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ENGLISH [Reader and Supplementary Reader] HIGHER SECONDARY - SECOND YEAR PART II - ENGLISH Revised based on the recommendation of the Textbook Develop...

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ENGLISH [Reader and Supplementary Reader]

HIGHER SECONDARY - SECOND YEAR PART II - ENGLISH

Revised based on the recommendation of the Textbook Development Committee

A Publication under Government of Tamilnadu Distribution of Free Textbook Programme (NOT FOR SALE)

Untouchability is a sin Untouchability is a crime Untouchability is inhuman

TAMILNADU TEXTBOOK AND EDUCATIONAL SERVICES CORPORATION

College Road, Chennai – 600 006.

© Government of Tamilnadu Revised Edition - 2007 Reprint - 2017 Chairperson Dr. S. SWAMINATHA PILLAI Former Director School of Distance Education Bharathiar University, Coimbatore Overall Reviewer Thiru S.GOMATHINATHAN Special Officer, ELT / Reader, D.T.E.R.T. (Retired) W – 5 (Old 302), 19th Street, Annanagar Western Extension Chennai - 600 101 Reviewers : Thiru. R. Venkata Krishnan Prof. R. Sankara Subramanian Principal Department of English T.I. School Govt. Arts College (Autonomous) Ambattur, Chennai - 600 053 Nandanam, Chennai - 600 035 Reviewer / Author :

Author (English Reader):

Ms.Priscilla Josephine Sarah S Researcher in ELT W-5 (Old 302), 19th Street Anna Nagar Western Extension Chennai - 600 101

Dr. A.Joseph Dorairaj Reader in English Gandhigram Rural University Gandhigram, Dindugul District.

Dr. Premalatha Rajan Mrs. Nalini Parthiban Asst. Professor of English Principal (Rtd.) Dept. of Humanities and Social Vanavani Matric. Hr. Sec. School Sciences, Anna University IIT Campus, Chennai Chennai This book has been prepared by The Directorate of School Education on behalf of the Government of Tamilnadu This book has been printed on 60 G.S.M. Paper Printed by Web Offset at : ii

THE NATIONAL ANTHEM FULL VERSION Jana-gana-mana-adhinayaka jaya he Bharata-bhagya-vidhata. Punjaba-Sindhu-Gujarata-Maratha Dravida-Utkala-Banga Vindhya-Himachala-Yamuna-Ganga Uchchhala-jaladhi-taranga Tava Subha name jage, Tava Subha asisa mage, Gahe tava jaya-gatha. Jana-gana-mangala-dayaka jaya he Bharata-bhagya-vidhata, Jaya he, jaya he, jaya he, Jaya jaya jaya jaya he.

SHORT VERSION Jana-gana-mana-adhinayaka jaya he Bharata-bhagya-vidhata. Jaya he, jaya he, jaya he, Jaya jaya jaya jaya he.

AUTHENTIC ENGLISH TRANSLATION OF THE NATIONAL ANTHEM Thou art the ruler of the minds of all people, Thou dispenser of India’s destiny. Thy name rouses the hearts of the Punjab, Sind, Gujarat and Maratha, of Dravid, Orissa and Bengal. It echoes in the hills of the Vindhyas and Himalayas, mingles in the music of the Yamuna and Ganges and is chanted by the waves of the Indian Sea. They pray for Thy blessings and sing Thy praise. The saving of all people waits in Thy hand, Thou dispenser of India’s destiny. Victory Victory, Victory to Thee. iii

THE NATIONAL INTEGRATION PLEDGE “I solemnly pledge to work with dedication to preserve and strengthen the freedom and integrity of the nation.” “I further affirm that I shall never resort to violence and that all differences and disputes relating to religion, language, region or other political or economic grievances should be settled by peaceful and constitutional means.”

INVOCATION TO GODDESS TAMIL

Bharat is like the face beauteous of Earth clad in wavy seas;

Deccan is her brow crescent-like on which the fragrant ‘Tilak’ is the blessed Dravidian land. Like the fragrance of that ‘Tilak’ plunging the world in joy supreme reigns Goddess Tamil with renown spread far and wide. Praise unto ‘You, Goddess Tamil, whose majestic youthfulness, inspires awe and ecstasy.

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PREFACE

The trend continues unabashed!

Our aim was to produce and present a neat comprehensive course book that is acceptable to all sections of the student community – the privileged, the not so privileged and the less privileged. ‘Why has not the English language become an effective communicative tool?’ – we wanted to diagnose the root cause of this problem. Before we started our work on XI book we worked with cross sections of students, a variety of teachers and professionals who matter in material production and enriched our experience to find the cure to strike at the very root of this problem. This experience has found proper expression in the book. The book covers a wide range of skills to help students develop their overall knowledge of English and use the language effectively for their academic requirement and social mobility. In short through these skills the students will learn to create with English and express their ideas and thoughts appropriately, accurately, clearly and convincingly without relying on rote memory.

The ability to express clearly and convincingly depends on (i) constant practice in understanding and making active use of a wide range of vocabulary (words, phrases, idioms) (ii) a sound knowledge of grammar, (word order, structural features) to enable to create whatever sentence to express oneself (iii) a pronunciation that is clear and correct (iv) the linguistic confidence that is developed by ample practice (v) constant practice to understand skills like speaking,reading, writing, study, occupational, creative and strategic, to appreciate the language better.

The teachers and students have to work through the parts of the units systematically and progressively to consolidate what the students have learnt over the years. There may be some overlap between units, which can’t be helped.

Would it not be nice if our students spoke and wrote English well!

The Soldier in David Copperfield said, “What a useful work a dictionary is! What a necessary work! The meanings!”

If only our teachers and students would say the same thing about this book! - Overall reviewer

Note: For the sake of variety, the patterning of questions under the Reading Text of each Unit is not uniform. The items are spread over the six Units. v

PREFACE TO THE SUPPLEMENTARY READER There is a great deal of difference between the eager man ‘who wants to read a book’ and the tired man ‘who wants a book to read’. Aren’t you an eager young person who wants to read books in pursuit of learning and knowledge? The purpose of prescribing an extensive reader is to expose you to the world of books, and the delight and pleasure the offer and instil in you the habit of reading and create a passion for the same.

After all Reading is to the mind what exercise is to the body.

This supplementary reader contains seven pieces-each by all time great authors whose books have stood the test of time and the vagaries of human cross cultures and feelings. You may at some point of time either have read or been told about the stories prescribed in this reader. But still, there is not a dull moment while reading such stories, no matter how many times you do it. How we wish you enjoyed saying as often as possible to inspire your younger ones“Knowing I love my books, he furnished me From mine own Library with volumes, that I prize above my Dukedom.” - Shakespeare

-Overall Reviewer

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CONTENTS

Unit I

II

III

IV

V

VI

Title

Page

PROSE – JULIUS CAESAR

5

POEM

39

– A PSALM OF LIFE

PROSE – THE CEASELESS CRUSADER

48

POEM

74

– WOMEN’S RIGHTS

PROSE – TO THE LAND OF SNOW

81

POEM

109

– A NOISELESS PATIENT SPIDER

PROSE – A DICTIONARY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE

115

POEM

148

– ENGLISH WORDS

PROSE – THE MARK OF VISHNU

155

POEM

185

– SNAKE

PROSE – HIROSHIMA

193

POEM

– THE MAN HE KILLED

223

APPENDIX

225

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SUPPLEMENTARY READER



No Title Page

1 THE SELFISH GIANT 235

- Oscar Wilde

2 THE LOTTERY TICKET 240

- Anton Chekhov

3 THE LAST LEAF 246

- O’ Henry



HOW THE CAMEL GOT ITS HUMP

4



253

- Rudyard Kipling

5 TWO FRIENDS 257

- Guy de Maupassant

6 THE REFUGEE 265

- Pearl S Buck

7 OPEN WINDOW 270

- ‘Saki’

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UNIT I COMPETENCIES A LISTENING: Listening and dividing utterances/sentences into tone groups B SPEAKING: Acting out a play or scenes from a play with proper expression and gestures C READING: Making notes on a text D

VOCABULARY: Using the dictionary independently Using/ identifying the whole gamut of a word, including usage Identifying differences between British and American English Using the thesaurus to find synonyms and antonyms

E STUDY SKILLS: Using the library effectively to develop reference skills F GRAMMAR: Using/identifying sentence patterns G WRITING: Summarising H OCCUPATIONAL COMPETENCY: Writing a report on an event I

STRATEGIC COMPETENCY: Assessing one’s language proficiency

J CREATIVE COMPETENCY: Writing an essay Preparing the script for a cartoon strip A. Listening Listen to the extract from Funeral Oration of Nehru’s delivered a few hours after the assassination of Gandhiji on January 30, 1948. The teacher will read it.

(The teacher reads from Appendix on page 225 Unit - 1)

Answer the following questions: 1. While reading the extract, did your teacher pause or stop anywhere? 2. Where did he/she pause? 3. Why did he/she do it? How long can you hold your breath? 10/20/30 seconds? The teacher will read the following sentence. Listen carefully.

(The teacher reads without any pause or stop.)

“As Caesar loved me I weep for him as he was fortunate I rejoice at it as he was valiant I honour him but as he was ambitious I slew him”

When the teacher read without any pause did it sound meaningful to you? 1

We realise that pauses are essential because we need to breathe. But these pauses have to be intelligent and meaningful. In other words, we cannot pause or stop arbitrarily, i.e., wherever we like. We should pause at the right places so that the meaning is conveyed clearly and properly. To help us to read lengthy sentences meaningfully we divide them into tone-groups. Now the teacher will read the same sentence (from ‘Julius Caesar’) with enough and appropriate pauses. As Caesar loved me,/ I weep for him;/ as he was fortunate,/ I rejoice at it;/ as he was valiant,/ I honour him;/ but, as he was ambitious,/ I slew him./ Did you notice the teacher pausing wherever there was a punctuation mark? Slashes have been made to indicate the tone groups. Note: There are 8 tone-groups in this sentence. Task: Your teacher will read the following sentences with proper pauses Listen carefully. Divide the utterances into tone- groups. Put a slash mark wherever there is a pause. The first one has been done for you. 1. If there be any in this assembly/ any dear friend of Caesar’s/ to him I say/ that Brutus’ love to Caesar was no less than his/ (4 tone-groups) 2. There is tears for his love joy for his fortune honour for his valour and death for his ambition 3. The evil that men do lives after them 4. He hath brought many captives home to Rome whose ransoms did the general coffers fill 5. I am no orator as Brutus is 6. Imagine a perfect world that you want to be in 7. At the time of admission the original certificates should be submitted by the candidates 8. Hostel students may be shifted from one room to another by the Warden without assigning any reason 9. Rainfall during the months of March, April, May and June had been fairly good and this had helped farmers to bring more acreage under cultivation 10. Child labour in India is a serious problem but does not get the regular attention it deserves from both the government and society

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B. Speaking The teacher reads out and dramatises this short extract from Nehru’s eulogy to Gandhiji delivered on February 2, 1948. “A glory has departed and the sun that warmed and brightened our lives has set, and we shiver in the cold and dark. Yet he would not have us feel this way. After all, that glory that we saw for all these years, that man with the divine fire, changed us also—and such as we are, we have been moulded by him during these years; and out of that divine fire many of us also took a small spark which strengthened and made us work to some extent on the lines that he fashioned . . .” Note: Watch your teacher as he/she reads out this extract in a dramatic manner. Watch his/her accent, intonation and gesture. Declamation: What should you do when you are asked to declaim or deliver a speech?  Before going to the stage, do some deep breathing. Breathe in deeply, hold your breath for 6 seconds and breathe out slowly. Do this five times. 

When you enter the stage, walk in confidently with a straight back.



As soon as you go onstage, look directly at the audience and establish good eye contact with them.

 Pause for three seconds before you start your declamation/ speech. Similarly, when you have finished your speech, pause for three seconds before leaving the stage.  After each performance, quietly look back and evaluate yourself and learn from mistakes. Task: Memorise the following speech and act it out with proper accent and gesture. Pay attention to the accent (which is marked for you) and your gestures (which are suggested). The tone-group also is marked for you. Antony. (Looks around and gestures with palms open) 'Friends (pause),'Romans (pause),'countrymen (pause), / 'lend me 'your ears (pause); / (softly) I come to 'bury 'Caesar, 'not (raises his voice) to 'praise him (pause); / (raises his voice) The ‘evil that men do ‘lives ‘after them (pause);/ The 'good is oft in’terred with their bones (matter of fact tone), / 'So let it be with ‘Caesar (pause). / The 'noble 'Brutus (raises his voice) Hath told you/ 'Caesar was am’bitious: / 3

'If it were so (lowers his voice) (pause), / it was a 'grievous 'fault (lowers his voice); / And (raises his voice) 'grievously hath 'Caesar 'answer'd it,—/ Here, '-under 'leave of 'Brutus and the rest (pause),—/ For 'Brutus is (lowers his voice) an 'honourable man; / So 'are they 'all (raises his voice); / 'all 'honourable 'men/ (each word to be spoken with deliberate emphasis),— Come 'I to speak in 'Caesar’s 'funeral. / He was my 'friend (nostalgic), /'faithful and 'just to me: / But 'Brutus says (pause)/ he was am'bitious; / And 'Brutus (short pause) is an 'honourable man/ (gentle and sarcastic; looks around for any negative reaction). He hath 'brought ‘many 'captives home to ‘Rome, / Whose 'ransoms did the 'general 'coffers ‘fill: / Did 'this in 'Caesar seem am'bitious?/ (raises his voice; indignant tone) When that the 'poor have 'cried (pause), / 'Caesar hath 'wept (pause): / (in a deliberate manner) Am'bition should be made of 'sterner 'stuff: / 'Yet (emphasis) 'Brutus says/ he was am'bitious (incredulous tone);/ And 'Brutus is an 'honourable man (sarcastic). / You (gestures to the crowd) 'all 'did see/ that on the 'Lupercal/ I 'thrice (emphasis) pre'sented him a 'kingly crown, / Which he 'did 'thrice re'fuse (pause): / was this am’bition? / (emphasis) 'Yet 'Brutus says he was am'bitious; / And, 'sure, / he is an 'honourable man. / (raises his voice) I speak 'not to dis'prove what 'Brutus spoke, / (raises his voice) But 'here I am to 'speak what I 'do 'know. / (raises his voice) (emotional appeal) You 'all 'did 'love him 'once,—/ 'not wi'thout 'cause: 'What cause with'holds you, then, / to 'mourn for him? / 'O 'judg'ment! / Thou art 'fled to 'brutish 'beasts, / And men have 'lost their 'reason!—/ 'Bear with me (soft); / 4

My 'heart (soft) (points to the coffin) is in the 'coffin there with 'Caesar,/ (folds hands to the chest, looks downcast and gently shakes the head) And I 'must 'pause/ 'till it come 'back to me. / C. Reading Pre-reading questions: 1. What’s the difference between an assassination and a murder? 2. Can you recall a few cases of assassination which shook the world? 3. From the listening and speaking tasks, can you guess the theme of the reading passage?

JULIUS CAESAR (From Act III Scene 2) Introduction The play opens with Julius Caesar’s victorious return to Rome after defeating the sons of Pompey. While people rejoice, there is a group which fears that all these victories would get into Caesar’s head and he would cease to be democratic. Cassius, Brutus and others plot to kill Caesar. A soothsayer (astrologer) warns Caesar about the “ides of March”. Calphurnia, Caesar’s wife, forbids him from going to the Senate House as she has had bad dreams. Decius Brutus, one of the conspirators, convinces Caesar to come to the Senate House. At the Senate House, the conspirators surround Caesar. Casca is the first to stab him. Caesar is shocked when he sees his friend Marcus Brutus with a sword. With an anguished cry of Et tu, Brute? (You too Brutus) he dies. Mark Antony, Caesar’s trusted friend, meets the murderers and requests them to allow him to take Caesar’s body to the market place. Marcus Brutus agrees, but warns Antony not to blame them in his funeral speech. In Act III Scene 2, Brutus justifies the murder of Caesar. But Mark Antony, with his eloquence, wins the public over to his side. The result is that a riot breaks out and people are moved to a frenzy to avenge the murder of Caesar. Cassius and Brutus flee Rome, and Mark Antony, Octavius Caesar and Amelius Lepidus become the ‘triumvirs’. At the battle of Philippi, the forces of Cassius and Marcus Brutus are defeated, and true to his word, Brutus kills himself with his sword. Note: This extract is known for the funeral orations of Brutus and Mark Antony. Brutus: Be patient till the last. 5

Romans, countrymen, and lovers! hear me for my cause, and be silent, that you may hear: believe me for mine honour, and have respect to mine honour, that you may believe: censure me in your wisdom, and awake your

5

senses, that you may the better judge. If there be any in this assembly, any dear friend of Caesar’s, to him I say that Brutus’ love to Caesar was no less than his. If, then, that friend demand why Brutus rose against Caesar, this is my answer,—not that I loved Caesar less, but that I loved

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Rome more. Had you rather Caesar were living, and die all slaves, than that Caesar were dead, to live all free men? As Caesar loved me, I weep for him; as he was fortunate, I rejoice at it; as he was valiant, I honour him; but, as he was ambitious, I slew him. There is tears for his

15

love; joy for his fortune; honour for his valour; and death for his ambition. Who is here so base that would be a bondman? If any, speak; for him have I offended. Who is here so rude that would not be a Roman? If any, speak; for him have I offended. Who is here so vile that

20

will not love his country? If any, speak; for him have I offended. I pause for a reply. Citizens. None, Brutus, none. Brutus. Then none have I offended. I have done no more to Caesar than you shall do to Brutus.

