as she thought that he might take her with him someday. She was sure that he believed in her romantic notions. Q.7 “Damn that Geoff, this was a Geoff thing not a Jansie thing.” Why did Sophie say so? Ans. ‘Student on Ice’ headed by Canadian Geoff Grum is an organization that arranges educational tours to the Antarctica. Young students are the future generation of policy makers. What they learn today, will practice it tomorrow. Q.8 Did Geoff keep his promise? How do you know? Ans. No Geoff did not keep his promise. Geoff told Jansies Lrother Frank about sophies meeting with Danny. Sophie admitted having me the fool baller. She was angry with Geoff for making the secret public. Q.9 Why did Sophie like her brother, Geoff more than any other person? Ans. Sophie was extremely fond of her brother Geoff. While Dad and Derek represented the squalor of their present existence, Geoff was the only person who offered a ray of hope in her life. He symbolized freedom as he visited places she had never been to Sophie hoped that he would introduce her to his exotic and promising world for which she believed she was made .

LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS: Answer the following questions in 120-150 words: Q.1 Attempt a character sketch of Sophie as a woman who lives in her dreams. Ans. Sophie has been portrayed as a central character in the story 'Going Places'. She represents the girls her age from poor families. As in reality they can't have the things they want, so they dream about them. So is the case with Sophie. She always lives in her dreams. She always dreams impossible things which are far removed from reality. She makes up the story of meeting Danny Casey, a young charming and upcoming footballer. Nobody believes her but she refuses to accept that it is her dream. Rather, she starts believing that she has met him. To show that she is telling the truth, she makes up another story that she has fixed a date with him. He does not show up her. Her dreams have become an integral part of her life, and she cannot distinguish between her world of imagination and the real world. Q.2 Contrast Sophie's real world with her fantasies. Ans. The story 'Going Places' is a journey into the dream world of the protagonist, a school girl named Sophie, who drifts from one dream to another. Sophie finds the reality of her life too harsh to accept. She belongs to a lower middle class family where nobody encourages her to dream of prospects. Still she dreams of owning the best boutique, becoming a manager in some store or at other times becoming an actress or a fashion designer.

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In reality, the pitiable condition of her life does not let her venture into such joyrides. However, in her dream world, she visits the Royce's meets Danny Casey, the sports icon and even fixes up a date with him. It's all in her mind but she considers it true and actually waits for him to show up at a specified spot and time. The flight of her imagination is such that it flips from one dream to another, from one place to the other. Q.3 How would you describe the character and temperament of Sophie's father? Ans. Sophie's father is a typical man belonging to the working class. He is the sole provider of the family. We first meet him as a coarse, ill-mannered man stuffing shepherd pie into his mouth, wearing his dirty and sweaty vest. He is a practical person who never leaves the world of harsh reality. He wants Sophie to step out of her dream world and tells her that her habit of making up stories is going to land her into trouble someday. He goes to the pub to celebrate something as frivolous as a football match. Thus, he is quite selfish. In spite of being the head of an impoverished family with so many mouths to feed, we never see him indulging in self-pity or cursing his fate. He rather enjoys his life to the fullest by making a weekly pilgrimage to watch the football match. Q.4 How different is Jansie from Sophie? Ans. Both Jansie and Sophie belonged to middle-class families and were friends and classmates. In their approach to life, they were in total contrast to each other. There were stark differences in their personalities. Jansie was a realist and aware of her humble background, whereas Sophie was romantic and give to daydreaming. She aspired to reach out to the skies and wanted to become an actress or a fashion designer and often thought of saving money to open a boutique of her own like Mary Quant after she finished her school. Jansie would remind her that they were earmarked for the biscuit factory and told her to be more practical in life and not talk of such unrealistic ventures but Sophie lived in a dream world of her own. Q.5 It is normal for adolescents to fantasise and indulge in hero worship. How far is it true of Sophie? Ans. It is normal for adolescents to fantasise and indulge in hero worship so long as it is not indulged to extreme levels. Daydreaming is a common phenomenon especially among teenagers where they create their own world of fantasy and like to think of things which are removed from reality. Something that happened in Sophie’s case. She is a school-going girl and fantasizes about Danny Casey, an Irish football player. Her ambitions and dreams were all a figment of her imagination and portray her as a very impractical and unrealistic girl. She is well aware of her middle-class background and the fact that after her schooling, she and Jansie (her friend) were earmarked for a biscuit factory. Still, she would dream of opening a boutique, becoming a fashion designer or an actress, etc. And would lose sight of everything around her. Q.6 Has Sophie met Danny Casey? What details of her meeting with Danny Casey did she narrate to her brother?

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Ans. No, Sophie has not met Danny Casey. It was all a figment of her fantasy and imagination. She narrate to her brother her chance meeting at the Royce’s where she recognized Casey and spoke to him first. She then asked him for an autograph for her little brother Derek but unfortunately neither of them had paper or pen. They went on to discuss the clothes at Royce’s windows and thereafter decided to meet next week and Casey had offered to then give her an autograph. Geoff did not really believe her and felt it unlikely that Casey would turn up at the appointed place. VALUE BASED QUESTION: Answer the following questions in 120-150 words each: Q.1 Day-dreaming and escapism lead a person to create a different world of illusions that is far removed from the harsh realities of life. How did Sophie, an incurable dreamer, create such a world and with what results? Ans. Day-dreaming leads only to escapism. When an ambitious but poor girl Sophie indulges in day-dreaming and escapism, she deliberately creates a different world for herself. It is a world of romance, beauty and riches. What a person can’t achieve in real life, she tries to achieve in her dreams. She always lives in such a fanciful world and conveniently forgets that her world is far removed from the harsh realities of life. Sophie doesn’t find the world and life to her liking. She is born in a poor family. She is torn between wants and desires. She is young and of romantic disposition. No young hero comes in her real life. Unfulfilled desires, poverty and limitations lead her to create a different world for herself. It I s a different world where she can dream of meeting her hero Danny Casey. She knows that Danny Casey will never care for such an ordinary girl like her. Many girls are after such a celebrity. She knows that he will never come. But she takes the help of dreams to reach him. The helpless poor girl finds some consolation in dreaming big and beautiful things. She dreams of having the grandest boutique in the town. She dreams of being a beautiful and famous film actress. All her dreams are beyond her reach and resources. The results were not very pleasant. Gradually, she allowed herself to be alienated from the world of reality. All her dreams and disappointment were the creation of her own mind.

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FLAMINGO POETRY SECTION

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1. MY MOTHER AT SIXTY-SIX - KAMALA DAS Extract Based Questions 1. Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow : "Driving from my parent's home to Cochin last Friday morning, I saw my mother, beside me, doze, open mouthed, her face ashen like that of a corpse and realised with pain that she thought away" Questions: (a) Where was the poet coming from ? Where was she going ? Ans. The poet had gone to her parent's home to visit them. She was now going to Cochin from where she had to board an aeroplane for her journey back home. (b) Where was the poet's mother ? Ans. The poet's mother was sitting beside her in the car. She was travelling with the poet to Cochin to see her off at the airport. (c) How does the poet describes her mother ? Ans. The poet describes her mother as old and pale. As she dozed off beside her, the mother looked almost like a corpse, for her face was colourless and seemed to have lost the fervour of life. (d) Who does 'she' refer to in the last line ? What thoughts had she driven away ? Ans. 'She' here refers to the poet's mother. Like all elderly people, she also suffered from the pain of loneliness and wanted her children to be with them. However, she seemed to have accepted her seclusion with quiet resignation, reconciling herself with the circumstances and compulsions of life. (e) Why was her mother’s face looking like that of a corpse? Ans. The mother’s face looking like that of a corpse because she was getting old and weak. (f) What did the poet notice about her mother? Ans. The poet notice that her mother was ageing and slowly inching towards death.

2. Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow : "but after the airport's security check, standing a few yards away, I looked again at her, wan, -189-

pale as a late winter's moon." (a) Where was the poet standing? Ans. The poet was at the Cochin airport waiting to board the plane after the security check. (b) Who does 'her' refer to here? How did she look like? Ans. 'Her' here refers to the poet's mother. She was an aged lady and hence looked pale and colourless. (c) Why does the narrator 'look at her again'? Ans. The narrator looked at her mother once again for the last time before she left to reassure herself about the well being of her mother. She had tried to drive away the pain she had felt on seeing her weak and aged mother. One last time she looked at her to wish her goodbye. (d) Explain: " wan, pale as a late winter's moon." Ans. In this simile, the poet compares the mother's pale and withered face with the winter's moon. The moon seems to lose its brightness in the winter season as it is veiled behind fog and mist. The mother's face also seemed to have lost its radiance which was now misted by age. Winter symbolises death and the waning moon symbolises decay. (e) Why has the poet’s mother been compared to ‘late winter’s moon’? Ans. The poet’s mother has been compared to ‘late winter moon’ because she is looking pale and is fading like the winter’s moon. Her face is dull and colourless. (f) Why are the young trees described as sprinting? Ans. As the poet is with her mother in a speeding car and in order to distract her mind, she looks out of the car window and it is at this time that the young trees on the roadside seem to her as sprinting. 3. Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow : “she was as old as she looked but soon put that thought away, and looked out at young Trees sprinting, the merry children spilling out of their homes” (a) Who looked at the young trees? Ans. The poetess Kamala Das looked at the young trees. (b) Which thought did she put away?

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Ans. The thought that she put away from her mind was that of her ageing mother's decaying condition and the thought that this could probably be their last meeting. (c) What do young people sprinting trees signify? Ans. The young sprinting trees signify the energy of the youth and continuity of life in contrast to her thoughts related to her old-aged mother. (d)What are ‘the merry spilling out of their homes’, symbolic of? Ans. The merry spilling out of their homes’, are symbolic of youth, cheerfulness and happy world outside. (e) What did she do then? Ans The poet got upset and disturbed at the thought, so tried to put it away by looking out of the window. (f) What did she notice in the world outside? Ans. She noticed the sprinting trees outside and children coming out of their homes in a cheerful mood. (g) Identify the figure of speech used in line no. 4. Ans. Personification 4 Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow. I saw my mother, beside me,doze,open mounted, her face ashen like that of a corpse and realized with pain that she was as old as she looked but soon put that thought away,…………. (a) What worried the poet when she looked at her mother? Ans. The fact that her mother was ageing, suffering and slowly inching toward death worried the poet. (b) Why was there pain in her realization? Ans. There was pain as she realized that she would have to part from her mother one day and would be left alone without her. (c) Why did she put that thought away? Ans. The poet got upset and was disturbed at the thought so she tried to put it away by looking out of the window. (d) Identify the figure of speech used in these lines’

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Ans. Simile; ashen like that of a corpse 5. Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow. And Looked out at young Trees sprinting, the merry children spilling Out of their homes, but after the airport’s Security check, standing a few yards Away, I looked again at her, wan, Pale As a late winter’s moon and felt that Old Familiar ache,……………. (a) How can the trees sprint? Ans. As the poet is with her mother in a speeding car, the tree on the roadside seems to be sprinting in the opposite direction. (b) Why did the post look at her mother again? Ans. After the security check, the poet looked at her mother again as she was going to part from her and wanted to reassure herself before her departure. (c) What did she observe? Ans. She observed her mother’s pale and lifeless face which seemed dull and colourless like the late winter’s moon. (d) Identify the figure of speech used in these lines. Ans. Personification; Trees sprinting. 6. Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow. I looked again at her, wan, Pale As a late winter’s moon and felt that Old Familiar ache, my childhood’s fear’ But all I said was see you soon, Amman, All I did was smile and smile and simile….. (a) What was the poet’s my childhood’s fear? Ans. The poet’s childhood fear was that she would lose her mother one day and would be left alone. (b) What were the poet’s parting words? Ans. The poet’s parting words were “See you soon, Amman”. She was trying to put up a rave front by hiding her fear behind her simile. (c) What is the poetic device used in these lines? Ans. Repetition;…….smile and smile and smile (d) Why did the poet smile and smile? -192-

Ans. The poet smiled and smiled and told her mother that she would see her soon . She wanted to farewell in a pleasant and cheerful manner.

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS: Answer the following questions in 30-40 words each: Q.1 How does the poet's mother look like? What kind of images has the poet used to signify her ageing and decay ? Ans. The poet's mother is at sixty-six. She is sitting beside her. The mother is dozing as old people usually do during the journey. She keeps her mouth open. This is also a sign of old age. Her face looks pale and faded like ash. Actually, she is an image of decay and death. Her 'ashen' face looks like that of corpse.

Q.2 Why does the poet feel her old familiar ache and what is her childhood fear? Ans. The sight of her mother's corpse-like face arouses ' that old familiar ache' in her heart. Her childhood fear returns. The fear is that with ageing comes decay and death. Ageing and decay are inevitable. No one avoid them. Perhaps she herself may have to face all these things. This idea is quite painful and fearful to her. Q.3 Describe the contrast of the scene inside the car with the activities going on outside. Describe the use of images that poet employs to strike that contrast. Ans. Inside the car sits an old mother beside the poet. She is sixty-six and ageing. Her 'ashen' face is pale and lifeless like a corpse. The world outside provides a stark contrast. The 'young' trees seem to be running past or sprinting. The children are making merry. The 'ashen' and 'corpse-like' is contrasted with the 'young' trees 'sprinting' outside and the merry children coming out of their houses. Q.4 What were the poet's feeling at the airport? How did she hide them? Ans. The poet experienced two opposite and contrasting feelings at the airport. The ashen and the pale face of her mother brought an image of decay and death. But she immediately hid her feelings. She composed herself and tried to look normal. She smiled continuously to assure her mother that they would meet again soon. Q.5 Describe the poetic devices used by Kamala Das in 'My Mother At Sixty-Six'. Ans. Kamala Das ' My Mother At Sixty-Six’ is rich in imaginary. The use of simile is very effective. Her face has been described as 'ashen'. The ashen face is 'like that of a corpse'. Again the 'wan, pale' face of a mother is compared to ‘a late winter's moon'. The poem excels in contrasts. 5. How does Kamala Das try to put away the thoughts of her ageing mother?

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Ans. Kamala Das looked out the window of her car at the sprinting trees and happy children to put away the painful thoughts of her old and ageing mother who she thoughts might not live long. 6. What was the poet’s childhood fear? Ans. The poet’s childhood fear was that she would lose her mother one day and would be left alone, she realized with pain that her mother was growing old and might not live long.

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2. An Elementary School Classroom in a Slum -Stephen Spender Extract Based Questions 1. Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow : "Far far from gusty waves these children's faces. Like rootless weeds, the hair torn round their pallor: The tall girl with her weighed-down head. The paperseeming boy, with rat's eyes. The stunted, unlucky heir Of twisted bones, reciting a father's gnarled disease, His lesson, from his desk. At back of the dim class One unnoted, sweet and young. His eyes live in a dream, Of squirrel's game, in tree room, other than this." Questions (a)

What do 'gusty waves' mean?

Ans. Gusty waves signify the vibrance and the bounties of nature which are far removed from the reach of the children of the slum. (b) What are the children like in the slum ? Ans. The children hail from poor families. They are malnourished and look sickly. (c)

Explain 'reciting a father's gnarled disease'.

Ans. The lessons recited by the child are but mute tragic story of the abnormalities of the body. They continue to play havoc in their lives too (inherited disease). (d) How do a child's eyes live in a dream ? Ans. The child has a living dream in his eyes. It seems to be alive in his eyes despite the dismal life of the slum. (e) Who are these children? Ans. These children belong to slums and are studying in class of slum area. (f) What has possible weight-down the tall girl’s head? Ans. The object poverty, the burden of her day-to-day worries and anxieties have possible weight down the tall girl’s head. (g) What are the children compared to? Ans. The children compared to ‘rootless weeds’ as they are unwanted like the weeds. (h) Give two phrases which tell us that children are under-nourished? Ans. The paper-seeming boy and rat’s eyes are the two phrase that tell us that the children are undernourished. (i) Identify the figure of speech used in these lines. Ans. Simile; like rootless weeds.

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2. Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow : " Unless, governor, inspector, visitor This map becomes their window and these windows That shut upon their lives like catacombs, Break O break open till they break the town And show the children to green fields, and make their world Run azure on gold sands, and let their tongues Run naked into books the white and green leaves upon History their whose language is the sun. "

Questions (a)

How can 'this map' become 'their window'?

Ans. This map of the world is shaped and owned by the rich. It must also be thrown open to the poor and unfortunate children of slums. Only then will it become 'their window'. They will be able to peep inside it. (b)

What have shut upon their lives like catacomb ?

Ans. Their dirty surroundings have blocked their progress and growth. They have been shut inside them like the underground graves (c)

Explain : '... till they break the town'.

Ans. Till they come out of the dirty surroundings and slums of the town into the open. (d)

What will happen if the children come out of the bonds that bind them?

Ans. Then their world will be extended to the golden sands and azure waves and to the green fields. (e) “So blot their maps with slums as big as doom”, says Stephen Spender. What does the poet want to convey? Ans. The poet wants to convey that the future of these children is bleak. It is blotted by fog and spells doom for them. He hopes that one day these maps would become their windows.

3. Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow : “Open-handed map Awarding the world its world. And yet, for these, Children, these windows, not this map, their world, Where all their future's painted with a fog. narrow street sealed in with a lead sky Far from rivers, capes, and stars of words”. (a)

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Ans. 'A lead sky' suggests a grey and dull sky which means that there is no hope for the slum children. They have a bleak future. (b)

What does the poet say about the children's future?

Ans. The children's future is bleak and dark. They nurture hopes for a better future but achieving these hopes is merely a dream for them. (c)

What kind of world do we see on the map?

Ans. The map of the world is symbolic of hopes and aspirations and a mere look at this world motivates the children to explore this world, which is full of the bounties bestowed by God. (d)

Who are these children? What is their world like?

Ans. These are school children living in dingy and dirty slums. Their world is foggy, narrow and polluted. It is far from the open sky, clean rivers and capes. 4. Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow : “On their slag heap, these children Wear skins peeped through by bones and spectacles of steel With mended glass, like bottle bits on stones All of their time and space are foggy slum. So blot their maps with slums as big as doom”.

(a) Which two images are used to describe these slums? Ans. The images used to describe these slums are: 'slag heap', 'bottle bits on stones' and 'slums as big as doom'. (b) What sort of life do these children lead? Ans. These children lead a life worse than death. The dirt and garbage of the slum is their world so their lives are pathetic, full of misery and poverty. (c) Which figure of speech is used in the last line ? Ans. A simile has been used in the last line where slums are compared to a living hell. (d) What blot ‘their’ maps? Ans. These living hells are the dirty slums. They are blots on the map of the civilised world. It is the world of the rich and great. (e)Explain : from fog to endless night’. Ans. It means that the life of children is not only full of sadness but their future is gloom and confused. 5. Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow : On their slag heap, these children -197-

Wear skins peeped through by bones and spectacles of steel With mended glass, like bottle bits on stones. Extract Based Questions (a) What is their slag heap? Ans. Slag heap is a large of waste material which is the world of these children. (b) Why are their bones peeping through their skins? Ans. ‘Bones peeping through their skins ‘is indicative of their weak, skinny and malnourished bodies. (c) What does ‘with mended glass’ mean? Ans. ‘Mended glass’ here refers to the slum children wearing spectacles with repaired or probably broken glasses which have been discarded by the rich. Sadly, this remains their lot. 6. Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow. At back of the dim class One unnoted, sweet and young. His eyes live in a dream, Of squirrel games, in tree room, other than this. (a) Why is the class dim? Ans. The class dim and pathetic because it is in a slum area. (b) Why is the child called ‘sweet and young’? Ans. The child is called ‘sweet and young’ because he is looking out of the window at squirrel games (c) What does the child want to enjoy? Ans. The child wants to have his freedom and enjoy the outside world. (d) What is the significance of the phrase, ‘other than this’? Ans. ‘Other than this’ signifies his current miserable surroundings. 7. Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow. With ships and sun and love temping them to stealFor lives that slyly turn in their cramped holes From fog to endless night? (a) Who are ‘them’ referred to in the first line? Ans. ‘Them’ referred to the slum children.

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(b) What tempts them? Ans. The maps on the classroom walls that show the foreign lands with shops and beautiful landscapes. (c) What does the poet say about ‘their’ lives? Ans. Their lives are far removed from what is displayed on the classroom walls. Their future is foggy, bleak and holds little promise for them. 8. Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow. …………………and yet, for these Children, these windows, not this map, their world, Where all their future’s painted with a fog, A narrow street sealed in with a lead sky Far far from rivers, capes and stars of words. (a) Which is their world? Ans. Their world is dark and gloomy environment of the classroom confined within the four walls and the narrow foggy lanes of their slums. (b) How is their life different from that of other children Ans. Their life and future are bleak and hold little promise, whereas the other children have a more enlightened life and have been exposed to education. SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS: Answer the following questions in 30-40 words each: Q.1 What is the message that Stephen Spender wants to give through the poem 'An Elementary School Classroom in a Slum'? Ans. In 'An Elementary School Classroom in a Slum', Stephen deals with the theme of social injustice and inequalities. There are two different worlds. Art, culture and literature have no relevance to slum children. They live in dark, narrow, cramped holes and lanes. Unless the gap between the two world is abridged, there can't be any real progress or development. Q.2 What should governors, teachers, inspectors and other important and powerful persons do to improve the lot of children living in slums? Ans. Two world exists simultaneously. They are quite opposite and incompatible to each other. The gap between them must be abridged. Governors, teachers and powerful persons can play an important role in it. They can help in removing social injustice and class inequalities. All good things of life, the sea, the sun, and the fields should be within the reach of slum- children. Q.3 What does the poet wish for the children of the slums?

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Ans. The world of slum children is of want, miseries, dirt and hunger. Stephen Spender wants social justice and equality for them. The gap between the world of the rich and the mighty, and the hellish and the foggy world of slums must be abridged. Their lives can be changed if social injustice and inequalities be removed. All good things of life must be within the reach of slum children. Q.4 Why does Spender call Shakespeare ‘wicked’ and the map a ‘bad example’? Ans. Spender calls Shakespeare 'wicked' because Shakespeare holds no interest and serves no purpose to the slum children. The map of the world drawn and bartered by the mighty and the rich has no relevance to them. They are not part of it. Q.5 Crushed under poverty, disease and miseries do the little school children of slums have any dreams or hopes? What are they? Ans. The children living in slums have to live in most miserable and sub-human conditions. The burden of poverty and disease crushes their bodies. They still have dreams. Their future is foggy and uncertain. They have kept their hopes alive. They dream of open seas and green fields. They dream of the games that a squirrel plays on the trees. Q6. The poet says,’ and yet for these children, these windows, not this map, their world.’ Which world do these children belong to? Which world is i accessible to them? Ans. These children belong to a world of foggy slums, dark and narrow lanes leading a poor and miserable life. The world inaccessible to them is the civilized world with all its riches and beautiful things. 3. What changes does the poet hope for in the lives of the slum children? Ans The poet wishes education for the slum children which will broaden their horizons, liberate them truly and empower them to create their own history. He wants them to get rid of their dismal lives.

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3. KEEPING QUIET -Pablo Neruda Extract Based Questions 1. Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow : "What I want should not be confused with total inactivity. Life is what it is about; I want no truck with death. If we were not so single-minded about keeping our lives moving, and for once could do nothing, perhaps a huge silence might interrupt this sadness of never understanding ourselves and of threatening ourselves with death." Questions:. (a) What does the poet not want himself to be? Ans. The poet doesn't want himself to be confused with advocating total inactivity. (b) Explain: 'I want no truck with death'. Ans. Total inactivity brings death. The poet has no association with death. Hence, he is not advocating for death. (c) What were we not focussing on? Ans. It would have been better if we had not been focussing all the time on keeping our lives moving. We should have given ourselves rest sometime. (d) When can a huge silence do us good? Ans. When we were threatening ourselves with death, a silence can do us a lot of good.

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1.

Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow :

"Perhaps the Earth can teach us as when everything seems dead and later proves to be alive. Now I'll count up to twelve and you keep quiet and I will go." Questions: (a) What can earth teach us? Ans. The earth can teach a lesson to mankind how to live on it. (b) What lives alive when everything seems dead? Ans. Only the earth lives alive when everything else appears to be dead. (c) What does the poet ask us while he counts upto twelve? Ans. The poet asks us to keep quiet while he is counting upto twelve. (d)What does the poet mean to achieve by counting up to twelve? Ans. Counting up to twelve will help us to appreciate moments of peace and think calmly. (e)What is the significant of ‘keeping quiet’? Ans. ’Keeping quiet’ helps us to enjoy the moments of profound silence and stillness and also makes us introspect. (f) Name the poem and the poet of these lines. Ans. The name of the poem is 'Keeping Quiet' and the poet is Pablo Neruda.

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS: Answer the following questions in 30-40 words each: Q.1 Why does Pablo Neruda urge us to keep still ? Ans. Pablo Neruda considers that indecent haste and activities lead humanity to wars, violence and death. He urges us to keep still to enjoy a few moments of peace, rest and tranquillity. Sometimes keeping still gives us the much needed respite. Q.2 How can suspension of activities help ? Ans. Man's indecent haste has already caused a lot of problems. His activities have given birth only chaos, war, violence and miseries. Suspension of human activities can help in restoring the environment and health of this world. Suspension of undue haste and rush can help in bringing peace and tranquillity in the troubled world. Q.3 How will counting up to twelve and keeping still help us ? Ans. Man keeps his never relenting activities throughout the twelve hours of the day. This results in fresh turmoil and tensions. Violence, war and other mischiefs of man are the results -202-

of his undue and indecent haste and hurry. Keeping still can help him to buy time for a positive approach and thinking. It can help in bringing this uneasy and turbulent world to peace and harmony. Q.4 How can there be life under apparent stillness ? How does the poet prove it ? Ans. Neruda doesn't equate stillness with total inactivity. Under this apparent stillness there is life. We can learn it from the earth. When everything seems dead, the earth remains still alive. It is never dead. The life on the earth goes on as usual under the apparent stillness. Q.5 How is 'stillness' not equal to total inactivity? Why does Neruda say : 'I want no truck with death' ? Ans. The Earth can teach us an important lesson. The earth is never dead. When everything seems to be dead, it remains still alive. 'Stillness' shouldn't be confused with total 'total inactivity'. Life goes on as usual. The poet doesn't advocate for total inactivity has no association with death. Q.6 Which sadness is Pablo Neruda worried about in his poem? Ans. The sadness that Pablo Neruda is worried about in his poem is the sadness of isolation that has made modern man its victim. This sadness has made man self-centred and uncaring to the needs of his fellowmen. He has sacrificed the needs of his emotional self in favour of materialism. Q.7 Do you think the poet, Pablo Neruda advocates total inactivity and death? Why/Why not? Ans. No, the poet Pablo Neruda does not advocate total inactivity and death. He wants to give mankind an opportunity of quiet introspection to know and realize how he has been harming himself and others. He makes it clear that stillness should be confused with inactivity. Stillness means halting of harmful human activities. He also wants mankind to understand that life is sprouting out of seemingly dead surroundings. Q.8 What are the different kinds of wars mentioned in the poem? What is Neruda’s attitude towards these wars? Ans. The kinds of wars mentioned are war with fire, wares with gas and green wars. Neruda says that ware lead to death, destruction and loss and leave no survivors to enjoy the victory.

Extract Based Question: Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow : For once on the face of the Earth Let’s not speak in any language, Let’s stop for once second, And not move our arms so much. (a) Why does he poet want us to keep quiet?