25

…..............................................…………………………………………………………

Enter ANTONY and others, with CAESAR’S body

Here comes his body, mourned by Mark Antony, who, though he had no hand in his death, shall receive the benefit

6

of his dying, a place in the commonwealth; as which of you shall not? With this I depart,—that, as I slew my best lover for the good of Rome, I have the same

30

dagger for myself, when it shall please my country to need my death. ……………………………………………………………................................................ Antony. Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me

your ears;

I come to bury Caesar, not to praise him.

35

The evil that men do lives after them; The good is oft interred with their bones; So let it be with Caesar. The noble Brutus Hath told you Caesar was ambitious: If it were so, it was a grievous fault;

40

And grievously hath Caesar answer’d it. Here, under leave of Brutus and the rest,— For Brutus is an honourable man; So are they all; all honourable men,— Come I to speak in Caesar’s funeral.

45

He was my friend, faithful and just to me: But Brutus says he was ambitious; And Brutus is an honourable man. He hath brought many captives home to Rome, Whose ransoms did the general coffers fill:



Did this in Caesar seem ambitious? When that the poor have cried, Caesar hath wept: Ambition should be made of sterner stuff: Yet Brutus says he was ambitious;

7







50

And Brutus is an honourable man.

55

You all did see that on the Lupercal I thrice presented him a kingly crown, Which he did thrice refuse: was this ambition? Yet Brutus says he was ambitious; And, sure, he is an honourable man.

60

I speak not to disprove what Brutus spoke, But here I am to speak what I do know. You all did love him once,—not without cause: What cause withholds you, then, to mourn for him? O judg’ment! Thou art fled to brutish beasts,









65

And men have lost their reason!—Bear with me; My heart is in the coffin there with Caesar, And I must pause till it come back to me. First Citizen. Methinks there is much reason in his sayings. 70 Second Citizen. If thou consider rightly of the matter, Caesar has had great wrong. Third Citizen. Has he, masters? I fear there will a worse come in his place. Fourth Citizen. Mark’d ye his words? He would not

75

take the crown;

Therefore ’tis certain he was not ambitious. First Citizen. If it be found so, some will dear abide it. Second Citizen. Poor soul! his eyes are red as fire with weeping. 80 Third Citizen. There’s not a nobler man in Rome than Antony. Fourth Citizen. Now mark him, he begins again to speak. Antony. But yesterday the word of Caesar might 8

Have stood against the world: now lies he there,

85

And none so poor to do him reverence. O masters, if I were dispos’d to stir Your hearts and minds to mutiny and rage, I should do Brutus wrong and Cassius wrong, Who, you all know, are honourable men:

90

I will not do them wrong; I rather choose To wrong the dead, to wrong myself, and you, Than I will wrong such honourable men. But here’s a parchment with the seal of Caesar; I found it in his closet,—’tis his will:

95

Let but the commons hear this testament,— Which, pardon me, I do not mean to read,— And they would go and kiss dead Caesar’s wounds, And dip their napkins in his sacred blood; Yea, beg a hair of him for memory,

100

And, dying, mention it within their wills, Bequeathing it as a rich legacy Unto their issue. ………………………………………………………….. Antony. If you have tears, prepare to shed them now. You all do know this mantle: I remember

105

The first time ever Caesar put it on; ’Twas on a summer’s evening, in his tent, That day he overcame the Nervii:— Look, in this place ran Cassius’ dagger through: See what a rent the envious Casca made: Through this the well-beloved Brutus stabb’d;

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110

And, as he pluck’d his cursed steel away, Mark how the blood of Caesar follow’d it, As rushing out of doors, to be resolv’d If Brutus so unkindly knock’d, or no;

115

For Brutus, as you know, was Caesar’s angel: Judge, O you gods, how dearly Caesar lov’d him! This was the most unkindest cut of all; For when the noble Caesar saw him stab, Ingratitude, more strong than traitors’ arms,

120

Quite vanquished him: then burst his mighty heart; And, in his mantle muffling up his face, Even at the base of Pompey’s statue, Which all the while ran blood, great Caesar fell. O, what a fall was there, my countrymen!

125

………………………………………………………….. Antony. Good friends, sweet friends, let me not stir you up To such a sudden flood of mutiny: ………………………………………………………….. I am no orator, as Brutus is; But, as you know me all, a plain blunt man, That love my friend; and that they know full well

130

That gave me public leave to speak of him: For I have neither wit, not words, nor worth, Action, nor utterance, nor the power of speech, To stir men’s blood: I only speak right on; I tell you that which you yourselves do know; Show you sweet Caesar’s wounds, poor poor dumb mouths, And bid them speak for me: but were I Brutus,

10

135

And Brutus Antony, there were an Antony Would ruffle up your spirits, and put a tongue In every wound of Caesar, that should move

140

The stones of Rome to rise and mutiny. Glossary (line numbers are given for easy reference): 2 lovers

: close friends

5 censure

: judge

6 senses

: reason (Brutus appeals to the head and not to the heart, as Antony does)

14 valiant

: very brave and determined

15 slew

: killed

17 base

: depraved; mean

20 vile

: morally base, disgusting

30-31 I have the same dagger for myself

: I will kill myself (Brutus later dies by his own sword)

37 oft

: often

37 interred

: buried, i.e. let the good qualities of Caesar rest with him in his grave

40 grievous fault

: serious mistake

41 Caesar answer’d it

: Caesar paid for it (his mistakes) with his life

42 under leave

: under permission

43 honourable

: honest, upright. Notice the repetition of the word in his speech. From a compliment it turns into a taunt.

49 captives

: prisoners

50 ransoms

: payment for the release of prisoners

50 coffers

: state treasury

53 Ambition should be made of sterner stuff

: an ambitious person would be strict (but Caesar, points out Mark Antony, was one with the masses) 11

56 Lupercal

: Lupercalia—an ancient fertility festival in honour of Pan, the god of the shepherds

63 cause

: reason

64 what cause withholds you, then, to mourn for him?

: what prevents you from mourning for Caesar?

65 O judg’ment! Thou art fled to brutish beasts

: men have lost their capacity to judge and reason

69 methinks

: it seems to me (that)

74 I fear there will a worse come in his place

: a person worse than Caesar might rule

75 Mark’d ye his words?

: Did you pay attention to his (Antony’s) words?

78 abide it

: pay for it (someone will have to pay for Caesar’s death)

83 mark him

: listen to him

86 so poor

: lowly in rank; even in death the lowly placed citizen does not honour Caesar

88 mutiny

: revolt

94 parchment

: animal skin used as writing surface

95 his will

: Caesar’s will

99 napkins

: handkerchiefs

102 bequeathing

: leave to a person by a will

102 legacy

: gift left in a will

103 issue

: children

105 mantle

: cloak. Antony displays the bloodstained cloak of Caesar.

108 Nervii

: The battle of the Sambre, 57 B.C. Caesar defeated the Nervii, a tribe of Gaul.

108-123

: By uncovering the body of Caesar and revealing the stab wounds, Antony plays on the emotions of the crowd and inflames them.

109-110

: Cassius and Casca - along with Brutus, Cassius and Casca stabbed Caesar.

12

110 rent

: tear; cut (Note: Antony was not there when

Caesar was murdered but he uses his imagination.) 112 pluck’d his cursed steel away

: pulled out the cursed sword

114 as

: as though

114 resolved

: informed

118 unkindest cut

: cruel, unnatural because Caesar loved``Brutus and Brutus repaid his love by stabbing him. (Pay attention to Shakespeare’s language -most unkindest cut)

120-121 Ingratitude, : Personification. more strong than traitors’ Ingratitude is personified here. arms/ Quite vanquished him 121 vanquished 121-122 Then burst his mighty heart/And, in his mantle muffling up his face

: defeated

: When Caesar saw Brutus with the sword, he did not resist; instead he covered his face with his mantle.

123 Pompey

: the Roman general whom Caesar had defeated

126-128

: The crowd does not see the irony in Antony’s speech.

132 wit

: intelligence

132 worth

: reputation. Antony says that he does not have the skills needed for an orator.

134 to stir men’s blood

: to stir up emotions

136 poor poor dumb mouths

: as the wounds cannot speak Antony expresses their agony.

139 ruffle

: disturb, upset

140-141

: Antony had all along said that he did not want to incite the crowd but his eloquent speech does just that.

13

I. Answer the following questions briefly, each in about 50 words: 1. Why and how was Caesar killed? By whom? 2. How does Mark Antony make the crowd believe that Caesar was not ambitious? 3. Whom does Mark Antony call “honourable men”? Do their actions prove them to be honourable? 4. Why was Brutus’ stab the “most unkindest cut of all”? How did Caesar react when Brutus stabbed him? 5. How does Mark Antony win the public of Rome over to his side? II. Answer the following in about 200 words each: 1. Critically analyse the funeral oration of Mark Antony. 2. Compare and contrast the speeches of Brutus and Mark Antony. III. Use the following words in sentences of your own:

censure, ransom, bequeath, legacy, mantle

IV. Complete the following sentences using the words given in brackets to produce sentences modelled on the sentence given below from ‘Julius Caesar’:

“Not that I loved Caesar less, but that I loved Rome more.”

1. Not that I like French less, but that ……………………………. (English). 2. Not that I love my father less, but that ……………………………. (mother). 3. Not ……………………… (Ashok), but that I like Ravi more. 4. Not ………………. (cricket), but that I like football more. Note Making: ● Read the following passage twice in order to get the overall meaning. (What is it about?) ● Read each paragraph twice in order to get the key / main ideas and points. ● Write down the key words and expressions separately and arrange them, especially in the form of a tree diagram.

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Do you eat a balanced diet? Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) divides food into three categories. They are: yin, yang and neutral foods. What are yin foods? They are cool or cold in nature. They remove the excess heat in the system and eliminate toxins. Some examples of yin food are bananas, apples, mangoes and tomatoes. Yang foods are the opposite of yin foods. They warm the interior and treat the symptoms caused by excess yin. Chicken, dates, mutton, garlic, ginger and pepper are some examples of yang food. Neutral foods belong to the third category. Some examples are carrots, eggs and potatoes. These foods do not influence any hot or cold syndromes in the body. The ultimate goal of TCM food therapy is to maintain a healthy balance based on the effect of food on the body. TCM practitioners remark that by balancing our diet we create harmony within the body, resulting in wellbeing. Therefore eat a balanced diet. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Yin Yang Neutral cool and cold warm and hot neither cold nor hot

clear away heat warm the interior and eliminate toxins and dispel cold

don’t influence hot or cold syndromes

Maintain a healthy balance for well-being Task: Read the following passage and make notes on it:

Using chillies to discipline kids

Washington, Aug 11: Some parents in the US have been using chilli sauce to punish their children for misbehaving, a newspaper said on Wednesday. With a picture of ten ripe red chillies, the Washington Post writes that while chilli sauce adds kick to hundreds of foods, “Some parents use it in a different recipe, one they think will yield better - behaved children. They put a drop of the fiery liquid on a child’s tongue as punishment for lying, biting, hitting or other offences.”

15

“The use of hot sauce has been advocated in a popular book, in a magazine for women and on Internet sites. Web-based discussions on parenting carry intense, often emotional exchanges on the topic,” says the paper. As with spanking, says the paper, hot saucing elicits strong reactions even among friends and family members. Parents who use hot sauce told the paper that such tactics as timeouts, lectures, negotiation or restricting certain pleasures have not worked for them but hot sauce, or even the threat of it, stops undesirable behaviour. But paediatricians, psychologists and experts on child care and family life strongly recommended against the practice. - The New Indian Express (12-08-2004) Prepare notes based on answers to the following questions: ● How do some parents in the US use chilli sauce? ● Why do they do so? ● Is their action justified? ●

What is the opinion of paediatricians and psychologists on this issue?

D. Vocabulary I. Using the dictionary: ●

Do you have a dictionary of your own? Yes/No



If yes, which one do you have?



Tamilnadu Textbook Corporation’s Dictionary/



Oxford/Macmillan/Chambers/Webster/Lifco/any other?



When and why do you consult a dictionary?



To check



(i) the spelling



(ii) the pronunciation



(iii) the meaning



(iv) the usage



Do you have any difficulty in using the dictionary? If yes, what are the



difficulties?

16

● Who is a lexicographer? ● What is a dictionary? ● Who compiled the first dictionary in English? In which year? ● Who compiled The American Dictionary of the English Language? In which year? Note: For every word, there are two meanings:

(a)

the literal meaning



(b)

the contextual meaning, i.e., the meaning that is determined by the



context in which the word occurs

Example: “Who is here so base that would be a bondman?” (Julius Caesar) What is the meaning of the word ‘base’? The Concise Oxford Dictionary gives you as many as fifteen meanings. Now, what meaning are you going to choose? Note: The context will help you to choose the meaning of the word base. How to use a dictionary?

If you are looking up an entry in a standard dictionary, you will learn -



● the spelling



● the pronunciation and word stress



● word class



● the meaning



● derivatives



● phrasal verbs, and idioms and phrases where that word occurs



● irregular inflections, if any

Know your dictionary and learn to use it intelligently: Example: “And the grave is not our goal.” (A Psalm of Life) What is the meaning of grave? From the Macmillan English Dictionary for Advanced Learners (2002):

17

grave1 /greIv/ noun [c]  1 the place where a dead body is buried in a deep hole in the ground. A tomb is a structure above the ground that contains a dead body. He’s never even visited his mother’s grave. 2 the grave literary death: His secret will go with me to the grave (= I will die without telling anyone). beyond the grave It seemed to him like a voice from beyond the grave. (=the voice of a dead person.) an early grave death before the natural age that you would expect . She’s drinking herself into an early grave. sb would turn in their grave spoken used for saying that someone who is now dead would be very surprised or sad about something that is happening if they could see it →CRADLE1, DIG1, FOOT1, WATERY

grave2 / greIv / adj  1 so serious that you feel worried. The situation is very grave and appears to be detertorating.1a. Used for emphasizing how serious something is: The report expressed grave concerns about the safety of meat production. I have grave doubts that he’ll ever become a doctor. in grave danger (of) The peace process is in grave danger of collapsing. 2 looking very serious and worried: a grave expression/face - gravely adv. Her husband had been gravely ill for some time. She nodded gravely. grave3 /gra:v/ or grave accent noun [c] the mark above a letter in French and some other languages to show how it is pronounced- compare ACUTE 4, CIRCUMFLEX

What items are given in this entry?

Along with the headword grave, the dictionary gives us -

● its spelling (grave) ● pronunciation / greIv/ and / gra:v/ ● word class (noun, adjective and adverb) ● meaning (the place where a dead body is buried; serious; (grave) accent in some languages) ● usage (He’s never even visited his mother’s grave; beyond the grave; a grave expression) 18

So what is the meaning of grave in ‘And the grave is not our goal’ (A Psalm of Life)? Since there are three entries, what meaning will you choose? The meaning of grave as given in the first entry: “the place where a dead body is buried in a deep hole in the ground.” It also means “death” in the literary sense. But there is an additional meaning as well, and that is the contextual meaning. Task: Look up a dictionary and gather relevant details of the italicised words: 1. the plural of index and matrix 2. the singular of data and alumni 3. the pronunciation of reservoir and communal 4. the word accent for economics and biology 5. the adjective of money and governor 6. the noun form of religious and dedicate 7. the differences between hire and rent in British and American English 8. the differences between home and house, and thin and lanky 9. Note down any five words from the Indian languages that are entered in the Oxford Dictionary (e.g. : catamaran, bandicoot). 10. Find out the etymology (root word) of educate and manufacture. II.Varieties of English: ● Have you ever noticed the way people from different parts of Tamilnadu speak Tamil? ●

Have you observed the differences between British English and American English, especially in terms of spelling?

There are clear differences among the Tamil spoken in Coimbatore, Tuticorin, Chennai and Nagercoil. Similarly, there are differences between British English and American English, and even within England there are many (dialectal) differences based on regional variations and class differences. These differences could be grouped under three major headings: vocabulary, spelling and pronunciation. Differences in Vocabulary: British English

American English

autumn

fall

biscuit

cookie

crisps

potato chips 19

film

movie

ground floor

first floor

holiday

vacation

lorry

truck

luggage

baggage

mobile phone

cell phone

nappy

diaper

petrol

gasoline

post

mail

sweets

candy

tap

faucet

taxi

cab

tin

can

underground

subway

Differences in Pronunciation: British English

American English fast /fæst/ last /læst/ mass /mæs/ schedule /'skedju:l/ ba'llet /bæ'leI/

fast /få:st/ last /lå:st/ mass /må:s/ schedule/'∫edju:l/ 'ballet /'bæleI/ 'debris /'deIbri:/

de'bris /deI'bri:/

Differences in Spelling: British English

American English center check license meter offense plow program skillful traveled theater

centre cheque licence metre offence plough programme skilful travelled theatre 20

Note: The differences in spelling could be classified in terms of

(a)

words ending in -our and -or (colour-color)



(b)

words ending in -tre and -ter (metre-meter)



(c)

words ending in -nce and -nse (offence-offense)



(d)

the use of ‘ll’ and ‘l’ (skilful-skillful)

Task: Complete the following table:

One is done for you. British English

American English

Railway

Railroad Elevator

Flat Sidewalk Aerial III. Using the Thesaurus to find Synonyms and Antonyms:

 What is a thesaurus?



 Do you have a thesaurus?



 Did you know that Peter Mark Roget, an English doctor, published the first

thesaurus in 1852? According to the Concise Oxford Dictionary, a thesaurus is,“a book that lists words in groups of synonyms and related concepts”. According to IA Richards, “A Thesaurus is the opposite of a dictionary.You turn to it when you have the meaning already but don’t yet have the word. It may be on the tip of your tongue, but what it is you don’t yet know . . . [In such cases] you reach for the Thesaurus.” Therefore, you consult a thesaurus 1. to find out synonyms (words with the same/similar meaning) and Antonyms (opposites) 2. to find out the words whose meaning you already know, i.e., you know the meaning but, then, you are not very sure what that word is. A thesaurus is very helpful to all writers and researchers when they want to use a variety of words with the same/similar meaning, to produce different effects in relevant context, rather than repeat a word, which may sound dull and boring. 21

For example, He/she speaks can be written / said as He/she says / states / tells / lectures / declaims / pronounces… Note: Even though all these words (says / states / tells / lectures / declaims / pronounces) can be used in the place of ‘speaks’ there are subtle or fine differences between them. Therefore, you should be very careful while choosing synonyms. As mentioned earlier, a thesaurus gives you antonyms as well. Examples from the thesaurus:

write (verb): pen, typewrite, type, copy, transcribe, scribble, scratch, note down, write down, record . . .

writer: scribe, author

writing: penmanship, typewriting, manuscript, script, character, letter, etc.



travel (verb): journey, take wing, migrate, emigrate, tour, trek . . .



traveller: wayfarer, voyager, passenger, tourist, excursionist, globe-trotter, explorer, adventurer, wanderer, pilgrim, immigrant, emigrant . . .

Task 1: Using the thesaurus, find appropriate synonyms of the italicised words: Examples: Romans, countrymen, and lovers hear me for my cause (listen to).

Who is here so vile that will not love his country? (base)



Here comes his body mourned by Mark Antony (grieved).

1. If there is any in this assembly, any dear friend of Caesar’s. . . 2. As he was valiant, I honour him. 3. I pause for a reply. 4. I do entreat you, not a man depart. . . 5. If it were so, it was a grievous fault. . . 6. He hath brought many captives home to Rome. 7. Methinks there is much reason in his sayings. 8. And dip their napkins in his sacred blood. 9. You will compel me, then, to read the will? 10. And, being men, hearing the will of Caesar, it will inflame you. 22

Task 2: Consult the thesaurus and find out the antonyms of the italicised words (the meaning of the sentences may change): 1. Life is but an empty dream. 2. Art is long and Time is fleeting. 3. We can make our lives sublime. 4. This Caesar was a tyrant. 5. There is not a nobler man in Rome than Antony. 6. Runs were scored at a very slow pace. 7. When he heard the news he was very agitated. 8. The staircase is quite broad. 9. Quite a few of my friends are selfish. 10. Whatever she does, she does it in a methodical manner. E. Study skills Using the library effectively  How often do you make use of your school library?

Daily/twice a week/once a week/rarely

 Is there any (public/lending) library in your neighbourhood?

If yes, how often do you visit it?

 How is the public library different from your school library?  On an average, how many books do you borrow from your school library in a month?  Name the big and famous libraries you have visited.  Who is the father of the Indian library movement? How to use a library effectively? In order to use a library effectively, you should know the various sections of a library. Most libraries have the following sections:

 Reference section



 The stacks



 Journal section 23



 Electronic section, including the Internet and Microforms



 Reprography

What do these sections contain?  Reference: Indexes (Education Index), Bibliographies (MLA International Bibliography), Collection of Abstracts (Chemical Abstracts), Dictionaries, Encyclopaedias,Yearbooks, Atlases, Gazetteers, and rare and important books in each discipline (English, Tamil, Chemistry, etc.).  The Stacks: Except those in the reference section, all books are stored here and the general practice is that only the library staff are allowed inside the stack section.  Journal Section: Journals (which are different from Magazines) and Periodicals are kept here. The back numbers are also kept here for research purposes.  Electronic Section: Most libraries have both Print and Electronic sources. The electronic sources include audiovisual materials such as audio/video cassettes and CD-ROMs, and also microforms (“Printed matter generally reduced in size by microphotography and which need a special mechanism to magnify them”) like microfilm and microfiche. Computer facilities along with the Database and the Internet are part of the electronic section.  Reprography: Facilities for photocopying (Xeroxing). Classification of books: To locate books easily, you should know something about the classification system. There are as many as eight types of classification. But the two most widely used systems of classification are: Dewey Decimal System and American Library of Congress (system). (You have already learnt these systems in class XI.) In order to search for a book, you can use  The author index (card catalogue)  The title index (card catalogue)  Computer search 1.

In the Author Index, books are arranged authorwise alphabetically.



e.g.

Andrews, C F

Rowling, J K

Bacon, Francis

Rushdie, Salman 24

Das, Kamala

Ruskin, John

Eliot, T S

Seth, Vikram

Mehta, Ved

Singh, Kushwanth

Milton, John

Wordsworth,William

(Note: The surname is used here.) 2. In the Title Index, books and other materials are arranged according to the titles alphabetically. 3. Computer search: You can use the computer to search for books and other materials in four different ways: (a) You type in the author’s name and the database shows all the titles under the author’s name that are available in that library and you can select the title that you are looking for. (b) You type in the title, and the database gives you the complete details of that title including the author’s name and other publication details, and also the accession and call numbers. (c) You type in the accession/call number and the computer displays the relevant details of that title. (d) In case you are not sure of the author’s name and also the title, type in the KeyWord(s) in that title and the computer displays all titles available in that library which contain the key word(s). OPAC: OPAC is Online Public Access Catalogue. “It is an interactive search module of an automated library management system. In the OPAC system, any document can be searched through the computer node in the school/college library’s database and other library databases, connected by a network system.” General instructions for using the library: 1. Observe silence inside the library. 2. Do not write or scribble anything on the book or on the writing desks. 3. Do not fold the corners of a page. Use bookmarks. 4. Do not deliberately hide books. 5. Do not tear off pages from a book for your reference. 6. Do return the books on / before the due date.

25

Task: 1. Visit a few important libraries in your town and district. 2. Talk to your school librarian and request him/her for information regarding the classification of books in your school library. 3. Search for Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar using the card catalogues (both author and title index) and the computer search. Note down the accession number. F. Grammar Sentence Patterns: Note: There are basically five sentence patterns, and you are already familiar with them. (Refer to your Standard XI book.) The five basic patterns are: 1. SV (Subject + Verb) 2. SVO (Subject + Verb + Object) 3. SVIODO (Subject + Verb + Indirect Object + Direct Object) 4. SVC (Subject + Verb + Complement) 5. SVOC (Subject + Verb + Object + Complement) Note: Adjunct could be added to all these five patterns. 1. SV: God forgives. S V Caesar hath wept. S V The crowd laughed. S V Gold glitters. S V The telephone rang. S V 2. SVO: Ronaldo S He S

scored V would not take V 26

three goals. O the crown. O



The collector S He S Brutus S



inspected V has donated V stabbed V

the building. O his eyes. O Caesar. O

3. SVIODO: You lend me your ears. S V IO DO He gave her a beautiful bouquet. S V IO DO The Secretary sanctioned ten lakhs to the school. S V IO DO He taught me Hindi. S V IO DO The company chairperson promised them better salary. S V IO DO 4. SVC: This lesson is interesting. S V C Brutus is an honourable man. S V C She is a dermatologist. S V C He remained a bachelor. S V C The white rose looks beautiful. S V C 5. SVOC: They elected her the class leader. S V O C The committee declared him the winner. S V O C He painted the car blue. S V O C 27



It will make you mad. S V O C They appointed him S V O

the vice-captain. C

Note: As mentioned earlier, Adjunct (A) can be added to these five basic sentence patterns. 1. SVA: We are meeting S V 2. SVOA:

on Friday. A

The crowd cheered him lustily. S V O A 3. SVIODOA: I presented him a kingly crown thrice. S V IO DO A 4. SVCA: He is a professor with a lot of experience. S V C A 5. SVOCA: The committee appointed him the chairperson S V O C Task: Identify the pattern of the following sentences: 1. Rani is a nurse. 2. They proved him wrong. 3. Kumar gave Janani a rose. 4. He bought a kilo of apples. 5. My mother keeps the house clean. 6. The teacher gave the class a difficult assignment. 7. Pardon me. 8. I loved Caesar. 9. I presented him a cheque for Rs.25,000/10. I have the same dagger. 11. I come to bury Caesar. 28

on Friday. A

12. You all do know this mantle. 13. This was the most unkindest cut of all. G. Writing Summarising Summarising is an important skill, for, all students are constantly required to summarise their lessons and all other materials that they read. Note: It is easier to digest and remember summarised versions of lessons and other materials rather than the original versions which may be lengthy. What are the steps to be followed while summarising? 1. Since each paragraph revolves around a key sentence (known as the topic sentence), identify the topic sentence. (Note: Usually, the topic sentence is placed either at the beginning or the end of the paragraph.) 2. Identify all key words and expressions. 3. Leave out examples, comparisons, analogies, etc., for these are brought in to stress the main points. (Note: Summaries should contain only essential points.) 4. Write down all key words and expressions along with the topic sentences separately. 5. Put them together in the form of a paragraph. Task 1: Read the following essay carefully and summarise it, reducing it to one third of its original length: Elephants The elephant is the largest and one of the most powerful and intelligent animals. Even though blue whales are the largest animals for they grow up to 30 metres, elephants top the list as far as land animals are concerned. A fully-grown elephant reaches a height of 4 metres and a weight of 6 metric tons. The most remarkable feature of the elephant is its tusks and trunk. The tusks, in fact, are two of its upper teeth that have grown on the outside and become enlarged. A tame or trained elephant uses its tusks to support heavy loads while wild elephants use them as weapons of attack. Tusks are made of ivory which is highly valuable. And it is for tusks that elephants are hunted down and killed. Even though articles made of ivory are banned in most countries they are available in the black market, and this leads to elephant poaching. The trunk is another interesting feature of the elephant. It serves as an arm and a hand for picking up twigs and leaves and pushing them into its mouth. The 29

trunk is actually the elephant’s lengthened nose and upper lip. It is thick and wellprotected on the outside but has a tender inside. There are two kinds of elephants - the Asian elephant and the African elephant. The Asian elephant is relatively smaller than its African counterpart. While the Asian elephant is 2.75 metres tall and weighs 3.5 metric tons, the African is 3.5 metres tall and weighs about 5 metric tons, and is darker than the Asian species. Moreover, the Asian elephant can be easily tamed or trained and it sleeps lying down while the African elephant is wild and sleeps upright. Steps to be followed: 1. Underline the topic sentence in each paragraph. 2. Underline the key words and expressions in each paragraph and write them down separately. 3. Put these points together to form a neat paragraph. Task 2: Read the following essay and summarise it, reducing it to one third of its original size: Guyana Guyana is a small country situated in the Northern Coast of South America, on the Atlantic Ocean. People of Indian ancestry form nearly 50 per cent of its population. The rest are local Amerindians, and people of European and Chinese descent. Christopher Columbus is believed to have discovered Guyana in 1498. The Dutch landed there in the late 16th century and the local Amerindians welcomed them as trading partners. But the Dutch became permanent settlers and began ruling the country. Britain took over the country in 1796, and ceded the country with Great Britain and named it British Guiana in 1831. In 1834, slavery was abolished, and thousands of indentured labourers were brought from India, Portugal and China to replace the slaves working in sugar cane plantations. Two ships from Calcutta carried the Indians. The Whitby sailed with 249 people on 13th January 1838 and arrived in Guyana on 5th May. The Hesperus left 6 days later with 165 passengers and arrived in Guyana late on the night of 5th May.Today the country’s population is nearly 8,00,000 in an area of 214969 sq.km. The average population density for Guyana is less than four persons per sq.km. It’s capital is George Town and is the home of nearly 150000 people. It is the national capital and a major sea port. The country’s economy is largely based on sugar, rice, coffee, bauxite, shrimps, livestock, cotton, molasses, timber and rum. Guyana enjoys a literacy rate of nearly 99 per cent. 30

Indians have contributed a great deal to the country’s development. Dr. Cheddi Jagan became the first Premier of British Guiana. He also served as the President. Bharat Jagdeo was sworn in as President in 1999. Famous Guyanese of Indian origin include Rohan Babulal Kanhai, veteran cricketer and Sreedath Ramphal, former Secretary General of the Commonwealth. - From The New Indian Express (30-06-2004) H. Occupational competency Report Writing What is a report? (Refer to your Std XI book) Reports are accurate and objective descriptions or accounts of significant events which could be political, social and academic. These events are significant in the sense that they attract a lot of attention. (examples: “Rathore winning a silver medal at the Athens Olympics” and “Kumbakonam fire accident in which many children were killed”). The most important aspect of report writing is that it should be accurate and objective. Therefore, the report writer has to personally collect, check and verify the facts. He/she should collect facts and information from authentic and reliable sources. In report writing the language should be simple and clear for the purpose is to convey information clearly and accurately. It is better to present the report from a third person point of view using the passive voice. The use of the third person point of view and the passive voice will ensure that the report is objective. Task: Go through any report of a cricket match in any national daily. Based on that model, prepare for ‘The People’s Daily’ (an English Newspaper) a report of the cricket match between India and Sri Lanka in the Indian Oil- Asia Cup 2004 played on July 18, 2004. Don’t write more than 15 sentences. Here are the details: Venue (place): Rangiri Dambulla International Stadium, Dambulla, Sri Lanka Date: July 18, 2004 (Day/Night match) Score Card: Sri Lanka

S Jayantha c Patel b Balaji

34

A Gunawardene (run out) 49 M Atapattu (run out) 50

K Sangakkara c Ganguly b Pathan 31

57

M Jayawardene (not out) 58

T Dilshan (not out)

7

Extras 27

Total (for four wickets in 50 overs)

282

Fall of wickets: 1-63 (Jayantha), 2-128 (Gunawardene), 3-156 (Atapattu), 4-272 (Sangakkara) India Bowling: Overs Maiden Overs Runs Wickets Pathan

10

0

49

1

Balaji

9

1

60

1

Zaheer

9

0

39

0

Ganguly

2

0

15

0

Kumble

10

0

46

0

Sehwag

7

0

45

0

Yuvraj

3

0

17

0

India

S Tendulkar c Jayantha b Zoysa

11



P Patel c Sangakkara b Zoysa

6

V Sehwag (run out) 37

S Ganguly c Muralitharan b Zoysa

6

R Dravid b Muralitharan 82

Yuvraj c Sangakkara b Vass

47

M Kaif b Mahroof 22 I Pathan (not out) 15

L Balaji c Sangakkara b Vass

10

Zaheer (not out) 0 Extras 34

Total (for eight wickets in 50 overs) 32

270

Fall of wickets: 1-16 (Tendulkar), 2-33 (Patel), 3-71 (Sehwag), 4-71 (Ganguly), 5-204 (Yuvraj), 6-234 (Dravid), 7-244 (Kaif), 8-267 (Balaji) Sri Lanka Bowling: Vass 10-0-51-2 Zoysa 10-2-49-3 Mahroof 10-0-46-1 Muralitharan 10-0-46-1 Chandana 5-0-39-0 Dishan 3-0-25-0 Jayantha 2-0-07-0 Note: The following questions will help you in the preparation of your report. 1. Where was the match played? 2. When was it played? 3. Who scored the highest for Sri Lanka? 4. Who scored the highest for India? 5. Who took the maximum wickets for Sri Lanka? 6. Who won the match? 7. What was the victory margin? 8. Was it a close match? 9. Can you think of any reason for India’s defeat? 10. What steps should India take to play better in other matches? 11. Give a suitable title for your report. I. Strategic competency Analyse the manner in which Brutus and Mark Antony use the English language. Mark the strategies they employ to express their points of view and convince the crowd. Not that I loved Caesar less,

But that I loved Rome more.

33

Remember, had Brutus told the crowd/mob directly and in plain words that he and his associates, all of them trusted friends of Caesar, killed him because they feared that he might become a despot after his victory over the sons of Pompey, the crowd would not have believed him. Worse, the crowd would have challenged him and even harmed him. Note the strategies that Brutus employs to convince the crowd that what he and his companions did was correct, and that it was in the larger interest of Rome: Not that I loved Caesar less,

But that I loved Rome more.

As Caesar loved me, I weep for him; as he was fortunate, I rejoice at it; as he was valiant, I honour him; but, as he was ambitious, I slew him. As I slew my best lover for the good of Rome, I have the same dagger for myself, when it shall please my country to need my death. Analyse the speeches of Mark Antony who is a gifted orator. When he begins to speak, the crowd is totally with Brutus. One of the citizens openly remarks, “’Twere best he speak no harm of Brutus here”. Therefore he starts cautiously but wins over the crowd to his side gradually. Look at the opening line: I come to bury Caesar, not to praise him. But he, in fact, praises Caesar. Notice his references to Brutus and his associates, especially the numerous ironic references, which the crowd fails to notice, at least initially. Brutus is an honourable man

So are they all; all honourable men.