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Ans. Keeping quiet will help us appreciate moments of peace, togetherness and make us introspect. (b) What does he want us to do for one second? Ans. He just wants us to remain still and not move our arms. (c) What does he mean by ‘not move our arms’? Ans ‘Not move our arms’ means that the man would stop indulging in harmful activities and put an end to all the destruction. Extract Based Question: Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow: It would be an exotic moment Without rush, without engines, We would all be together In a sudden strangeness. (a) What will happen if there is no rush or running of engines? Ans. Without rush or running of engines, there will be complete silence for a moment. (b) Why would it be called an exotic moment? Ans. The poet calls it an exotic moment because it will be a beautiful moment thoughtful silence. (c) How would we feel at that moment? Ans. Such a moment gives us a feeling of enlightenment and a sense of togetherness. It also gives us a chance of introspection. (d) What does ‘it’ refer to? Ans. ‘It’ refers to that quiet moment when everything will be still and no activity will take palce. (e) Who is the poet speaking to? Ans. The poet is conveying his message to people in general. (f) What would be the moment like? Ans. It would certainly be a strange moment. There would be no sound, no noise, no rush and all would be together. SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS: (a) What is the sadness that the poet, Pablo Neruda, refers to in the poem, ‘Keeping Quiet’?

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Ans. The poet refers to the sadness as human beings are not able to understand themselves. Their life is always threatened with pain and sorrow as they are constantly at war of different kinds. (b) According to the poet, what is it that human beings can learn from Nature? Ans The human beings can learn a lesson or two from Nature. The poet explains by giving the example of earth which under its apparent stillness is nurturing life. Peace and quietness do not mean inactivity. (c) What is the exotic moment the poet Pablo Neruda wished for? Ans. The exotic moment the poet Pablo Neruda wished for is when there will be no rush of running from place to place, no humming sound of engines where we will feel oneness and togetherness with each other and will feel part of this great universe.

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4. A THING OF BEAUTY -John Keats Extract Based Questions 1. Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow : “A thing of beauty is a joy forever Its loveliness increases, it will never Pass into nothingness; but will keep A bower quiet for us, and a sleep Full of sweet dreams, and heath, and quiet breathing. " Questions: (a) "A thing of beauty is joy forever." Explain. Ans. A thing of beauty is constant and everlasting source of joy and pleasure. Time can't fade its beauty as its loveliness increases with passage of time. (b) Why does not a beautiful thing pass into nothingness? Ans. A thing of beauty never passes into nothingness as its beauty is constant and eternal. (c) What does the poet mean by "A bower quiet for us"? Ans. As a pleasant place in the shade under trees provides peace and pleasure , a thing of beauty also does the same . It is like a 'quiet' bower. (d) Name the poem and the poet. Ans. The name of the poem is ‘A Think of Beauty’ and the poet is John Keats.

2. Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow : “Therefore, on every morrow, are we wreathing A flowery band to bind us to the earth, Of noble natures, of the gloomy days, Of all the unhealthy and o’er-darkened ways Made for our searching: yes, in spite of all, Some shape of beauty moves away the pall From our dark spirits."

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Questions : (a) What are we doing every day? Ans. We are weaving a flowery wreath every day to bind us to the beauties of this earth. (b) Describe bad and evil things that we possess in us. Ans. We suffer from disappointments, lack of noble qualities and unhealthy and evil ways. (c) 'In spite of all'. Explain. Ans. It means in spite of all these evil things mentioned above. (d) What removes the pall from our dark spirits? Ans. Some beautiful shape or a thing of beauty removes the pall of sadness from our hearts or spirits. (e)Which evil things to we possess and suffer from? Ans. The evil things in our lives are our bad temperament, a desire to dominate nature, create wars and these become the cause of our sufferings. (f)What are the circumstances that contribute towards making humans unhappy and disillusioned with life? Ans. Humans are unhappy and disillusioned because of their own doing. Wars, death of noble people, unhealthy ways that man has adopted all contribute to make him unhappy. (g) Why are we ‘despondent’? Ans. We are despondent because in normal course of life, we face difficulties and problems; there are gloomy and depressing days and dearth of good human beings. (h) What removes ‘the pall from our dark spirits? Ans. Things of beauty such as the sun, the moon, trees, rivers, and mountains give us pleasure and add meaning to our life. Beautiful things remove the negativity that gets created by the dark and gloomy days in our life. (i) What are the flowery bands that bind us to the earth? Ans. Man beings every day with a new hope. We wreathe a flowery band of beautiful things, of beautiful deeds to keep us tied to the earth. (j) What message do the above lines convey? Ans. These lines convey that life is full of miseries and hardships, of despondency and disappointments, but things of beauty bring a glimmer of hope and joy. SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS: -207-

Answer the following questions in 30-40 words each: Q.1 How is a thing of beauty a joy forever? Ans. John Keats, a great Romantic poet, considers that a thing of beauty is a joy forever. It is a constant source of happiness and pleasure. Its loveliness increases every moment. A thing of beauty is never devalued. It never passes into nothingness. Q.2 How do we bind us to the earth every morning? Ans. Like all the Romantic poets, Keats stresses the unbreakable bond of man with nature and the earth. The beauties of the earth fascinate man. Every object of nature is a source of beauty and happiness. Every day we are weaving a wreath through these beautiful things. This flowery band binds us with the earth. Q.3 Why does Keats associate 'grandeur' with 'the mighty dead'? Ans. The 'mighty dead ' were people of great power, authority and grandeur. They were wealthy, brave and awesome people. They are dead in their grave but their grandeur and glory survives. It is believed that they will be handsomely rewarded on the dooms day. Q.4 How is the pall of despondence moved away from our dark spirits? Ans. Man makes his life miserable by his own nature and actions. He faces miseries and pains. Amid these miseries and sufferings, a thing of beauty provides the only hope to humanity. A thing of beauty works wonders. It is a joy forever. It removes the pall of despondence ad sadness from our 'dark spirits'. Q.5 What is the message that John Keats wants to give through 'A thing of Beauty'? Ans. The very first line of the poem conveys the message of the poet. John Keats was a worshipper of beauty. A thing of beauty is a joy forever. Beauty never fades. Nor is it devalued. It never passes into nothingness. A thing of beauty removes the pall of sadness and sorrows and gives us joy and pleasure. Q.6 Mention any two things which, according to Keats, give us pain and suffering. Ans. According to Keats man suffers from pain and suffering due to the inhuman dearth of noble natures on earth and due to the inhuman and hostile attitude that makes our days sad and darkness our ways with distress and wretchedness. Q7. How do beautiful things help us to live a happy life? Ans. Things of beauty take away the pall of gloom from our lives. Despite troubles and suffering, beautiful things and timeless and help in elevating our moods by bringing happiness and cheer. 3.Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow: All lovely tales that we have heard or read; An endless fountain of immortal drink, -208-

Pouring unto us from the heaven’s brink. (a) What is the thing of beauty mentioned in these lines? Ans. Things of beauty mentioned in the above lines are the heroic and inspiring tales of the might emperors or other awe-inspiring tales of people and their noble deeds. (b) What image does the poet use in these line? Ans. The poet uses the image of ‘an endless fountain’ being showered from the heaven. He calls it an immortal drink.

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5. AUNT JENNIFER'S TIGERS -Adrienne Rich Extract Based Questions 1. Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow : "Aunt Jennifer's tigers prance across a screen Bright topaz denizens of a world of green. They do not fear the men beneath the tree; They pace in sleek chivalric certainty." Questions: (a) How are Aunt Jennifer's tigers described? Ans. Aunt Jennifer's tigers are dynamic, sleek, and full of strength and chivalric grace. (b) Why are they described as denizens of a world of green? Ans. The tigers are the animals that live in forests. They live in the world of green surrounded by green trees and thick green vegetation. (c) Why are they not afraid of the men? Ans. They are not afraid of the men because they are not real. Even otherwise ferocious and strong tigers are never afraid of men. (d) Name the poem and the poet. Ans. The of the poem is ‘Aunt Jennifer’s Tigers’ and the poet is ‘Adrienne Rich’. 2. Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow : "When Aunt is dead, her terrified hands will lie Still ringed with ordeals she was mastered by. The tigers in the panel that she made Will go on prancing, proud and unafraid. " Questions: (a) Why are Aunt Jennifer's hands terrified? Ans. Aunt Jennifer's hands are 'terrified' as they still bear the cruel burdens of not so happy wedded life. (b) What are the ordeals that Aunt Jennifer faced in her life? Ans. Aunt Jennifer didn't seem to have led a pleasant married life. The hard and bitter experiences of her married life lie heavy on her. (c) How are the tigers different from her?

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Ans. Aunt Jennifer's tigers provide a striking contrast. The old lady is weak and can't even move her terrified 'fingers'. On the other hand, her tigers symbolise strength, power and speed. (d) What will happen to her tigers after her death? Ans. The tigers will continue running unafraid in 'sleek' chivalry. (e)Who is the Aunt mentioned here? Ans. ‘Aunt Jennifer’ represents here the women all over the world. (f) Why is she ‘ringed with ordeals’? Ans. She is ‘ringed with ordeals’ because she is trapped in a failed marriage and is not able to get out of the clutches of her burdensome husband.

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS: Answer the following questions in 30-40 words each: Q.1 Describe the tigers created by Aunt Jennifer? Ans. Aunt Jennifer weaves and creates tigers in the panel. Her tigers symbolise strength, speed and splendour. They pace with confidence and certainty. They provide a striking contrast to the frail old lady who created them. Q.2 How does the poet describe Aunt Jennifer's tigers? Ans. The poet describe Aunt Jennifer's tigers as 'bright topaz denizens' of the forest. They are fearless. They pace in 'sleek' chivalry. The symbolise pace, power and strength. They provide a sharp contrast to the weak and old lady who created them. Q.3 What is the weight that lies heavy on her hand and how is it associated with her husband? Ans. Aunt Jennifer can't move even her fingers freely in the wool. Actually, she has some bitter experiences of her past married life. The memories of her married life with her husband have been quite unpleasant. The weight of the wedding band sits heavily upon Aunt Jennifer's hand. She finds it difficult even to pull the ivory needle easily with her weak fingers. Q.4 What kind of ordeals is Aunt Jennifer surrounded by? Ans. Aunt Jennifer is haunted and surrounded by the ordeals of her married life. The old memories of her married life don't give her any solace or happiness. On the other hand, her 'terrified hands' only 'ringed' with ordeals that were given by her unhappy married life. The unbearable and 'massive weight of Uncle's wedding band' made her fingers tremble and shake. Q.5 What will happen to Aunt Jennifer's tigers when she is dead? Ans. The tigers Aunt Jennifer has created will not die when she is dead. They will survive her. They will go on prancing, proud and afraid. Aunt Jennifer will die but her creations will survive. Art always survives death. Q.6 Describe the contrast between Aunt Jennifer and her creation, the tigers. -211-

Ans. Aunt Jennifer is totally victimised and suffers from oppression by her male counterpart. So she creates an alternate world of freedom in her art. The tigers she creates go on prancing menacingly, exhibiting their pride and fearlessness of any social or gender conflicts.

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS: Q1. How do ‘denizens’ and ‘chivalric’ add to our understanding of the tigers’ attitude? Ans. The word ‘denizens’ and ‘chivalric’ evoke the mental image of majestic tigers who are the residents of the world of green. They are unafraid, proud, certain and show chivalryconduct themselves in a manly fashion.

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VISTAS

1. THE TIGER KING -KALKI SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS: Answer the following questions in 30-40 words each: Q.1 Why did the Maharaja ban tiger hunting in the state? Ans. After the Maharaja was crowned the king, the astrologer's prediction gradually reached his ears, and he set out on a tiger hunt. When he killed his first tiger, the astrologer informed him that he would have to kill a hundred tigers to escape the prophecy. So, that he could get the required number of tigers to kill and reach the mark. Q.2 Why was the Maharaja so anxious to kill the hundredth tiger? Ans. The astrologer had foretold that the Maharaja should be wary of the hundredth tiger. The Maharaja killed ninety-nine tigers but he could not even trace the hundredth one. Killing the last tiger would mean that he proved the prophecy wrong and saved his life. That is why he was so anxious to kill the hundredth tiger. Q.3 When did the Tiger King stand in danger of losing his kingdom? Ans. Tiger hunting was banned in Pratibandapuram. A high-ranking British officer visited Pratibandapuram with a wish to hunt tigers. The Maharaja refused this permission. He feared that if he relented, other British officers would turn up with similar requests. He stood in danger of losing his kingdom because he refused the request of the British officer. Q.4 How did the Tiger King meet his end? What is ironical about his fate? Ans. The tiger King bought a wooden toy tiger for his son's birthday. It was crafted by an unskilled carpenter. Tiny silvers of wood stood out all over it like quills. One of the silvers pierced the Maharaja's hand. The infection soon spread all over his arm and he could not survive. The irony about his fate is that the king killed many tigers, sometimes even with his bare hands, but a harmless toy tiger proved to be the reason of his death. His death was thus destined and the irony lay in his failure to survive the ominous prediction. Q.5 How did the tiger king acquire his name? Ans. The Tiger King acquired the name due to his ferocious attitude that he adopted at the age of twenty when he was crowned the king. He continued to kill till he was successful in achieving his mission of killing a hundred tigers. He was a terror to the tigers and killed ninetynine of them till destiny finally kills him. Q.6 What did the British officer's secretary tell the Maharaja? Why did the Maharaja refuse permission?

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Ans. When the British officer was denied permission for hunting a tiger his secretary sent a message to the Maharaja that the Maharaja himself could kill the tiger and then allow his officer to get photographed holding the gun over the dead tiger. But the Maharaja did not agree to his request because he felt doing so would mean other officers would come with similar demands. Q.7 Why did the Tiger king decide to get married? Ans. The Tiger king was able to kill seventy tigers when the tiger population in his forests became extinct. He had to kill thirty more and it was then that he expressed his desire to get married to a girl fro the royal family of a state with a large tiger population. Q.8 How did the Tiger king ‘kill’ the hundredth tiger? Ans. The Tiger king thought that he had ‘killed’ the hundredth tiger but in reality the bullet had missed its mark. The old and weak tiger fell down in shock as the bullet whizzed past him. He was later killed by hunters. Q.9 How did the Tiger king manage to retain his kingdom? Ans. To retain his kingdom, the Maharaja asked a famous British company of jewellers to send samples of fifty expensive diamond rings to the Duraisani (officer’s wife) worth three lakh rupees. Though he lost three lakh rupees, he managed to retain his kingdom. Q.10 What made the chief astrologer place his finger on his nose? Ans. The chief astrologer place his finger on his nose as he was astonished to hear a baby barely ten days old speaks! Not only did he speak, he also raised intelligent questions which the astrologer found absolutely incredible. Q.11 Why did the Maharaja order the dewan to double the land tax? Ans. After hearing about disappearances of sheep, the Maharaja set out on an expedition to find the hundredth tiger, which was supposed to be the reason for all this. However, the tiger could not be found. In his rage, the Maharaja ordered the dewan to double the land tax. Q.12 When was the Tiger King in danger of losing his throne? Ans. It happened when a high-ranking British officer visited Pratibandapuram. He was very fond of hunting tiger and being photographed with the ones he had shot. However, he was refused by the Maharaja for hunting and well as being clicked with the killed tiger.

LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS: Answer the following questions in 120-150 words each: Q.1 Describe the effects made by the Tiger King to achieve its target of killing a hundred tigers?

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Ans. The Tiger King spent a significant time and made numerous effect to fulfil his target of killing a hundred tiger. He stayed in the forest for many days. He fired many of his officers for not getting him tigers to kill. The Tiger King even married a girl from another kingdom which had a large tiger population when the tiger population become extinct in his own kingdom. The Tiger King also banned tiger hunting in his state, and did not permit a high-ranking British officer who visited Pratibandapuram to shot tigers. The King feared that other British officers would turn up for similar expeditions. Later, he realised the danger to his throne and had to spend a sum of three lakh rupees to impress the British officer's wife and discourage him from killing tigers. All these efforts were made to fulfil his target of killing a hundred tigers. Q.2 The astrologer's prediction about the death of the Tiger King came to be true. Do you agree with this statement? Ans. The astrologer has predicted that no harm would come to the Tiger King till he killed ninety-nine tigers. He had to be worried of the hundredth tiger. This statement of the astrologer forced the king to go on a killing spree. Tiger killing was banned in the state and the king even married in a bid to kill the hundredth tiger. However, in spite of all his efforts to avert the danger, the Tiger King was killed by the hundredth tiger, which was a crude wooden toy bought for the prince. The wooden tiger killed the king merely by a sliver of wood that pierced his right hand. The wound developed an infection and soon it spread all over the arm. The best surgeons failed to save the King and thus the astrologer's prediction about the death of the Tiger King proved the correct. Q.3 When did the Tiger King stand in danger of losing his kingdom? How was he able to avert the danger? Ans. When a high-ranking British Officer who visited Pratibandapuram expressed his desire to go on a tiger hunting mission, he was refused permission to do so by the tiger king. It was at that time that the tiger king stood in danger of losing his throne. But he was well aware of the consequences of refusal to the British Officer for tiger hunting so he and his dewan had deliberations on this issue. As a result, they decided to send samples of fifty expensive diamond rings from a Calcutta –based jeweller to the British Officer’s wife. The king and his minister expected the officer’s wife to choose one or two and send the rest back. She kept all and sent her thanks to the king. The rings cost the king three lakh rupees but he was happy that in the bargain, he was able to avert the danger and retain his kingdom. Q.4 Even today so many among us believe in superstitions. As astrologer predicted about ‘the Tiger King’ that he would be killed by a tiger. He ‘killed’ one hundred tigers yet was himself ‘killed’ by a tiger. How did the superstitious belief ‘prevail’? Ans. The astrologer predicted that the ‘Tiger King’s death would be by a tiger and even if he killed ninety-nine tigers, the death would come about by the hundredth tiger. So, the king set out on a tiger killing spree to disprove the prophecy about his death which goes to show that the king and his people believed in the superstition. Now if we look at the things logically, the king did not ‘kill’ the tiger as the bullet had missed its mark nor was the king killed in the end by a ‘real tiger’ but by a toy tiger. Though the story ends with the statement that finally the

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hundredth tiger took its revenge upon the Tiger King, the readers are fully aware of how it all happened. Thus going by it rationally, the superstitious belief did not really prevail in the story. VALUE BASED QUESTION: Answer the following questions in 120-150 words each: Q.1 The story ‘The Tiger King’ has a powerful massage on preservation of mother earth and its wild life. The story highlights the wanton nature of those in power. They have a very callous attitude towards nature. They plunder the natural resources and today the earth is in a very perilous condition. Based on your reading of the story write a paragraph on the topic: ‘Importance of Preserving Nature’. Importance of Preserving Nature Never in the history of mankind has the earth suffered so much. Most of its resources have been vandalized and today she is in a critical condition. We need to remember that if the earth falls we too will vanish. What is important for today is a new awareness about ecology i.e., a realisation that the earth is not our inherited property but we have borrowed it from our future generation. Conservation of wildlife is therefore, very necessary. Inspite of the gloominess that prevails everywhere regarding the health of the earth we can be happy on account of the fact that the young generation is more environmentally conscious. There is a growing awareness of the necessity of conservation and preservation of wildlife. It is encouraging to see that grass root environment consciousness is also on the increase, and more and more people stepping in towards contributing to the conservation of wildlife

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2. THE ENEMY -Pearl S. Buck SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS: Answer the following questions in 30-40 words each: Q.1 What forced Dr Sadao to be impatient and irritable with his patient? Ans. The wounded man urgently needed an operation or he would die. Hana was with Sadao when he started operating on the prisoner. Hana, who had never seen an operation in her life, started vomiting. Sadao wanted to help her in her distress but he couldn't leave his patient. This made him impatient and irritable. Q.2 What made a cool surgeon like Sadao speak sharply to his wife and what was her reaction? Ans. Hana had never seen an operation. When Sadao started operating, blood began to flow. Hana choked at this moment. Sadao sharply told her not to faint because if he stopped, the wounded man would surely have died. Hana clapped her hands to her mouth and ran out. Sadao heard her vomiting. Q.3 Why Hana had to wash the wounded man herself? Ans. The wounded soldier was very dirty. He needed to be washed before any kind of treatment could be started. Hana asked her maid Yumi to wash him. Yumi said that she had never washed a white man and she wouldn't wash a dirty one like the soldier. Seeing her fierce resistance, Hana backed out and washed the soldier herself. Q.4 How did Dr Sadao ensure that the American sailor left his house but he himself remained safe and secure? Ans. Dr Sadao first waited for the General's assassins to kill the American. But they never arrived. Sadao, then, himself arranged for a boat and helped Tom to escape. He later told the General that the prisoner had escaped. The General realised that it was a sheer carelessness on his part to have forgotten about the matter. If the whole thing was disclosed, he might be charged with negligence of duty. It was clear that the secret would be kept. Thus, Dr Sadao ensured that the American left his house but he himself remained safe and secure. Q.5 How did the writer indicate that Dr Sadao’s father was a very traditional and conventional man? Ans. The writer has very clearly indicated that Dr Sadao's father was a very traditional and conventional man. Sadao didn't marry Hana until he knew she was Japanese because his father wouldn't have approved of her otherwise. The old man never let any foreign object even enter his room. Q.6 What was the old gardener's reaction when Dr. Sadao gave shelter to the enemy soldier?

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Ans. Like all the servants the gardener did not like Sadao's efforts to save a wounded American soldier. He felt it was unpatriotic to give shelter to a prisoner of war and it was also risky not to hand over the soldier to the army or the police. He could not tolerate the fact that his master should save a white man from a hostile country. Q.7 Why did the messenger come to Dr. Sadao? What did Hana think about him? Ans. The uniformed messenger comes to Dr. Sadao to inform him that the old General was in pain again. Hana felt relieved to hear that the messenger had come only to inform Dr. Sadao about the General's ill-health. She had earlier feared that the servants had informed the police who had sent the man in the uniform to their house. Q.8 What was Sadao’s father’s dream for him? How did Sadao realise it? Ans. Sadao’s father’s wanted his son to excel in studies as education was his chief concern. Sadao realised his father’s dream by becoming not only a renowned surgeon but also an accomplished scientist. Q.9 In what condition did Dr. Sadao find the American soldier at the seashore? Ans. Dr. Sadao at first mistook the American soldier for a fisherman. On closer inspection, he found the sand on one side of his face and realised that he was wounded and unconscious. There was a gunshot wound on the right side of his lower back. Q.10 In what context does Hana remember the cruel nature of General Takima? Ans. While Hana was attending to the wounded patient, she wondered if the stories one had heard of the torture of prisoners were true. In this context, she remembered the cruel nature of General Takima who was also an abusive husband. Q.11 What role did the American professor play in bringing Hana and Sadao to gether? Ans. Sadao had met Hana at his American professor’s house. The professor and his wife were kind people who wanted to help the foreign students and so invited them to their house. After completing their studies in America, Sadao and Hana returned to Japan and got married.

LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS : Answer the following questions in 120-150 words each: Q.1 What impression do you form about Dr Sadao as a man and as a surgeon on your reading the chapter 'The Enemy'? Ans. Dr Sadao is not only a superb surgeon but he is a superb human being as well. As we go through the chapter, we see different shades f his character. Dr Sadao was a famous surgeon and scientist. He was about to perfect a discovery which would render wounds entirely clean. The General trusted him so much with his life that he was not sent with the troops. Dr Sadao respected his father very much. It was his father's wish that he became a -218-

surgeon and Sadao fulfilled it. They married Hana according to his father's wishes. Dr Sadao is a man full of compassion. He saved the dying enemy. A man who stuck to his decision, he didn't allow the servants to pressurise him. He did everything he could do to save the American. He was also a patriot. He told the General about Tom without any fear. Throughout the story he kept calling the American his enemy. Q.2 Describe the difficulties faced by Dr Sadao when he decided to help the enemy soldier. Ans. Dr Sadao was drawn by the sheer feelings of humanity and compassion towards Tom. Just because Dr Sadao harboured an enemy, he had to face innumerable problems. The servants left the house in defiance and he was under perpetual threat of being branded a traitor. He told the General about how the American prisoner of war was washed ashore and the circumstances under which he was granted refuge in the Sadao's household. The General understood his situation and assured him of sending assassins to eliminate the American. However, when no assassins came for three nights, Sadao decided that he could not 'go through another night'. He decided to save the American sailor's life a second time. Q.3 Why did Sadao Hoki go to America? Narrate his experiences there. Ans. The chief concern of Sadao’s father was his son’s education so at the age of twenty-two. Sadao was sent to America to study medicine and surgery. Saving the life of American-POW, brought back the memories of Sadao’s stay in America. He thought of the professor at whose house he had met Hana. He remembered his old teacher of anatomy who had been so insistent on mercy with the knife but Sadao also felt that Americans were full of prejudices and that was why Sadao had great difficulty in finding a place to live in America because he was a Japanese. He recalled how he had hated the ignorant and dirty old woman who had agreed to rent him a miserable room but, at the same time, he was grateful to her as she had taken care of him when he was sick. Overall, the found the white people very disgusting and hated them. Q.4 Why did Sadao help the American soldier to escape? How did he do it? Ans. As, a doctor, Sadao fulfilled his moral obligation of saving a human life. When he confided in the General about the enemy, the General assured him that he would send his private assassins to eliminate the enemy, Sadao waited, spent sleepless nights, perhaps felt guilty of betraying the same person whose life he had saved and then finally decided to help him escape. Dr. Sadao helped the American POW to escape by arranging a boat in which he put food and bottled water, extra clothing and two quits and also gave him his flashlight and told him to signal with it if he ran out of food. He cautioned him not to light any fire at night lest he be caught. He felt relieved when the soldier was finally gone. That was the last that he saw of him.

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VALUE BASED QUESTION : Answer the following question in 120-150 words each: 1. Do you think Dr Sadao's final decision was the best possible one in the circumstances? Why/Why not? Explain with reference to the story, 'The Enemy'. Ans. When Dr Sadao came across the prisoner of war, the first thing he did was to save his life. As a doctor, he fulfilled the moral obligation of saving a human life. Next, he proved himself to his country by informing the General about the enemy. When the General assured Dr Sadao of sending the private assassins to eliminate the American sailor, Dr Sadao felt restless and perhaps guilty of betraying the same person whose life he had saved. After spending three sleepless nights, he finally deliberated on a flawless plan to let Tom, the American prisoner of war, escape. By letting him escape, Dr Sadao proves that even if two countries are at war, the religion of humanity does not alter. Its basic tenet is saving a human life, which Dr Sadao does with aplomb. In a way, Dr Sadao echoes the author, Pearl S Buck's views against war and hatred that it generates between man and man. Through Dr Sadao, the author conveys the message of universal brotherhood, peace and amity. It is indeed the best solution to the problem. 3. SHOULD WIZARD HIT MOMMY -JOHN UPDIKE SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS: Answer the following questions in 30-40 words each: Q.1 Why did Roger Skunk go to see the old owl? Ans. Roger Skunk smelt very bad. Everybody teased him by calling him 'Stinky Stunk.' He had no friends. Nobody wanted to play with him or even go near him. In order to solve this 'problem', Roger went to see the old owl. The owl was very wise and experienced and Roger believed that he would certainly come up with some solution. Q.2 Why does Jo insist that her father should tell her the story with a different ending? Ans. Jo, being a child, failed to accept the harsh realities of life. According to her, Roger Skunk was happy with the smell of roses. She didn't want him to smell bad. She was used to stories that ended happily. That was why she insisted that her father should tell the story in which the wizard hit Mommy Skunk back and did not change Roger's smell back. Q.3 What did Jo want the wizard to do when Mommy Skunk approached him? Ans. After the wizard gave Roger the smell of roses, he was very happy. His entire life changed, for he got many friends to play with. But mother Skunk thought otherwise. She hit wizard on the head and made Roger get back his foul smell. This made Jo very angry. She wanted that the wizard should hit Mommy Skunk back. Q.4 How did the wizard help Roger Skunk?