Notice how he deliberately undermines himself so as not to sound arrogant before the crowd: I am no orator, as Brutus is:

But, as you know me all, a plain blunt man,



That love my friend . . .

Learn the following expressions which will help you to express disagreement and even opposition politely: ● From another point of view . . . ● It would be better . . . 34

● Not that your point/argument is not valid/sound. But I look at it this way

I look at it from another point of view

● In my opinion . . . ● Not that I do not like this idea, but that I like that idea more/ better . . . Task: Ravi, Priya and you are engaged in a heated argument over the choice of a place for your school picnic. While Ravi and Priya argue that the class should go to Ooty you want the class to visit to Bangalore. How will you convince them without being unpleasant? Argument A: ● Ravi/ Priya this is a stupid idea. ● Ravi, I totally disagree with you and Priya. Argument B: ● Ravi / Priya, Ooty is a good place for holidaying, but in my opinion Bangalore is a better place. ● Ravi / Priya, not that I like Ooty less, but that I like Bangalore more. ● Ravi / Priya, Ooty is definitely a good choice, but don’t you think that Bangalore is a better choice? What is your choice? Argument A or B? Why? J. Creative competency I. Essay Writing Follow the procedure given below when you write an essay: ● Brainstorming and collecting ideas from various sources, including the Internet ● Sorting the ideas (deciding which ideas will actually be used to compose the essay) ● Organising them logically/coherently and meaningfully ● Expanding them into an essay (four or five paragraphs) ● Draft I - Correction (peer / self) ● Draft II - Revision (by teacher) ● Final Draft Note:Your essay should have:

35

1. Unity (each paragraph should have only one idea and there should be a link between various ideas and also between different paragraphs so that the essay remains a single piece) 2. Order (ideas should be arranged neatly and logically) 3. Organisation Task 1: Write an essay in about 250 words on “Deforestation”: Step A. ● Refer to the dictionary for the meaning of the words deforestation, ecosystem, flora and fauna. ● Where do you find major forest areas in India, especially in Tamilnadu? ● Name some important trees (like the teak and sal) and some animals that are found in the Indian forests. ● Name any two endangered species in the world. (Look into the dictionary for the meaning of the term endangered species.) ● Has the total forest area in India increased or decreased in the last 10 years? ● Why do people cut down trees and destroy forests? ● Note down five uses of forests and three consequences of destroying forests. ● List some reasons as to why we did not have normal rainfall in the last five years. ● Suggest some measures (three or four) which will control deforestation. Refer to the dictionary for the meaning of the word afforestation. Note: To get information and answers to these questions, you may consult your teachers, parents and classmates. You may visit a library and refer to relevant books and journals. You may also browse the net and download relevant materials. Step B. ● Go through your points and retain only the points that are relevant for the essay on Deforestation. Step C. ● Arrange the selected ideas coherently and prepare an outline. Task 2: Write an essay in about 250 words on “The Differently Abled and Higher Education”. Note: Answer the following questions and develop these answers into an essay. 36

1. Who are the differently abled? What are the other terms used to refer to them? 2. What are the reasons/causes for disability? 3. What percentage of the differently abled receive education, especially higher education? 4. What are the rights of the differently abled, especially in the area of higher education? 5. What is the responsibility of educational institutions towards the differently abled? 6. What should be done to motivate the differently abled students? 7. What steps should be taken to make the educational campuses helpful and friendly to the differently abled students? Everyone should be made to realise that the differently abled have a right to education and a right to live well, like other normal people. Task 3: Write an essay in about 250 words on “The place of Computers in Today’s World”.

(Follow the procedure already given to you)

II. Preparing the Script for Cartoon Strips Look at this cartoon strip. You will notice that both the drawings and the text (speech) are important in a cartoon strip. The text in particular has to be short and humorous and witty, and the entire sequence should tell a story. Are you ready for the Quarterly Exams? Hi Meenu, are you ready for the test?

Hi John, yes, I’m ready. But I’ve studied only one lesson…

Oh John, don’t worry! It’s only QUARTERLY, that’s why !!

Why only ONE lesson? You’ve to study FOUR lessons…

37

Task 1: Read the following anecdote and prepare a cartoon strip. A man had lost his key. He was searching for it on the road under the neon light. His friends and passers-by joined him, and they all searched for the lost key. After some time, one of them asked him, “Where did you lose your key?” And he answered, “At home.” When his friends asked him as to why he was searching for it on the road under the neon light, he replied, “But there’s light only here!” Note: Let there be five sketches: 1. A man searching for something on the road under the neon light 2. A passer-by asking him as to what he was searching 3. A group of people searching along with him 4. One of them asking him to identify the place where he lost the key 5. His reply. . . For each sketch, write the script. The script should be brief, and humorous, and witty. Task 2: 1. Name any two of your favourite cartoon strips. 2. When and by whom were these cartoon strips created?

Tom and Jerry



Dennis, the Menace

Tarzan

38

POEM A PSALM OF LIFE

What the Heart of the Young Man Said to the Psalmist



Tell me not, in mournful numbers,



Life is but an empty dream! -

For the soul is dead that slumbers,



And things are not what they seem.

Life is real! Life is earnest! 5

Dust thou art, to dust returnest,



And our hearts, though stout and brave,







15

Funeral marches to the grave.

In the world’s broad field of battle,



Find us farther than today.

Still, like muffled drums, are beating



10

Art is long, and Time is fleeting,



Is our destined end or way;

But to act, that each tomorrow



Was not spoken of the soul.

Not enjoyment, and not sorrow,



And the grave is not its goal;

In the bivouac of Life,

Be not like dumb, driven cattle!

Be a hero in the strife! 20

Trust no Future, howe’er pleasant!



Let the dead Past bury its dead!

Act, - act in the living Present!



Heart within, and God o’erhead! 39



Lives of great men all remind us



We can make our lives sublime,

And, departing, leave behind us



25

Footprints on the sands of time;

Footprints, that perhaps another,

Sailing o’er life’s solemn main, 30

A forlorn and shipwrecked brother,



Seeing, shall take heart again.

Let us, then, be up and doing,



With a heart for any fate;

Still achieving, still pursuing, 35

Learn to labor and to wait. - H W Longfellow

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (1807-1882), the great American poet, was a professor at Harvard. His great fame began with the publication of his first volume of poems ‘Voices of the Night’ in 1839, which included “A Psalm of Life,” one of nineteenth century’s best-loved poems. His other collections include Ballads (1841), Evangeline (1847), Hiawatha (1855), The Courtship of Miles Standish (1858) and Tales of a Wayside Inn (1863). Longfellow was the most popular poet of his age and during his lifetime he became a ‘national institution’. “His work was musical, mildly romantic, highminded, and flavoured with sentimental preachment” (Norton Anthology of American Literature). “This poem seems to give a great deal of good advice. It tells the reader not to waste his/her time but to be up and going; not to be discouraged by failures but to have a heart for any fate; not to judge life by temporary standards but to look to eternal reward.” (Brooks and Warren) Glossary (the line numbers are given for easy reference): Psalm

/sa:m/

: song or poem

1 numbers

/'númbəz/

: poetic metres, rhythms

3 slumbers

/'slúmbəz/

: sleeps

7 dust

/dúst/

: Refer to Genesis (The Bible) 3:19. “Dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return.” 40

10 destined end

: goal /'destInd end/

11-12

: There should be progress every day of our lives and tomorrow should be much better than today.

13 fleeting /fli:tIN/

: passing/brief

14 stout

Ω

/sta t/

: strong

15 muffled /'múfld/

: not easy to hear

18 the bivouac of life

: simple temporary camp made by

Ω

/ðə 'bIv æk əv laIf/ : soldiers. Here it refers to the temporary stay (sojourn) in this world. 31 forlorn /fə'lØ:n/

: lonely and sad

I. Answer the following questions briefly in about 50 words each: 1. What does the life of great men teach us? 2. Highlight the significance of the line, “Act in the living present.” 3. Comment on the last line of the poem: “Learn to labor, not to wait”. II. Answer the following question briefly in about 200 words:

What is the message of this poem?

III. Answer the following questions: 1. Mark the rhyme scheme of the poem. The rhyme scheme for the first stanza is as follows:

Tell me not, in mournful numbers,



Life is but an empty dream! -

For the soul is dead that slumbers,



a b

a

And things are not what they seem.

b

2. Alliteration: “Alliteration is the repetition of the same consonant sound in several nearby words.” Note that in alliteration the sound and sense go together.

“For the soul is dead that slumbers



And the grave is not its goal.”

In the first line, /s/ is repeated (soul-slumbers), and in the second line /g/ is repeated (grave-goal). Find out two more instances of alliteration.

41

UNIT II COMPETENCIES A

LISTENING: Identifying pauses

B

SPEAKING: Facing/conducting interviews

C

READING: Reacting to a text

Evaluating a text D

VOCABULARY: Identifying words in extensive reading and relating them

meaningfully

Using/identifying words belonging to different semantic networks in speech/

writing

Using words according to their grammatical function

E

STUDY SKILLS: Accessing the Internet



Using the e-mail for sending / gathering information

F

GRAMMAR: Using conditional/concessive clauses

G

WRITING: Writing a letter

H

OCCUPATIONAL COMPETENCY: Writing a message

I

STRATEGIC COMPETENCY: Using language confidently

J

CREATIVE COMPETENCY: Attempting to write a poem

A. Listening In the first Unit, you have learnt in detail how to listen to a passage being read and to divide it into tone groups. Pauses served as cues for dividing into tone groups. Now let us focus on pause alone. As you are aware, in written English, pauses are indicated by commas, semicolons and fullstops. So when you read a text you will have to pause wherever and whenever necessary so as to convey the meaning of the sentence effectively. The teacher will read a passage twice. Listen carefully. (The teacher reads)

Were you able to comprehend the passage in the first reading? If not, why?



How did the reading sound?



Were you able to comprehend the passage in the second reading?



What do you think, helped you in your comprehension? 42



How did the second reading sound?

Task: One of your classmates will read a passage. Listen carefully and identify the number of pauses made during his/her reading. (A student reads) B. Speaking Excerpts from an interview with Anju George, a day after her sixth-place finish in the long jump final at the 2004 Olympics, Athens. Q: What happened in the final? A: I’m really disappointed and don’t know what happened to me. After the first jump, I was feeling giddy. And I felt tired all of a sudden. I opened with a 6.83m jump. I should have then jumped almost 7m. In earlier competitions, I have started with 6.4m and gone on to 6.8m. The heat was a little too much and the wind was fluctuating a lot. There was a lot of dust in the training area and I am allergic to dust. Also, there was something wrong with my new spikes. It was just bad luck. Q: Did you feel the pressure of a billion people? A: Not at all. I have learnt to cut myself off from pressure. Q: Did the medal ceremony and practice going around the long jump arena distract you? A: Not at all. That is very common and we are used to it. There cannot be any excuses. Q: Do you think the Russians (who won the three medals) were on drugs? A: I don’t want to comment on that. Q: Are there any jumpers who have increased their range dramatically? A: Yes, there are some who have increased by 40 to 50cm in one year. It is actually very difficult to go from one range to another. Q: How high can you Jump? A: I can reach 7.15-7.20m, but so far, I have not been able to achieve it. But I know I can do it. Q: Are you happy that you smashed a national record? A: I wasn’t trying for a national record. I had won a world championship bronze last year in Paris against the same group of athletes who competed in the Olympics. And it was a dream of Bobby (husband) and I to win an Olympic medal.

43

Q: Are you aiming for the world championship next year? A: Yes. Q: Do you feel comfortable being in the limelight? A: Athletics rarely gets coverage in the media. My world championship bronze had a good effect. Others felt that they could also win something. You saw how the 4x400m women’s relay team reached the final. Q: Are you upset over your performance in the final? A: Yes I’m upset, but my best is to yet to come. Q: What are your future plans? A: The day I cannot continue, I will stop. But my performance now is up there with the very best. The above is an interview with a famous sports personality. This is one kind of interview conducted by the media and for the media. Please note that the language used here is informal and the register is connected to athletics and sports. In such interviews there is no rigidity on the part of both the interviewer and the interviewee. There is a relaxed atmosphere and friendliness between the two. There is yet another kind of interview wherein you may be interviewed not as a celebrity, but as an aspirant for a position in a firm or company. Here it is a formal setting. An interview for the post of Software Engineer in a reputed firm Setting: Board room Participants: Interview - Senior Manager, Human Resources panel Managing Director Head of Department (Software) Candidate (The candidate enters the interview chamber after being summoned.) HR : Good morning Ms. Indira! Please take a seat. MD : You seem to be a little nervous. Relax please. HD : Hope you’re comfortable now. C : Thank you for making me feel comfortable. HR : Tell us something about yourself. C : I am a first generation engineering graduate in my family. Why? I’m a first generation ‘graduate’ for that matter. Basically, ours is a family of farmers. Computers have been my passion from my school days. 44

MD : Your English is good. How did you pick it up? C : Exposure, Sir. Pure exposure. Thanks to the medium of instruction in my school days. HD : You talked about your passion for computers. How did this come about? C : Sir, I had a lesson on Bill Gates in Class X. That was the inspiration, probably the turning point. HR : Does it mean that you had some other plans before you came to know of Bill Gates? C : Hailing from a family of farmers, originally I wanted to be an Agricultural Scientist. (After a few questions to test the candidate’s expertise in software engineering) HD : Who are the two Indians who have done us proud in the field of computers? C : Infosys’ Narayana Murthy and Wipro’s Aziz Premji. MD : Why is it that Indians are in great demand in countries like the USA? C : Indians are prepared to work for a far less remuneration than the native Americans. HD : Are you convinced about this? C : I think yes. MD : Isn’t it an insult to the Indian brain and Indian pride? C : `I’m sorry. I didn’t mean it. I take back what I said. There is yet another reason.Indians are known for their unquestionable loyalty to those whom they work for.They are also known for their hard work, and by far they are more intelligent than the others. HR : Would you like to go to America, if offered a chance? C : I would love to. MD : If youngsters like you go in search of greener pastures, will it not result in brain drain? C : mmm... I’m not very sure about it. ...................................................................................................................... HR : Your resume speaks very well about your academic achievements. Tell us something about your hobbies and interests? 45

C : I read a lot. I listen to music and play chess. ..................................................................................................................... MD : Thank you Ms. Indira. We will get back to you. C : Thank you gentlemen. Remember: An interview is not an ordeal. It is– ● a chance to show your ability to communicate effectively to a small group ● a challenge to prove yourself, your potential and worth Before the interview: ●

have a check list of things to take



arrange your certificates, testimonials, etc.



relax, do not fret



start well in time

● take care to present yourself well ● be thorough in your specialised subject ● be familiar with current affairs During the interview: ● be confident ● watch your body language and manners ● give precise, appropriate answers ● do not exaggerate, merely state facts ● if you do not know something, acknowledge it ● do not interrupt when you’re being questioned, listen to the questions carefully Task 1: Practise both the above interviews taking roles. Task 2: You are a sports correspondent. Prepare an interview between yourself and Rajyavardhan S Rathore who won a silver medal for India at the 2004 Olympics, Athens, in the men’s double-trap shooting event. Practise the interview taking roles. (You can collect information from the sports columns of newspapers, sports magazines and Internet.)

46

Task 3: Form pairs and prepare an interview between a candidate and the interview panel, for the post of Sales Executive. Practise the interview taking roles. (Include questions on remuneration, perks, place of posting, when willing to join, etc.) C. Reading Pre-reading ●

Given an opportunity, women will prove better explorers and more adventurous than men.



Women are more decisive than men, they will prove to be better soldiers in non violent struggle.



Woman is the companion of man, gifted with equal mental capacity.

1. What’s the theme of the lesson to which you are being led? 2. Who do you think, said the above - ‘Woman is the companion..... mental capacity’? 3. Do you agree with him/her?