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Ans. Roger Skunk went to the wizard to get rid of his awful smell. The wizard asked him what he wanted to smell like, and Roger replied that he wanted to smell like roses. The wizard then chanted a spell and changed his smell to that of roses. Roger Skunk was very happy, as now everybody liked to play with him. Q.5 What part of the story did Jack himself enjoy the most and why? Ans. Jack enjoyed the part of the story most when he had to speak in the wizard's voice, as it was one of Jack's own favourite effects. He did it by scrunching up his face and somehow whining through his eyes. He felt being an old man suited him. Besides, he also enjoyed telling the story when Jo listened carefully, without interrupting him with questions. Q.6 How did the Roger Skunk pay the wizard? Ans. The wizard demands seven pennies as fee to make Roger Skunk smell like roses. Skunk has only four pennies. The wizard tells him how and where to find the rest of the three pennies. Roger follows the wizards instructions and finds the three pennies in the magic well and pays the wizard the full amount. Q.7 How did Jo want the Roger Skunk story to end? Ans. Jo did not like the ending of the story and felt Skunk’s mother to be very insensitive to her son’s feeling. She wanted that the mother should be hit back by the wizard which would also change the ending of the story. Q.8 Why did Roger Skunk go to see the old owl? Ans. Roger Skunk had a foul body odour because of which other small animals avoided playing with him. He too wanted to have friends to play with. Hence, to get rid of the foul smell, he went to the wise owl. Q.9 What did Jo want the wizard to do when Mommy Skunk approached him? Ans. As the end of the story does not appeal to I she want the wizard to hit Mommy Skunk. It is evident that the story violated To’s sense of fairness for why should Roger Skunk not smell of roses and thus have more friends. Q.10 How does Jo want the story to end and why? Ans. To wanted to give another end to the story. She wanted the wizard to take revenge on the mother by slapping her. By changing the end of the story. She wanted assert her view on her father. She also wanted Roger Skuck to smell like roses without the foul smell which is common to Skunks. So that he should be acceptable among his group LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS: Answer the following questions in 120-150 words each: Q.1 Why did Jo disapprove of Jack's ending of the story of Roger Skunk? How did she want it to end?

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Ans. Roger Skunk went to the wizard to get rid of the problem of his awful smell. The wizard gave him a new smell of roses. For Roger it was a moment of happiness, but Mother Skunk was not happy with Roger's new smell. She took Roger back to the wizard, hit him on his head and ordered him to give Roger back his original smell. The wizard compiled and gave Roger his same bad smell back. This made Roger lonely and disappointed again. This was the ending of the story of Roger Skunk. Jo was shocked with Mother Skunk's behaviour. She felt that Roger was better off with his new smell because he was very happy. He made new friends and society accepted him. She wanted the story to end happily, and therefore disapproved of Jack's ending of the story. In Jo's ending, when Mother Skunk hits the wizard, the wizard should hit her back and should not take away Roger's smell of roses. Q.2 Why is an adult's perspective on life different from that of a child's? Ans. It is obvious to find a marked difference between in an adult's perspective on life and that of a child's because on earth, a child is considered as a form of a God as his/her heart is very pure and innocent. It doesn't know what is wrong or what is right. There is no bad intention in child's mind behind doing any deed. it is just because its perspective on life, its actions and reactions, are natural and not guided by any past experiences. A child speaks from the heart what seems to be ethically and morally correct. In the case of an adult, its perspective is based on what it has learnt over the years, the expectations of society and similar other experiences. It also knows the worth of originality so it thinks according to the situation and takes a good decision on the basis of right and wrong. Q.3 What is your stance regarding the two endings to the Roger Skunk story? Ans. It is interesting to contrast the two endings of the Roger Skunk story. Jack's ending of the story is quite mature and practical. It points out the harsh realities that one has to go through in life. The world is based on individual differences; every species of animals has its distinct features, which must be respected and accepted in totality. Moreover, parents know what is best for their children, and their decisions should be respected and obeyed. Jo wanted the story to end happily. She wanted Roger Skunk's problems solved and expected that he would live happily, playing with his new friends. This ending too is justified when we look at it from a child's point of view. As a child, Jo was unable to understand the worth of one's originality and individuality. Besides, it is difficult for children to understand or explain unhappy endings. Q. 4 What impression do you form of Jack as a father? Ans. Jack comes across as a very carrying and a dutiful father. He is also an equally carrying husband. As a loving and devoted father, he fulfils his daughter’s wish of a bed

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VALUE BASED QUESTION : Answer the following question in 30-40 words each: Q.1 What is the moral issue that the story raises? Ans. The moral issue that the story raises is whether parents are the best judge of what is good for their child or not. A sharp contrast is displayed in the story about the child's viewpoint and an adult's perspective of life. In the story, the child Jo felt that the happiness of being able to make friends is more than anything else and so she wanted the story to end with Roger Skunk smelling of roses. On the other hand, her father ended the story by saying that the mother was right in getting Roger's smell back to its original state, implying to his daughter that parents know what is best for their children. He also advocates that children should respect their parents' opinions and obey them unquestioningly. Jack also narrated that all other animals finally accepted Roger, as he was emphasising the importance of a person's originality and individuality.

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4. ON THE FACE OF IT -SUSAN HILL SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS : Answer the following questions in 30-40 words each: Q.1 How does Mr Lamb keep himself busy when it is a bit cool? Ans. When it's a bit cooler, Mr Lamb gets a ladder and a stick to pull down the crab apples. He calls them magic-fruit and likes to make jelly out of them. Q.2 What qualities of Mr Lamb attracted Derry to him? Ans. Mr Lamb is a very positive person. He doesn't let his physical disability destroy the happiness in his life. He is not afraid of Derry's face, unlike others. The quality that attracted Derry most to Mr Lamb was his tremendous patience as he listened to him. He talked to him about things which mattered; things nobody else had ever said to him. Q.3 What did Derry's mother think of Mr Lamb? Ans. Derry's mother is quite skeptical of Mr Lamb. She considers him to be eccentric. She claims that she has heard many things about Mr Lamb and some have also warned her against him. That is why she doesn't want Derry to meet Mr Lamb. Q.4 How does Mr Lamb try to remove the baseless fears of Derry? Ans. Mr Lamb appears to have understood Derry's psyche completely. Derry says that people are afraid of his face. Mr Lamb replies that there are other things in the world to be noticed. He asks Derry how can one distinguish a flower from a weed when both are plants. They are all life. He also tells Derry that he has to take the risk by coming out of his shell. Everybody has problems in his life, but it is our attitude that matters. Q.5 If you were to give a different ending to the story, 'On the Face of it' how would you end it? Ans. The ending of the story, 'On the Face of it' is very sad as Mr Lamb is probably dead. Such a beautiful story should not have such a tragic ending. In the end, Derry should have returned just in time to save Mr Lamb from falling by holding the ladder or, perhaps, the old man regained consciousness with Derry's efforts. Such positive endings would have given a message of hope.

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LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS: Answer the following questions in 120-150 words each: Q.1 What benefits did Derry reap from his association with Mr Lamb? Ans. Though Derry's association with Mr Lamb is brief, yet the boy benefits greatly from the old man's company. Derry had lost all zest for life due to his burnt face. After meeting Mr Lamb, Derry is filled with a new enthusiasm for life. He undergoes a major transformation and develops into a confident youth from the meek young boy that he earlier was. Mr Lamb's words have a profound effect on him an inspire him to see the brighter side of life. He is encouraged to choose happiness in life rather than accept his isolation. He is no more bothered about his impairment, and wants to live his life to the fullest. His entire attitude towards life has changed drastically. Q.2 Derry and Mr Lamb both are victims of physical impairment, but their attitudes towards life are completely different. Explain? Ans. The conversation between Derry and Mr Lamb reveals their different attitudes towards life. Derry is a fourteen year old boy, half of whose face is disfigured, as it got burnt by acid. The half-face has left him miserable. He feels unwanted. He thinks that people think he is ugly like the devil and they are afraid of him. He gets infuriated when people sympathise with him. All these bad experiences have made him cynical, and he has developed a pessimistic attitude toward life. On the other hand, Mr Lamb is a complete contrast to Derry. He doesn't let his physical disability destroy his life. He is an optimist. He finds beauty and peace in everything. When children tease him by calling him Lamey-Lamb, he is not offended. He feels that such a name suits him. He is full of hope and positivity. Q.3 How did Mr. Lamb try to give courage and confidence to Derry? Ans. Derry suffers from an acute sense of self-hatred and rejection because of his burnt face. He feels he is very ugly and so no one will love him. Mr. Lamb too has heard Derry only complain and bemoan about himself. He feels very sad to see a fourteen year old boy giving up on life just because of his physical disability. Mr. Lamb at first startles Derry with his strange talk. He tells Derry his is interested in everything created by God. His encouraging words have a magical effect on Derry. Mr. Lamb's conversation that everyone and everything is essentially the same, the notion of beauty is relative and his concept of the world and friendship baffle but appeal to Derry and he is fascinated by the old man. Slowly he sheds his complex about his ugliness and rediscovers the joys of life. Q.4 The lesson 'On The Face Of It', is an apt depiction of the loneliness and sense of alienation experienced by people on account of a disability. Explain. Ans. The lesson 'On The Face of It' aptly depicts the loneliness and sense of alienation experienced by Derry and Mr Lamb on account of disability. The actual pain and inconvenience caused by the disabilities is often much less than the sense of alienation felt by the disabled person. Derry suffered from severe negative complexes because of his burnt face. He became a pessimistic loner who indulged in self pity and was always suspicious of the intention of others. His anger and frustration made him withdrawn and an introvert. Mr. -225-

Lamb, on the other hand, was inwardly a loner who craved for company and acceptance. Though outwardly he was always jovial, outgoing and optimistic, he was an extremely sensitive person. Derry and Mr. Lamb's physical disabilities caused pain and suffering not only to their body but also to their mind and soul.

VALUE BASED QUESTION : Answer the following question in 120-150 words each: Q.1 Both Derry and Lamb are physically impaired and lonely. It is the responsibility of the society to understand and support people with infirmities so that they do not suffer from a sense of alienation. As a responsible citizen, write in about 120-150 words what you would do to bring about a change in the lives of such people. Ans. People with some physical disabilities or impairment are often pitied and ridiculed by others. This makes them develop a sense of inferiority. They form a shell around themselves and begin to lead a life seclusion. As a responsible citizen, it is our duty to treat such people with love and affection, and not make them a subject of our pity or ridicule. We should try to understand their infirmity and empathise with them. We must give them due respect, and thus motivate them to feel at par with others in society, so that they do not suffer from a sense of isolation and are able to live a normal life. We must make them aware of the innumerable opportunities available to them and bring a ray of hope in their lives.

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5. EVANS TRIES AN O-LEVEL -COLIN DEXTER

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS: Answer the following questions in 30-40 words each: Q.1 What were the contents of the small suitcase that McLeery carried? Ans. The small brown suitcase that McLeery carried contained the items he needed for the examination. It had a sealed paper envelope, a yellow invigilation form, a special 'authentication' card from the Examinations Board, a paper knife, a Bible and the current copy of The Church Times. It also contained a small semi-inflated rubber ring for sitting on by McLeery. Q.2 How did the Governor react to the two phone calls he received in quick succession? Ans. The first phone call came from the Examinations Board. The Governor immediately checked on it and found the line busy. He thought that it was stupid of him to check the same line. The second call came from the Magistrates' court. The Governor again thought that it was hoax. But he told himself not to be silly. Q.3 Why did Evans not take off his hat when Jackson ordered him to do so? Ans. Evans knew that the duplicate McLeery, who was invigilating during the O-level German examination, had short hair. So, he crops his hair to pass off as McLeery later. The 'bobble hat' was an important part of the plan to conceal Evans cropped hair. Q.4 What clues did the answer sheet of Evans provide to the Governor? Ans. The Governor had no clues about the whereabouts of Evans till he got his hands on the answer sheet. The index number 313 and the centre number 271 on the answer sheet gave the Governor a reference number - 313/271 on the Ordnance Survey Map of Oxfordshire. The reference number helped him to trace Evans at the Golden Lion of Chipping Norton. Q.5 How does McLeery explain the presence of a small semi-inflated rubber ring? What did it actually contain ? Ans. McLeery tells Jackson that he is suffering from haemorrhoids (piles) and the ring helps him when he has to sit for a long time. In reality, the ring contained pig blood, which Evans, impersonating as the injured McLeery, would splatter on his head an escape from the prison. Q.6 What clues did the answer sheet of Evans Provide to the Governor? Ans. The clues that Evan left on his answer sheet were actually a part of his escaping plan. It was his trick to mislead the police. It was from his answer sheet only that the police got the clue that Evan had hit Maclerry. But it was not Maclerry but Evan himself who was

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impersonating Maclerry. Then he gave certain clue to which the police was looking for him a Newburry, he had gone to the Hotel Golden Loin in Chipping Norton. LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS: Answer the following questions in 120-150 words each: Q.1 Give a character sketch of the Governor of Oxford Prison based on your understanding of the story, 'Evans Tries an O-level'. Ans. The Governor of the HM Prison, Oxford appears to be a considerate and kind-hearted fellow at the start as he arranges for an O-level language exam for a prisoner notorious for his ability to escape from the prison. However, he is quite skeptical of Evans and makes every arrangement to make sure that Evans doesn't escape. He is also rather proud and self conscious. from his prison. The Governor has presence of mind which is clear from the fact that he cross-examines every call that was made to the prison that day. He is intelligent enough to realise that he has been duped but could not judge the extent of the deception. He gets a little over-confident when he tells himself that Evans had no chance of escaping. He is short tempered and gets infuriated with his officers when Evans runs away. At last, he proves to be just another good-for-a-giggle gullible Governor when Evans tricks him again and makes a final escape. His over confidence and self-praise let him down. Q.2 How was the injured McLeery able to befool the prison officers? Ans. The 'injured' McLeery was, in fact, Evans himself, and he acted very well. He made blood, that was supplied to him by his invigilator friend, pour down from his head. With a 'feeble' hand he got his handkerchief and held it to his bleeding head, to give the impression that he was actually injured and bleeding. In that process, he was able to hide his face from the eyes of the prison officers. He pretended to be in so much pain that he could hardly utter a coherent word. In this way, he concealed his voice and was able to dodge the officers. The moment he heard the suggestion of bringing in an ambulance, he interrupted and asked them to call the police. He offered them his help in tracing Evans. This was the part of his plan in which all the officers got trapped. He became successful in making them believe that the seriously injured McLeery was really trying to help them. Q.3 What purpose did the question paper and the correction slip serve? How did they both the criminals and the Governor? Ans. The purpose of the photocopied sheet that was superimposed on the question paper and the correction slip was to supply the details of the escape plan to Evans without uttering a single word. It was a well-thought out meticulous plan. It was also a meant to make the authorities believe that the wounded man was McLeery himself. And at that moment, it worked as was thought and the authorities got trapped. The correction slip helped the Governor also in locating the place where Evans was hiding. The six-digit number of the correction slip i.e. the index number and the centre number 313/271 helped the Governor. He put these numbers together and with the help of the Ordnance Survey Map of Oxfordshire, he reached the hotel where Evans had decided to hide for the day.

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Q.4 What precautions were taken by the prison authorities to ensure that the German exam was conducted smoothly and also under strict security? Ans. To ensure that the German was conducted smoothly and also under strict security Evans' razor and nail scissors were removed from the cell. The Reverend Stuart McLeery who was the invigilator was frisked on arrival. Police officer Stephens was deputed on duty inside the cell. All the prison officials were also put on high alert. There were two locked doors between Evan's cell and the yard. A microphone was installed in the cell as a precautionary measure through which the warden could listen to their talk by switching on the receiver. The senior prison officer, Jackson and officer Stephens had worked round the clock and made fullproof arrangements and taken all the necessary precautions to ensure that the exam was conducted smoothly. VALUE BASED QUESTION: Answer the following question in 120-150 words each: Q.1 While we condemn the crime, we are sympathetic to the criminal. Is this the reason why prison staff often develop a soft corner for those in the custody ? Ans. Yes, it is a fact that although we hate crime, we have a soft corner for the criminal. This is the case with the Evans also. Although the Governor is conversant with his past record and escapades, he does not want to deprive Evans of an opportunity to learn. Similarly, the author describes the relationship between Evans and Jackson as that of 'warm enemies' . Jackson is kind- hearted and that's the reason why he allows Evans to wear his hat during the exam, when the latter says that it is his good luck charm. Evans' tender heart and his affectionate side is seen and appreciated by the staff. He is an active participant in Christmas plays, is good at imitating people and is known to be violent. Even the Governor does not like to believe that Evans is planning to escape once again. From Evans' example, it is seen that even the prison authorities do not like to treat prisoners harshly. With time, even they develop a liking to and a rapport with them.

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6.MEMORIES OF CHILDHOOD -ZITKALA-SA AND BAMA SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS: Answer the following questions in 30-40 words each: Q.1 Why was Zitkala-Sa in tears on the first day in the land of apples? Ans. Zitkala-Sa was already feeling uncomfortable in her new dress when she entered the dining hall. A small bell was tapped. Thinking that they had to be seated, Zitkala pulled out a chair and sat on it. But t her surprise everybody kept standing. She was getting up when the second bell rang and all were seated. Finally, she could not use the knife and fork for eating and she started crying because of her embarrassment. Q.2 Why was Zitkala-Sa terrified when Judewin told her that her hair would be cut short? Ans. Zitkala-Sa was terrified by the thought of having her hair cut because in her community shingled hair was worn by unskilled warriors who were captured by the enemy and their hair was cut. Thus, it was a sign of cowardice. She decided that she would not go down without a fight. Q.3 Which words of her brother made a deep impression on Bama? Ans. Annan told Bama that only education could help them earn some respect in society. These words had a very deep impact on her. She studied very hard, almost like crazy. As Annan had urged, she stood first in her class. Now, everybody wanted to be her friend. Q.4 What made Zitkala lose her spirit? Ans. Zitkala was hiding under the bed in order to avoid her hair being cut short. But she was found, dragged out from the hiding position, carried downstairs and tied to a chair. She was kicking and shouting all the while. At last, she felt the cold blade of scissors against her neck gnaw off one of her thick braids. This cutting of her hair made her lose her spirit. Q.5 Why did the landlord's man ask Bama's brother on which street he lived? What was the significance? Ans. Annan was returning home from the library in the neighbouring village, when the landlord's man asked him his name. Then he wanted to know where Annan lived. He asked this to ascertain Annan's caste, because all the lower caste people lived in one area of the town. Q.6 What did Zitkala-Sa feel when her long hair was cut? Ans. Zitkala-Sa felt rather anguished and indignant when her long hair was cut. She lost her spirit and felt as helpless as a puppet. She got the feeling of being an animal driven by a herder and desperately looked for some comfort. With her hair being shingled like a coward's, she moaned in anguish. She also felt she had lost her distinct cultural recognition and identity. -230-

Q.7 How long would it take Bama o walk home from her school and why? Ans. Bama take half an hour at the very least to walk home from her school. Because from coming out from school the watched all the fun and games going on in the streets and bazaar. Among the manifold attraction were the performing monkey, the snake charmer, the huge bell at the temple and the Pongal offerings etc. Each thing held her up and not let her go any further.

LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS: Answer the following questions in 120-150 words each: Q.1 What are the similarities in the lives of Bama and Zitkala-Sa though they belong to different cultures? Ans. The struggle for identity and the oppression faced by the marginalised communities is the common thread between the lives of Bama and Zitkala-Sa. Zitkala-Sa was taken from her mother. An alien culture was forced on her. She got embarrassed and craved for her mother. She yearned for freedom. Bama also faced the same kind of embarrassment. She belonged to a low caste community and she learned that they were stripped of all honour and dignity. Another common thing between them was the way both reacted to their situations. They refused to bow down to exploitation and oppression. They decided to fight the social discrimination that their communities had to face. Q.2 Describe the experience Bama had on her way back home which made her feel sad? Ans. The narrator was steel a little girl. She belonged to a ‘low’ cast but never had any bitter experience related to ‘untouchability’. One day an old man of her street attracted her attention. He was carrying a small packet of food by its string without touching it. The elder went straight to the landlord, bowed low and extended the packet towards him.. she wanted to shriek with laughter. The way such a big man was carrying a small packet looked very funny. Bama told this story in all its comic detail to her elder brother. But her brother was not amused. The landlord was from an upper caste. He didn’t want that man to touch the packet of food. If he did, it would be polluted. That was why the man had to carry the packet by its string. When she heard this her laughter vanished. She felt terribly sad she felt so much provoked and angry that she herself wanted to touch those vadais straightaway. These people too were human beings and deserved human dignity and respect. VALUE BASED QUESTION: Answer the following questions in 120-150 words each: Q.1 Both the units of ‘Memories Of Childhood’ present autobiographical episodes from the lives of two women from ‘marginalised communities’. Describe the main issues raised as well as the common features highlighted in them.

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The lesson ‘Memories of Childhood’ presents autobiographical episodes from the lives of two women. They highlight the plight of ‘the marginalised communities’. The people of these communities never receive honour and dignity due to them. In ‘The Cutting of My Long Hair’ Bonnin describes how an Indian girl suffered extreme indignities. She tried to maintain her identity and her distinct culture. She liked to wear, long and thick hair. But the ‘paleface woman’ and others dragged her out. They tied her fast in a chair and gnawed off her long hair. In ‘We Too are Human Beings’ Bama, a Tamil Dalit writer, presents the struggle of a girl of a low caste. The people of low castes are never respected and honoured. They have to carry a food packet by its string without touching it. The girl in ‘We Too Are Human Beings’ struggles, and stands first in the class. She attains equality, and honour. The most common feature of both these episodes is the struggle and fight against racial and social discrimination. They don’t take oppression, exploitation and injustice meekly.

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NOVEL THE INVISIBLE MAN -H.G. Wells

Q.1 Write in about 100 words the character sketch of: 1. Mrs. Hall: Mrs. Hall Is the wife of Mr. Hall and the owner of the Coach and Horses Inn. A very friendly, down-to-earth woman who enjoys socializing with her guests, Mrs. Hall is continually frustrated by the mysterious Invisible Man's refusal to talk with her, and his repeated temper tantrums. The Halls are a typical family. Mr. Hall drinks and Mrs. Hall nags him about drinking. Mr. Hall isn't so quick and Mrs. Hall takes out her frustrations on Millie, the serving girl. Mrs. Hall, although not a major character, is revealed as rather devious in a harmless sort of way. She really wants to know what the strange man's disfigurement is; she assumes he has been in a horrible accident, and the motherly side of her wants to know how to express sympathy. She is a very good innkeeper under the circumstances. 2. Mr. Teddy Henfrey: A clock repairman who happens to visit the inn for a cup of tea. Mrs. Hall takes advantage of him to try to find out about her strange guest. She wants Teddy Henfrey to fix a clock in the stranger's room. Teddy deliberately takes as long as he can with the clock, taking it apart and re-assembling it for no reason. He tries unsuccessfully to engage the stranger in conversation. The stranger catches him wasting time, though and tells him to finish up and get out. Because the stranger will not talk, Teddy convinces himself that the man is someone of a "suspicious" nature. He begins the rumours about the man being wanted by the police and merely wrapping himself up to conceal his identity. Teddy Henfrey is a character typical of the other people of the town. He wants to know the man's story, and when he is rebuffed for his persistence, he begins to imagine all sorts of things. His imagination soon becomes fact to him, and he spreads his knowledge to anyone who will care to listen. 3. Dr. Cuss: Dr. Cuss is a doctor living in the town of Iping. Intrigued by tales of a bandaged stranger staying at the Coach and Hoses Inn, Dr. Cuss goes to see him under the pretense of asking for a donation to the nurse's fund. The strange man, Griffin, scares Cuss away by pinching his nose with his invisible hand. Cuss went immediately to see Rev. Bunting, who not surprisingly did not believe the doctor's wild story. Later, after Griffin had been exposed as The Invisible Man, Dr. Cuss and Rev. Bunting got hold of his notebooks, but these were stolen back from them by the invisible Griffin, who took both men's clothes. Although the unlucky Rev. Bunting had all his clothing stolen by Griffin, Dr. Cuss only lost his trousers. 4. Rev. Bunting : The Rev. Bunting is the vicar in the town of Iping. Dr. Cuss want to see him following his first encounter with Griffin. Bunting laughed at Cuss' claims of an invisible hand pinching his nose, but the next night his home was burgled by the Invisible Man himself. Later, Bunting and Cuss tried to read Griffin's notes but were stopped by the Invisible Man,

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who stole their clothes. Although Cuss escaped missing only his trousers, Bunting had his entire wardrobe purloined. 5. Mr. Sandy Wadgers: Mr. Sandy Wadgers was the village blacksmith, who is also supposed to be an exorcist. He was the one whom people thought, the one who could deal with the ghosts and spirits. Mr & Mrs. Hall sent Millie across the street through the golden five o'clock sunshine to rouse up Mr. Sandy Wadgers, the blacksmith. He was a knowing man, and very resourceful person. He took quite a grave view of the case. "I am surprised if that is not witchcraft" was the view of Mr. Sandy Wadgers. "Do you want horseshoes for the ghosts." He came round greatly concerned. They wanted him to lead the way upstairs to the room, but he didn't seem to be in any hurry. Wadgers is joined by Huxter, and together they ponder the likelihood of witchcraft and contemplate the propriety of breaking through the door in order to examine the situation more closely. However, before they can carry out any such action, the door opens and the stranger emerges, wrapped and bundled as usual. He enters the parlour and slam the door against them. When Mr. Hall raps on the door and demands an explanation, the stranger tells him to "go to the devil "and "shut the door after you." Wadgers delays "breaking" into the room, using the excuse of propriety when the real and very human reason is fear and apprehension. While they may talk of spirits and witchcraft in their leisure, it is clear that they have no real experience with such things. 6. Griffin : The story of the Invisible Man, is the story of a protagonist Griffin, who had been a brilliant young chemist and researcher. Unfortunately, he began his road to 'decline' in college when he became extremely obsessed with his experiments, that he kept his work in a clandestine manner lest someone else claimed credit for that. His passion for pure scientific investigation accelerated to such an extent that when he required money for further research, he stole it from his father. And later, in a fit of anger and frustration, he even murdered him. The barberous crime thus committed made rest of his crimes pale in comparison. He turns himself from scientist to fanatic when he starts focusing all his attention merely on the concept of invisibility and never ever thinks of the repercussions that may follow. He may not have had any intention initially trying the potion on himself, but the interference of his landlord and prying neighbour lady instigate him to experiment on himself. Once he becomes invisible, his life becomes miserable. At the close of the novel poetic justice is done, Griffin is seized, assaulted and killed by a mob. The invisible Man's naked, battered body gradually becomes visible as he dies. 7. Thomas Marvel: Thomas Marvel is a tramp unwittingly recruited as a scapegoat to assist the Invisible Man as his partner in the deeds causing panic. He is short, fat and a loner. He is the area tramp. Thomas Marvel carries the Invisible Man's scientific notebooks and stolen money. Eventually Marvel grows afraid of his unseen partner and flees to Port Burdock. He also confiscates both the notebooks and the money with him where he seeks police protection. Seeing through his intentions and misgivings, the Invisible Man gets infuriated and vows to avenge Marvel, but he becomes preoccupied with hiding from the law and retaliating against Dr. Kemp, and in the process Marvel is spared. Marvel feels blessed with the stolen money and the notes of the Invisible Man. He opens his own Inn and names it 'The Invisible Man' and prospers too. The novel ends with him secretly 'marvelling' at Griffin's notes. He is indeed the man of the world who behaves as an opportunist to take advantage of his circumstances to thrive in life. 8. George Hall: George Hall, the husband of Mrs. Hall, is a simple innocent folk, assisting his wife in the Inn. Couch and Horses Inn. He is the first person in Iping to suspect the mysterious -234-

Griffin. When a dog bites Griffin and tears his glove and nips his trousers, it was George Hall who follows him to see if he was alright but he was taken aback when he saw a handless arm, waving towards him, slam the door in his face and locked. 9. Mr. Huxter: Huxter, the shop owner, sees this guy Marvel waiting outside a window of the Coach and Horses inn holding a bag. Marvel walks into inn and nervously enters the parlour. Mr. Hall shouts that this is a private room, causing Marvel to rush out in panic. He then enters the bar and steadies himself with a drink. Marvel walks outside and stands near the parlour window, appearing to smoke a pipe. However, his hands are shaking, and Mr. Huxter's suspicious are aroused. Marvel suddenly goes into the yard, and Mr. Huxter is certain he is up to something unlawful. He rushes out and finds that Marvel has taken a bundle tied in a blue tablecloth and three books. So Huxter runs after the guy, yelling "Thief!" But, before he can catch the man, something (the Invisible Man) trips Huxter and knocks him out. 10. The Old Mariner (Sailor): When Marvel had been sitting for the best part of an hour, an elderly mariner, carrying a newspaper, came out of the inn and sat down beside him. The mariner in Port Stowe has one job here, which is t tell us that the Invisible Man story is in all newspapers. Later the mariner hears another fantastic story- that of money floating along a wall in butterfly fashion. The story is true, however. The sailor thinks the story in the newspapers is believable because it comes equipped with names and details. 11. Doctor Kemp: Doctor Kemp is a scientist living in the town of Port Burdock. He is an old friend of Griffin, who comes to his house to hide after Griffin's transformation into the "Invisible Man." Kemp has a hard time accepting the fact that his friend, who he had not seen for years, suddenly appears uninvited and invisible, but eventually he overcomes his shock and sits down and talks with Griffin. Narrative-wise, Kemp then allows Griffin to relate the story of how he began his experiments, and all that happened to him between his arrival on his old friend's doorstep and then. Kemp, realizing that Griffin is insane with power, is quick to summon Colonel Adye of the Port Burdock police. Adye fails to apprehend Griffin, who escapes and brands Kemp a traitor, vowing to kill him. Kemp's attitude is representative of the average established, self-confident, and self-sufficient individual. He sees a man in trouble, but his reaction is contemptuous instead of concern. He has heard warning cries about an Invisible Man, but clearly doesn't believe any of it. He is a man who keeps himself apart from the concerns of the general public, is buried in his work, interested only in what award it will ultimately bring him.

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LONG ANSWERS TYPE QUESTIONS: Answer the following questions in 120-150 words each: Q.1 What kind of scientist was Griffin? Did he use his scientific discovery in the right direction or misused it? Give reasons for your answer. Ans. The narrator uses the Invisible Man to experiment with the depth to which a person can sink when there are no social restrictions to suppress his behaviour. When Griffin's father commits suicide, he excuses it away by saying that the man was a "sentimental fool." When he takes the portion himself, he endures such pain that he "understands" why the cat howled so much in the process of becoming invisible. Nevertheless he has no compassion for the cat, for his father or for any of the people he takes advantage of in the course of trying to survive invisibility. The plot of the story is very straightforward. It begins in third person as the narrator introduces the Invisible Man midway through his experiences. Once the man is revealed, Griffin himself takes over and tells how he began his experiments ad what happened to him after he had taken the potion. At the end, the point of view once again changes to that of an objective narration. As Griffin tells his story, one can see that his behaviour becomes increasingly reprehensible. In a very logical way, people first in Iping, and then in surrounding towns, become aware of the strange being in their midst. The people are curious, frightened and then determined in their attempts to bring him down and to find out who and what he really is.

This isn't a book about using a superpower to fight evil. But power is definitely a big piece of the puzzle in the Invisible Man. And not just superpower (i.e. invisibility). The Invisible Man touches on how knowledge- in this case, science- is power and how this power can corrupt. Science takes on a lot of different roles in The Invisible Man. First, it's what scientists do to work out problems they have. For instance, we hear from the Invisible Man about how he developed his invisibility formula through trial and error. Second, science means a community of scientists and their particular traditions; like when you discover something awesome (say, an invisibility formula), you're supposed to tell people about it. Q.2 How did Griffin, the Invisible Man died? Describe the scene after his death. Ans. Kemp continues running towards Burdock. The road is long and empty, and no one in the nearby houses will help him. Griffin chases Kemp through the town. People begin to join in the chase. When Kemp realizes that people are chasing Griffin, he stops running, which allows the Invisible Man to catch him. Still, when Kemp arrives in Burdock, he finds a couple of workmen (navvies) on the road. When he yells about the Invisible Man, everyone nearby tries to find and hit the Invisible Man. When the Invisible Man able to grab Kemp, the navvies knock the Invisible Man down. There was a big fight between the crowd and the Invisible Man. Even though people cannot see him, they are able to grab hold of the Invisible Man and keep him down. The effort is not needed for long as Griffin has been fatally injured and seems to have lost a lot of blood. As the town people watch, the effect of invisibility is gradually reversed, and soon, Griffin, now dead, is visible. In death, his invisible albino body gradually -236-

materialises again. His body is carried into the Jolly Cricketers.

When Griffin dies and becomes visible, his albino condition is also revealed. It is interesting that the people are not horrified or even surprised. Nor is there any speculation about how this bizarre incident could have happened. The people watch as his broken, battered body slowly becomes visible from his extremities to the centre of his being. It is only when his white face and hair and staring garnet eyes are revealed that someone calls for them to "cover that face" before the children in the town can see it. Q.3 Who was Mr. Heelas? Why did he refuse Doctor Kemp to enter into his house? When did he start believing in the existing of the Invisible man? Ans. Mr. Heelas was a neighbour of Doctor Kemp. He didn't believe in the Invisible man but his wife did believe in the Invisible man. He insisted upon walking about his garden just as if nothing was the matter, and he went to sleep in the afternoon. He slept through the smashing of the windows, and then woke up suddenly with a curious persuasion of something wrong. He looked across at Kemp's house, rubbed his eyes and looked again. he said he was damned, but still the strange thing was visible. The house looked as though it had been deserted for weeks- after a violent riot. Every window was broken, and every window, save those of the belvedere study, was blinded by the internal shutters. When he saw that the shutters of the Kemp's drawing-room window were flung open violently, and the housemaid in her outdoor hat and garments, appeared struggling in a frantic manner to throw up the sash. He saw the house maid and Doctor Kemp helping her out of the window Then Mr. Heelas saw Doctor Kemp jump from the window and running along the garden and towards Mr. Heelas house. Then he realised that there is an Invisible Man who is running after Doctor Kemp. He ordered his cook and servants to lock all the doors and shut all the windows as the Invisible Man running after him and might enter his house along with Doctor Kemp. Q.4 How did Doctor Kemp escape from the terror of the Invisible Man, when Griffin came to his house to kill him? Ans. After Griffin leaves, the next afternoon, Kemp receives a letter from Griffin, written in apocalyptic language, which announces 'day one of year one of the new epoch'. In the worst letter ever, Griffin tells Kemp that he is taking charge: "Port Burdock is no longer under the Queen, tell your Colonel of Police, and the rest of them; it is under me- the Terror! This is day one of year one of the new epoch- the Epoch of the Invisible Man. I am Invisible Man, the First ". The letter also says that Griffin will kill Kemp that day. What's even better is that Griffin sent that letter without a stamp, so Kemp had to pay for it upon delivery. Kemp has his housekeeper lock up all the windows and gets his revolver ready. He writes a note for Col. Adye, saying that Kemp will act as bait to catch Griffin and that Griffin will be caught because he will have gone to fair. A knock at the door turns out to be Adye with news that Kemp's housekeeper- who was carrying message (notes) for the police- had been attacked and the notes taken from her. Then Griffin does what he does best: he breaks some windows. But there's no way for him to get into Kemp's house because they've anticipated his arrival. This is the siege of Kemp's house. Griffin makes his presence known by smashing windows in Kemp's house. During the battle that follows, Col. Adye is shot. Griffin gets inside the house -237-

and tries to tell the police to "stand away" as he is only after Kemp. He swings an axe at them, but one of them manages to strike him with an iron poker. By this time Kemp has followed his housekeeper through a window and is nowhere to be found. Q.5 The narrator sympathises with Griffin at the beginning of the chapter "The Wicksteed Murder". Do you think this sympathy is totally justified? Give your own opinion. Ans. The narrator presents evidence to suggest that, after leaving Kemp's house, Griffin preceded to Hinton dean, where he murdered Lord Burdock's steward, Mr Wick steed. After this he seems to have gone on to the download where, the campaign to track him down was now in full swing. The Invisible Man lies low. The narrator constructs a tale about Griffin's whereabouts and actions using his imagination and a few available facts. After Griffin runs out of Kemp's house, the narrator loses track of him for a day: "No one knows where he went nor what he did". But no one else is going to be in nice to Griffin: everyone else seems to be out hunting him with guns and dogs. To make things worse, Kemp spreads the news that people need to keep the Invisible Man from eating or sleeping. The narrator is careful to emphasize that these are his conjectures- no one can exactly know how the events occurred, or how Griffin came to possess a weapon. The narrator further theorizes that Griffin's agitated state of mind and general lack of empathy make him immune to the crime he has committed. The narrator attempts to provoke the reader's sympathy by emphasizing the series of disappointments that Griffin has suffered to harden him, the worst blow being Doctor Kemp's treachery. Q.6 Write in brief about the murder of Mr. Wicksteed. How was Griffin involved in the murder? Ans. The entire countryside around the Burdock has been mobilized. By 2:00 in the afternoon, men set out with guns, clubs and dogs, and the police warn the village people to lock their doors and stay inside. Griffin manages to evade his pursuers for a 24-hour period except for one encounter with a middle-aged man (Mr. Wicksteed) who had apparently concerned him. Griffin kills the man by beating him with an iron rod. The narrator constructs a tale about Griffin's whereabouts and actions using his imagination and a few available facts. In his words, the irate Griffin hurts a child on his way out of Kemp's house and hides in the thickets of Hinton dean to scheme again. From mid-noon to two-thirty, he possibly stays there, trying to come to terms with Kemp's betrayal and cursing his luck. Then he sets out, armed with an iron rod for some purpose that cannot be guessed. a harmless man by the name of Wicksteed witnesses the rod moving on its own, ignorant of Griffin's reputation. He follows he rod is violently murdered by Griffin in a gravel pit. Since no one was there but Griffin we'll never know what happened, only that Wicksteed was beaten to death with an iron rod. The narrator is careful to emphases that these are his conjectures - no one can exactly know how the events occurred, or how Griffin came to possess a weapon. Q.7 To save himself from the cold and the snowstorm of London, where did Griffin go? How did he spend the night there and what happened next morning? Write in detail.

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Ans. With a January snowstorm blowing in London, Griffin needed to find a place to stay. He went to a giant department store named Omniums. With the intention of clothing himself so that he might reclaim his notebooks and cheque book. He had gone into the Omniums, a large apartment type store where one could buy everything from groceries to clothing. Griffin waited until the place closed, then he started searching around for things he could use. He stole some food and clothes. Over by toys, he saw some fake noses, wigs and other costume stuff that could help him pretend to be normal. He made his way to an area of bedsteads and mattresses, hoping that once the store is closed for the night, he would be able to sleep on the mattresses and steal some clothes with which to mask his condition. In the night he procured a complete set of clothes for himself, helped himself to food in a refreshment department, and then slept in the bedding department. He failed to awaken before the morning crew had entered, however, and was unable to escape as long as they could see him. The workers chased him around the store (they could see him because he has wearing clothes); but once again, Griffin took off his clothes to become invisible. He was only able to escape by discarding his clothing and assuming invisibility once more. Since he couldn't steal clothes, Griffin had to leave the store with nothing on (naked). Q.8 How did Griffin discover the drawbacks of being invisible? How did he avoid a unit of a marching Salvation Army Brand? Ans. Griffin continues to explain his experiences with invisibility. Griffin recounts his adventures immediately after escaping from his lodgings. These were not the 'wonderful things' he had fantasised about, but a series of calamities and accidents experienced as , naked and invisible, he attempted o negotiate the busy streets of Central London. He soon discovered that being invisible had as many drawbacks as advantages. People ran into him and stepped on him. He had to be continually on guard as to the movements and position of others in order to avoid accidental contact. To make matters worse, although people could not see him, dogs could detect him with their keen sense of smell. As he had to remain naked, he was soon uncomfortable. Also, he could not eat, as food was visible until it was fully assimilated into his system. At one point, he had run up the steps of a house in order to avoid a unit of a marching Salvation Army band. He tried to get out of the way, but he had stepped in some mud and left muddy footprints. While he waited, two youngsters spotted he prints of his bare feet in the mud. Soon a crowd of people had gathered to look at the "ghost prints". Q.9 Why did Griffin decide to experiment to become Invisible on himself? How did he manage to protect and secure his theory of invisibility? Write in detail. Ans. Back at the boarding house, Griffin continued his experiments. He made some wool invisible and then he made a neighbourhood cat invisible. Later the next day he had an altercation with the landlord who brought reports of Griffin tormenting a cat in the night. The landlord wanted to know what Griffin was doing in the room and what all the paraphernalia was for. The two argued and Griffin shoved the landlord out of the room. This event and his near-bankruptcy precipitated Griffin's decision to make himself invisible. Griffin knew he would have to act quickly, so he made arrangements to have his belongings stored. Realizing that this would lead to trouble, Griffin decided to disappear. He sent his books off by mail to some place where he could pick them up later. Then he started the process of turning himself invisible, which really hurt. He managed to protect and secure his -239-

theory of invisibility by sending his books and destroyed his equipment and set his room on fire. Q.10 Why did Griffin switch from medicine to physics? Why did he not want to publish and disclose his research theory to his professor? Give reason? Ans. Over breakfast, Griffin begins to tell Kemp at length how he became invisible. He had been a medical student, but had dropped medicine and taken up physics. Griffin was a medical student at the same time as Kemp, but Griffin switched to physics because he was interested in light. We also learn that, after leaving London seven years previously, he earned a living and had access to experimental resources as a demonstrator in a college in Chesilstowe. He came up with a loose theory for how to make objects invisible, but needed to figure out a method to actually do it. He discovered a formula of pigments that lowers the refractive index of a substance, allowing light to pass through it rather than being reflected or refracted. After experimenting with pigments for three years, he came upon the secret whereby animal tissue could be rendered transparent. He was continuously trying to hide his work from another professor. He thought that his professor Mr. Oliver might take the credit for Griffin's published theory.

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THE INVISIBLE MAN

Q1.H.G.wells has called Mrs. Hall’s guest’ A strange man’ in the title of the first chapter. Do you agree? Or Enlist the things that make Mrs. Halls guest strange man. Ans. H.G.wells is absolutely justified in calling Mrs. Hall’s guest’ A strange man’ in the first chapter. The things that made him strange included his appearance which was far from that of a normal person. his big blue spectacles with sidelights, head swathed in bandages and his thick black hair peeing from there made him peculiar .shiny pink nose stood out as a prominent feature of his otherwise nondescript fac. His body from behind a language too, was unusual for he spoke from behind a table napkin. He smoked a pipe with the lower part of his jaw securely wrapped with a silk muffler. All this definitely made him strange and abnormal. His insistence on not allowing Mrs. Hall to take away his wet coat and hat for drying also made his behaviour questionable. In addition, his disinclination to get also to get into any sort of conservation with his inn-keeper also lent an air of eccentricity of his personality. His curt and concise remarks to cut short Mrs. Hall’s narration of the story about her sister’s son’s accident sounded equally strange. Hence, H.G.Wells has appropriately termed Mrs. Hall’s guest as’ A strange man’.

Q2.Why did Mrs. Hall consider the strangers’ arrival in the “coach and horses “as her ‘good fortune’? Or Describe Mrs. Hall’s reaction when she got some business for herself during winter time early in February. What idea do you get about her as a business woman from the incident? Ans. I ping was a very small village which hardly even saw any visitors during the winter. It was a very lean period for business. Mrs. Hall, the inn keeper of the “coach and Horses”, was therefore elated to have a guest at her inn. His arrival was a pleasant surprise. However, she quoted the peak season prise for boarding and lodging because as a shrewd business woman she expected the man to haggle surprisingly, he agreed to her term at once and placed a couple of sovereigns as advance . This was indeed Mrs. Hall’s good fortune. But, apart from being a shrewd business woman, She was also conscientious and efficient. She did not let any expression of delight surface and proceeded promptly to give her guest a perfect service and a very comfortable stay in her inn. She was keen to deliver full worth of the money that the stranger he was spending. The episode reveals the lady’s professionalism and her will to carry out the responsibility as a good hostess. Q3. What impression did Mrs. Hall from about the stranger’s appearance and behaviour? -241-

Or Describe the appearance of the stranger when he arrived at the inn. Ans. Mrs. Hall was a very observant person. Hence, despite all her joy at getting client for her inn during the winter season, none the oddities of his appearance and behaviour escaped her notice. When he appeared at her inn, Mrs. Hall found her guest all wrapped up from head to foot in his coat, hat, muffler and gloves. The brain of his soft hat hid his face conspicuously on his nondescript face. Later, when he removed his hat, she found his head bandaged all over. His thick black strands of hair showed themselves here and there lending him a very shabby and strange appearance. His big blue spectacles with sidelights completely concealed his eyes. A part3part from his strange appearance, his behaviour was also eccentric. He refused to part with his wet clothes, talked to the lady from behind the table napkin, and displayed an utter reluctance to enter into any short of conservation with her .Thus; Mrs. Hall formed a very negative impression about both the appearance and the behaviour of the strange man.

Q4. What did Mrs. Hall do to prove herself worthy of her good fortune? Or Do you agree that Miss Hall had excellent hospitality skills? Ans. Mrs. Hall was indeed happy to have a guest for her inn during the business period of winter time. She considered it to be an unheard of piece of luck. On top of it ,the guest came to stay there did not handle the peak season price quoted by her. hence ,the lady was very keen to prove that good fortune favour was not ill placed. Therefore, he tried to make her guest very comfortable right from the beginning exhibiting her excellent hospitality skill; she first lit him a nice fire to relieve him of the biting cold of the wintry February. She then processed to prepare him a meal with her own hands. She offered to take away his wet clothes for drying, but when the gentleman refused to part with them, she didn’t pester him later on, when the stranger removed the clothes she took them to dry expect for the hat as was commanded by him. Now and then, to enter into polite conversation with him but when he respectively showed his reluctance, Miss Hall did not give expression to her irritation, although she felt snubbed. When stranger expressed eagerness to get his luggage from Bramblehurst station at the earliest, she assured him politely that it could not to be got earlier than the following day. She fulfilled promptly even his small requirements like matches to light his pipe. Thus, Mrs. Hall’s excellent hospitality skills helped her to prove herself worthy of her good fortune. Q5.After his arrival in the “coach and horses,” why did the stranger stick to his room without giving the inn keeper an excuse for intrusion? Why did Mrs. Hall find it to be odd?

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Ans. The stranger stuck to his room until four o’clock after his arrival in the inn. He neither encouraged anyone’s entry nor did he leave the rented parlour. Perhaps, he did not wish to attract any one’s attention towards his odd appearance and preferred to stay all by himself. He remained quite still most of the time and seemed to take brief nap in the growing darkness. Earlier he had pulled down the blinds that had shaded the lower part of the panes leaving the room in twilight. During his confident in the parlour it also appeared that he was talking to himself for a while. But the creaking of armchair indicates that he had sat down again. Thus, he waited for it to be dark before leaving the room. Mrs. Hall, who must have been getting guests of al. types in her inn, found his behaviour very odd. It was very unusual for a guest to confine himself to his room all the time. She was quite intrigued because so for she had not came across any guest wishing to guard his privacy with such great vehemence. Hence, she found his behaviour to be extremely odd. Q6.why did Mrs. Hall Teddy Henfrey, the clock jobber, to mend the parlour clock? Why did the strange? Man permits Mrs Hall to get the clock repaired? Ans. Mrs. Hall’s eccentric guest did not leave his room all day long. He also discourages Mrs Hall’s entry into his room. The lady was. Finding it to be very odd.Curiostiy was killing her and she was looking for some valid excuse to enter her guest’s room. Hence when Teddy henfrey, the clock –jobber, visited her bar, Mrs. Hall Thought it to be a good opportunity to visit the guest’s room on the pretext of getting the parlour clock repaired. Her guest permitted this interference because it was going to be of some advantage to him, too. Although he did not hesitate to express his displeasure at the intrusion still he allowed Teddy to mend the clock.Thus, Mrs.Hall was successful in entering the strange man’s room with assistance from teddy Henfrey and without facing any objection from her guest.

Q7.How was Teddy Henfrey received at the inn by Mrs. Hall? How did the strange man respond to teddy’s arrival in his room? Ans. Teddy Henfrey was received gladly by Mrs. Hall when he visited her bar. She was all the more happy to see him carrying his tool-bag. Actually, his arrival gave her the brilliant idea of entering the guest’s room on the pretext of getting the parlour clock repaired. Hence the clock-jobber was very well welcomed by the lady. However, when he visited the guest’s room, he missed the warmth that he had experienced earlier in the bar. After a cold ‘good morning ‘the stranger silently started at Teddy working at the clock. In an attempt to break the silence of the room Teddy tried to get into some sort of conservation with the guest. The Strange man however snubbed him curtly. Rather, he rebuked Teddy for prolonging the job that needed just fixing of the hour hand on the axel. Embarrassed by the snubbing, Henfrey finished the work quickly and left the room.

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Q8.Why did Teddy Hefley feel insulted after his encounter with the strange man at the “coach and Horses”? What did he do to relieve himself from his nasty mood on his way back from the inn? Ans. Teddy Hefley looked forward to meet the new guests of the Hall’s when he entered the parlour to repair the clock. However, the strange man responded in a cold manner watching the clock-jobber constantly and never opening his mouth once. Henfrey deliberately tried to work slowly and prolong his stay in the room hoping to get into some sort of conservation with the strange man. The stranger’s constant gaze and absolute silence started getting on Hefley nerves. Still he tried to initiate a formal conversation by commenting on the biting cold weather. The stranger snubbed him at once and asked him to finish his work fast without any ‘humbugging’ (cheating).Teddy henfrey was left with no choice but to finish his work immediately and leave. However, he was in very bad mood when he left the room. Sleep that night. Her sleep was interrupted by strange dreams of huge white turnip-like heads with enormous eyes at the end of interminable heads haunting her. She was a sensible woman and so she tried to regain peace of mind by making a conscious effort to keep such thoughts away. Q9.Describe the incident when the stranger was bitten by Fireside’s dog. What happened when the stranger came out of his room to receive his luggage that had arrived from Bramblehurst Station? Ans. Fearnside,the cart driver, brought the stranger’s luggage from Bramblehurst station to the “Coach and horses”inn.It consisted of numerous crates, a box of books and a couple of trunks. The stranger emerged from his room for the first time since his arrival, all covered from head to toe. He saw fearenside and Mr. Hall getting prepared to carry the luggage to his room. In all his excitement, the stranger rushed to the cart. Just as he was trying to help by picking up a small crate, Fireside’s dog. Growled at him ferociously. The animal pounced upon the stranger’s hand before anyone could do anything. The stranger kicked the dog in self- defence, Hall ran for his life and Fireside snatched his whip to stop the dog from attacking further. In the meantime, the dog made another attempt and this time he bit the strange man’s leg. Now, both his glove and trousers had been torn by the dog. The stranger rushed back to his room and Hall followed him out of sympathy.Fearenside whipped the dog which crept under the wagon whining. All this attracted a considerable group of villagers who gathered around the wagon out of curiosity and all of them started to offer suggestations. Thus, this incident pepped-up the laid back morning at I ping. Q10.What did Hall experience when he entered the stranger’s room after the latter had been bit by fireside’s dog? Why didn’t he share his experience with others? Ans. Mr. Hall followed the stranger to his room out of sheer sympathy when the latter had been bit by fireside’s dog. He entered the dimly lit room without knocking at the door. To his utter dismay, he encountered an indescribable sight. He saw a handless arm moving towards him. In place of a face he saw three huge indeterminate spots on white. Perhaps the stranger had removed his spectacles and what Hall saw were two hollows in place of eyes and one follow in place of mouth. He received blow in a violent in his chest before he could see any -244-

further. He was pushed out of the room and the door was shut in his face. Shocked and perplexed at the drastic turn of events, he tried to comprehend what he had just encountered. He came out confused and unsure of himself. He was doubtful about anybody believing him. Moreover; his poor expression would not have allowed him to explain himself convincingly. Hence, he did not share his experience with anyone and simply announced that the strange and was fine and did not require any help. Q11.Each time Mrs. Hall fussed over the mess created by the stranger in the guest parlour, he told her to put it in the bill. How did this arrangement suit both the hostess as well as the guest? Ans. Mrs. Hall was a meticulous person who killed to keep her inn neat and oerderly.Her guest, on the other hand, was diagonally opposite. He was clumsy and careless. Hence there were a number of’skirmishes’between her and the guest over the mess that he had been piling up in the parlour. Whether he made a stain on the table cloth or he littered her carpet with straw or he messed up to the room with broken glass, he wouldn’t listen to the hostess’ complaint. Every time he silenced her by asking her to put the damage in the bill. He found it convenient to make liberal monetary offers because it satisfied his hostless’bussiness interests and it also suited his easy –going habits. His mind was always preoccupied with better things than the idea of cleanliness. Hence, he wanted to avoid being worried by the lady over trifles. Thus the arrangements suited both Mrs. Hall who didn’t mind any mess as long as she was being compensated for it and also the stranger who could do as he pleased without being bothered. Q12.Why did a good number of villagers gather outside the “coach and horses” after the guest was bit by firesides’ dog? What impression do you gather about the villagers from this episode? Ans. The simple villagers gathered around Fireside’s cart after the dog had bitten the guest because the easy village life permitted them quite a leisure time to assemble at the sconce and quell their curiosity. Their sympathy towards the stranger was also one of the reasons that brought them around. They were unhappy about the incident and they felt the dog had bitten the man without any rhyme or reason. Many of them felt such pets should not be kept at all. Some of them claimed that they had a way with dogs and they wouldn’t allow any dos to bite them. A lady went to the extent of saying that she would shoot the dog for the kind of mischief that he had indulged. In one of the villagers suggested that immediate cauterization was needed in such cases, particularly if there was some inflammation. Mrs. Hall was quite annoyed with Fireside’s dog’s for having bitten her guest. Fireside himself was sorry for his dog’s conduct and offered his apologies to the guest for the unfortunate incident. The concern of the villagers for an unknown man indicated that life they were still untouched by the unconcerned attitude of city life. Their willingness to offer help, even when it was not