47

THE CEASELESS CRUSADER Who said, ‘Frailty, thy name is woman’? Mahatma Gandhi was a ceaseless crusader of women’s equality. He brought the women out of their homes and made them equal participants in all walks of life – social as well as political. His entourage always consisted of several women and many of his closest associates were women. Under Gandhi’s leadership thousands of women took leading roles in several movements. Gandhi never considered women to be unfit for any position or task. Because of Gandhi’s support and initiative, women’s groups were formed all over India and there was hardly a week when Gandhi did not address a women’s group. It was mainly because of Gandhi that the first Cabinet of Independent India consisted of two women ministers. What is significant here is his image of woman and his hope for her, so radically different from that of any earlier reformer. He was not the first to address women’s issues in India. Before the advent of Gandhi on the scene, the attitude to women, though sympathetic, was patronising; leaders and social reform groups functioned in such a way that made women look helpless. They wanted to protect, uplift and bring relief to women. No doubt there was value in all of it. Yet, with Gandhi a new, unique element emerged. Woman to him was neither man’s plaything, nor his competitor, struggling to be like him. What she needed most was education, the recognition of her birthright to be free and equal, to steer her own destiny side by side with man. He argues: Therefore, ultimately, woman will have to determine with authority what she needs. My own opinion is that, just as fundamentally men and women are one, their problem must be one in essence. The soul in both is the same. The two live the same life, have the same feelings. Each is a complement of the other. The one cannot live without the other’s active help. But somehow or other man has dominated woman from ages past, and so woman has developed an inferiority complex. She has believed in the truth of man’s concept that she is inferior to him. But the seers among men have recognised her equal status. Gandhi was no advocate of blind adherence to tradition; its strong current could help us swim far, or sink us; for him the deciding question was whether it would take us closer to God (Truth), selfless service and love of all human beings. He declared to a tradition-bound India: I do not subscribe to the superstition that everything is good because it is ancient. I do not believe either that anything is good because it is Indian... Any tradition, however ancient, if inconsistent with morality, is fit to be banished from the land. Untouchability may be considered an ancient tradition, the wide prevalence of child widowhood and child marriage also may be considered to be a part of our ancient tradition along with some of the horrible beliefs and superstitious practices which offend the human dignity. I would sweep them out of existence if I had the power. 48

What do our ancient books say about women? The woman’s father protects her in her childhood, her husband protects her in youth, and her sons protect her in old age; a woman is never fit for independence. Gandhi saw how wrong that was, how unjust, how harmful to all; he spoke out strongly against child-marriages, the isolation and subjugation of widows, the cruel domination of men over women, and women’s own subservient mentality. He says: True morality consists, not in following the beaten track, but in finding out the true path for ourselves and in fearlessly following it. Gandhi’s life-long “experiments with truth” served that very purpose. And when he felt sure he knew the way of truth, he not only followed it fearlessly himself, but inspired millions of men, women and even children. The title of his life story he aptly called, ‘An Autobiography - The Story of My Experiments with Truth.’ For, to him God was Truth, but whereas the definition of God, he said, was difficult to grasp, the definition of truth every person could find in his or her own conscience. Even from his childhood he was such an extraordinary lover of truth that he tried to understand and verify the truth of any new thought he came across, and every personal experience. Among various youthful experiments with truth, the most pertinent in relation to women was his relationship with his wife, Kasturba. They were both born in 1869, and married very young in 1882, when she was thirteen and he was but twelve years old. Having read that a wife must always be subjugated to her husband’s will, he took on the role of a domineering husband, and a boy husband at that! Little was he prepared to face the challenge posed by his strong and spirited wife, who stood up to him for her rights with dignity and self-possession, which, in the early years he construed as stubbornness, and later extolled as moral courage. He evolved his ideas on women, and the relationship between men and women, thanks to a series of experiences with his wife during his formative years. He wanted implicit obedience from her. He never allowed her to go out without his permission. Once, in South Africa, he had wanted her to clean the chamber pot of a low-born clerk with a smile. When she had resisted and cried, he behaved rudely to get the work done, using the words, “Have you no sense of shame? Must you so far forget yourself?” That was enough for the sincerest of all votaries of truth; he thought a great deal, constantly, all his life. He never forgave himself for causing Kasturba to suffer pain. His own pain and regret are evident in his words: Of all the evils for which man has made himself responsible, none is so degrading, so shocking or so brutal as his abuse of the better half of humanity - to me, the female sex, not the weaker sex. It is the nobler of the two, for it is even today the embodiment of sacrifice, silent suffering, humility, faith and knowledge. He valued these qualities highly, considering them to be indispensable for resistance by satyagraha, whether in the home or in society. He held ancient models 49

of womanhood - Sita, Savitri, Damayanti, Draupadi - in high reverence and venerated them for their moral strength; they were not passive, weak women. Passive resistance, he explained, was not the right translation of satyagraha, which means, “soul force” or “truth force”, the power of enlightened non-violence, neither passive nor timid. According to Gandhiji: To call woman the weaker sex is a libel; it is man’s injustice to woman. If by strength is meant brute strength, then, indeed, is woman less brute than man. If by strength is meant moral power, then woman is immeasurably man’s superior. Has she not greater intuition, is she not more self-sacrificing, has she not greater powers of endurance, has she not greater courage? Without her man could not be. If nonviolence is the law of our being, the future is with woman. Who can make a more effective appeal to the heart than woman? ......... The wife is not the husband’s slave but his companion and his help-mate and an equal partner in all his joys and sorrows – as free as the husband to choose her own path. ......... Woman is the companion of man, gifted with equal mental capacities. She has the right to participate in all debates, deliberations and activities and offer her suggestions along with men for bringing about a better social order and she has an equal right of freedom and liberty with him. ........... If only the women of the world would come together they could display such heroic non-violence as to kick away the atom bomb like a mere ball. Women have been so gifted by God. If an ancestral treasure lying buried in a corner of the house unknown to the members of the family were suddenly discovered, what a celebration it would occasion. Similarly, women’s marvellous power is lying dormant. If the women of Asia wake up, they will dazzle the world. My experiment in non-violence would be instantly successful if I could secure women’s help. ......... I would love to find that my future army contained a vast preponderance of women over men. If the fight came, I should then approach it with much greater confidence than if men predominated. I would dread the latter’s violence. Women would be my guarantee against such an outbreak. ........

50

‘Ahimsa’ means infinite love, which again means infinite capacity for suffering. Who but woman, the mother of man, shows this capacity in the largest measure? She shows it as she carries the infant and feeds it during nine months and derives joy in the suffering involved. What can beat the suffering caused by the pangs of labour? But she forgets them in the joy of creation. Who again suffers daily so that her babe may wax from day to day? Let her transfer that love to the whole of humanity, let her forget that she ever was or can be the object of man’s lust. And she will occupy her proud position by the side of man as his mother, maker and silent leader. It is given to her to teach the art of peace to the warring world thirsting for that nectar. ............. My suggestion is that women can play a very important role in establishing peace. Instead of being carried away by science and its marvel they should follow the path of non-violence because women by nature are endowed with the quality of forgiveness. Women will never succeed in aping men in everything, nor can they develop the gift nature has bestowed on them by doing so. They should neither allow their family members to have, nor should they themselves have any connection with anything relating to war. God has endowed women with hearts overflowing with love. They should utilise the gift properly. That power is all the more effective because it is mute. I hold that God has sent women as messengers of the gospel of non-violence. .......... But it is my firm conviction that if the men and women of India cultivate in themselves the courage to face death bravely and non-violently, they can laugh to scorn the power of armaments and realise the ideal of unadulterated independence in terms of the masses which would serve as an example to the world. In that women can take the lead for they are a personification of the power of self-suffering. .......... My work will be finished if I succeed in carrying conviction to the human family, every man or woman, however weak in body, is the guardian of his or her selfrespect and liberty, and that his defence prevails, though the world be against the individual resistor. Is the society ready to give equal status to women? Equal status to women is a far cry. Does it mean that we will continue to be a male chauvinistic society? Who is to blame? .......... I blame the men. Men have legislated against them. Man has regarded woman as his tool. She has learnt to be his tool and in the end found it easy and pleasurable to be such, because when one drags another in his fall the descent is easy. 51

......... Woman, I hold, is the personification of self-sacrifice, but unfortunately today she does not realize what tremendous advantage she has over man. How apt these words are and look at the faith Gandhi has both in nonviolence and women

If nonviolence is the law of our being, the future is with women.

Let us join Otway in saying O woman! Lovely woman! Nature made thee to temper man; we had been brutes without you. Angels are painted fair to look like you; there is in you all that we believe of heaven – amazing brightness, purity and truth, eternal joy and everlasting love. Glossary: crusader

/kru:'seIdə/

frailty

/ ' f r e I l t I / : weakness of character or behaviour

entourage

/ónt 'rå:Z/

: people who surround and follow

advent

/’ædvənt/

: arrival

patronising

/’pætrənaIzIŋ/ : supporting

complement

/’kómplIment/ : that which completes another

seer

/sIə/

: visionary

adherence

/əd'hIərəns/

: sticking to

Ω

: one who fights for a cause with determination

superstition /su:pə'stI∫n/ : a belief not based on reason or scientific knowledge



Ω

subjugation

/súbdZ 'geISn/ : suppression

subservient

/səb'sə:vjənt/ : being slavish

pertinent

/'pə:tInənt/

: relevant

libel / 'l a I b l / : a printed or written statement in bad taste about persons dormant /’dØ:mənt/

: inactive 52

preponderance /prI'póndərəns/ :

the state of being more in number

nectar

/'nektə/

:

a sweet liquid produced by flowers

armament

/’å:məmənt/

:

weapon

unadulterated /únə'dúltəreItId/ :

not spoilt, pure

conviction

belief or fixed opinion

/kən’vIkSn/

:

Ω

chauvinistic /Sə vI’nIstIk/ :

feeling strongly and unreasonably in favour of something

personification /pəsónIfI’keISn/ :

perfect example

Choose the synonyms of the italicised words from the options given. 1. Mahatma Gandhi was a ceaseless crusader of women’s equality.

(untiring, determined, conscious, faithful)

2. Yet, with Gandhi a new, unique element emerged.

(submerged, identified, arose, found)

3. ............ in the early years he construed as stubbornness.

(configured, confused, contrived, interpreted)

4. Has she not greater intuition?

(insight, intimidation, courage, mentality)

5. ...... if the men and women of India cultivate in themselves the courage to face death bravely and non-violently .................

(culture, develop, fertilise, plant)

Choose the antonyms of the italicised words from the options given. 1. Frailty, thy name is woman.

(strength, knowledge, loyalty, pity)

2. ......... radically different from that of any earlier reformer.

(dull, miserably, moderately, drastically)

3. He took on the role of a domineering husband.

(subjective, objective, powerful, submissive)

4. Women’s marvellous power is lying dormant.

(ordinary, magnificent, bright, dull)

5. ....... nor can they develop the gift nature has bestowed on them ......

(denied, obtained, betrayed, belied) 53

Comprehension I. Level I 1.

According to Gandhi, what did the woman need most?

2. How do men and women complement each other? 3. What was Gandhiji’s attitude towards the superstitions of tradition-bound India? 4. What do our ancient books say about women? 5. What is true morality? 6. How did Gandhiji treat his wife? 7. Who are the ancient models of womanhood and what qualities in them did Gandhi value most? 8. If the women of the world could come together, what would they achieve? 9. What is Ahimsa? 10. What has God endowed women with? How does Gandhi want women to utilise the gift? II. Level II 1. Why do you think Gandhi is a crusader? 2. How was Gandhi different from the others in championing the cause of women? 3. ‘I would sweep them out of existence if I had the power’ – What does he mean by that? 4. Why does Gandhi call women ‘the female sex’, not ‘the weaker sex’? 5. What does Gandhi blame men for? III. Answer in a paragraph: 1. ‘Gandhi was no advocate of blind adherence to tradition’ – Explain. 2. Describe Gandhi’s lifelong experiments with truth, as given in the lesson. 3. How do you relate ‘Ahimsa’ and ‘Satyagraha’ to the woman? IV. Write an essay on: 1. Gandhiji’s views on women. 2. Gandhiji, the ceaseless crusader.

54

Reacting to a text Death Of The Goat - Kamala Das

The only woman of the house was ill



The one who used to run about at home



Like a mad dervish, busy with her chores.



The one whose hollow cheeks and spindly legs



Made the children say, oh mother, you look



So much like a goat!



When they wheeled her into the hospital



She opened wide her delirious eyes and said:



Please let me go



I smell the Tur Dal burning ...........

● How do you react to this poem? ● What are your feelings after reading this poem? ● Do you see your mother in this poem? ● Do you think you can do something to bring about a change in the society’s attitude towards women? Evaluating a text SITA - Toru Dutt

Three happy children in a darkened room!



What do they gaze on with wide-open eyes?



A dense, dense forest, where no sunbeam pries,



And in its centre a cleared spot, - There bloom



Gigantic flowers on creepers that embrace



Tall trees; there, in a quiet lucid lake



The white swans glide; there, ‘whirring from the brake’,



The peacock springs; there, herds of wild deer race; 55



There, patches gleam with yellow waving grain;



There, blue smoke from strange altars rises light,



There dwells in peace the poet-anchorite.



But who is this fair lady? Not in vain



She weeps, - for lo! At every tear she sheds



Tears from three pairs of young eyes fall amain,



And bowed in sorrow are the three young heads.



It is an old, old story, and the lay



Which has evoked sad Sita from the past



Is by a mother sung ....... ’Tis hushed at last



And melts the picture from their sight away,



Yet shall they dream of it until the day!



When shall those children by their mother’s side



Gather, ah me! As erst at eventide?



What are the poetical devices employed in this poem?



What is the most striking aspect of the poem?

● Do you enjoy the poem for the sounds of words or for the sentiments expressed? ●

What picture does it create?



What image do you get from the poem?



What is the tone used in the poem?

● What kind of emotion does it evoke in you? ●

What did you like most in the poem?

● Could you appreciate the theme and how would you relate it to your experience? D. Vocabulary I. The following is an extract from, ‘Women in Modern India,’ by Geraldine Forbes. In September of 1987 the death of Roop Kanwar, an eighteen year- old woman burned to death with her husband’s corpse in the village of Deorala in 56

Rajasthan, claimed the attention of feminists. Roop Kanwar was hailed as a sati, that is, a virtuous woman who had chosen death instead of widowhood. Sati was abolished in 1829 and as Veena Oldenburg has written: With the law in place and enforced, the act of committing sati – whether the widow’s participation was voluntary or coerced – was shorn of all mystification, glory, glamour, and ritual significance, and adjudged to be simply a crime. Nevertheless, hundreds attended this sati-style death and cheered as Roop Kanwar burned to death. On September 16 the chunari mahotsava, a ceremony that commemorates a recent sati and consecrates the ground where it took place, was performed with an estimated 500,000 people in attendance. While Rajasthani men guarded the site of the pyre, enterprising businessmen sold photographs and souvenirs, and clever politicians reverentially visited the spot. Roop Kanwar’s death mobilized feminists and liberals to protest this so-called sati as a crime of violence, called “cold-blooded murder” by some. They condemned society for neglecting and mistreating widows, thereby forcing some women to prefer death to the living hell of widowhood. For the first time in history Indian feminists made the burning of women their issue and declared they would not stand by while their sisters were murdered in the name of some distant and purportedly hallowed tradition. The Government reacted with legislation. Parliament passed a Sati Prevention Bill, a repeat of the 1829 legislation, and outlawed its glorification. According to Veena Oldenburg this law obfuscates the difference between voluntary and coerced sati, defines sati as a women’s crime, and makes the other people involved in the sati guilty only of abetting the woman’s act. Task 1: Try to guess and fix the meanings of the words in bold, in the above extract, from the given context. After you have fixed the meaning, check a dictionary to see if the meanings are correct, with reference to the context. Use the words in sentences of your own. (After reading this extract, are you tempted to read more about Sati and the other evils against women?)

Does any name ring a bell in you, when you come across the word ‘Sati’?

Task 2: Read a few chapters of the following books: (a) The story of my experiments with truth – M K Gandhi (b) I dare - Kiran Bedi (c) Malgudi days – R K Narayan Without referring to a dictionary, try to guess and fix the meanings of any new words that you come across, and comprehend the text. 57

II. Look at the following words taken from your lesson:

Cabinet, Minister, leader, reform, legislate, political

All these words come under one semantic network (May not be in the strict sense of the ‘term.’) - Politics You can add more words to this list – mandate, constitution, governance, ruling, polling, suffrage, franchise, elect, ....... Semantic network is nothing but a network of related words. Unless one has enough words in one’s vocabulary kit which comprises a number of semantic networks, one will be at a loss for words. Task: Classify the words in the table given below, according to the following fields:

Agriculture, Travel, Space, Nutrition & Dietetics, Education tilling jet pesticide satellite dieting yield visa vitamins dropout manure

embassy orbit The Milky Way competency ferry stodgy curriculum ploughing spicy galaxy

comet cash crop luxury cruise shuttle intake harvest skipper landing banting Three R’s

motel launch calorie fertiliser yacht pedagogy planet enrolment bland stagnation

III. Look at the following sentences taken from your lesson: 1. He was not the first to address women’s issues in India. 2. What is significant here is his image of woman and his hope for her ...... 3. But the seers among men have recognised her equal status. 4. Her sons protect her in old age. Now look at the following sentences: a) He wrote the address on the envelope. b) Let us hope for the best. c) Men and women are equals. d) The young shouldn’t teach tradition to the old. (Adjective made noun in the plural) 58

Do you notice the difference in the grammatical function of the words in italics, as used in each set of sentences? 1. address – (verb)

a) address – (noun)

2. hope

– (noun)

b) hope

– (verb)

3. equal

– (adjective)

c) equal

– (noun)

4. old

– (adjective)

d) old

– (noun)

Note: equal and old as nouns stand for the people who are equal and for the people who are old respectively. Look at the following sentences: I like Gandhi. (verb) Many wanted to be like him. (preposition) There may be very few leaders of like stature and moral courage. (adjective) We shall not see the like of him again. (noun) Today Aung San Suu Kyi fights for a cause peacefully like Gandhiji did. (conjunction) The word like has as many as five grammatical functions as shown above. Task 1: Use the italicised words in the following proverbs in sentences of your own, focussing on the other grammatical functions of the same word: 1. Fine feathers make fine birds. 2. Out of sight out of mind. 3. Still waters run deep. 4. Even Homer nods. 5. All the world’s a stage. Task 2: Identify the grammatical functions of the word ‘well’ as used in the following conversation (You may refer to a standard dictionary if necessary): A: Aren’t you keeping well? B: Well ....... A: Be careful! They have half dug a well. It’s uncovered. B: Did you watch C’s music programme on TV last night? Doesn’t she sing well? A: Yes, in fact tears well in my eyes, whenever she sings that song. It is very moving. 59

Task 3: Can you think of another word which has as many as five different grammatical functions? Clue: Circle E. Study skills If you thought it was the Spiderman alone who could go places spinning a web from his fingertips, you are mistaken. You too can! The world is literally at your fingertips – with the click of a mouse you could go globe-trotting, surfing the world wide web on the International Network. A mine of information is stored here. I. Your friend is to represent your school in an oratorical competition on ‘Gandhi – Mahatma’, tomorrow. He takes ill. Your teacher asks you to step in. You do not have time to collect information from books or magazines. What will you do? ●

Go to the nearest Internet Café.