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asked for, showed their humane aspect. The readiness with which they offered suggestions exhibited their no-all stance. Thus this incident established the simplicity governing the village – folk. Luggage. How it was finally settled? As soon as the stranger’s luggage reached his room, he eagerly started unpacking the first crate. He pulled out bottles of different colors, shapes and sizes carelessly throwing the packaging-straw all over the carpet. He arranged the bottles everywhere-over the shelves, chest of drawers, on the table, on the bookshelf, and the floor. By the floor. By the time all the crates had been emptied, the room looked more like a chemist’s shop rather than a guest parlor. When Mrs. Hall come to the room with her guest’s dinner, he was so engrossed in his work that he didn’t hear her. Hence he turned towards her without caring to cover his eyes with large spectacles. The lady was startled to see his extraordinarily hollow sockets in place of eyes. He anticipated that she would complain about the litter on the carpet so, before she could utter a word, he wore his spectacles and told her curtly not to enter his room without knocking. Mrs. Hall tried to explain that she had knocked but perhaps the guest was so absorbed in his work that he failed to listen. He agreed but insisted at the same time that the slightest disturbance was uncalled for. Mrs. Hall suggested that if it be so, he could turn the lock while working. The irritated Mrs. Hall now tried to express her displeasure at the litter in the room. The stranger snubbed her at once and told her that if the straw troubled her she could put down the damage in the bill. Hence, despite the mess irritating the lady, the offer of a shilling as compensation silenced her and the matter was settled. Q.13 what was the ‘rummy case’ referred to by teddy Henry when he talked to Fireside at the little beer-shop of Aping Hanger? Ans. Fireside was quite perplexed regarding the strange guest of the Halls. He met teddy Henry at the little beer-shop of Aping Hanger Late in the afternoon of the day when his when his dog had bitten the stranger. He told Henry that the man whom his dog had bitten was black. At least his legs seemed so because he saw nothing but blackness through the trouserpiece and glove torn by his dog. He expected to see a sort of pink skin to show but there was nothing except blackness which was as black as his hat. At this Henry remarked that it was altogether a ‘rummy case’ because his nose after all was pink as paint. Fearenside speculated that the man must be a piebald with black and white patches like a half-bred

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horse. Perhaps the two colors, instead of mixing evenly, had come off patchy. Such a thing had never been heard of before and was thus termed as a ‘rummy case’. Q.14 What sort of attitude did the people of Aping have towards the stranger? Why? Or What kind of stories or rumours about the stranger circulated in Aping? Why? Ans. Mrs. Hall, who was apparently the closest to the stranger, defended him while other people in the village had a negative attitude towards him. However, she too got often into an argument with him on account of domestic indiscipline. Her husband Hall had already a strong dislike for the guest and he wanted to get rid him as early as possible. Despite his dislike, Hall did not have any say in the matter because Mrs. Hall wanted to retain the guest for his punctuality in settling bills. The weird appearance and eccentric behaviour of this man earned him the displeasure of everyone. Almost all the villagers had a story behind their dislike for him. Many thought that he was a criminal trying to conceal himself behind bandages to escape justice. Others thought him to be an Anarchist busy preparing explosives. Some took him to be a freak who could make a lot of money by showing himself at the village fair. Some brushed him aside as a lunatic. The woman folk believed that there was something supernatural about him. People made fun of him and the children teased him as ‘Bogey Man’ Thus, with the exception of Mrs. Hall No one in the village had any sympathy for the strange man. Their inability to discover the truth about him led to speculation and rumors. Q.15 Despite her apprehensions, Mrs. Hall defended her guest. What explanation did she give justifying his appearance and his profession? What light does this throw on her character? Ans. The weird appearance and eccentric behavior of Mrs. Hall’s guest earned him the displeasure of everyone. Mystery shrouded his background, his profession and his purpose of coming to Iping. People went around trying to gather information about this mysterious stranger. Mrs. Hall, who was apparently closest to him, was least interested in getting rid of such a well-paying guest. So, she spoke in his defense and told people that by profession he was an ‘experimental investigator’ who kept himself occupied in conducting scientific experiments. She also stood up for him when people questioned regarding his weird appearance, she explained that the poor man had gone through a nasty accident that -247-

had temporarily discolored his face and hands. This, she explained, necessitated the constant use of gloves, bandages and enormous goggles. She added that being a sensitive person, he tried to avoid the scrutinizing looks of the people around him and did not venture outdoors without concealing his face. The strong support of Mrs. Hall for the stranger showed that she was earnestly performing her duty as his hostess. Although her decision to retain him as her guest was influenced by the good

Q.16 Why was Cuss so keen to the stranger? Or Why was Mr.Cuss keenly interested in the stranger? Ans. There were several reasons that resulted in Cuss’s keenness to see the stranger. Firstly, the stranger’s reputation of being an ‘experimental investigator’ aroused Cuss’s curiosity. As the general practitioner of Iping, he felt there must be something akin between the of them. Secondly, when people all over Iping had nothing but the stranger to talk about, Cuss felt lift out because seeing hin, Therefore, he wished to accomplish this task at the earliest. Apart from all these reasons, Cuss had heard about the countless bottles in the stranger’s room. He wondered whether these bottles outnumbered the stranger’s that he possessed at his clinic.the description of the stranger’s bandaged head also aroused his professional interest. Hence, Cuss Eagerly awaited the opportunity of seeing him and he started looking some valid excuse that would lead to this meeting. Q.17 Describe Cuss’s encounter with the stranger? Ans. Cuss hit upon plan to visit the stranger without appearing to be obtrusive. He decided to go to him on the pretext of collecting subscription for Nurse Fund. He tried to gather his name from Mrs. Hall to be added to the subscription-list. However, he was quite shocked to learn that Halls were not aware of their guest’s name. anyhow. He proceeded to the guest-room himself. He apologized for his intrusion and stated the purpose of his visit. The stranger initially did not respond but later promised to consider subscribing for the good cause. Cuss’s roving eyes saw numberless bottles, a balance and lots of test-tubes in stands. He also sniffed the smell of chemicals all over. Intending to continue with the conversation, Cuss -248-

inquired form the s the stranger if he had been working on some research. The stranger affirmed this and grumbled that it had been a rather and long research. The experimental investigator’ got agitated and while elaborating the loss of his formula in the fireplace he pointed towards the chimney with his handless arm. This sight gave Cuss the shock of his life. A dismayed Cuss sought an explanation from the stranger for his empty sleeve. He in turn lifted his hollow sleeve bringing it to Cuss’s face. Before the practitioner could register this unusual thing, an invisible thumb and finger tweaked his nose. Hitting back hard at the cuff, Cuss ran out of the room and went straight to Vicar Bunting to narrate his weird encounter. Q.18 How did the vicar respond to Cuss’s encounter with the stranger? “A most remarkable story”, commented Mr. Bunting. Which story is he referring to? Why was it so remarkable? Ans. Cuss came out of the stranger’s room utterly shocked after the weird encounter. He dashed straight to Vicar Bunting in order to normalize himself. He was so dazed after meeting the stranger that he initially spoke incoherently and asked for something to drink to cool his agitated mind. Bunting gave him a glass of cheap sherry. Cuss, then related a detailed account of the weird encounter that he had earlier with the stranger. Bunting listened to the incredible story with rapt attention. However, he couldn’t help laughing when Cuss described his feeling on getting his nose tweaked by the invisible finger and thumb of the stranger. Bunting’s laugh hurt Cuss and he commented that the incident was startling and it didn’t deserve to be laughed over. The vicar saw a genuine panic in Cuss’s eyes. Though he still looked at Cuss with suspicion, doubting the veracity of his veracity of his account, he tried to pacify him by observing that the story was indeed remarkable. He assured Cuss with all his seriousness, wisdom and judiciousness, that his experience was definitely an extra-ordinary one. At that moment, Bunting could not offer help of any kind other than this assertion. Q.19 the stranger tried to guard the secret of his invisibility from the world by contriving all sorts of methods. Why did her then tweak Mr. Cuss’s nose so casually giving him solid evidence of his invisibility? Ans. The stranger went about with his head swathed in bandages, eyes covered with enormous spectacles, hands gloved, coat collar pulled up and felt hat pulled down so that no one could detect his incivility. He stuck to his room during day time and left the house only in twilight to avoid unnecessary questions about his appearance. In his room too, he smoked with the lower part of his face wrapped in a silk muffler. He preferred to stay behind closed doors with blinds down. He did all this to guard the -249-

secret of the invisibility. However, when Cuss came to se him and asked if he was carrying out a long research, the stranger got very excited, giving vent to his pent up feeling, he pointed out towards the chimney while trying to explain how a very important prescription, absolutely vital to his research, had gone up in smoke. Cuss saw his handless empty sleeve and inquired from the stranger about this queer phenomenon. His insistence on knowing the reason behind the hollow sleeve compelled the stranger to disclose his so far well-guarded secret. Also, having aroused the suspicions of Cuss, the Stranger couldn’t care less about confirming doubts. Hence, he tweaked Cuss’s nose with his invisible finger and thumb partly to teach him a lesson for intruding hi privacy and partly to have fun.

Q.20 Why did the buntings fail capture the burglar in spite of all the presence of mind and courage? Or How did the burglar manage to steal the money even when the buntings had awakened from sleep? Ans. Mrs. Bunting got inkling that there was an intruder in the house when she heard the noise made by the opening and the closing of the door. Instead of getting panicked she acted with composure. She simply sat in her bed, straining her ears to catch some sound that would confirm her doubt was not unfounded; she quietly woke up her husband. Mr. Bunting, too, took stalk of the situation without raising an alarm. He put on his bath slippers without striking light. He went on the landing to listen further to the sound made by the burglar and guess his exact location. He could hear distinctly some ruffling sound in his study. In addition, someone’s violent sneeze left him without doubt about the presence of equips himself with a suitable object to face the intruder. He chose a poker and proceeded towards the study-room. The lady of the house, thought white with fear, also followed Mr. Bunting to give moral support. They heard a candle being lit in the study room. Mr. bunting peeped thought the crack of the door very cautiously and found his drawer open with the candle lighted on the desk. The couple stood undecided. The intruder went one step further and managed to his hands on the reserve of gold saved for house-keeping. The money made. a clinking sound when it was taken out. Now the buntings couldn’t stay back any longer and entered the room bravely demanding the burglar to surrender. However, they couldn’t capture the intruder because they failed to see anybody in the room. When they heard the burglar sneezes again in the passage, they rushed after the sound. The kitchen door opened and closed but they still couldn’t see anyone. -250-

Hence, despite their grit and presence of mind the burglar couldn’t be capture by them. He took advantage of his invisibility and escaped easily without being seen or caught. Q.21 What traits of the buntings’ character impress you and why? Or Do you think the buntings were brave? Why? Presence of mind, courage and bravery are the sterling traits of the buntings ‘character revealed by the episode of break-in at the vicarage. They showed exemplary qualities of mantel strength and emotional composure when the burglar broke into their house. Mrs. Buntings was neither petrified, nor did she panic when she heard sounds of intrusion. She woke up her husband as quietly as possible and Mr. Bunting too acted in the coolest manner. He bravely equipped himself with a poke to face the intruder. He was neither reckless nor rash as he went down the staircase following the sounds made by the intrude. Although a bit scared, Mrs. Bunting followed her husband thereby not letting him face the precarious situation single- handedly. The couple entered the study room bravely but cautiously and tried to nab the intruder. Unfortunately, the invisibility of the burglar proved to be a major obstacle for the buntings and he escaped. Otherwise, the duo’s unparalleled presence of mind, bravery and courage wouldn’t have allowed him to wriggle out easily. Q.22 Bring out the element of humour in the chapter where the vicar’s house is broken into by the invisible burglar? Or Do you find the break- in at the vicarage humorous? Why? Ans. Burglaries are scary and fearsome. People panic and are left terror stricken whenever such an episode occurs. Contrary to the expected reaction, the buntings managed this crisis very boldly and coolly. However, the suspense did not stress or unnerve the reader because the narration of the episode is somewhat amusing. Mr. Bunting’s hurried attire evokes humour. He does his wife‘s dressing gown and moves gingerly with the poker in his hand to encounter the intruder. A couple of ill-timed sneezes of the burglar also amuse the couple’s attempt search the house thoroughly is yet another comical image. They go about looking desperately in the most impossible hiding places-behind the screen, under the desk behind the window curtains, and prove even the chimney. Before wrapping up the search, the dustbin and the container for the coal are peeped in to.

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The concluding sentence of the chapter further arouses laughter. It was full daylight and the buntings were still wrecking their brains about the burglary is presented in a humorous way to provide a kind of comical-relief to the reader in an otherwise suspense story. Q.23 What took the halls to their cellar in the early morning of whit

Monday?

Why

did Mr. Hall have to rush up immediately? What did he see there? Or What surprise awaited hall in the early morning of whit Monday when he came upstairs from the cellar to fetch sarsaparilla? Ans. The Halls went down to their cellar in the early morning of whit Monday to dilute the beer that was to be served to their guests. This was an easy way of making larger profit. But diluted beer lost its tang and taste, so the Halls cleverly added a non-alcoholic drink, sarsaparilla, to cover up. However, this operation had to be carried out stealthily lest their reputation be ruined. So much so, that even their domestic help Millie could not be trusted in this matter. Hence this project was carried out right in the morning before Millie woke up. On whit Monday as they were about to proceed with their work, it was realized that hall had forgotten to bring ‘sarsaparilla’, the most important ingredient for this adulteration. Therefore he came upstairs to fetch the bottle. On reaching up, hall was surprised to see the stranger’s door ajar. Still he proceeded to get the required bottle. It was then hat he saw front door bolts had been shot back. He remembered vividly that Mrs. Hall had shot last night. This aroused his curiosity and he went inside the stranger’s room which was found to be vacant. The stranger was nowhere to be seen and his cloths were lying scattered. He ran downstairs when his wife shouted at him for delaying. He returned to the cellar and narrated what he had just seen. Q 25 Describe the incident that sent Mrs. Hall fainting into Mr. Hall’s arms. Or Why did Mrs. Hall faint the furniture in the parlour strangely flew towards her? Ans. On their way to the stranger’s room from the cellar, both Mr. and Mrs. Hall vaguely heard the front door open and shut. However, they didn’t mention the fact to each other. They did hear someone sneeze on the staircase but Mr. and Mrs. Hall both thought that the other was sneezing; hence both of them ignored it. In the room, feeling the pillow and the bed clothes, Mrs. Hall declared confidently that bed must have been left about an hour ago. As the couple was discussing the matter, the bed clothes suddenly gathered themselves together and moved over the bottom rail of the bed. Immediately after, the stranger’s hat flung itself against Mrs. Hall’s face. The sponge from the washstand followed the hat. Then the chair went up in the air and came charging at Mrs. Hall. -252-

The poor lady screamed and turned her back towards the chair. Immediately after, she and hall were pushed out of the room. While the objects were flinging themselves, a vicious laughter, resembling that of the stranger, was heard. The shock was so violent that Mrs. Hall fell fainting into her husband’s arms. Q.26 Why was Mrs. Sandy wagers, the blacksmith, sent for by Halls early in the morning on whit Monday? What suggestion did he give? Or Why did Mr. Sandy waders, the blacksmith, the halls to hang a horseshoes? Ans. The halls were extremely scared, the sight of different objects flying all over the guest parlour. Uncertain about what to do under the circumstances, they sent for Mr. Sandy wadgers, the blacksmith, who had the reputation of being knowledgeable and resourceful. The halls badly needed some moral support at this point of time. Moreover, they looked forward to get some sane advice from this man in whose wisdom they had a lot of faith. In addition to this, Mr. Wager lived just across the lane, so it was easy to approach him. He could have reached them the earliest. Hence they sent Millie to call him. Mr. wager reached the inn at once and listened carefully to the whole story as expected from a good neighbor who had been approached for help. Employing all his wisdom and knowledge in this regard, he concluded for the welfare of halls, he suggested that the evil should be warded off at once. This, he said, could be done effectively by using a horseshoe. As a blacksmith, this was perhaps the best he could think of. However, he did not go to the parlour to check things for himself even when the halls wanted him to and he preferred to talk in the passage itself. Q.27 Initially the stranger acted very cautiously to guard the fact of his invisible. Why did he then laugh loudly and advertise his invisible presence while throwing the halls out of his room? Or What inference do you draw about the stranger’s increasing casual attitude towards safeguarding his invisibility? Discuss with reference to the furniture hurling episode when the halls examine his room presuming him to be absent. Ans. The stranger was very particular about hiding the fact of his invisibility because he required a proper boarding and lodging for himself. Had he made it known right in the beginning, Mrs. Hall would have never taken in such a weird guest in her inn. Hence, he carefully camouflaged his appearance by using an artificial nose, swathing his head, supporting extra-ordinarily huge spectacles, putting on his gloves and covering himself from -253-

head to foot with cloths. His disguise was intelligently devised to give his invisible self a nearnormal shape. Thus he successfully avoided the arousal of suspicion about his peculiarity. However, after securing a place to live in, the stranger was no longer strict about safeguarding his secret. Little episode indicated his hollowness and gradually his secret began to give way. On the very next day of his arrival, when he was bit by fireside’s dog, the cart driver got a glimpse of nothingness through the tear of his trouser and glove. Mrs. Hall, who took him by surprise many times, had a chance to see a huge cavity below his nose. On another occasion, she caught him without his spectacles and happened to see his unusually dark and hollow eye-sockets. On whit Monday, the halls heard the invisible man sneezing on the staircase but did not see him. But the truth was that the invisible man could see clearly that he had aroused enough suspicion. Hence, he was amused by their panic and burst out laughing without bothering to conceal the fact of his invisibility. He was well aware that the beans already been spilt and the secret of his invisibility was soon going to be known to all. Therefore, he wasn’t as cautious as earlier and sought pleasure in the confusion that his invisible status was creating. Q 28. Describe the encounter between Mrs. Hall and the stranger when he opened the door at midday on Whit Monday. Ans. Driven by hunger, the stranger opened the door of his room at midday after staying inside for a good number of hours. He immediately asked for Mrs. Hall. The lady was in a fierce mood, not only because she found her mother’s favorite chair to be haunted but also because Hall had been asked by the unsettled bill. The stranger demanded an explanation for his missing breakfast and meal. Instead of replying, Mrs. Hall demanded that her bill be settled first. The stranger reasoned that he had already told her that he was without money and he would settle the bill three days later after he received a remittance. But when he found Mrs. Hall to be adamant, he told that he had found some money in his pocket. Mrs. Hall’s suspicion was aroused and she told him point-blank that she was well –aware of the source from which he had got the money. She also asked him to explain how he got into the house in the morning without using the door and what had he done to her furniture which seemed to be haunted. Totally cornered, the stranger had no choice but to reveal the secret of his invisibility. Acutely agitated, he simply plucked off his artificial nose, removed his whiskers. In the absence of disguise, he stood headless which left Mrs. Hall and others present absolutely dumbfounded. Q 29. What made Mr. Bobby Jeffers, the village constable, come to the “Coach and Horsed”? What efforts did he make to arrest the stranger? Or -254-

Mr. Bobby Jeffers, the village constable, was a brave man. Discuss in light of the episode when he arrived at the “coach and horses” ton arrest the stranger. Ans. Mr. Bobby Jeffers, the village constable, came to the “Coach and Horses” to arrest the stranger for the burglary committed at the vicarage. He had been directed to do so by shuckleforth, the magistrate, who in turn been requested by Hall. However, by the time Jeffers reached the inn. The place was in a state of utter chaos as the stranger had revealed his real self by tearing away his nose, and removing the wrappings that hid his face. Hence, on reaching the “Coach and horses”, he encountered the headless stranger. Jaffers was a dutiful and conscientious man. When other got a shock to find the stranger headless, he declared bravely that ‘head or no head’ the stranger would be arrested. When the stranger shouted at him and slapped him with his invisible hand, jaffers was the least bit intimidated. He courageously caught the culprit’s handless wrist and grabbed his invisible throat. He held his target so strongly that in spite of being kicked in the shin, he didn’t loosen his grip. Finally, the stranger promised to surrender at which the constable got prepared to handcuff him. But the latter had clever plans and he insisted on being spared of this embarrassment. The constable was a bold man, but was gullible as well. So, when the stranger promised to surrender and requested not to handcuff him, he believed the criminal. Taking advantage of this situation the stranger managed to divert everybody’s attention and took off his clothes. He was now invisible and thus he tried to escape. More futile efforts were made by everybody to overpower him. However, it was again Jeffers who managed to catch hold of the Invisible Man. He stuck to his post till the end and fought his headless opponent in a very courageous manner. But ultimately, the stranger got the better of him and pushed him down on the gravel. He escaped leaving behind everyone utterly confused and helpless. Therefore, in spite of his brief appearance, Boddy Jaffers manages to leave behind his unfading image in the minds of the readers. Q 30. How did the stranger manage to escape dodging not only Jaffers but also a lot of other people who had gathered in the inn? Or The stranger was a crafty man who successfully dodged all attempts to nab him. Discuss in light of the episode when the village constable arrived at the inn to attest him in connection with the burglary at the vicarage. -255-

Or The chapter “the Unveiling of the stranger” does not only unveil the stranger on the physical level but it also unveils several traits of his character. Give your observations in this regard. Ans. In the chapter “The Unveiling of the stranger” the stranger had revealed the secret of his invisibility by removing his wrappings well before the arrival of Jeffers who had come to arrest him for the burglary at the vicarage. When Jeffers insisted upon arresting this headless culprit, he was offered tough resistance. However, when the stranger found himself losing battle, he thought of using the invisibility trump card. He promised to surrender on the condition that Jeffers won’t handcuff him. Little did the gullible village constable realize that this shrewd and cunning man would take advantage of this favour. By and by, he took off all his clothes and became absolutely invisible. He then grappled with Jeffers and overpowered him. Kicking here and punching there, he elbowed his way through the crowd that had opened the door of his other by this time. Thus he escaped dodging both Jaffers and all other people who had gathered there. This encounter clearly establishes the stranger as a crafty man who could never be trusted, his ego and arrogance is evident when he asks for Mrs. Hall demanding his breakfast. He shouts and swears at her but the moment Mrs. Hall snubs him and reminds him of the unsettled bill the crafty man instantly makes his tone sober and calls her ‘My good Woman’. Thus the chapter unveils all the wickedness of the crooked character. Q 31. Bring out the element of humour in the chapter ‘The Unveiling of the stranger’. Ans. Ordinarily the arrest of a criminal is a grim and a disagreeable occasion with no room for humour in it. However, the episode of the futile attempt of a conscientious village constable to arrest this stranger is nterspersed with humour. To begin with, when Hall ushers the constable in the guest parlour to arrest this criminal they are encountered by a headless culprit. Rather than being shocked, Jaffers declares that ‘head or no head’ the man is to be arrested because he is bound by his duty. This matter-of-fact manner amuses the reader. Then a scuffle that takes place between the constable and a headless man, where Jaffers insistence on hand-cuffing a criminal invisible wrists also arouses humour. The commotion caused in room with chairs crashing, people colliding and falling on each other, bottles falling from the chiffonnier and breaking to pieces emitting a pungent smell dilutes the gravity has situation lending more humour to the scene. The author has skillfully juxtaposed seriousness with humour in this chapter. -256-

Q 32 What flustered and perplexed Gibbons as he lay napping in afield oblivious of all that had taken place at the “Coach and Horses”? Or How did Gibbons react to the strange coughing and sneezing sounds that he heard as he lay all alone in the field near I ping village? Ans. A couple of miles away from all the commotion that took place at the “Coach and Horses”, Gibbons, an amateur naturalist of Iping, lay dozing off in a calm and quiet field. Suddenly, he heard, very close to him, someone’s sneeze and swearing. When he looked around, there was no one to be seen. However, the voice that was heard was distinctly audible and it appeared to be the voice of a cultured man. By and by, the voice started becoming fainter and it appeared to be moving towards adder dean. Then he heard yet another sneeze. This voice flustered and perplexed the naturalist as he hadn’t heard a word about the invisibility of Mrs. Hall’s guest and all the hullaballoo that he has created in the parlour of the “Coach and Horses”. Finding the whole episode inexplicable, Gibbons got up and hurriedly moved towards the village because he saw no wisdom in staying back in this isolated spot with quaint things happening around. Q 33 Who was Thomas Marvel? What idea do you gather about him from his first encounter with the invisible Man? Or Describe Thomas Marvel’s first meeting with the Invisible Man. Ans. Mr. Thomas Marvel was a tramp with slovenly appearance. He has a peculiar nose and ad shabby bristled. He had short limbs with a bent figure. He wore and untidy, conspicuously high, furry silk hat. He looked like a typical unkempt bachelor. He sat by the roadside in an inebriated (drunken) state, oblivious of what all had gone on in Iping. With his feet in a ditch. He was unhappy with the two pairs of shoes that he had got in charity. When a voice intervened in his evaluation of shoes, he wasn’t startled because he was too drunk to realize that he was being talked to by thin air. It was quite a few sentences later that he turned to seed the person who had joined him in this analysis. Initially, his lack of imagination didn’t let him believe in the existence of an invisible being. However, when he was hit with stones by the Invisible Man, he got quite intrigued and wanted to know the secret of invisibility. He thought this unique trait could help him a lot in meeting his modest wants in life. All the same, he felt uncomfortable with the idea of being used as a tool by the Invisible Man. But the poor man was no match to the power of the Invisible Man and had no choice but to agree to assist him. -257-

Q 34 Why did the Invisible Man feel insulted by Marvel’s refusal to accept his identity? What did he do to convince him? Ans. Passing by the downs, the Invisible Man saw Marvel analyzing the worth of the shoes that he had got as charity. He intended to seek assistance from someone to procure the belongings that he had left behind. Marvel seemed to be an easy victim. The Invisible Man intervened by talking to Marvel who initially answered the voice without looking back. However, when he turned to see the person he had been talking to, he was confounded to find no one around. He thought to himself that perhaps his drunkenness was causing this hallucination. But the stranger still insisted his presence by violently shaking Marvel. Utterly dazed, Marvel decided to leave, he referred to the Invisible Man as ‘a blooming chump’, which was taken as a big insult by the Invisible Man. He found it difficult to accept that a insult by the Invisible Man. He found it difficult to accept that a good-for –nothing tramp like Marvel could have the insolence to ignore him. Now he decided to convince Marvel into believing his presence. He started throwing stones at him. He hit Marvel’s foot causing him a lot of pain. The poor man ran for his life but tripped over something invisible. Threatened with yet another stone-hit, Marvel gave in and accepted that the Invisible Man actullaly existed. Q.35 In what context did the Invisible Man claim to be a man of power? Was he actually a man of power? If so, how did use his power? Ans. The invisible Man while coaxing Marvel to help him out tried to tempt him by suggesting that both of them could be of immense use to each other. If Marvel would help him get clothes and shelter, he himself would do ‘great things’ for him. At this point he boasted that’ an Invisible Man is man of power’. In fact is was right to some extent in saying so. He had exhibited this power earlier in the “Coach and Horses” when he had successfully managed to thwart the collective efforts of his invisibility, he had hurt, slapped, punched and kicked all those who had come in his way. Jeffers, the policeman, who boldly came forward to arrest the Invisible Man for the burglary at the vicarage, did manage to pin him down for a while. However, using his connivance and muscle power, he spun round poor Jeffers. It was again his invisibility that helped him to commit a theft in the vicar’s house in spite of the couple having noticed a break-in. Thus, the invisible Man had proved himself to be a man of power but is was condemnable because all along he had used this power in negative and a various manner. -258-

Q.36 Describe the mood that pervaded Iping after the Invisible Man’s disappearance from the village. Ans. The uneasiness and panic that the Invisible Man had caused in the village lasted only for a while. Soon an atmosphere of gaiety and festivity pervaded the entire Iping. In fact Whit Monday was a day that people had been waiting for more than a month. People were all dressed up in colourful attires. A big and multihued tent had been set up in Hayman’s meadow. Children were playing and running races. Women were preparing tea. Swings, with steam organs attached to them, coconut shies and a hurling device, which happened to be a great favourite of the adolescents, had been fixed up. Loud music was being played. Men and women supporting hats with colouful ribbons could be seen all around. Some more enthusiastic people like Fletcher were whitewashing their dwellings. Thus, the panic created by the incident of the morning paled into oblivion and everybody indulged in merrymaking. Q.37 Why was Marvel’s arrival in Aping viewed with suspicion? How did Hunter, in particular, react? Or Do you agree that Hunter was an alert neighbour? Discuss in light of his attempt to capture Marvel. Ans. Mr. Fletcher, Mr. Hunter and the proprietor of the coconut shy took notice of Mr. Marvel, when he came to Aping. To Mr. Fletcher, he appeared to be particularly agitated. The Old man was so struck with his restlessness that as the watched his behaviour with great interest, a good quantity of whitewash ran down the brush right into the sleeve of his coat. The proprietor of coconut shy saw him talking to himself. Mr. Hunter also noticed this odd behaviour and he too saw him undergoing a great internal struggle as he stood poised to enter the “Coach and Horses”. As an alert neighbour, Mr. Hunter was watching all the time from the window of his shop as Marvel climbed the steps, opened the guest parlour and was apprised of his folly of opening a private room by the people present there. He saw him next moving furtively towards the gates of the yard where the parlour-window opened. There he saw him leaning against one of the gateposts smoking a pipe sluggishly, but at the same time giving quick glances up the yard. Soon he was seen walking out with a bundle and three books. Suspecting it to be a case of theft, Huxter immediately leapt out of his shop and chased Marvel. Q.38 Why do you think Mr. Marvel came especially to the “Coach and Horses”? Or

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What was purpose of Mr. Marvel’s visit to the “Coach and Horses”?Did he accomplish it? Ans. Mr. Marvel was compelled by the Invisible men to go to the “Coach and Horses”. He came especially to this inn to recover the books and other important things that belonged to the Invisible man who had to leave them behind when he had made a hasty escape. The Invisible Man had many limitations due to his invisibility and he couldn’t manage to remove his things single-handedly. He therefore sought Marvel’s help and accompanied his so that he could sort out all that he needed. Guided by the Invisible Man, Mr. Marvel reached the “Coach and Horse”. He was well aware of the evil designs of the Invisible Man and resisted being used by him in his dubious ways. But he couldn’t escape, owing to the immense power enjoyed by the Invisible man. So, he brought himself to enter the inn after a lot of internal struggle. Mr. Marvel opened a private room, he closed it clumsily. But before closing it he had already accomplished the task of giving the Invisible man entry into the guest parlour. Later he went into the yard of the inn where the window of the parlour opened. He got hold of the things required by the invisible Man and quickly made his way out. Thus, Marvel accomplished the purpose of his visit to the inn, though he was opposed to the idea of being a criminal’s accomplice. Q.39 How did Cuss and Bunting react to Marvel’s intrusion when Marvel went into the guest parlour ostensibly looking for the Tap (bar)?What did they tell him and to what effect? Ans. On reaching Iping, Marvel headed straight for the “Coach and Horses” with the Invisible Man’s help. Pretending to be looking for the Tap (bar), he entered the guest parlour. He found Cuss and Bunting excitedly pouring over the three unfamiliar script. Marvel’s barging into the room irritated Cuss but relieved Bunting. Actually Cuss hoped that Bunting, who supposedly know Greek, could decipher the meaning of the text in the books. But Bunting was not confident of his ability and wished to get over the ordeal of interpreting the “Diary” as early as possible. Marvel’s entry, therefore, evoked different reactions from Cuss and Bunting. However, they both immediately directed him to the Tap and asked him to shut thd door while going. Marvel’s purpose of letting the Invisible Man in the parlour had already been served. Now he didn’t mind being asked to leave the room and he did so without showing any resentment. Q.40 Why could neither Cuss nor Bunting make any head or tail out of the three handwritten books left behind by the Invisible Man? -260-

Ans. Both Cuss and Bunting sought Hall’s permission to go through the Invisible Man’s belongings with a great sense of excitement. They were keen to find some cluses about the strange guest. When Cuss came upon the three hand-written books with the label “Diary’ on they, he felt confident that they were on the verge of making some big discovery about the Invisible Man. However, the moment Cuss started the diary either had some mathematical calculation or had been written in a coded language. He felt it was written here and there in Russian and Greek. Thus, he couldn’t make out anything from these diaries. However, the Greek script gave him some amount of hope as Bunting was supposed to have known to be familiar with the language. Cuss asked him to translate the Greek passages. Bunting somehow was not at all confident of his ability as he must have studied this language long time back and hardly retained it. However, not wishing to be exposed, he remained non-committal about his familiarity with Greek. But the fact remained that he too, could not make out any better conclusions than Cuss, about these diaries. Q.41 Describe the events behind the closed doors of the parlour after Cuss and Bunting directed Marvel to the Tap. Or What happened in the parlour after Marvel opened the door briefly to ask Cuss and Bunting for the Tap (Bar)? Ans. Engrossed in finding some clue about the Invisible Man, Dr. Cuss and Vicar Bunting were startled when Marvel rudely pushed open the door of the guest parlour. They immediately directed Marvel to the ‘Tap’ asking him to close the door behind him. Little did they realise that a greater shock awaited them in the closed room. As soon as they turned back to the books and tried to decipher the coded language, they found a great pressure on their necks. Before they could understand anything, they heard someone whisper ‘Don’t move, little men’. The voice that chided them for prying into someone’s private papers threatened to kill them and asked where his clothes were. The twosome had no choice but to agree not ‘to try any nonsense’. This was the Invisible Man who told them that he would like to take away the three hand-written books labelled ‘Diary’. He also made it clear that it was very urgent for him to get some clothes to protect himself from the chilly evenings in the month of June. Both Cuss and Bunting, uncertain of their fate, started a waiting the worst. Q.42 What attracted the attention of Hall and Henfrey as they waited for Cuss and Bunting outside the parlour? Why didn’t they go inside the room to rescue Bunting and Cuss? -261-

Ans. While Bunting and Cuss poured over the Invisible Man’s books, Hefley and Hall stood in the bar, a short distance away from the guest parlour, discussing the episodes of the day. Suddenly they heard a violent thud against the door of the parlour which was followed by a sharp cry and then absolute silence. The gentlemen called out to the Vicar and the Dr. to ask if everything was fine. They were assured by Bunting that all was well and further told them not to interrupt. In spite of their attempt to stay close to the door to overhear the conversations inside, the muffled sounds and the hissing whispers remained unintelligible. Around this time Mrs. Hall spotted them and chided Hall for wasting his time. Dominating as she was, she rubbished their doubt despite their claim to have heard words like ‘disgraceful’ from inside the parlour. Thus, discouraged by Mrs. Hall they refrained from going inside to help Bunting and Cuss. In the meantime, Hunter’s cry ‘Stop thief’ diverted their attention out in the street and they left behind Cuss and Bunting to their fate. Q.43 Why did Mrs. Hall snub her husband as he stood close to the door of the guest parlour, along with Hefley, trying to overhear what was going on inside ? What light does it throw on her character? Ans. It being a whit Monday, the village was in a festive mood. Mrs. Hall expected a brisk business when both she and her husband were required to put in a lot of time to attend to the customers at the bar. However, when she saw Henfrey and Hall close to the guest parlour trying to overhear what was going inside, she got annoyed. She went up to the two men and chided her husband for such an irresponsible behaviour. Hall tried his best to make her understand the urgency of situation but his efforts proved futile. Crest-fallen, both the gentlemen had to withdraw to the bar. The episode reveals Mrs. Hall’s dominating nature. She had little faith in the capabilities of her husband and she considered her own business sense and efficiency to be superior to that of Hall’s. Not only that, she trusted Henry’s intelligence much more than that of her husband because she listened to the entire account from Hefley instead of Hall. One also feels that there is an element of over-confidence in the lady. Q.44 What created a commotion in the street when a great rush of people poured out form the “Coach and Horses” on Whit Monday ?How did it help Marvel escaping? Ans. Many people had come to the Tap to enjoy drinks on whit Monday when they heard Huxter’s cry to stop the thief. Driven by curiosity, everybody came out to the street to help Huxter catch the culprit. People already down the street stood astonished and some of them came running to join the group that was chasing the thief. A terrible -262-

commotion was created and there was utter disorder. Amidst a hullabaloo, people tumbled, tripped and fell over each other. Most of them were obstructed by some invisible force. They ran helter-skelter in confusion. It was clear that the thief had to be overpowered but in absence of a clear chase-plan things went haywire. This commotion proved to be advantageous for Marvel who found enough time to escape while the mob following him jostled each other. As the people tried to comprehend the invisible hands hitting them, Marvel moved very fast through the lenes going as far as possible from capture. The internal maze of the villagers thus helped him to dodge those who were chasing him. Q.45 Why didn’t Bunting and Cuss chase Marvel? What made their escape embarrassing when they eventually left the inn? Or What embarrassment did Bunting and Cuss face due to the Invisible Man’s indecency? How did the two them try to handle the situation? Ans. Bunting and Cuss remained confined to the guest parlour when everybody poured into the street following Hunter’s plea to stop the thief. Actually, the Invisible man had lost his temper when he saw the two gentlemen pouring over his ‘private memoranda’. In addition he was infuriated to the point of craziness when he saw his clothes missing from the room, for they had been removed by Mrs. Hall when she tidied up the place. He stripped both the men in a fit of rage and took away with him Cuss’s trousers all of Bunting’s clothes. It was only after the Invisible Man left the inn that Cuss came out funnily dressed in kill (a pleated skrit). Bunting, How ever, stuck to the guest parlour wondering what he should do with his naked state. A while later, Cuss returned to infrom Bunting that the Invisible man was awfully infuriated and was back in the inn. Now Bunting weighed which evil was greater-exposing himself to the wrath of the Invisible Man or running out in the open in a disrobed state. Hearing a frightful struggle in the passage of the inn, he decided in a minute and jumped out of the window with a rug and newspaper precariously wrapped around his body. Inadequately covered, he ran for his life as fast as possible. This embarrassing flight of the Vicar was remembered in Aping for a long time to come. Q.46 Describe how the Invisible Man rendered a good number of villagers sprawling on the ground in the streets of Aping. Or

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Why did the Invisible Man vandalise before leaving Iping? What does this reflect on his character? Or Why did the Invisible man deal with Hunter and all the people in the street in such a ruthless manner? Why did the indulge in other destructive activities before leaving Aping? Ans. The Invisible Man was a short-tempered man who could not stand anyone’s interference in his plans. Hence, when Hunter tried to give Marvel a chase, the Invisible Man obstructed him. He lifted him up in the air and threw him down on his face and shoulder. Hall and two other labourers, who saw Marvel running by the corner of the church wall, thought him to be the Invisible man who had regained his visibility. Now, the Invisible man targeted hall. He was sent flying headlong sideways. While falling, he caught hold of the one of the laborers who too fell to the ground. Next, the second labourers, who thought Hall had fallen accidentally, too couldn’t pursuer his chase as he was tripped by the ankle. These men were also punished by the Invisible man for meddling with his plans. Taking advantage of his invisibility, this perpetrator of trouble, didn’t let the first laborers get up on his feet and gave him a mighty blow. Next, he brought the coconut shy proprietor and his brother to the ground. Both of them were trodden over by many people running blindly towards them. Cuss, who came out running crying that he had been robbed of this trousers, was kicked and knocked off his feet by the Invisible man. When he rose up, he was again hit severely behind the ear. He ran for his life back to the “Coach and Horses” but the rest of the victims, badly beaten, lay helplessly sprawling on the ground. Amidst this commotion a chance blow enraged the Invisible Man to the point of madness. Hereafter, he went thrashing people. He smashed all the window panes of the inn, cut the telegraph wires connected to Adder dean and thrust a street lamp through Mrs. Gribble’s parlour window. All this destruction didn’t serve any purpose. However, it did show that the Invisible Man was an egoist who derived sadistic pleasure by subbing everyone. It gave him perverted satisfaction to think of himself as a powerful man. Q.47 Why was Marvel in deep despair as he moved towards Bramblehurst? Ans. Marvel was in deep despair as he moved towards Bramblehurst because he had been forced against his will to be can accomplice in stealthily removing three books and another bundle from the parlour of the “Coach and Horses” by the Invisible Man.

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On his way, he inadvertently took a wrong turn giving the Invisible Man the impression that he was trying to give him a slip. Hence, a constant close watch was kept on him. He was goaded to walk faster and warned not to act smart. All pleadings of Marvel were rubbished and he was continuously threatened. No relief or respite was given to the poor man. Hence, Marvel pitied himself and complained that the misery he was being subjected to was beyond endurance. Finding the Invisible Man insensitive to his plight, Marvel was deeply pained, depressed and despaired. Q.48 What traits of the Invisible man’s personality surface as he leads Marvel to Bramblehurst? Ans. The episode when Marvel is led to Bramblehurst lays bare the utter selfishness of the Invisible Man. His constant threats to Marvel and his insensitivity towards his suffering show that he was an absolutely self-cantered, callous and thoughtless being. In spite of calling Marvel’s poor tool’, this manipulating man was not ready to release him. He wanted to misuse him to an optimum in future also. Instead of feeling grateful to him for having helped retrieve his things from the “Coach and Horses” he knocked him about and showed utter indifference towards him. He was more worried that he the ruckus he had created in Iping would be reported in the press which would draw people’s attention towards his existence. He was not concerned with anything else besides his own interests. He was oblivious to the inconvenience that Marvel was suffering and he didn’t bother to lend him a helping hand to carry the stuff that must have been fairly heavy. This revealed his apathy and heartlessness as well. Thus, this episode clearly established the evil character of the Invisible Man. Q.49 Give an account of Marvel’s encounter with the mariner in port Stowe. Or Why did Marvel fail to tell the mariner at Port Stowe the truth regarding the Invisible man? Or What prompted Marvel to share with the mariner the fact of his familiarity with the Invisible Man? Why did he stop before giving his giving his version of the encounter at Iping? Ans. Dirty, unshaven and weary, Marvel sat on a little bench outside a small inn on the outskirts of port stowed in a nervous and agitated state of mind. It was here that he met an elderly mariner who came and sat down beside him. After exchanging a few remarks about the weather, the mariner referred to the Invisible man’s story that had been published in the newspaper. He proceeded to give the details of the story. -265-

Marvel, who had firsthand knowledge of the Invisible Man, initially posed to be surprised to hear such a story but later on, he offered to give a few details about the Invisible man that he claimed to have got from ‘private sources’. However, when he was about to narrate his version of the episode regarding the Invisible Man, Marvel was hit hard by and Invisible hand. He understand at once that the Invisible Man was around and he did not want him to spill the beans. Marvel pretended to have a severe toothache, collected his books and moved from his seat. In order to quell the curiosity of the mariner, Marvel told him before leaving that in reality the Invisible Man was nothing but a hoax. To convince him further, he claimed that he knew a man who had floated the concocted story. The Mariner. However, did not believe Marvel and demanded to know why he had lit him go on with the story if he know it to be a fictitious one. Marvel had no answer. Pushed and pulled by the Invisible Man he left the spot with the mariner fretting and fuming all by himself. Q.50 How did the mariner react when Marvel claimed that the story of the Invisible man was a hoax? Or Why did the mariner lose his temper when Marvel told him that the story of the Invisible Man was a hoax? Ans. The mariner, having read the story of the Invisible Man in the newspaper, believed every word of it. He felt that only authentic stories with ‘names and everything’ and with extraordinary witnesses like a doctor and a clergyman find place in the papers. The veracity of such incidents was beyond doubt. He shared this News with Marvel because he was totally confident about its truthfulness. When he was about to give out the secret, he was interrupted abruptly by the invisible man. Marvel immediately changed his stance and made a complete turnaround by saying that the story of the Invisible Man was just a hoax. He added that he knew the man who had floated this false story. At this unanticipated reversal, the old mariner lost his temper and demanded that if Marvel knew that is was a hoax then why did he let him narrate the episode. He accused him of fooling him and refused to believe and part of his ‘cooked up story. After Marvel was gone, the mariner sat on the bench fretting, fuming and curing Marvel. Q.51 What other extraordinary story besides the Invisible Man’s misdeeds at Iping did the mariner hear? How did he react to this story? Ans. Besides the Invisible Man’s misdeeds at Iping, the mariner heard another extra-ordinary story about a fistful of flying money. He came to know that a fellow mariner had seen an -266-

unbelievable sight at the corner of St. Michael’s Lane. He had seen a handful of money floating in the air along the wall all by itself. It was neither carried by a hand or did any bag hold it. The fellow mariner had tried to grab this floating money but was instantly knocked headlong. The butterfly money disappeared by the time he got up. The old mariner declared that although he was in a mood to believe anything still he found this story too hard to believe. Afterwards he sat on the bench thinking about the whole thing indecisive about believing or disbelieving it.

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Q52.The invisible Man’s activities in port stowed make him all the make him all the more villainous in the eyes of the reader. Comment. Ans. Ever since the invisible man had come to stay in the “Coach and horses” he gave the impression of being a man of dubious character..His activities at port stowed make him all the more villainous in the eyes of the reader. The pitiable condition to which he had driven the manner in which he spats Marvel marvel upsets the reader. His pushing, pulling and dragging marvel against his wish is indeed disgusting. Exploiting a simple tramp and forcing him to be an accomplice in misdeeds make the invisible man a villain in the eyes of the reader. The manner in which he spats Marvel while he was talking to the old mariner is humbiliating.The invisible man is guided in his actions by his overheating nature and false ego. The stealing of people’s money by employing invisibility to his advantage lowers him further in the eyes of the reader. His heartless, selfishness, ruthlessness and greed make him appear to be such a vicious villain who can go to to any extent to fulfil his unending desires. IMPORTANT LONG ANSWER QUESTIONS Q.1 ) Who Was Dr. Kemp? What impressions do you get about him from his first appearance in the story? Ans. Dr. Kemp was a young energetic and enthusiastic scientist who was deeply immersed in some research which he believed would win him the fellowship of the Royal society. His room was lined with bottles, some scientific instruments, books and some reagents. The doctor himself was a tall, lean and thin man with flaxen hair and a white moustache. Having a scientific bent of mind, he didn’t believe in ‘superstitions’. Thus, when people ran blindly for their lives, in mortal fear of the Invisible Man, he viewed them with a sense of contempt. Dr Kemp was a very observant person. When he saw Marvel running down the hill he could make out the man couldn’t run fast as his pockets were full of some heavy metal. Apart from this, he also analysed things around him in a very logical manner. When all the people were busy bolting themselves indoors, he did not panic and tried to rationalize. However, his self confidence made him appear to be somewhat proud and presumptuous -267-

Q.2) What caught Dr. Kemp’s attention as he sat in his study? How did he react to the sight? OR Dr. Kemp’s scientific approach towards things made him distinct from people around him. Do you agree? Support your answer. Ans. Dr. Kemp was not superstitious like other people. This fact becomes clear sitting in his study, he was attracted by the figure of a man running from the top of the hill towards Burdock. This short man with a high hat was running so fast that his man who, running blindly out of fear of the Invisible Man, had collided with him in the morning. Having a scientific and logical approach towards things, the doctor looked at that man with a mind. He felt, that this man too was an ass like the others who were superstitious and illogical. Guided by lack of proper knowledge they all believed in the existence of an Invisible Man’. However, the contempt that Dr. Kemp had towards this figure stood in complete contrast to the sympathy that people had for him. They saw terror writ large on his face. His breathlessness, discomfort and haste aroused both their fear and curiosity. They asked each other the possible reason for all the apparent haste of the running man. Although they couldn’t understand his problem, still they did not condemn him for running hurriedly. Kemp observed another thing about this man which was missed by other people. He observed that the man was in a great hurry but his heavy pockets didn’t allow him to run as fast as he wanted to. Kemp conjectured that his pockets were loaded with some heavy metal that slackened his pace. Thus, the doctor’s keen observation made him distinct from the ordinary people around. Q.3) Why did people start slamming and bolting their doors when they saw a dog yelping and sneaking under the gate and Marvel running down the hill Ans. People in the street were quite intrigued to see the terror-ridden face and utter haste of Marvel as he came running down the hill. Unable to understand the cause of his torment and hurry, they asked each other the reason for such a commotion. Just then they saw a dog yelp as though it had been hit hard. The dog ran for its life and sneaked under a gate. Here was another inexplicable situation and as people still wondered at the strange behavior of the dog they felt someone run past them. His footfalls and heavy breathing was distinctly audible. Hence, people didn’t take much time to put two and two together and conclude that the Invisible Man was around. Instantly the street was flooded with sounds of screams, shouts and cries. The news spread all over that the invisible Man was back. People ran blindly to rush into their houses. Hence, all over one could hear the slamming and bolting of the doors as terror pervaded. Q.1) Describe the episode when Marvel came to take refuge in the inn the “Jolly Cricketers”. OR Why did Marvel barge in the “Jolly Cricketers”? Was he protected by the people present there? OR -268-

How was Marvel received at the “Jolly Cricketers” Inn? What help did the men present their render him? Ans. Chased by the Invisible Man, Marvel came down the hill running for his life. He was mortally afraid of the Invisible Man and to escape his fury he blindly ran into the inn the “Jolly Cricketers”. He shrieked, screamed and cried for help. His incoherent talk and his terror – sticken face drew all the people in the inn to help him. The American, the policemen, and the cabman got together to close the doors quickly and stop the Invisible Man from entering the place. The barman accommodated Marvel behind the bar counter. In the mean time, the Invisible Man was heard pounding at the door. They all assured him that since the doors were closed, there was no need for him to be afraid. Desperate to save himself, Marvel repeatedly requested everyone present in the inn not to open the door. He looked around to hide in some safer quarters. Seeing Marvels pitiable condition he was sent into the bar- parlour and the door was locked on him. After providing a relatively safe hiding place to Marvel, all the other men prepared to encounter the Invisible Man. Thus, everyone in the inn stood by Marvel and gave him full protection. Q.2) How did the men in the “Jolly Cricketers” react when the invisible Man smashed the window and pounded the window and pounded at the door? Marvel shrieked and screamed for help through incoherent sentences which could not be understood by the people in the inn. They could see clearly that the man was terribly scared of something but could not make out that he was being chased by the Invisible Man. However, when the inn window was smashed and there was an incessant pounding at the door, it dawned upon them that it was the Invisible Man who had been chasing Marvel. However, none of them got intimidated by this strange being. Instead they boldly decided to face the terror with grit and firmness. In fact, the bearded American was very eager to see the Invisible Man. He pulled out his revolver to brace himself against the invader. Meanwhile no one opened the door. The policemen, in the absence of his truncheon, moved slowly towards the door. But he gave a second thought before opening it because he knew that once the Invisible Man entered the inn, nothing could to stop him. He coolly advised the bearded man not to use his revolver as the gun-shot could prove to be fatal. The bearded man in turn assured that he would aim at only the legs. Despite all these precautions the invisible man managed to get into the inn through the yard and all the men inside tried their utmost to overpower him. Q.3) How did the Invisible Man manage to get into the inn, the “Jolly Cricketers” ? What did he do after coming in? Ans. The people inside the inn were determined to protect Mrvel from the invisible man. They fastened bolts of the doors an closed the windows to keep him out. After a while, all set to face the invisible man, these men drew the bolts of the door and challenged the invisible man to walk in.To their great disappointment neither did the door open nor did anybody walk in. Actually, the invisible man had already entered the inn through the back door that opened in the yard. Without giving anyone a chance to react, he dragged the helpless marvel into the kitchen. The policemen gripped the invisible man wrist. The cabman and the barman too caught hold of him. Under pressure from all quarters, the -269-

invisible man had to release marvel. However, he couldn’t be held for long and wriggled out of their clutches. Before running out he threw a tile at the policemen. Provoked by this outrageous insolence, the bearded man fired five shots at the invisible man. He was certain of having wounded him but little did he knows that the invisible man had escaped with only a minor injury in the wrist.