The Internet connection is generally on, otherwise you could dialup into the network.



Go to google web-site – http://www.google.co.in/ (There are many search engines, but this one is most useful.)

● Type in the word/phrase for your search and within split seconds the web-sites containing the information will appear on the screen. (When you type the words Mahatma Gandhi, as many as 219,000 web-sites are before you. All in 0.08 secs!) ● You can go in for advanced search, wherein, you can find results for all of the words typed in, the exact phrase, for at least one of the words, without certain words. This actually narrows down your search. ● You could search using different words/phrases, e.g. Mahatma Gandhi, Gandhiji, M. K. Gandhi, Gandhi leader, Gandhi quotes, Gandhi life, Gandhi biography, Gandhi autobiography, Gandhi crusader, etc. Use as many permutations and combinations as you can, for better results. ● You will have to browse through the list of sites to see which would contain the most relevant information. ● Then go into those sites only. ●

Skim through the information and select those portions which you may need. Copy and paste into a separate file on the Desktop.

● Once you think you have enough information, you can exit the Internet. (Note: In case you have difficulty in either getting connected to the Internet or in navigating/surfing the Net, you could always seek the help of the personnel at the Café.) 60

Now, what will you do with this information? You can’t just put the pieces at random and present it. There will be no coherence. Read through the material either directly from the computer screen or after taking print-outs. Scan for specific information. Cull out that which pertains to your topic alone. Remember, the topic is, ‘Gandhi – the Mahatma’. Therefore you should be able to portray Gandhi as the noblest of souls – ‘Great Atma’. Put together pieces which will elaborate on this. Remember you cannot use the information as it is. You may have to use your own words andphrases. You will also have to add your own views. You may have to draft and redraft, before finalising the speech. (Always remember: Cross-check information when in doubt. Not all information posted on the Internet is error-free. Typographical errors could distort factual information.) Task 1: Form groups and prepare an essay on ‘Kiran Bedi’, using information posted on the Internet. Task 2: Find from the Internet, women who have left behind their footprints on the sands of time. II. In Class XI you learnt how to send an e-mail. Task 1: Get the e-mail id of any women’s organisation (e.g. Banyan), and send a mail to them congratulating them on the good work that they do. Ask them to e-mail you about their various projects. Task 2: Form pairs and e-mail each other, wishing the very best for the Class XII Board examination. You can also exchange information about your plans for the future. (If you do not have an e-mail id, seek your teacher’s help to create one.) Task 3: Send the information you have collected from the Internet, on Kiran Bedi, to a friend by e-mail. F. Grammar I. Look at the sentences taken from your lesson: If non-violence is the law of our being, the future is with women. I would sweep them out of existence, if I had the power. If only the women of the world would come together, they could.... If the women of Asia wake up, they will dazzle the world. If the fight came, I should then approach it with much .............. If the men and women of India cultivate in themselves the courage to face death bravely and non-violently, they can laugh, scorn, ....... 61

The above sentences are known in grammar as ‘if clause conditional sentences’. Over the years, you have learnt conditional clauses. Shall we take a quick look at what we have learnt and strengthen our knowledge of conditional clauses? Before that, let’s familiarise ourselves with what we call, the Type Zero clause – cause and effect.

If you heat ice, it melts.



This sentence is a statement of universal truth / general validity.

The form of tense used is simple present in both the main clause and the ‘if clause’. Now try to answer the questions: 1. What happens if plants don’t get water? 2. What happens if there is power failure? 3. What do you like to drink if you are thirsty? 4. What do you expect your teacher to say if you give the correct answer? The term ‘conditional’ is applied to clauses which hypothesise or imply conditions. By condition, we mean a grammatical relationship in which one situation is dependent on another situation.

e.g. I’ll come to the film if Prince comes.



(My action is dependent on Prince’s action.)

One way of expressing the relationship is by a conditional clause introduced by subordinate conjunctions (conditional) If and Unless. A few other conditional subordinators are, in case, provided, otherwise. Types of conditions: Broadly speaking we have two types of conditions – (i) open and (ii) hypothetical / unreal Open conditions are neutral. Hypothetical conditions are used to speculate about something that is impossible or contrary to fact. Loosely speaking there are three types of conditional clauses – (i) Condition that may or may not be fulfilled. Such clauses are known as open/ possible conditional clauses. These conditions show the cause and effect of actions. 62

The condition may or may not be fulfilled. e.g. If you help me out of this crisis, I’ll be grateful. (ii) Conditions that may be theoretical, combined with improbability or unreality. Conditions not likely to be fulfilled, unreal or hypothetical.

}

e.g. If I were a bird I would fly.



She would win if she played well. Unreal condition If I had enough money I would donate



it to your school

On the basis of meaning, unreal conditional clauses may be divided into two parts (a) unlikely condition – it is unlikely that the condition will be fulfilled. e.g. What would you do, if there was a strike tomorrow? (b) impossible condition – where the hypothesis is contrary to fact and usually refers to the present. e.g. Men would look odd if they had four hands and four legs. When this type of clause refers to the present it is contrary to assumption. If I were the Principal of my school I would abolish examinations. (Present: The assumption is that the speaker is not the Principal.) If they closed the schools, the children would be happy. [Future: But I don’t think that the schools will be closed. (contrary to expectation)] (iii) Here, a condition that was not fulfilled in the past is talked about. We use this conditional to speculate about past events and about how things that happened or did not happen might have affected other things.

e.g. If they had tried they would have won.



(They did not try.)



If I had been there I would have prevented it.



(I was not there.)

Notice the tense used in the examples given under (a) and (b).

63

Look at the table given below: Form First Conditional: Condition

Result

If, unless + Any present tense form

Any future form [will, shall, may, might,can (modals)]

If you practise regularly Unless you work hard

you will improve your bowling. you’ll not make it.

(Note: Expresses a state of action that may happen or be true. It is possible that he will practise, that he will work hard and the results are also possible, but not certain. Unless indicates negative but is more emphatic.) Second Conditional: Condition

Result

If + Past simple / continuous

would

If they won the match If you were really concentrating

I would be very happy. you would not be disturbed by the noise.

Third Conditional: Condition

Result

If + Past perfect

would, should, could, might

If she had fallen

she would have been hurt seriously

We learnt that there are several possible combinations of tenses in the main clause and the conditional clause. Tense form

Main

Subordinate

Present tense in both main What are we to do and subordinate What can I do about it

if the teacher comes now? if he refuses to listen?

Present tense in the main and present perfect / perfect continuous in the subordinate

You may go

if you have finished your class assignment. if you have been working continuously.

Present tense in the main and past tense in the subordinate

They are surely resting now

You need some rest

64

if they travelled all day and night.

Present tense in the main and past perfect in the subordinate

They are certainly working if they had not completed even now the work by yesterday evening.

Past tense in both main and subordinate

That was a lie

if she told you that story.

Future in the main and present in the subordinate

He will pass

if he works hard.

Future in the main and present perfect in the subordinate

He will return tonight

if he has completed his work.

Future in the main and past tense in the subordinate

You will see the ghost again this night

if you saw him last night.

Future in the main and past perfect in the subordinate

He will never take a wicket if he had not taken a in the last over wicket so far.

(Note: For imperatives present tense is used in the subordinate.

e.g. Stop driving if you feel sleepy.)

Another common subordinate conjunction in conditional clauses is unless. Unless may emphasise the idea of a condition being made although there is no practical difference in meaning between unless and if not. e.g. The teacher certainly won’t give you leave, unless you bring a letter from your father.

Unless the parents are satisfied with the reputation of the school, they will not admit their children in that school.



Unless you have an entry pass, you can’t get in.

Here are a few other conditionals for your reference: e.g. You must get an 'A grade,' otherwise you can’t continue in the course.

You had better consult a doctor, otherwise your condition will become worse.



Please take an umbrella with you in case it rains.



Provided that you pass in the preliminary, you can appear for the finals.

Task 1: Suggest a possible condition that will produce these results: e.g. The principal will punish you.

The principal will punish you, if you do not submit your assignment today. 65

1. I’ll get good marks. 2. Father will forgive you for your mischief. 3. I will go abroad. 4. The match will not be played. 5. All shops will be closed. 6. I will be late to school. Task 2: In what situation would/would not each of these things happen? e.g. I would be booked by the traffic-policeman, if I violated the traffic rules. 1. I would get an electric shock. 2. There would not be so many crimes. 3. I would not take up the job. 4. I could get better marks. 5. We would have enough money. Task 3: What would you do in such situations? e.g. If I had something stolen from me, I would report the matter to the police. 1. What would you do if you had seen a blind man crossing the road? 2. Which city would you prefer if you were given a chance to visit? 3. Which country would you prefer if you decided to live abroad? 4. Which famous cricketer would you like to meet, if you had the chance? 5. What three books would you take with you if you were to be in solitary confinement for a week? Task 4: If I were a bird, I would fly. What would you do if you were (a) an angel? (b) a ghost? (c) a lion? (d) a peacock? (e) a monkey?

66

Task 5: Based on the example given below, make sentences using‘if’ clause:

He did not explain the problem.



I was not able to help him.

If he had explained his problem, I would have been able to help him. 1. He did not give his address. I could not visit him. 2. The sun was bright. The pictures came out well. 3. The shopkeeper did not lock the door. Precious articles were stolen. 4. He did not write the exam well. He failed. 5. They did not reach the station on time. They missed the train. Look at the following sentences: 1. Had it not rained, we would have gone to the theatre. 2. Should you be interested, I could buy you a season ticket for the music festival. When 'if ' is followed by an auxiliary verb (were, had, should), auxiliary and subject can be inverted, and ‘if’ can be omitted. Task 6: Rewrite the sentences making an inversion in the conditional clause as in the example. e.g. If you should need my help again, just give me a ring. Should you need my help again, just give me a ring. 1. If the management were to go back on its promise, there would be a strike. 2. If I had known you were ill, I would have called on you. 3. If you should be late once again, you will lose your job. 4. If you should need to meet me, you can call this number. 5. If it were not for the expenses involved, I would go by air.

67

II. Concessive clauses You make two statements, one of which contrasts with the other. One can put both the statements into one sentence by using a concessive clause. This is also known as a contrast clause. Contrast clauses are introduced by conjunctions such as, although, though, even though, despite, in spite of and thereby the unexpectedness may be made explicit

e.g.



For contrasting two statements, you use although, though, even though.



e.g.



Although he looked happy there was something unusual about him.

Though his mother-tongue is Tamil, he always speaks in English. Although I was shocked at his behaviour, I still could not believe it.

Despite and in spite of can be used at the beginning of non - finite concessive clauses.

Despite working hard, he failed in his exams.



In spite of being poor, she always helped others.

The use of despite and in spite of followed by a noun group: In spite of his blindness, he worked his way to great academic achievement. Despite the differences, the two leaders shook hands and smiled at each other. Task: Complete the sentences given below, using the appropriate ones given in the box: we reached late not as tall as him the weather was terrible shoulder injury even though his English was good the rain 1.

We enjoyed our outing, even though .....................

2. They continued with the match in spite of ...................... 3. His lecture was very boring ............... 4. He continued to bowl despite his ................... 5. Although we started early, ......................... 6. You resemble your father, although you are ........... 68

G. Writing Finding a whole new world in Anne Frank’s diary, Cara Wilson wrote a letter to Anne’s father, Otto Frank. She did not hope to get a reply. But the letter came. She read it a hundred times. August 21, 1959 I received your kind letter and thank you for it. Anne’s ardent wish was to work for mankind, and therefore an Anne Frank Foundation has been incorporated in Amsterdam to work in her spirit. You are right that I receive many letters from young people all over the world, but you will understand that it is not possible for me to carry on correspondence, though, as you see, I am answering everyone.

Wishing you all the best,



I am with kindest regards

Yours,

Otto Frank

What kind of letter do you think, this is? Letter writing is an art that is almost forgotten. Except when formal situations demand one, we rely more on the electronic media – telephone and chatting.

For academic purposes all letters fall under the two broad classifications:

1. Formal – business letters, letters of application, social letters (complaining about the quality of goods purchased, reminding about the delayed delivery, etc.) 2. Informal – friendly letters, social letters (inviting, congratulating, etc.) When you realise that you are a part of the society in which you live, as a civic-conscious citizen, you have to look beyond these two classifications. You may have to arouse the conscience of the people on certain issues which might affect the social, moral, political fabric of the society. In such a situation, you may have to air your views through the media like newspapers. Such letters (to the editor) can be classified as neutral letters. Before writing a letter: ●

Think before you write – consider the main purpose of the letter



Plan your letter – make a list of facts to be presented

Writing the letter (for formal letters): ●

Make the first draft • Edit the draft • Finalise the draft

69

The form of letters: ●

The Heading consisting of the writer’s address and date

● The Greeting or Salutation (Dear ........, My dear ........, Sir, Madam) ● The Communication or Content of the letter (to be in paragraphs – simple language to be used – legibility to be kept in mind) ● The Subscription or Leave-taking (Yours faithfully, yours sincerely, yours truly, Affectionately yours, etc.) ●

The Signature

● The Superscription on the envelope (Depending on whether it is formal or informal, apt salutation and subscription may be used.) Task 1: Write a letter congratulating Anju Bobby George on having been awarded the Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna. Task 2: Write a letter to long jumper Bobby Aloysius consoling her for not having been considered for the Arjuna award. Task 3: Your pet dog has messed up your neighbour’s backyard. Write a letter apologising to your neighbour. Task 4: Write a letter to the newspaper complaining about the eve-teasing at your bus-stop. Task 5: Write a letter to Medha Patkar, supporting her cause. H. Occupational Competency Task 1: Match the qualities given in column B with the characters (real/ mythological) given in column A: A

B

Joan of Arc

Selfless service and divinity

Mother Teresa

Success against the heaviest odds

Kannagi

Service with a radiant smile

Aung San Suu Kyi

Chastity and fighting for justice

Sita

Iron will and governance

Helen Keller

Chastity and endurance

Margaret Thatcher

Patriotism and indomitable spirit

Wilma Rudolf

Spirit of adventure

Florence Nightingale

Patriotism and valour

Kalpana Chawla

Weak flesh and willing spirit 70

Task 1: From the qualities given above, write the message that the life of each of these great people conveys. Task 2: Given a crisis in your career, how would you be inspired from the message that the lives of these great people convey, and get over your crisis? I. Strategic Competency ‘Confidence has oft the battle won.’ Most second language users of English have Anglophobia. This prevents them from using English confidently. Any language is acquired from one’s environment. No language is learnt. The more we use a language, the more proficient we become in that language. One needs confidence in using language in various social situations. Even if one makes mistakes initially, with continuous use, one would gradually learn to speak grammatically correct sentences with correct pronunciation. (May be without knowing the syntactical rules that govern the language.)

Let’s see how confident you are in using English!

Task:

You cannot speak fluently in English. How would you respond in the following situations, when spoken to in English?

1. Somebody asks you for directions

(a) Straight go. Left turn. Temple see. Next shop. Left Street.



(b) Go straight. Take left turn. There’s a temple. Shop next to it. Take street to the left.



(c) Maintain an uncomfortable silence

2. You are asked as to why you are late –

(a) Bus break down. Walk distance.



(b) My bus broke down. I walked long distance.



(c) Maintain an uncomfortable silence

3. Somebody waves a hundred rupee note and asks for change–

(a) No change.



(b) Sorry, don’t have change.



(c) No.

4. You are at a friend’s place. He is not there. There’s a phone call for his father. You answer the call.

(a) Not home. 71



(b) Sorry, not at home. Call later.



(c) Put down the receiver, without answering.

(Scoring key:

You can give yourself -



1 mark for every (c) that you’ve chosen



2 marks for every (a) that you’ve chosen



3 marks for every (b) that you’ve chosen

A total of 10 and above – your confidence level is high. A total of 7 and above – you need to work a little on your confidence level. Less than 6 – you are not confident.) One of the reasons why you are diffident in using English is the fear of being ridiculed by others when it is not spoken properly. Another reason is the complex structure English has, compared to your mother tongue. Sounds being the basis of the spoken form of any language, English sounds pose a big problem for you as there is no one-to-one correspondence between sound and spelling. But, did you ever notice that English has the largest vocabulary store? You can try by drawing from the largest vocabulary to form combinations and make meaningful utterances. English being the most democratic of all languages, has given you the freedom to experiment with it. Making mistakes is not a sin. It is the attempt you make that matters. Nothing ventured, nothing gained. J. Creative Competency Read the following poem:

They took away what should have been my eyes,



(But I remembered Milton’s paradise).



They took away what should have been my ears,



(Beethoven came and wiped away my tears).



They took away what should have been my tongue,



(But I had talked with God when I was young).