Q.1) What attracted Kemps attention when he went downstairs to quench his thirst before going to bed? How do his observations establish him as a man of science? Ans. When Kemp went downstairs to quench his thirst, the first thing that caught the attention of this observant man was a dark spot on the floor near the staircase. Initially, he ignored it but then his scientific mind once again took him to the spot. Kemp bent down and he rubbed his finger over the stain. He made out immediately that it was sticky blood that was about to dry up. Next, he saw blood stains on the door handle. As he entered his room and his eyes to his bed, he was quiet intrigued to see that his bed spread was soaked in blood. His bed sheet was torn and there was a depression in the bed clothes. Being a man of science he applied his rationality to deduce that someone had been sitting there. He then felt a voice call out his name. while he was still wondering, he felt someone moving in the room. This gave him an eerie feeling. But what gave him a real start was a well tied, blood stained, coiled bandage hanging in mid air. However, before he could grasp it, someone touched him and called out his name. Although startled, Kemp still applied his reasoning power to the unexplainable things around him. Q.2) Describe Kemp’s encounter with the Invisible Man OR How did Kemp handle the Invisible Man when he met him for the first time? What light does it throw on Kemp’s personality Ans. Kemp was a cool headed man who did not panic at the sight of blood stains on the floor, door handle or the bed spread. He tried to analyse the situation with a cool mind. He concluded that someone was present in his house. Then a voice calling out his name and a blood stained bandage hanging in mid air confirmed his doubts. Soon he found himself grappling with someone who got overpowered by this invisible man. However, Kemp didn’t give up and made full use of his free hands and legs, giving punches and kicks to the opponent. After a brief struggle, Kemp gave up. The invisible man threatened that he would smash his face if he made any noise. Kemp realized that the invisible man was getting the better of him. So very sensibly, he surrendered without showing any obstinacy. The invisible man the introduced himself to Kemp as Griffin, his junior at the university college. He also reminded him that he was the very tall ‘albino’ who had won a gold medal in Chemistry. Kemp found it difficult to believe but he gave him a dingy scarlet robe, socks and slippers to save him from the chill. Besides, he offered him his room to sleep for the night. There was no trace of fear as Kemp dealt with the invisible man. In fact, he had a very matter of fact approach towards the whole issue. Thus, we find him to be fearless, sensible, reasonable and practical person who deftly handled the complicated situation. -270-

Q.3) What made Kemp’s scientific mind reconcile to the existence of an invisible man? Why were his queries evaded by Griffin? Ans. Kemp had a scientific mind and he had given a demonstration in the morning to prove that the invisibility was nothing more than a trick. However, the same evening, to his great surprise He heard a voice in his bedroom calling out his name. the blood stains around him were inexplicable. Then he saw a well tied but empty bandage suspended in mid air. All these things proved that somebody was present in his room, though he was not visible. When the invisible men had a scuffle with kemp, he had no choice but believe in the reality of invisibility. On seeing him eat food drink whisky, kemp could not argue that invisibility was impossible. His scientific approach was defined by the concrete proofs that he had in front of him. However, he was acutely intrigued to find a man who was invisible. His scientific mond could not reconcile to such a phenomenon. Hence, his curiosity prompted him to ask the invisible man how had he become invisible. Not willing to share his knowledge with Dr. kemp, and being too sleepy and hungry, Griffin evaded this query. Next Dr Kemp asked Griffin about his monetary source which was claimed to have been taken away by Marvel. Griffin evaded this query too, since all the money that he had accumulated was earned by indulging in theft. In passing, Kemp also wished to know how marvel, in spite of not being invisible, became his confederate. Griffin evaded this question as well thinking that an answer to this sensitive probing would lead to many other uncomfortable queries. Hence, griffin very cleverly evaded the queries of Kemp to plug complications

Q.1) Why did Dr. Kemp give his bedroom to Griffin for the night? What inference do you draw about his character from this act? Ans. Dr. Kemp was a man of generous disposition. When he found Griffin totally exhausted, drained out and sleepy, he didn’t take a minute to decide to give up his bedroom in favour of his guest. He promised not turn him in a he felt that Griffin was in a miserable condition and needed help. Dr. Kemp earnestly meant to keep his word. That is why when he arranged breakfast for two people in the morning, he made sure that none of the servants got to see Griffin. He therefore, instructed them to keep themselves to the basement or at best to the ground floor. Despite his uncooperative attitude, kemp went out of his way to make Griffin comfortable. All accounts in the papers painted Griffin as black, villainous, violent and nasty tempered, but none of this infused Kemp with a sense of fear. He talked to him as normally and as naturally as though he were any of his friends or acquaintances. He tried to understand his invisibility in a purely scientific manner and didn’t let any superstitions or apprehensions bias him. We find him to be generous, sympathetic, open and broad minded person who in a very sensible manner performed his duty as a good host. Q.2) What was Dr. Kemp state of mind after he left griffin all by himself in his bedroom? OR How did Kemp occupy himself after leaving his bedroom to the invisible man? OR

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What information did Kemp gather from the morning newspaper about the invisible man? Why wasn’t he satisfied with these reports? Ans. An excited and intrigued Kemp left Griffin all by himself in his bedroom and came to the dining room. Here, he walked up and down, immersed in deep though. Engrossed he smoked cigars and tried to understand Griffin’s invisibility. He scanned all the newspapers gave an account of the invisible man activities at Iping and Port Stowe. When the morning paper arrived it had an account of the events at the “Jolly Cricketers”.It appeared to be a detailed account, but it didn’t have anything new to offer to the readers. One thing that appeared in the paer for the first time was the name of the tramp whom the invisible man had called his ‘confederate’ His name was given as Marvel who claimed that the invisible man had captured him for twenty four hours. However he didn’t refer to the three books and all the money that the invisible man had told about to kemp. Kemp could thus not establish the connection between Marvels version as it appeared in the newspaper and Griffin’s version as he told him the night before. So, kemp sent his housemaid to get copies of all the morning newspapers available. However not many details were added to what kemp had already read. Therefore, his curiosity still remained unsatisfied. But it led him to worry that Griffin, who had been behaving abnormally might become more unstable and dangerous After a bit of hesitation, he decided to write a note to Colonel Adye

Q.1) How did Kemp receive Griffin in the morning before breakfast? How did Griffin reciprocate during the discussion about his first principles of research? Ans. Kemp appeared to have a very sympathetic attitude towards Griffin when he came to his room in the morning. He acted with great restraint when he was told that the smashing sound heard by him was the result for Griffin fit of temper. He appeared to have great respect for Griffin’s privacy and freedom because he took him upstairs for breakfast with firm instructions to the servants to restrict themselves to the basement or at best to the ground floor. When he coaxed Griffin to tell him all about his research, he gave the impression that he was doing all this to understand him better and help him better and help him to the maximum. The keen intrest and the warmth with which he treated Griffin made the latter blurt out even the darkest facts of his life. Convinced by the sincerity of Kemp, Griffin admitted that he was himself responsible for his father’s death. Thus, Kemp’s ostensible sympathy won Griffin’s absolute confidence in him and he didn’t at all suspect the doctor Q.2) Give an account of the difficulties faced by griffin in Chesilstowe? OR Q.2 Why did Griffin move to Chesilstowe? What kind of troubles marked his life over here? Ans. Griffin left London and migrated to Chesilstowe because he wanted to switch over him from medicine to physics which fascinated him immensely. He had come over to this place with a great sense of enthusiasm and he had high hopes for a bright future. He expected to pursue his deep interest in the field of ‘light’ over here without any distractions. However, soon -272-

he realized that the place had no comfort, respite or peace of mind to offer him. He had to work on his project under ‘frightful disadvantages’. In first place, he had to tackle Oliver, his professor, who was a great ‘thief of ideas’ and was always prying Griffin’s work. In fact oliver was looking for an opportunity to take credit for Griffin’s research. Hence, he had to cautiously maintain secrecy. Dissatisfied professionally, for he had to teach ‘fools’ in the provincial college, Griffin was beginning to get sick and tired of his life in Chesilstowe. In addition, he had to deal with paucity of money required to carry out his research. All this caused great exasperation which drove him to rob his own father. Hence, life yielded nothing except misery, tension and worry for Griffin while he was at Chesilstowe Q.3) Who was Professor Oliver? What idea do you from about his character from Griffin’s account? OR Who was Professor Oliver? How did he make Griffin’s life miserable? Ans. Olive was a professor in the provincial college at chesilstowe where Griffin started with his teaching career as well as research to find a formula for invisibility. Oliver was a man without principles. When he learnt that Griffin was working on an unusual project, this unscrupulous man tried to grab credit for the research. His prying nature caused problems for Griffin and he made his life miserable by repeatedly asking him about the time when he would publish his work. Oliver, being a scientific bounder and a journalist by instinct, wanted to rob Griffin of his ideas. He harassed and victimized this young scientist by posing innumerable difficulties. He was a mean, calculating and unscrupulous person who instead of helping out his junior attempted utmost to exploit him and drive him crazy by obstructing his work. Q.4) What lead Griffin to share the forst principles of his research with Kemp? What were these first principles of research Ans. Kemp was Griffin’s fellow at the university college. He too was scientist like him. Besides he had provided shelter, clothing and food to Griffin while he was trying to deal with his miserable life as an invisible man. The warm hospitality and sincerity of kemp led griffin to share the first principles of research with him. He disclosed that instead of completing his medical studies he switched over to physics as he was greatly interested by ‘light’. He shifted to Chesilstowe and began his research. The subject of optical density was intriguing. He came up with a broad theory of how to make objects invisible on the basis of refraction, reflection and absorption of light. According to his theory, since the entire fabric of man except the red blood was made up of colourless transparent tissue, invisibility could be obtained through the application of physiology to make the red colouring matter if the blood colourless Q.5) Describe the circumstances that made Griffin rob his own father. What made his crime grave? Why did Griffin steal his father’s money? Is it proper to blame griffin for his father’s death? Ans. Griffin had shifted to Chesilstowe from London with a sense of great enthusiasm. He looked forward to great time teaching students as well as carrying out his research in this -273-

quiet place. However, soon it was revealed that neither his teaching would be gratifying nor his research would be smooth-sailing. The prying nature and meanness of his professor compelled him to work secretly for the completion of his research. All these factors resulted in great exasperation for Griffin. Obsessed by his ambition to find a formula for invisibility, he committed the deplorable act of a son robbing his own father. Robbing an old man was in itself an abominable crime but this particular act became all the more heinous as the money that was robbed didn’t belong to his father. This robbery, therefore, drove his honest father to commit suicide making Griffin’s crime unpardonable. His father would not have died if griffin had not put him in an embarrassing situation by stealing the money. Thus, his father’s death was caused solely because of Griffin’s rashness and audacity to breath the bond of faith between father and son

Q.1) Griffin declared, “I didn’t feel a bit sorry for my father”. Why didn’t he feel sorry? What light does this statement throw on his character? Or How did the death of griffin father reveal the ugly aspect of griffin’s personality Ans. Griffin was a selfish, self centred and an indifferent man. He was not bound to his near and dear ones by either any ethics or to find a formula for invisibility. Hence, when he ran short of money required to pursue his research, this unscrupulous man stooped so low that he robbed his own old father. Unfortunately, the money that he stole was his father’s borrowed money so after the robbery this honest old man had to commit suicide to escape humiliation. Rather than feeling sorry for having driven his father to death, griffin brushed aside the whole incident as the old man’s foolish sentiments. He didn’t feel a bit of remorse when he buried him. Lack of humane concern, selfishness and obsession with research made griffin so insensitive that he didn’t care about his father. His ruthless aspiration hindered him from thinking about his moral duties as a son. His conscience didn’t prick him even once when his father died only because of him. Thus the death of griffins father unveils the cruel aspect if his personality His attitude lets the reader have a peep into his dirty mind Q.2) what was griffins state of mind after his father death? Or Why was griffin haunted by horrifying dreams after the death of his father? Ans. Griffin told Kemp that he did not feel a bit sorry for his father and he attended his funeral out of compulsion. However somewhere at the back of his mind griffin was upset after the death of his father. Moving along the high street, it seemed to him like a dream. He returned to his room to realize that he had come out from the world into a lonely place. Still he proceeded to take his project to its culmination. He attempted to make a white cat invisible. Having failed to obtain total success, he spent sleepless nights haunted by nightmare. The scene of his fathers funeral flashed before his eyes. Feeling very restless, he wandered into streets at odd hours. His brain felt so tired that he lost all the will to do anything. Absolutely -274-

drained out and defeated he had to resort ot revive himself. The drug did invigorate him but the tiredness and irritability of his mind still persisted he was upset and hurt Q.3) What was written in the three books of griffin that were hidden by marvel? Give two instances to prove that they were very important for griffin. The three books contained all the details of Griffin’s experiment of the process of turning anything visible into invisible. He had entered the formula of his experiments in these books in a coded language. The data he had jotted down in these books were the result of his long and tireless efforts over a period of time. The immense value that these books had for griffin is revealed when he makes efforts to recover books first from the “the Coach and Hoarse” and later from Marvel. Both these instances reveal that the three note books were priceless for Griffin Q.4) How did Griffin’s experiment on the white cat fail partially? What was the effect of this failure on him? Or How did Griffin feel after turning cat invisible? Ans. Griffin felt very encouraged after a successfully turning invisible some white wool fabric. He then caught hold of a white coloured cat outside his window. Now he got down to turn his cat invisible. He fed her and made her comfortable on the pillow of his truckle bed before proceeding. He administered some drugs to the poor creature. It was not an easy job and he had to struggle against the cat resistance. After having processed her, he realized that he had been partially successful. Griffin gave her drugs to bleach her blood and carried out certain other procedures. By and by though the rest of cat became invisible still her two eyes kept on staring him. This partial failure robbed him of the joy that he would have felt. Despite long hours of efforts when griffin could not do anything’s more about it he let cat out of the window with a mixed feeling of joy and failure. The experiment docent’s gave complete sense of satisfaction that he had anticipated. Q5.Howndid continuous over work of four years affect griffin? How did he become out of the state of mind? Ans. Four years of intense stress, hard work and loneliness drained out griffin completely. He felt thoroughly weak, incapable of any strength or feeling.lethargy, listlessness and disinterest ensnared him. He lost his will to work and peaceful sleep eluded him. He sought recues through drugs but that didn’t help him at all. He became apathetic. The enthusiasm with which he used to work became apathetic. The enthusiasm with which he used tom work becomes a thing of the past. He was left with no passion, no ambition and no initiative. Life became purposelessness for him. However, at the back of the mind; he still saw clearly that he had to carry out his experiment to its culmination. After loitering about aimlessly for some time he trudged back home, took some food and a strong dose of strychnine to revive his strength and spirits. The drug did prove to be very invigorating and he woke up the next day to be almost his normal self.

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Q6. Describe the encounter between griffin and the landlord at the great Portland Street. Or When griffin was sleeping after having taken a heavy dose of strychnine to does away drive with his depression, his landlord woke him up with constant knocking at the door. He was accompanied by the old woman who resided downstairs and used to look after the white cat that had been made invisible by griffin Both these people stormed griffin with a volley of threats queries about the cat. The painful meowing of the cat, the old man didn’t seem to be convinced and he looked all around to find some evidence against this young scientist. He demanded an explanation from him for being always alone and secretive. Irritated with his constant jabbering, Griffin asked him to get of his room. However the old man insisted upon his right to enter which infuriated griffin. He snatched at his collar and pushed him out of the room. Griffin sat down trembling with range. After screaming outside the room for a while, the landlord went away long with the old woman. Hence this visit came to an about end, leaving behind griffin apprehensive about the possibility of his work being exposed. Q7. Give an account of how the landlord at Portland tried serve an eviction notice to griffin. Ans. Provoked by griffin’s rudeness and suspecting him of indulging in vivisection, the landlord through it best to throw. Him out of his property.IN THE meantime griffin had decided to turn invisible and vanish before any further complications occurred. Hence, he look the drugs to decolourise his blood, which started making him feel drowsy and sick. Meanwhile the landlord repeatedly knocked at his door. Griffin didn’t respond. He then heard the footsteps going away but soon there was the sound of their returning and the knocking resumed. Griffin realised that there was an attempt to push a blue paper under his door. It irritated and in this fit flag open the door .It irritated gigging and in this fit flung open the door. The moment the old man saw griffin’s, which had turned white like stone owing to the effect of the drungs, he got a shock of his life. He ran away without serving the eviction native. Q8 How did griffin’s feel as he gradually turned invisible? Ans. The first step towards invisibility required the consumption of a drug that decolourised the blood. Griffin’s felt very sick and drowsy after taking this drung.This condition made him very irritable. As this drug. This condition made him very irritable. As this drug started working on him, physical changes also started setting in. His hands and face started turning white like white stone. He experienced a horrible time. He underwent a lot of anguish all through the night. He kept on feeling sick and fainted intermittently. His skin seemed to be on fair. His body emitted a lot of heat and it felt like grim death. As he was going through this agonising experience, he realised the misery and pain that he had subjected the poor cat to. He moaned and groaned, sobbed and talked. He then became insensible and woke up in the darkness of the night. Then the painful phase was over, but griffin felt he was killing himself. By the morning his hands became invisible. By and by, all his body disappeared. He then felt very weak and hungry. By an effort at will, however, he completed the entire process. He found his

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strength back by about midday. Now he was ready to face the world and enjoy the advantage of invisibility Q9 Describe how the landlord and his stepsons at Portland Street tried to force their way into griffin’s room. How did the latter react? Ans. After turning completely invisible griffin’s strength resumed by midway. Mean while his landlord returned knocking at his door long with his two stepsons. Griffins immediately sprang into action. To gain time, he answered them. Then he dismantled his apparatus to avoid any exposure. The knocking persisted as griffin ran around disconnecting the entire set up. He cushioned the cistern cover outside his window with invisible wool fabric and a pillow. He then collected some loose paper, straw and packing material in the middle of the room with the intention of setting it on fire. However, as he didn’t have any matches, he had to postpone the project. All this while the three gentleman outside kept on shouting and pounding at the door. By this time, griffin was totally invisible, so he stepped out of the window and comfortably perched himself on this cistern cover. Yen the meantime, having broken open the door. they all rushed into the room and got a shock of their lives to see the room ‘empty’. Their fulfil search in all the possible nooks and corners left totally astonished and disappointed Q10..Why did griffin set the lodge at Portland street on fire before leaving it. Ans. Griffin was a malicious man; full of vengeance. He was very annoyed with his landlord whom he felt didn’t let him work in peace. His attempted forcible entry into his room was also unforgiveable. Thought, on this occasion he had roughed him up soon returned without, the old man was not at all intimated. He soon returned with an eviction-notice. All this enraged griffin as he couldn’t stand any interference, interruption or disturbance when his work was as its climax. However, he didn’t know that he would have to vacate the place to avoid trouble for himself. But he did not wish to leave behind any tell=tale marks that could give out his secret after he was gone. Hence he decided to set the house ablaze as it would not only wipe out all evidence that could be used against him but it would also teach the praying old landlord a lesson. This would also give griffin a sadistic pleasure and a sense of satisfaction at having himself Q.1 Why didn’t the initial excitement that Griffin felt on turning invisible last for long? What were the consequent unexpected problems that he had to face? Griffin went around startling people, clapping their backs, flinging people’s hats astray and having a lot of fun at the behest of his treasure of invisibility. However the negative side of this extraordinary advantage that had been overlooked soon started surfacing. First of all he found it unexpectedly difficult to climb down the staircase with his invisible feet. In the absence of visible feet he couldn’t assess whether he was placing them at the right step. He tumbled quite a few times before he finally managed to climb down. Next, people collided with him as they couldn’t see him. Crowds were a big threat to him, for he could be wedged in the crowds and discovered in no time. His heels were trodden, he was squeezed and he created problems for himself by getting into the way of a stream of people. Cold weather posed yet another grave problem. He had to remain stark naked to avoid being seen which made him -277-

shiver in the January cold. Within ten minutes of the commencement of his ‘adventure’, Griffin started wondering how to out of the tight corner that he had landed himself in. though invisible, griffin could very well be perceived by dogs. His muddy feel left behind footmarks that could be trailed. He was apprehensive of being detected in the falling snow. Hence, he was surrounded by a number by a number of problems that emerged because of his invisible state. Worst, he had no solution in sight for these problems. Q.2 Why was the invisible Griffin obliged to keep away from the crowds? What did he do when he was about to be caught in a crowd attracted by the Salvation Army March? What followed? OR Describe in detail Griffin’s experience as he tried to negotiate the busy streets of London OR How did the two urchins track Griffin’s footmarks and gave him a tough time? Crowds were a big threat to Griffin. He could be wedged in them and to be discovered in no time. Accidental collisions made matters worse. His feet were trodden by people; hence he was obliged to keep away from crowds. When the Salvation Army March attracted a huge crowd, Griffin thought it safer to run up the while steps of a house and stand there till the road was cleared. Unfortunately for Griffin, two urchins not only joined him on the steps, but they also noticed the footmarks that his muddy feet had made on the whitened steps. They saw the marks going up there was no trace of their returning. Then, to their great surprise they detected the outline of feet sketched in splashes of mud. This ‘ghost of a foot” soon generated interest and attracted other passerby as well. Griffin was left with no choice but to swing himself into the portico of the next house. One of the boys still kept track of these feet. Now many eyes turned towards the ‘Running feet’. By this time Griffin’s feet had become hot and dry, and at the first opportunity, he rubbed his feet with his hands. Griffin went away leaving behind his drying footprints and wondering people. Q.3 Describe any two comical situations that resulted from Griffin’s invisibility. Just as Griffin had started enjoying the ‘extraordinary advantages’ of his invisibility, he heard a clashing concussion and was hit violently. He turned to see a man carrying a basket of soda water siphons with a perplexed expression on his face. This man found the accidental collision to be inexplicable. His astonished expression amused Griffin so much that he laughed out loudly and said “The devil is in the basket”. With this he swung the entire basket into the air. A cabman, in a bid to catch the basket, poked his finger into Griffin’s neck causing him excruciating pain. As though it were not enough, a short while later a dog, who could perceive Griffin by his scent despite his invisibility, created a ruckus by leaping, jumping and barking at the invisible man. Luckily for Griffin, the dog’s attention was diverted by the noise of the band. Hence, he abandoned his chase and went the other way. Both these incidents bring out the flip side of Griffin’s invisibility and amuse the reader. CHAPTER TWENTY TWO -278-

IN THE EMPORIUM Q.1 After negotiating the busy streets of London, why did Griffin decide to go to an emporium? OR What made Griffin go to the huge departmental store? Soon after turning invisible, Griffin started to realize all the miseries that this new situation had situation had landed him into. Cold, weary, painful, miserable, and absolutely lonely in this world, Griffin had nowhere to turn to because he had burnt down his lodgings as well. The snow storm and his compulsory nakedness made it clear that he urgently needed to look for a shelter and some warm clothing to be able to work out the further plan of action. Since all the houses around in the London street were locked and barred for him, he decided to go into ‘Omniums’, a big emporium, where things would be available in abundance and where he could make himself comfortable by getting some clothes and feeding himself. The emporium would also give him an opportunity to steal money that would enable him to hire another lodging for himself where he could sit and plan his future to materialize the benefits of his invisibility. Q.2 How did the Omnium’s staff wind up the emporium for the nights after the closing time? Or Do you agree that the Omnium’s staff was sincere and efficient? Discuss in light of the observations made by Griffin when he saw them closing the store. The customers were marched towards the door by the Omnium’s staff when it was time for closing the emporium. The staff then drew down the blinds of the windows. All the goods thatremained disturbed and displayed were neatly put back to their respective place. The products displayed for sale during the day were put back by the young staff with great efficiency. Everything was neatly folded and kept back. However, things that could not be taken down were covered with sheets made for this purpose. Each one of these men and women moved to the door after finishing the work. After all the displayed stuff was taken care of, the staff scattered saw dust and carried brooms and pails in their hands to clean the floor. They took another one hour to do the job. When everything was spic and span, they all left after security locking the emporium. Thus these observations made by Griffin prove that the staff at Omiums was sincere and efficient. Q.3 What different pieces of clothing did Griffin choose for himself at the Omnium’s store to look and feel like a human being again? What did he do to satisfy his hunger? After Griffin stepped into the world equipped with his invisibility, he felt disillusioned as he was surrounded by unexpected problems. To look and feel like a human being once again seemed to be his greatest requirement. He needed a few pieces of clothing to accomplish the wish. Hence he sought refuge in the ‘Omniums’ store where first of all he went to the section that sold gloves and stockings. It was pitch dark so he first looked for matches and a candle. Then he hunted for warm pants and vests. This was followed by a pair of trousers, a lounge jacket, -279-

an overcoat and a slouch hat with the brim turned down. After wearing all these pieces of garment he started to feel like a human being again. Next he turned to the refreshment department because he was very hungry. There he helped himself with cold meat, and a cup of coffee that he warmed up after lighting the gas. Moving in search of some blankets, he came upon a grocery section where he had a lot of chocolate and candied fruit. He also had some white burgundy. Thus, the emporium catered to his immediate needs for cover and hunger. Q.4 Though comfortable inside the Omiums store, Griffin was haunted by disorderly dreams. Why? Griffin found himself in a state of physical serenity after procuring warmth and comfort in the Omiums store. However, though his body was comfortable, still he didn’t have the peace of mind. Hence, when he went off to sleep, the events of the past few days flashed on the screen of his mind. He dreamt about his landlord shouting at him, his two sons wondering about all that was inexplicable and the old lady with her crooked face pestering him for the cat. He dreamt about his father’s funeral and saw himself being forced into his father’s grave and buried despite all his appeals and protests because he was both invisible and inaudible. He struggled hard in his dream and at last woke up. An analysis of these disorderly dreams of Griffin indicates that he was extremely upset with his rash and impulsive decision to turn invisible. At the same time, his ego did not allow him to admit his folly and seek assistance from those around him. He had dissociated himself completely from normal life and could not think of a simple way of returning to mainstream Q.3 Describe the chase given to Griffin by the Omnium’s emporium staff Or What led Griffin to decide that Omniums was hopeless Griffin looked for a shelter when he was weary, cold, painful and miserable. It occurred to him that no house in London would take him in and an emporium could not only provide shelter but also feed him. Hence, with high hopes, he managed to get into a a huge store called Omniums. He looked forward to a comfortable and a cosy night in the emporium. At night, when he was alone inside the store, he did feel comfortable. However, it was in the morning that the emporium staff spotted him, because now he was wearing clothes. The chase to capture Griffin began with the two men who had initially spotted him being joined by many more. Griffin ran dodging them all. He ran from counter to cunter and department to department. He hurled chairs, flung art pots and hit people. A policemen was also called to help in arresting the trespasser. Griffin’s high expectations from the store were dashed to the ground. He had to remove all the clothes that he had worn to make himself warm. He had to remove even the skin tight vest that he needed so desperately to protect himself against the chill. But getting caught was worse situation than being naked. The vigilant staff of the emporium did not let him smuggle even a slight object. He was compelled to come out of the emporium empty handed. He was back to square one. In his exasperation, he declared that the emporium was ‘hopeless’ since it had not helped him the least to wriggle out of his precarious situation which exposed him to hunger and cold.

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CHAPTER TWENTY THREE Q.1 What kind of unexpected problems did Griffin encounter after reaching Drury Lane? Why did he expect a solution to his problems in the costume shop? Griffin was extremely excited about turning invisible as he thought it would make him a ‘very powerful man’. However the ground reality proved to be diametrically opposite. When he reached Drury lane, he neither had any shelter nor covering. But he could not afford to wear clothes as it would have led to loss of invisibility. He couldn’t eat in public as filling himself with unassimilated matter would have made him grotesquely visible. On the top of it, eating with an invisible mouth was also not possible as it would have raised many eyebrows. He couldn’t go out during snow fall as the flakes would settle on him and expose him. Even rain would give him a water outline making him look like a huge bubble. Similarly, fog would make him look like a fainter bubble. Even the dust that settle on his body would threaten his invisibility, as it layers would give him an outline. He had to keep away from crowds as there was always a fear of being wedged, squeezed or trodden by the mob. Acutely troubled by these problems, Griffin had to find someone to give himself the looks of a visible man. He knew that a fake appearance with the help of artificial nose, masks and wigs would resolve the problems caused by invisibility. He expected to find a solution to his problems in the costume shop where the right type accessories could give him a grotesque but a credible appearance. Also, he would then be able to wear clothes to keep himself warm. He would also be relieved of the fear of attracting attention for his invisibility. Q.3 Describe how Griffin managed to get into the hunch man’s house. Why did he enter it? As Griffin entered the hunch man’s shop, the clanking of the bell brought its owner into the shop who looked around expecting to see a customer. However, on not finding anyone, he had an expression of surprise followed by that of anger as he thought some urchins in the street were playing a joke to irritate him. On seeing no one in the street either, he came back to climb into his four storied dark and dismal house. Griffin followed him but the hunch man stopped suddenly at the slight noise of his movement. Griffin too stopped and stood noiselessly quite surprised at this man’s acute sense of hearing. Before Griffin could step into his house, the man closed at the door and Griffin was left standing out helplessly. Luckily for him, the hunch man didn’t take even a minute to return to the shop to satisfy himself that no one was hiding in the shop. He left the door open when he came out of the room. This gave Griffin an opportunity to enter the house. He could now hide inside and at the first opportunity look for a suitable wig, mask, spectales and costume to disguise himself. Moreover, he also intended to rob the house of any available money. Q.3 What idea do you form about the hunch man’s house? The hunch man’s house was built above his shop. It was a dark, dismal and an ill maintained four storied house that appeared to be very old fashioned. Some of the rooms in it were not furnished at all. As such it had many rooms and plenty of doors. Others rooms were also poorly furnished. The kitchen and scullery were undergrounded, very dirty and ill kept. The house was very old and in a dilapidated state. It was damp, thus the paper from the walls was peeling down here and there. The door handles, being old and rusty, were very stiff. The -281-

rooms were littered wit htheatrical lumber which seemed to be second hand. The blinds and curtains of the window hung unwashed. Overall the house had a very depressing air about it. Its spaciousness did not compensate in any way for its dreariness Q.4 Why did Griffin hit hunch man on his head ? What light does this action reflect on the character of Griffin? The hunch man had an acute sense of hearing. Even the slightest sound created by Griffin’s movement made him look around suspiciously. His vigilance was threatening to upset Griffin’s plans. Looking for an intruder, the hunch man went all over his house locking door after door and pocketing all the keys. This infuriated the short tempered Griffin. By this time, griffin had sensed that the hunch ma nws all alone. This emboldend him and when the hunch man was climbing down the stairs, Griffin hit his heard with a stool and sent him tumbling down the staircase. The incident shows that Griffin had no control over his anger. He easily resorted to crime to overcome obstacles. He could stoop to any level, flouting even the common conventions of humanity, when his plans were hindered. Q.5 Despite promising to respect his liberty, do you think it was proper on Kemp’s part to get Griffin arrested? Kemp had promised to respect Griffin’s freedom, still he sent a note to Colonel Adye to come and arrest the fugitive. This seemed to be betrayal on Kemp’s part but it was actually not so because when Griffin told him about his knocking down the hunch man, kemp found this conduct to be exasperating. Irked by this despicable behavior, he expressed his displeasure and questioned Griffin about how he could have flouted the common conventions of humanity. Seeing no traces of remorse on Griffin’s face and no ring of regret in his voice, Kemp tried to argue that the hunch man didn’t deserve such a fate because he had every right to go about in his house and make sure that it was safe and secure. He went to the extent of saying that if anyone was being wronged it was the poor man. It was griffin who had intruded with the intention of robbing. Griffin snubbed and silenced Kemp that degraded him further in the opinion of Kemp, who now had enough reason to justify his intention of getting this villain arrested Q.6 Why did Griffin decide against painting and powdering his face? Initially Griffin decided to paint and powder his face in order to render himself visible. He thought that this would give him a near normal look as compared to what a mask could give him. However, he decided against this option because earlier he had to disrobe himself urgently on many occasions to acquire invisibility. In comparison, paint would not have been easy to remove. In fact it would have required stuff like turpentine oil and a considerable amount of time to clean the mess created by powder and paint. Mask would have definitely made him look grotesque but he didn’t mind it as long as he had an opportunity to become invisible simply by shedding clothes. Thus he rightly thought against painting and powdering his face to give himself visibility CHAPTER TWENTY FOUR Q.1 Why did Griffin decide to leave country for a warmer place on his way to Port Burdock? What made him change his plan? -282-

One of the greatest problems that Griffin faced while going about in an invisible state was that he had to remove all his clothes, else his clothes indicated his position. He found it very difficult to cope with the cold weather in a disrobed condition. So, he decided to leave for a warmer place where he could remain without clothes and thus be comfortably invisible. However when he met Kemp his old college mate he abandoned this plan of migration. He felt that if he could get Kemp’s support, he would be able to enjoy full advantage of his invisibility. A confederate like Kemp, having full technical knowledge would not only dispel his loneliness but would also help him rectify the huge mistake of carrying out the experiment single handedly. This would prevent wastage of time, energy and opportunities. Somehow Griffin had full faith in Kemp’s sincerity hence he changed his plan of leaving the country. Another person that led to the cancellation of Griffin’s plan to migrate in the absence of which he could not afford to travel or carry out his experiments Q.2 What was the huge mistake, according to Griffin, that he had committed while executing his experiment? Why did he call it a mistake? Or In what way did Griffin think he would benefit from Kemp’s support to reap the full benefits of invisibility? After having a brief experience of the consequences of his invisibility Griffin felt had he carried out his experiment with somebody’s help he wouldn’t have wasted so much of time, energy and opportunities. A helper like Kemp would have arranged for a hiding place where he could sleep, eat and rest in peace. As a confederate, Kemp would have made a world of difference in helping him reap the full benefits of his experiments to turn invisible. He called this a big mistake because he felt that single handedly he couldn’t reap the full advantage of his invisibility. It could not be managed on one’s own and a companion was essential for supporting the evil plans to unleash a reign of terror. Griffin was not satisfied with the outcome of his ambitious plan and desperately missed assistance of a man like Kemp whom he felt could be an asset. Together, the two scientist could enslave everyone by terrorizing. Kemp’s ability to understand the technicalities of the entire experiment would also come in very handy. His dependability would give Griffin a lot of confidence and he would carry out his plans with a free mind. Q.3 What were the different advantages of invisibility enumerated by Griffin? The different advantages of invisibility enumerated by Griffin hovered around crime and disorder. Griffin found that invisibility came in handy in breaking people’s houses and robbing them because the invisible person would be hard to spot or catch. He also found that it was particularly useful in getting away when captured. Invisibility also proved to be the strongest weapon in killing people. One could walk around a person despite his carrying any weapon, strike at any chosen point, dodge as one liked and escape when desired. The next advantage of invisibility was that it could help a great deal in letting loose a reign of terror and dominate everybody. However invisibility proved to be of little advantage in eavesdropping because even a slight sound of movement would alert the other person. Thus Griffin’s perverted mind found invisibility to be of great use in carrying out anti social activities and crimes.

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Q.4 When Griffin said, it is killing we must do, Kemp,” why didn’t Kemp see eye to eye with Griffin? What light does it reflect on his character? Kemp seemed to take a lot of interest in all that Griffin was telling him about his experience and plans about invisibility. Since he wished to trap Griffin, he neither contradicted him anywhere nor did he enter into any argument with him. However, when Griffin said,” It is killing we must do, Kemp”, Kemp found the whole suggestion so obnoxious and offensive that he couldn’t restrain himself from questioning Griffin about such a foul suggestion. The episode reveals Kemp’s aversion for crime and his respect for common conventions of humanity. At the same time the restraint with which he addressed Griffin’s remarks shows that he was not only a man of great self control, but was also farsighted. He didn’t wish to spoil his plan of getting Griffin captured by indulging in a heated argument and unnecessarily provoking him. Q.5 Kemp had laid a well planed trap for Griffin to walk in. Still how did Griffin manage to escape? Kemp was obliged to provide shelter to Griffin as the latter was his old acquaintances. However, after reading newspapers, Kemp realized that his fellow student had gone astray. It was imperative to control this waylaid scientist before he could prove to be a menace. Thus Kemp sent a note to Colonel Adye, the chief of police and laid a trap for Griffin. Unaware of this plan, Griffin schemed to let loose a reign of terror with Kemp’s support. Kemp in turn tried to divert his attention by suggesting that happiness could not be attained by playing a game against the race. He added that Griffin should get his work published and share it with his countrymen. It was at this point that Griffin heard footsteps coming upstairs. But Kemp tried to brush aside the sound and Griffin grew suspicious. He insisted on clarifying his doubt by personally examining the source of footstep sounds. Kemp now had no choice but to stop Griffin. This confirmed Griffin’s doubts and he called Kemp a traitor. Kemp’s well planned trap had been exposed. Griffin immediately started disrobing himself to become invisible and avoid arrest. Kemp’s efforts to lock him inside were failed. As Kemp struggled to close the door with both hands, the invisible Griffin gripped his throat. Kemp had no choice but to leave door handle to defend himself. Griffin pushed Kemp into the corner of the landing overpowered him and flung the dressing gown on top of him. Colonel Adye saw all this with great amazement. Just then he was hit with a great force and hurled headlong. An invisible foot trod upon him. He then heard the front door being slammed. Before they could register what had happened. Griffin had escaped. CHAPTER TWENTY FIVE Q.1 What impression did Kemp form about Griffin from the story that he narrated about himself? Do you think it was justifiable on his part to entrap Griffin by deceit? Expecting Kemp to be his confederate and his aide, Griffin gave him the details of how he had been successful in becoming invisible and how the state of invisibility had proved to be advantageous. However, as Griffin narrated his story, Kemp could make out that the man had cut himself from his kind. This inhuman and insensitive man thought of nothing else but his own safety. He could rob and kill people without any sense of remorse. His sole aim was to unleash a reign of terror. His fury could madden him and he could be a danger and disaster. Since he could stoop to any limit. Kemp didn’t find it wrong in getting him arrested. Such a -284-

deranged man had to be dealt in the most ruthless manner and he deserved no mercy. Kemps only concern was to somehow get him nabbed. It was Griffin’s villainous character that drove Kemp to trap him by deceit and this act was absolutely justified. Q.2 What suggestions did Kemp offer to arrest Griffin and why? How did Adye receive these suggestions Entrusting Kemp as a dependable associate, Griffin gave him an account of how he had succeeded in turning invisible and the outcomes of the state that he had attained. He laid details of all the crimes that he had committed and all problems that he had faced because of invisibility. Now Kemp was the only person who was well informed about all the weaknesses as well as expected plans and moves of the invisible man. Therefore he could really be instrumental in getting him captured. Kemp first of all warned Adye about the likelihood of Griffin’s getting away from the district. Hence, he wanted him to set a watch on trains, roads an ships. Next, he told that Griffin would try to look for Marvel to recover his precious books from him. Hence even the prison should be under strict vigil. Kemp suggested that Griffin would have to be kept away from food, shelter and sleep. As his food showed till it got assimilated, the police must keep on beating every thicket and quiet corner to spot him while he was digesting food. Dogs should be pressed into service since they could smell him despite his invisibility. Adye listened patiently to all these suggestions. However the advice to line the road with powdered glass was brushed aside by Adye as he found it to be unsportsmanlike. CHAPTER TWENTY SIX Q.1 Describe Griffin’s state of mind as he rushed out of Kemp’s house? Why was he in such an offensive mood? Or Why did Griffin leave Kemp’s house in a great fury? How did he express this anger? Griffin rushed out of Kemp’s house in a state of blind fury chased by Kemp and Colonel Adye. Griffin was furious because he was mentally unprepared for this sudden ambush that had been planned by Kemp whom he had begun to trust completely. When he got into Kemp’s house, griffin was quite suspicious and apprehensive about being handed over to the police. However after Kemp assured him that his liberty would be respected, he took it as a gentlemen’s word. He confided in Kemp about his past and revealed to him even the darkest secret of his life like robbing his own father. He laid bare his views and inner thoughts without any restraint because Kemp had won over his complete trust. So much so, that he wanted him to be his confederate and visualized that hey would both team up together to work further on his research . Hence, when all of a sudden he saw Colonel Adye with his men, he was shocked to learn that Kemp had betrayed him. Griffin was short tempered man and this deceit enraged him. He had to act promptly to escape capture. The sudden rush gave rise to uncontrollable anger. He moved swiftly and gripped Kemp’s throat and knocked him down with great force. Next, he struck Adye violently and sent him rolling down the staircase. He ran past the two police officers standing in the hall. Slammering the front door of Kemp;s house violently he rushed -285-

out only to catch hold of a child playing near Kemp’s gateway and flung ti aside with such a great force that the poor child’s ankle was broken. Thus on his way to freedom, Griffin expressed his anger by hitting anyone who obstructed him. Q.2 How far was Kemp’s treachery responsible for driving Griffin to Wicksteed’s murder? Or How and why was Wicksteed murdered? Kemp’s treachery had engaged Griffin. He felt cheated and humiliated. The breach of faith wasn’t tolerable. Moreover it was the power of the invisible man that he felt had been challenged. Hence he must have been in a very foul mood when he hit Wicksteed with iron rod. In addition to this Kemp advice to the police and country men to capture Griffin further irritated him. He somehow wanted to avenge himself and let the world know that he could let loose a reign of terror on his own. Wicksteed was on his way to have a lunch when he was intrigued to see an iron rod moving all by itself. This was Griffin who had pulled out the iron rod from a broken fence to use it as a weapon. Curiosity made the steward follow the rod. He struck it again and again with his walking stick. An already infuriated Griffin was provoked by this causing his death. Though he was absolutely harmless and innocent, Wicksteed became a victim of the wrath of the invisible man thus Kemp’s tracheary was responsible to a great extent in causing Wicksteed murder Q.3 What did a couple of men hear at the time of sunset in a field near Fern Bottom after Wick steed’s murder? Whose voice it could have been and what could be his state of mind? Ans. There was no eye-witness to Wick steed’s murder; hence nobody knew how Griffin felt after committing this crime. However a couple of men claimed to have heard a voice in a field near Fern Bottom. The voice was wailing and laughing, sobbing and groaning and it shouted over and over again. In all probability it was the invisible man voice. It appeared that after the murder he was in a confused state of mind. He felt happy that he had started a reign of terror and had made full use of his invisibility. Thus he laughed. However his conscience must have pricked him and filled him with remorse. He regretted having killed a man. Therefore he wept and wailed. Like a mad man he shouted at the top of his voice, over and over again, not knowing whether to celebrate his achievement or to mourn the killing of his conscience. Thus Griffin state of mind after the killing of wicksteed was not easy to comprehend. He sounded utterly confused and unable to decipher his true feeling at that time.

Q.5 Was it justified on the part of Kemp to have used Griffin honest confession for facilitating his arrest? Do you consider this a breach of faith? Justify your answer. A breach of faith is something that no person of principles would approve of Betrayal brings out the baseness and meaness of the person indulging in such wickedness. Hence it is universally considered to be unethical and condemnable. However in this particular case where Kemp betrayed Griffin, it would be unfair to cast aspersions on this scientist. Initially -286-

when kemp told Griffin that his freedom will be respected his intentions did not appear to be dubious. However when he came down to his study room and read all about him in the newspapers Kemp realized that a villainous person like him was dangerous if allowed to roam around freely. So he wrote a note to Colonel Adye informing him about the presence of a criminal in his house. In the morning when Griffin started giving the details of his life and activities Kemps belief about the evil designs of Griffin was confirmed. Hence he tried to get him captured by employing all the information that he had obtained earlier from Griffin. Keeping in view Griffin’s background and his intentions to let loose reign of terror, Kemp’s supposed betrayal appears to a big service to his fellow men in place of seeming to be a condemnable at. Hence he was very much justified in his breach of faith and he does deserve to be criticized in any way

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Q.53 what was the content of the latter was written by Griffin to Kemp? What did it convey about the hurt ego of Griffin? Ans. The letter sent to Kemp by Griffin was full of bitterness, malice and threats. The Invisible Man Had accused Kemp of betrayal and wondered what he would gain by this treachery. He admitted being outwitted by this treachery. He admitted being outwitted by his cleverness. However, he boasted that in spite of Kemp’s best efforts, Griffin had managed to eat to his fill as well as sleep peacefully through the night. He now threatened to commence a new chapter in his life. He sounded very presumptuous and confident as he declared that he was going to start the reign of terror and port Burdock was no longer under the Queen but under him. A new epoch was going to commence and it was going to day one of year one of terror. This bay was going to be marked by him with Kemp’s murder. He challenged Kemp to do all he could to evade this death. Through the latter, he also warned the people around not to help Kemp, for they too would invite their death. The tone of the latter was very foul and nasty. The latter clearly hinted that Griffin’s ego was badly hurt and he was not going to accept that betrayal of Kemp simply lying low. The intention to hit back with equal force indicated that Griffin was determined to avenge his humiliation and would not forgive Kemp for breach of trust. Q.54 What precaution did Kemp take on reading the letter sent to him by Griffin? Ans. The precaution taken by Kemp after reading the letter send to him by Griffin prove that he took the contents of the letter very seriously. He could recognize Griffin’s matter-offact tone and he knew that this angered man meant business. Therefore, he left his meal at once and instantly called his maid-servant to check all the window-fastenings and close all the shutters. He personally closed the shutters of his study-room. Then he equipped himself with his revolver to protect himself against any odds. Next, he wrote a note to Adye, telling him all about the letter. He suggested that he was ready to act as bait for Griffin and requested Adye to make all preparations to capture him. He felt certain that Griffin would walk into this trap and would be captured the moment he would come to assault him. He then asked the maid to carry the note to Adye and gave her strict instructions about the way to be followed to leave the house. He then returned to his lunch, but even while eating he mentally reviewed all the details and felt satisfied with the prompt action taken by him. His excitement and certainty about trapping Griffin established his seriousness regarding the contents of the letter.

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Q.55 What happened to Kemp’s maid after she was sent out by Kemp with a note for Adye? Ans. Kemp assured his maid that there was no danger to her while she carried his note to Adie. As a precaution he gave her strict instruction about the way to be followed while leaving the house. Despite this, the poor lady had a very bitter experience. Soon after leaving the house, Griffin, who had already made way to Kemp’s house from Hinton dean, snatched away the note from hand. The maid got a shook of her life. She was almost scared to death and was found in a state of uncontrollable hysterics. She was taken to the police station some time, when she was somewhat calmed, she didn’t dare to walk up to the home all by herself. So she was escorted by two policemen to drop her home safely. Q.56 What did Griffin do on reaching Kemp’s house from Hinton dean? Why did he behave in such a destructive manner? Ans. Kemp’s betrayal and his active participation in efforts to capture had enraged Griffin violently. He could never excuse Kemp for such a conduct. He returned to Kemp’s house from Hintondean with the purpose of punishing him and taking revenge on him. Kemp was responsible for breaking trust and hurting Griffin’s ego now Griffin wanted to settle scores with him. He had already declared in his letter that he would kill Kemp and her really men\ant business. By sending his maid servant with an note to Adye, Kemp had once again tried to outsmart Griffin. Therefore, adamant at not sparing Kemp under any circumstances, he broke in to his house, but he found all the windows and doors of the house closed securely. Even the shutters were drawn to obstruct any attempt of intrusion. The shutters were drawn to obstruct any attempt of intrusion. Infuriated to the extent of mad frenzy, Griffin started smashing all the window panes of the house. He tried to force his entry holding Anya as a hostage. When he failed to do so, he tried hacking the shutters of his windows with an axe that he had managed to find. Desperate to get Kemp’s throat, he went on a rampage expressing his frustration, anger and humiliation caused by Kemp’s betrayal. He behaved in such a destructive manner because he could not take defeat from anyone. His false sense of supremacy did not let him examine his own shortcomings. Considering himself to be unchallengeable and all powerful, he found it very tough to accept his defeat. Q.57 Why did Kemp refuse when Adie asked whether he had a pistol? What light does this episode throw on Kemp’s character? -289-

Ans. Kemp was a very practical and rational person who kept his cool even in the most trying situations. He sought Adye’s help to capture the Invisible Man as he knew he couldn’t do it single-handedly. When Adye came to his place and assessed the circumstances, he concluded that he needed to go back to the police station and get some hounds as it would as it would be difficult to capture Griffin without the aid of dogs. Before stepping out of the house he needed to equip himself with some weapon to face the unpredictably dangerous Invisible Man who could assault from anywhere. Hence, he asked Kemp if he had a pistol that he intended to carry for defence. However, Kemp denied that he had one. Actually Kemp would have become a vulnerable target for Griffin in the absence of pistol. But. After a brief thought he agreed that he had a pistol because he had the apprehension that Adye might have seen it earlier. Moreover, he must have guilty at Iying to Adye who was going out of his way In rendering him help. The episode reveals that though Kemp considered his own wellbeing as a priority but he was not outright a selfish person. His decisions were based on logic and not on impulse or emotion. He denial to possess a pistol and soon after admittance at having one reflected that he was a man with practical approach to life. Q.58 What happened immediately after Adie came out of Kemp’s house to fetch some help and hounds to capture the Invisible Man? Ans. Adie was a brave and fearless man who carried out his duties very conscientiously. When he realised that it was not possible for them to capture Griffin without the aid of doge, he decided to take the risk of moving out of the house despite the presence of the Invisible Man. He equipped himself with Kemp’s pistol and got out of the house as quietly as possible. After crossing the lawn, as he approached the gate, the Invisible Man asked him to stop. Immediately Adie’s grip on the revolver tightened. Then he was told to go back into the house. Adie refused to do anything of the sort and declared boldly that his movements were none of Griffin’s business. Unable to accept refusal, the Invisible Man pounced upon Adie immediately fired a shot into nothingness to kill him, ordering him to get back into the house. Adie resisted initially but then he agreed to comply with Griffin’s directions. However, while moving towards Kemp’s door, he turned all of a sudden and tried to snatch the pistol from Griffin. In a bid to do so, he got shot by the Invisible Man. Thus his effort to capture the Invisible Man was foiled.

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Q 59. Why did the policeman call Dr. Kemp a ‘Hero’? Ans. The policeman meant to be sarcastic when called Dr. kemp a ‘hero’. In fact the two policemen who had escorted the maidservant to give protection to her as well as to Dr. Kemp’s. they were provided with fire place pokers by Kemp to be used as clubs and they blows of Griffin’s axe on the poker. As the struggle went on they managed to break Griffin’s arm and now he could no longer hold the axe which fell to the ground. The two policemen acted very bravely and they accomplished what none else had been able to achieve. After disarming Griffin, one of the policemen turned to Kemp to warm him of Griffin’s possible presence around him. He called out to the doctor but did not find any response. He called out once again and turned back only to realize this ‘brave man was missing. Both the policemen were half irritated and half amused at he disappearance of the man whom they had protected at the risk of their lives. They expected to stay grounded till the last. Contrary to their expectations, Kemp had run away leaving them to encounter the Invisible Man on their own. Thus they sarcastically called this chicken-hearted man ‘a hero’. Q 60. Who was Mr. Heels? What idea do you get about him from the last chapter of the novel ‘The Invisible Man'? Or What did Mr. Heels see on waking up? How did he react to the situation? Or What help did Kemp seek from Heels? Did Heels oblige him? Why/Why not? Ans.

Mr. Heels was a villa holder who happened to be Dr. Kemp's nearest neighbour. He was one of the few gentlemen of the area who brushed aside the story of the invisible man as mere trash. Unlike the rest of the people of the countryside, he continued to scroll in his garden and have his afternoon nap in the summer house built up in the garden itself. However, he was not as brave as he pretended to be. Hence on waking up from his twenty minute nap that afternoon, he was quite intrigued to see Kemp’s entire window panes smashed to pieces. Twenty minutes ago, before he went off to sleep in the summer house, he had seen everything intact. It was only after he saw the house maid and Dr. Kemp escaping from the dining room window that the Invisible Man's presence struck Mr. Heelas. The thought panicked him and he ran blindly to the safety of his house. He got all the doors and windows closed securely and when Kemp -291-

came running to his house to seek refuge, this selfish and cowardly man refused to let him in, lest he himself should become a victim of the Invisible Man's wrath. Thus, we find him to be a mean, self-centred, cowardly person, who slammed his doors in the horrified face of poor Kemp when he needed help. Q 61 Describe Kemp's state of mind as he ran down the hill chased by the Invisible Man. Ans. Kemp ran out of his house to escape the fury of the Invisible Man who was adamant to kill. As he ran down the hill he was panic-stricken tried to keep his coll. He tried to make the chase as difficult as possible by choosing those strips of rough ground that would cause maximum difficulties for the bare footed Griffin. The thorny trail could help in spotting him. He ran fast with wide strides never losing his wits and cool. The run was desolate and long but Kemp did not give up. The villas along the way were securely closed as per his previous instructions. He had little hope of help from anyone at that noon hour. Chased by a dangerous man, running downhill without practice, and devoid of help of assistance, Kemp's state of mind should have been distraught. But it was not so. Kemp ran down the hill with an alert mind that kept on working to find probable rescue chances. Running for life in such a precarious situation, he still managed to outwit his pursuer. Q 62 How did people react on seeing Kemp run down the hill for his life? Or Describe the last scuffle that the Invisible Man had with Dr. Kemp and other people of the town. Or How did the Invisible Man meet his end? Ans. Kemp's neighbour Hellas had slammed his doors when the former came to him to seek refuge. However, the people on the streets stepped forward to help him. The furious to the onlookers that something was terribly wrong. As he crossed the “Jolly Cricketers”, the tram driver and the conductor looked at him with curiosity. Kemp, with his pursuer very close to him, cried out ‘the Invisible Man’. Soon many people came running towards him. A huge labourer advanced with a spade in his hand. He was followed by the tram conductor who came forwards with clenched fists. Another man came out of a shop with a stick. Now they -292-

were joined by many others. Just then, Kemp's was assaulted by the Invisible Man. As he gripped to strike Griffin's head. His grip on the throat loosened and Kemp caught hold of his elbows. Kemp cried for hold of his elbows. Kemp cried for help and instantly dozens of blows and punches started hitting Griffin. However, the Invisible Man threw off the pouncing men with a mighty effort. Kemp clung to the ‘unseen’ and others gripped, clutched and tore ‘it’. After a while, the wild scream of ‘Mercy! Mercy!’ made Kemp realize that Griffin had finally been pinned down. He held the invisible arms while the tram conductor gripped the invisible ankles. Slowly the body of Griffin was visible again as it grew clouded and opaque, strangely changing to finally appear as a crushed and batters figure. The grave injuries caused by the people had led to his death and had thus rescued Kemp. Q 63 Why does H.G. Wells call the experiment of the Invisible Man ‘strange and evil’? Ans. H,G, wells calls the experiment of the Invisible Man ‘strange’ because it was a very unusual experiment. Normally scientific experiments are carried out to improve upon the quality of life. Most of them aim at eradication of diseases, getting relief from pain, growth in production, strengthening the defence of country, exploring nature or maintaining ecological balance etc. Scientists put in untiring efforts to invent time saving machines, labour assisting devices, instruments to entertain, means to improve upon communication and transportation and the like. However, Griffin's experiment didn't have to do anything with the above mentioned goals. It was carried out solely to promote the interest of one single individual. Moreover, his strange invention, rather than proving to be a boon proved to be a bane not only for the society. Hence, his experiment a strange one. H.G. wells also calls his experiment ‘evil’ because it didn't have anything to do with the betterment to mankind. It centered on the whims and fancies of an individual who intended to let loose a reign of terror among his fellow beings. He misused the ‘Power’ that he derived from this experiment and indulged in all wicked activities like robbing, terrorizing, injuring and murdering. Hence, wells have rightly called his experiment wicked, evil and strange. Q.64 Why did Marvel name his inn ‘The invisible man’? Ans. Naming his inn,’ The invisible man’ was in no way an expression of marvel gratitude for griffin for bringinging a turning point in his cheated life. He had cheated this scientist and he seemed to have no regrets about it Hence there was no question of his commemorating the invisible man by naming his inn after him. Marvel, through had been a tramp for the best part his life, later came out to be a shrewd businessman. He knew the the invisible man had created such a commotion all over the country, such a name of the bar would attract many -293-

customers to his inn. Moreover, this name had romantic attraction and suspense’s about it. Hence even if one was not familiar with the invisible man’s story one would be intrigued by such a name and would like to visit a place which would eventually increase business. The curious client coming to the inn could be given interesting stories in the brief associatation that Marvel had with the invisible man. Thus the logic of calling his inn ‘The invisible man’ made perfect to marvel. Q.65 How did marvel try to convince people that he didn’t know anything about Griffin’s books? What did he actually do with these books and why? Or Why did marvel make it a habit to examine Griffin’s books so regularly in the strict privacy of his room? Ans. On being asked about the three books of the invisible man, Marvel would affirm about their existence but at the same time he would emphatically deny possessing them. He would further try to make his assertion more convincing by adding that they were taken away by the invisible man himself to hide them while marvel ran towards port stowe. However, the fact hid them in a cupboard in a box with a drawer. These closely Sunday in the strict privacy of his room. He tried to decipher all the unintelligible facts were recorded in coded language to find out the secret concoction that would make him invisibility in a much better way than Griffin, so he examined these books regularly with the hope to find out the street formula to become a powerful man. Marvel also didn’t want to share this secret with the rest of the world and wanted to enjoy a monopoly in reaping its benefits. Q.66 What was the wonderful dream of Marvel’s life? How did he mean to translate it into reality? Ans. The wonderful dream of Marvel’s life was to attain invisibility. He had got a fair idea about the power of invisibility after having had a brief tryst with the invisible man. Though he had seen him making a mess of his life, he did not underrate the magic of invisibility. He always dreamt of learning the serest formula that would transformation him into another Invisible man. he desired to make a much better use of this conversion as compared to what griffin had made. In order to translate his dream into a reality, Marvel studied Griffin’s books every night and every Sunday trying very hard to decipher their coded language. He kept the books to himself -294-

away from the praying eyes of the world hoping to comprehend the unintelligent information recorded there. He hoped that some day he would be able to decode griffin’s secret formula and realize his dream of attaining invisibility. Thus, by closely guarding the possession of Griffin’s books and pondering over them in private, Marvel, meant to turn his dream of invisibility into a reality.

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