He would not let them take away my soul –



Possessing that, I still possess the whole. - Helen Keller

72

A poem should contain: ● Theme – every poem focusses on one idea or message (the theme in the above poem is that of gratefulness to God in times of adversity) ● Structure – a poem can be built around an object, incident, person, scene or an experience (here it is an experience) ●

Imagery and Symbols - inanimate and animate objects stand for or represent something (here ‘eyes’ refer to the sense of sight, ‘ears’ to the auditory sense, ‘tongue’ to the power of speech)



Rhyme and Rhythm – this is what lends music to the ears (here the last words in the couplets have rhyming words)

Task: Keeping the above in mind, write a poem on the following:

(a) All men are equal



(b) Nature - God’s gift to man



(c) Humanism is the noblest of values



(d) Mother



(e) Any theme of your choice



73

POEM WOMEN’S RIGHTS

You cannot rob us of the rights we cherish,



Nor turn our thoughts away



From the bright picture of a “Woman’s Mission”



Our hearts portray.



We claim to dwell, in quiet and seclusion,



Beneath the household roof,



From the great world’s harsh strife, and jarring voices,



To stand aloof;



Not in a dreamy and inane abstraction



To sleep our life away,



But, gathering up the brightness of home sunshine,



To deck our way.



As humble plants by country hedgerows growing,



That treasure up the rain,



And yield in odours, ere the day’s declining,



The gift again;



So let us, unobtrusive and unnoticed,



But happy none the less,



Be privileged to fill the air around us



With happiness;

To live, unknown beyond the cherished circle,



Which we can bless and aid;



To die, and not a heart that does not love us



Know where we’re laid. - Annie Louisa Walker 74

Annie Louisa Walker (1836-1907), British-born novelist, children’s playwright and poet, was educated in Ontario, where she and her sisters operated a school for ladies. Walker published poetry widely in newspapers on both sides of the border before collecting them in ‘Leaves from the Backwoods’ in 1861-62. She returned to England to work for her cousin, Margaret Oliphant, a well-known novelist, and edited her ‘Autobiography and Letters’ in 1899, under her married name, Mrs. Harry Coghill. She collected her poetic output in ‘Oak and Maple: English and Canadian Verses.’ Glossary: cherish

/'tSerIS/

: love, hold dear

portray

/pØ:'treI/

: be a representation of

seclusion

/sI'klu:Zn/

: being away from others

strife

/straIf/



: conflict

jarring

/'dZå:rIŋ/



: unpleasant

aloof

/ə'lu:f/



: distant in feeling or interest

inane

/I’neIn/

abstraction /æb'strækSn/

: meaningless or stupid : being absent-minded; state of not noticing what is

happening Ω

hedgerows /’hedZrə z/ : rows of bushes or low trees along the side of a road unobtrusive /únəb'tru:SIV/

: not easily seen

Comprehension questions 1. Why does the poet say, ‘You cannot rob us of the rights we cherish’? 2. Where do women claim to dwell? 3. What are women compared to, in the poem? 4. What is meant by ‘cherished circle’? Appreciation questions 1. Is the suffering of women directly mentioned in the poem? 2. ‘To sleep our life away’ – Comment on this. 3. To a woman, it is always others before self. Find the lines in the poem which suggest this. 4. Who do you think is the poem addressed to? 75

5. Who do you think is responsible for women being deprived of their rights? 6. How do you relate this poem to the lesson? Answer the following passages with reference to the context: 1. You cannot rob us of the rights we cherish,

Nor turn our thoughts away



From the bright picture of a “Woman’s Mission”



Our hearts portray.

2. To die, and not a heart that does not love us

Know where we’re laid.

Write an essay on: 1. What do women want by way of rights? 2. How does the poet define ‘women’s rights’? Activity 1. When you read/hear about the suppression of women, what are your feelings? 2. Form groups and discuss the issue of ‘women’s liberation’/ ‘women’s rights.’ (Be unbiased and objective in your thinking. Discuss the issue from various perspectives - The instances of women in turn suppressing their spouses and in-laws - What is meant by true liberation? – Is man solely responsible for the condition of women?.....)

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UNIT III COMPETENCIES A LISTENING: Listening to a panel discussion B SPEAKING: Participating in debates C READING: Understanding text organisation D VOCABULARY: Forming words using different prefixes / suffixes

Giving the expansion for abbreviations and acronyms



Using / identifying compound words (Phrase Compounds)

E STUDY SKILLS: Taking notes F GRAMMAR: Using reported speech

Using passives with / without ‘by’

G WRITING: Writing a project report H OCCUPATIONAL COMPETENCY: Transferring non-verbal information to verbal - form I

STRATEGIC COMPETENCY: Assessing one’s language proficiency

J CREATIVE COMPETENCY: Writing a travelogue Translating from English to the mother-tongue and vice-versa A. Listening Panel discussion: A panel discussion is a method of communication where two or more speakers discuss various aspects of a specific issue which is topical, and present it to an audience. In such panel discussions, audience do not interact with panelists. Task 1: The teacher will read a panel discussion. Listen carefully. As the teacher reads note down the names of panelists and their job positions. Also identify the topic of discussion. (The teacher reads) Name of the panelist

Designation / Job position

77

Task 2: Listen again to the same panel discussion and write down the views of each panelist. Name of the panelist

Views expressed

B. Speaking Participating in debates: Moderator : (The teacher plays the role of a moderator) The following is a short debate on “Should commercial tourism be encouraged?” By commercial tourism, we mean, considering tourism as a business, offering package tours, for a fixed price in which the tourists are provided with transport, accommodation and food, and thus attracting groups and groups of people to the tourist centres. The question is, is it good to mobilise and bring large groups of people to the tourist centres? What are the consequences of such over-crowding at tourist centres? Here is a short debate on this topic. Let me introduce the participants Preethi, Vidya, Ravi and Abishek. (The teacher nominates four students from the class to play the roles of participants). Preethi: Hello! Good morning, everybody! First of all I thank our teacher for giving me this opportunity to participate in this debate. Recently, during the summer holidays I’d been to Agra to see the Taj Mahal. I was greatly struck by its sheer grandeur. I was also equally impressed by the interest shown by the tourists, especially that of foreign tourists. They are just curious to know about our architectural heritage. Yes…. This made me think that we should encourage commercial tourism. All the temples and monuments will become popular tourist attractions and will attract people from all over the world. Incidentally, we will also earn some revenue for the upkeep and maintenance of these places of historical and architectural importance. Vidya: Hello everybody! I’m afraid I cannot agree with Preethi. She said that the people visiting these tourist spots were impressed by them, and the revenue earned would help us to maintain them. But tell me, at what cost? When many people visit these places, cleanliness becomes the first casualty and therefore their sanctity is lost. People come to these places to offer worship and get spiritual inspiration. These are places to be protected. Now please tell me, should we lose the 78

sanctity of these places in exchange for monetary considerations? I strongly object to such mindless growth of commercial tourism. Abishek: Good morning, friends! Even though Vidya has objected to commercial tourism, she should not forget that our country earns a lot of foreign exchange from the visits of foreigners. We should understand that India, being a developing country, needs this income to preserve the cultural and architectural heritage of India. Moreover, these monuments proclaim to the world the secular and cosmopolitan outlook of the rulers and the people. It should also be remembered that in the absence of modern technology Indians were able to build monuments which could stand the test of time. So, I am one with Preethi that commercial tourism should be encouraged at all costs! Ravi: Good morning! After listening to Preethi and Abishek, I have a feeling that they have neither known the significance nor the value of the mural paintings and sculptures found in the caves of Ajanta and Ellora, the seashore sculptures at Mahabalipuram, the imposing churches, not to mention the magnificent Taj Mahal which stands testimony to immortal love. It is very unfortunate that the walls of such monuments are used for rehearsing people’s skill in graffiti. Sometimes these places are used us public conveniences. How insensitive our people are! Our culture and tradition are things to be valued and cherished and not to be taken for granted. up.

Moderator: Having listened to both sides of the argument, I would like to sum

1. Places like Mahabalipuram should be protected from natural calamities as well as from vandalism. 2. Most important of all – each individual should realise his / her responsibility in preserving the places of national heritage. 3.

As a developing country, India does need foreign exchange and the revenue generated by commercial tourism will certainly be useful for renovating and preserving these places of national importance.

Task 1: Practise the above debate, taking turns. Task 2: Read the debate and note down the following expressions. Work in pairs.

a) expressions used to introduce the participants



b) expressions used to agree with the views of another speaker



c) expressions used to disagree with another speaker



d) expressions used for convincing others



e) expressions used to conclude the discussion

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Task 3: Read Vidya’s speech and refute her views to the class. Task 4: In the above debate not many points are discussed.

Discuss in groups of four any other points relevant to the topic. Write them down as a continuation of the model provided. Take turns and present your views to the class.

Note the use of some of the features of informal speech: e.g. use of gap-fillers like ‘hmm’, ‘well…’, ‘Oh’, etc. Use them while presenting your views. Note: fasttract [email protected] provides a lot of information on issues related to travel and tourism. You may explore other websites as well and collect information on topics for debate and discussion in the class. You may volunteer and participate in debates and discussions in the class. C. Reading Pre-reading Tasks: Task 1:Think of 5 activities which you normally engage in, during your long holidays or vacation.

e.g. Visiting relatives



a) ……………



d) ……………… e) …………….

b) …………..

c) ……………..

Task 2:Work with your partner and find out whether his/her vacation activities are similar to yours. Task 3:Work in pairs and make a list of five places where snowfall is common. Your answers need not be confined to India.

1)

2)

3)

4)

5)

Task 4:In your discussion you must have noticed that there are varieties of holiday activities. Some of them, no doubt, are related to travel. Now look at the different items given in column ‘A’ and link them with the appropriate description given in column ‘B’. A B Trekking

: a travel by bus, train or car

Pilgrimage

: moving from one country to another

Picnic

: a long and difficult walk usually over mountains or through forests 80

Voyage

: a visit to sacred places like Badhrinath, Velankanni, Nagore or Golden Temple

Journey

: an occasion when people take food and eat outdoors especially in the country-side

Migration

: a travel by ship

TO THE LAND OF SNOW : A Walk to the Milam Glacier on the edge of Tibet. - Ahtushi Deshpande A 24-hour journey in a UP Roadways bus is not the most comfortable way to get to Munsiyari, I realise, as I count the numerous bumps on my head the morning after. I had been rudely awakened, several times during the journey - most notably around midnight, when the bus followed in hot pursuit of a rabbit, the passengers cheering on the driver. (The rabbit was eventually caught, put in a sack and locked up in the glove compartment.) But when I step off the bus in Munsiyari, all memories of the bizarre journey vanish - the five mythological Pandavas stand proud before my eyes, their legend forever ensconced in the five majestic peaks of the Panchchuli range. Situated in a remote corner of Kumaon bordering Tibet and Nepal, Munsiyari was once a bustling entrepot of trade. On a trekking trail north-west of Munsiyari is the Milam Glacier, one of the longest in the region. The four-day trek to the village of Milam at the end of this old trade route to Tibet is dotted with abandoned Bhutia villages. In the wake of the India- China war of 1962, trade came to a halt and the hardy Bhutia traders migrated to the towns and cities below. I am eager to set off on the trek to the glacier. Mr. Rare, the KMVN (Kumaon Mandal Vikas Nigam) manager, is helpful and tells me that his father, Khem Nam, could act as guide on my trek. Khem Nam turns out to be fully 65 years old, a veteran of these valleys. We make a list of provisions and set off shopping at the Munsiyari bazaar, a stronghold of the Bhutia traders. As I make my purchases, the shop-owner proudly tells me that his daughter and son-in-law hold important IAS posts in Delhi. The Bhutias, who once ruled the trade routes, may have lost their business, but they have retained their enterprise. It is heartening to meet Laxmi, our porter, the following morning. He is a sturdy young man and seems like just the support frail Khem Nam and I need. Rucksacks loaded, we head straight down to the Gori river. For three days our path first takes us upstream along the Goriganga, and then into the shrouded Milam valley where the narrow gorges afford few views. 81

Abandoned Bhutia villages dot our path and I increasingly get the feeling that we are traversing a long-forgotten route. On the fourth day we cross the ghost villages of Burfu and Bilju before we reach Milam. It is now our sixth day on the trek; it has rained the whole night, and the morning brings even drearier weather. At over 4000m, firewood is hard to come by. Keeping warm is tough, and distraction is the best recourse. The sun plays truant for most of the day, raising doubts about the feasibility of our venturing further up. Howling winds, clouds, bright sunshine and hailstorms chase each other through the skies, and I spend the day moseying in and out of our cave. We are camped at Ragash Kund, a little pond with a shepherd’s cave on a grassy meadow above the glacier, where we sit out the bad weather for two days and nights. From Milam village it has taken us a day to get to our current position, en route to Suraj Kund which (as I am later told) takes a detour via heaven because “you gotta be dead first” before you get there. The rains of 1997 caused a lot of damage to the terrain and we are told that no one ventured beyond the snout of the glacier that year. But Khem Nam is not to be deterred. “I know the glacier like the back of my hand, I will find us a way”, he insists. His confidence is heartening - my map does, after all, show a trekking trail, and I am fascinated with the idea of seeing this sacred lake nestled in a far nook of the glacier. On the slope opposite our camp is the fascinating summit of Mandayo, which spirals up into the blue sky like a giant corkscrew. Slapped with steep cliffs on all faces, it looks every inch an insurmountable peak. To my immediate right the Nanda Pal glacier slopes down sharply. It could easily have been built up as a very challenging ski slope except, of course, for the fact that it ends in a cold and menacing snout with icy waters flowing beneath. I feel as if I have trespassed on some hidden and forbidden world of beautiful peaks and ominous glaciers. For the locals the glaciated region is one to be feared a land of demons and spirits waiting to devour the unholy, but for the avid trekker, a journey into what is literally a no man’s land can be the experience of a lifetime. To see the cold snowy peaks coming to life with the first rays of the sun is simply magical. Getting to Suraj Kund is now the task at hand. Entire slopes have, well, slid down, taking with them the centuries–old path. To my untrained eye, the glacier looks impossible to walk on. Luckily, Khem Nam thinks otherwise - he has done a recce the previous evening and is now sure of our route. After a big breakfast, we set off on the final leg of our pilgrimage to Suraj Kund. It is not an easy path - we hop over stones on landslides and delicately tread on the glacier rubble. The majestic mountains towering all around still look surreal, offering distraction from the fretful path. In all, nine smaller glaciers feed the Milam glacier system, each with its own set of peaks from which they emerge. 82

Crevasses dot our route as Khem Nam lines it with dark stone markers to help us return. As we walk dead centre of the glacier, the 80m icefall starting from the base of the Hardeoli and Trishuli peaks comes into fuller view. The last leg is up a landslide. I turn a corner and there below, in a hidden nook sandwiched between two glaciers, stand the twin ponds of Dudh and Suraj Kund with the stunning icefall forming a magnificent backdrop. I greedily bend down to drink some water from the holy pond - it is the sweetest I have ever tasted. It is a long haul back and we reached our camp at Ragash Kund only after nightfall. The following morning we return to Milam; by afternoon, the skies are showering down snowflakes the size of my palm. It snows continuously for the next three days and nights, leaving us stranded in the ‘civilisation’ of Milam. Patience is an art well learnt when one is at the mercy of nature. Just when mine is beginning to wear thin, the skies clear. The autumn landscape is turning wintry. I am out on the path by six ______ there is something I am keen to see. Three kilometres down from Milam lie the ruins of Bilju. Icicles hang from abandoned roofs, and fields of creamy snow line the tops. Facing the ghost village stand the twin peaks of Nanda Devi main and Nanda Devi east. I am transfixed. It is like the view you get from Binsar, but with an 800mm zoom lens attached to your eyes! I look deeply into its visage, trying to etch in my mind every detail of the vast expanse of the valley and the forlorn abandoned village, blessed by a goddess no less than Nanda Devi herself. I pay my obeisance, Khem Nam and Laxmi arrive, and we head back towards Munsiyari ______ and traffic. [Adapted from Outlook traveller special Issue February 2004]

Glossary: pursuit /pə'sju :t/ : act of trying to achieve something in a determined way Ω

entrepot /’óntrepə / : warehouse, commercial centre where goods are received for distribution, transhipment or repackaging trail

/'treIl/

mosey

/'mə zI/

: walk somewhere in a slow relaxed way

gorge

/'gØ:dZ /

: a deep narrow valley with steep sides

Ω

: rough path

recourse / rI'kØ:s / : some thing that is used to help in a difficult situation 83



truant / 'tru:ənt /



Ω

obeisance /ə 'beIsns/

: one who stays away from school without permission / one who avoids doing hard work : an act of showing respect and obedience

Ω

detour /'di:t ə/ : a roundabout course, different from the direct or intended route glacier

/'glæsIə/



: a huge mass of ice

fissure

/'fISə/



: deep crack

rubble

/'rúbl/

: small pieces of stone

surreal

/sə'rIəl/

: strange

transfix

/træns'fIks/

: impress or frighten or fascinate

menacing

/'menəsIŋ/

: threatening

hearten

/'hå:tn/

: to make someone feel happier or more confident





icicle /'aIsIkl/ : a tapering mass of ice formed by the freezing of dripping water bizarre

/bI'zå:/

: very unusual or strange

ensconce

/In'skóns/

: put oneself in a comfortable and safe place

intrepid

/In'trepId/

: resolutely fearless

métier

/'metIeI/

: a field of work, occupation, trade or profession



crevasse /krə'væs/ : deep open crack, in glacial ice, earth’s surface, etc. etch /'etS/

: reproduce a picture by engraving; make a strong impression by using a sharp object

visage

/'vIzIdZ/

: face

stark

/'stå:k/

: harsh or unpleasant

A. Choose the synonyms of the italicised words from the options given: i) I had been rudely awakened several times.

(a) slept

(b) roused

(c) made weak

ii) Leaving us stranded in the civilisation of Milam…

(a) confused (b) embarrassed



(d) rendered unable to move further

(c) delighted

84

(d) disturbed

iii) We hop over stones on landslides and delicately tread on the glacier rubble.

(a) quickly

(b) carefully

(c) loudly

(d) roughly

iv) The summits of Hardeoli and Trishuli at the glacier’s head are unreal in their consummate beauty.

(a) complete

(b) partial

(c) unnatural

(d) concrete

v) ………….. but they have retained their enterprise

(a) continued to possess

(b) gained

(c) lost (d) obtained B. Choose the appropriate antonyms of the italicised words from the options given. i) He is a sturdy young man.

(a) dynamic

(b) strong

(c) weak

(d) ambitious

ii) ………….. then into the shrouded Milam valley

(a) uncovered

(b) hidden

(c) protected

(d) secluded

iii) ……….. highest abandoned village in the world.

(a) adapted

(b) unrestrained

(c) deserted

(d) inhabited

(c) uneventful

(d) spectacularly

(c) intermittently

(d) regularly

iv) The rabbit was eventually caught … ..

(a) incidentally

(b) initially

v) It snows continuously …..

(a) intermediate

(b) alternately

C. Read the statements given below. Then look at the passage and say whether these statements are true or false. i) The hardy Bhutia traders migrated to other towns and cities on their own. ii) Every traveller who takes a route through Suraj Kund is invariably killed. iii) One can see volcanoes in the Milam region. iv) Nanda Pal glacier is used as a skiing ground. v) The author patiently waited till the skies cleared in Milam. vi) A ghost village is a place where ghosts live. vii) In the year 1977, heavy snowfall caused a lot of damage to the terrain.

85

Comprehension: Level I: 1. What was the purpose of the author’s journey to the ‘Land of Snow’? 2. Who are the five mythological Pandavas from the writer’s point of view? 3. What are the remains of the deserted village of Milam? 4. Give reasons as to why it is difficult to keep warm in the Tibetan mountain range. 5. What is meant by?

a. ‘The sun plays truant for most of the day’



b. ‘You gotta be dead first’



c. ‘His confidence is heartening’

6. Why does the writer feel that he has trespassed on some hidden or forbidden world of beauty? Level II: 1. ‘Patience is an art well learnt when one is at the mercy of nature’. Why does the author make this observation? 2. Why does the author say Milam has the dubious distinction of being the highest abandoned village in the world? Write an essay on:

The trekking experience of the author.

Understanding text organisation: A well-written text has a well-defined organisation. The structure of a wellorganised text or essay has three main divisions namely, introduction, supporting and relevant information presented in different paragraphs and conclusion. Authors use a particular organisation to best present the concepts about which they are writing. A good understanding of the text structure will help you select the most important ideas and recognise how those ideas relate to each other. Here are some of the popular text organisations.

● Description



● Concept definition



● Sequential description



● Compare / Contrast



● Problem / Solution 86

For example, procedures are important in a mechanic’s hand book. But a forest manager makes use of compare / contrast organisation for presenting information about different kinds of vegetation. Text structure and the reader’s knowledge of the use of the structure are crucial to the understanding of any reading text. For example, an understanding of compare / contrast structure will make the students:

a. focus on identifying the points being compared



b. understand how these points are similar



c. understand how they differ



d. think of the conclusion the author may give

Task 1: The following passage “The Tropical Paradise”, is about Maldives. Read the text carefully and observe how the information is organised in it. Give an organisation - structure to the text.

1) Introduction



2) ……………



3) ……………



4) ……………



5) ……………

“The Tropical Paradise” Scattered over 300 sq.km in the blue waters of the Indian Ocean, like a string of pearls, Maldives boasts of some of the most stunning and exotic tropical hideaways. Hundreds of Virgin Islands, with their lush green vegetation, clean, sandy beaches and the turquoise blue lagoons together offer a perfect holiday experience. Rated among the top ten diving destinations in the world, the underwater coral gardens in Maldives offer an opportunity to watch colourful marine life at their natural habitat, from close quarters. Of the 1190 islands that make up the Republic of Maldives which is spread over 26 Atolls (a ring-like formation enclosing a lagoon) only about 200 are inhabited. Of the remaining, 90 are Resort islands and the rest are uninhabited. Some of the uninhabited islands are meant for activities like drying fish. Not many details are available about the origins of the Maldivian people. The first settlers may well have been from Sri Lanka and Southern India. Some say Aryans, who sailed in their reed boats from Lothal in the Indus Valley about 4,000 87

years ago, probably followed them. Archaeological evidence suggests the existence of Hinduism and Buddhism before the country embraced Islam in 1153 A.D. The Maldives gained independence on July 26, 1965. Three years later, a republic was declared with Prime Minister Ibrahim Nasir as the first President. In 1978, President Maumoon Abdul Gayoom became President and has been re-elected thrice since then. A coup attempt in 1998 by Sri Lankan mercenaries was successfully repelled. Small as it is, the Maldives has always maintained independence and strong unity, despite influences and threats from outside. They are now an internationally renowned country, a member of the UN, WHO, SAARC, Commonwealth, the Non- Aligned Movement and others, and play an important role in advocating the security of small nations and the protection of the environment. The language of the Maldivians is Dhivehi. This language has been influenced heavily by Arabic since the advent of Islam in 1153 and English in more recent times, especially since the introduction of English as a medium of education in the early 1960’s. Since the opening of the first resort in 1972, Maldives tourism has developed into one of the most important activities in the country. Each resort has its own island but the construction activities have been restricted to 20 percent of the total landmass by law. Besides, the height of the buildings should not reach more than the tallest tree on the island. The house reef that encircles each island is another unique feature of the resort islands in Maldives. The shallow waters that get enclosed by the reef wall serve as a natural swimming pool. All the resort islands are carefully landscaped so that the natural vegetation is preserved. The approach of Maldives to environmental issues stays in harmony with the concept, “Think globally and act locally”. Source: Selling World Travel: (The Travel Training Magazine) July - August 2004 Task 2:Read the passage again and make notes under the subheadings you have suggested for organisation structure of the passage. D. Vocabulary Prefixes:

Look at the sentence taken from the passage, ‘The Tropical Paradise’.



Some of the uninhabited islands are meant for activities like drying fish.

In the above sentence, the underlined word is formed by combining the root word inhabited with the prefix un

un+ inhabited = uninhabited



A prefix is a letter or a group of letters which is added to the beginning of a 88

word in order to modify its meaning. One of the most common prefixes is ‘un-’. Here are some examples: unpopular, unused, unusual. Task 1: Give few more examples of words beginning with the prefix ‘un-’. Prefixes generally cannot function as independent words. They modify the meaning of the words to which they are added. One set of prefixes reverses the meaning of the word: ‘un-’ ‘in-’ and ‘non-’. Some prefixes refer to time: ‘fore-’ ‘pre-’ and ‘post-’.Look at the following examples of words formed by adding prefixes. Prefix

Meaning

Example

Contra

Against/opposite

Contraindicate Contradiction

Counter

Contrary / opposite

Counteract Counter clockwise

Dia

Passing through / across / between

Dialogue Diameter

Fore

Before

Foretell Forecast

Pan

Pertaining to all

Pan American Pan Indian

Task 2: Refer to a standard dictionary and find some more words for the prefixes mentioned in the above table. Use them in appropriate sentences. Task 3: Form words using the following prefixes: in-, im-, pre-, post-, pro-, de-, bi-, tri-. Suffixes:

Look at the following sentence taken from the lesson ‘To the land of snow’.

To see the cold snowy peaks coming to life with the first rays of the sun is simply magical. In the above sentence, the underlined word is formed by combining the root word magic with the suffix –al.

magic + al = magical

A suffix is a letter or a group of letters linked to the end of a word. By adding suffixes, the grammatical function of the words gets changed. For example, by adding the suffix ‘ment’ to the root word ‘manage’ which is a verb, the word becomes a noun. Example: manage + ment = management (noun). 89

Now, look at the following chart: Suffix

Function

Examples

‘-ile’

It is used to express capability, liability susceptibility, etc.

docile, fragile, volatile,ductile

‘-ling’

It refers to one that is young, small or Princeling, duckling, hireling inferior.

‘-let’

Indicates smallness.

‘-ette’

It is generally used in the diminutive novelette, kitchenette sense referring to something small and tiny.

‘-ity’

It is used for changing adjectives into visibility, ability, durability, nouns of quality and condition. capability, ductility, sensibility

‘-ise’

It is used to turn an adjective or a familiarise, verbalise, noun into a verb. It is also used to popularise, criticise, indicate quality, condition or function. vandalise, publicise

‘-ly’

It is used for changing adjectives into slowly , sweetly, immediately, adverbs. frequently.

juvenile,

booklet, leaflet, eaglet

Task 1: Refer to a standard dictionary and find some more words for the suffixes in the table. Use them in appropriate sentences. Task 2: Form words using the following suffixes: -less, -ness, - ful, -ment, -ence, -able Abbreviations: Look at the following sentence taken from the lesson, ‘To the Land of Snow’: Mr. Rare, the KMVN manager, is helpful and tells me that his father, Khem Nam, could act as guide on my trek. In the above sentence, the underlined word KMVN is the abbreviated form of the name Kumaon Mandal Vikas Nigam. An abbreviation is the short form of a word or phrase formed by leaving out some of the letters in a word or by using only the first letters of a group of words. Look at these examples:

PC

- Personal Computer



UGC

- University Grants Commission



PSU

- Public Sector Unit 90



RP

- Received Pronunciation

TV - Television

HSS

- Higher Secondary School

Task 1: Write the expanded forms of the following abbreviations: Ltd, Mon, CPU, NLC, BBC, MA, Kg, mm, LPG, CD, VCR, rpm, FM. Task 2: Give five examples of abbreviations with their expanded forms. Acronyms: Look at the following sentence taken from the passage,‘The Tropical Paradise’. They are now an internationally renowned country, a member of the UN, WHO, SAARC, Commonwealth, the Non-Aligned Movement and others.

In the above sentence, the underlined words WHO and SAARC are acronyms.

An acronym is a word formed from the initial letters of other words. It is in a sense an abbreviation. But the difference between the two is that an acronym can be pronounced as a word, while an abbreviation cannot be pronounced as a word. e.g. CAD

- Computer Aided Designing



LASER

- Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation



WHO

- World Health Organisation



TOEFL

- Test of English as a Foreign Language

Task 1: Expand the following acronyms. Work with your partner. VIBGYOR, RADAR, AIDS, ISRO, GATE, HUDCO, LAN, OPEC, TANSI, VIRUS, SALT. Task 2: Give five more examples of acronyms with their expansions. Compound Words: Look at the following sentence taken from the lesson, ‘To the Land of Snow’. As I make my purchases, the shop-owner proudly tells me that his daughter and son-in-law hold important IAS posts in Delhi. In the above sentence, the underlined words shop-owner and son-in-law are compound words. A compound word is a unit consisting of two or more words: There are different types of compound words in English. They can be – 91

a.

Noun and Verb compounds:

sunrise = sun + rise (N) (V)

b.

Noun and Gerund compounds:

air-conditioning = air + conditioning (N) (Gerund)

c.

Gerund and Noun compounds:

dancing bird = dancing + bird adjective participle + N

d.

Noun and Noun compounds (also known as verbless compounds)

school girl = school + girl (N) (N)

e.

Noun and Adjective compounds:

duty free = duty + free (N) (Adj)

f.

g.

upstream = up + stream (Prep) (N) used as adjective downstream = down + stream (Prep) (N) used as adjective

Preposition and Noun compounds:

good-for-nothing = good + for + nothing (Adj) (Prep) (Noun) long–forgotten = long + forgotten (Adj) + (Verb – Past perfect) day-to-day = day + to + day (N) (Prep) (N)

Phrase compounds: used as adjectives

Task 1: Work with your partner and write two examples of each type of the compounds you have learnt. Give your answers in a tabular form. Task 2: Choose any one of the examples you have given for each type of the compounds and use it appropriately in a sentence of your own. Task 3: Complete the phrase compounds in the following sentence by filling in the blanks: My happy- ……… -lucky …… -in-law is very down- to- …………….. . He is also very ……… -to – do. E. Study Skills Note-Taking: Taking notes while listening to a lecture or talk is a very useful study skill to be developed. The notes taken can be referred to whenever required (e.g. to prepare for an examination). Thoughts can be organised better while taking notes because, as you listen you will be considering the points made by the speaker and be arriving at your own conclusions on what is being listened to. 92

Points to remember: ●

Always carry a notepad / note-book and a pen with you whenever you attend a lecture.



Listen to the lecture attentively.

● Do not write down everything that the speaker says. Take down only the important points and clues. ● Remember that the speaker draws your attention to the main points by repeating the main points, by making pauses and by raising his / her tone on those points. ● Develop your own note-taking style. ●

Use a phrase or a word or an abbreviated form of a word rather than a sentence.

● Remember, taking notes as you listen is an active process, so keep your mind focussed. ● Follow a patterned note-taking or diagrammatic form of notetaking. e.g. You may make notes points-wise or in a tabular form or in the form of a tree diagram.

See that you are able to later on comprehend what you’ve written.

Task 1: The teacher will read a passage. Listen carefully and follow the notes given below: (The teacher reads) Goa – living entity – a sunspot – silver sands – 3rd century B.C. – marvellous weather – awe-inspiring cathedrals – Arombol – rocky and sandy – 120 km long silver beaches – aqua sports – water scooters – speed boats – best time – late September and mid – March. Task 2: Follow the instructions in Unit VI of Std. XI course book and take notes, as the teacher reads a passage, under the following headings: ● Quiet – what is it?



● Watsu



● Bio Resonance

(The teacher reads)

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F. Grammar I. Reported Speech: Real life situations offer innumerable opportunities to report what others have said. When we report what someone has said, we are usually talking about the past. So generally the past tense verb is used in reported speech. Now read the following dialogue between a tourist and a tourist guide and the reported version that follows. Tourist

: Hi, I’m John and I’m from the US. I’d like to have some information about Mahabalipuram.

Tourist guide : Certainly, Mr.John. Mahabalipuram is 45 kilometres from Chennai. It was developed by the Pallava kings. Tourist

: How can we reach there?

Tourist guide : You can drive along the East Coast Road where you will enjoy the scenic beauty of the Bay of Bengal. The road is smooth and free from traffic jams and in about 90 minutes you will reach Mahabalipuram. Tourist

: Oh, that’s fine. Thank you.

Tourist guide : You’re welcome. Reported version of the above dialogue: The tourist introduced himself as Mr.John from the United States and told the guide that he would like to have some information about Mahabalipuram. The guide told Mr.John that Mahabalipuram, developed by the Pallava kings, is 45 kilometres from Chennai. Mr.John enquired as to how they could reach there. The guide replied that they could drive along the East Coast Road where they could enjoy the scenic beauty of the Bay of Bengal. He added that the road was smooth and free from traffic jams, and in about 90 minutes he would reach Mahabalipuram.

Mr.John thanked the guide and the latter reciprocated his compliment.

Here are some rules for the use of reported speech: Rule I: If the verb used is in the present tense in the direct form, it should be changed to the past tense and the conjunction ‘that’ is to be added.

Usually the first person is changed to third person, unless the speaker is in the first person. e.g : I said, “I want a pen.”



I said that I wanted a pen.

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Rule II: Questions a. In the case of direct questions, the word order changes in the reported form.

e.g: He asked me, “Where are you going?” (Subject follows Verb.)



He asked me where I was going. (Verb follows Subject.)

b.

In questions that begin with the verbs, do/ does/ did/ is/ are/ have/ has/ will/ would/ can/ could/ shall/ should, the connective, whether/ if is used.



e.g : The teacher asked, “Have you done your homework?”



Reported form: The teacher asked the students whether / if they had done their homework.

Rule III: We use the infinitive ‘to’ in reported speech when we make requests or give commands. In other words,imperatives are changed into infinitive phrases preceded by verbs such as tell/ command/ order/ request/ ask, etc., with the person addressed.

e.g : Tourist Guide: “Give me your camera and stand still.”



The guide asked Mr.John to give him his camera and stand still.



Mr. John said, “Raju, please wait for me at the bus stop.”



Mr. John requested Raju to wait for him at the bus stop.

Rule IV: In negative commands and requests, “not to” is added before the verb.

e.g : The guide said, “Do not obstruct the way.”



The guide asked them not to obstruct the way.

Rule V: The verb remains unchanged in reported speech when a general and known truth is reported.

The tourist guide said, “The sea here is very violent always so you have to be very careful.”



Reported form: The tourist guide said that the sea there is very violent and that he had to be very careful.

Rule VI: The reported verb can be retained as such or it can be changed into the past perfect tense, if the verb used in the direct speech is in the simple past.

Tourist guide Reported forms

: The Pallavas ruled over this region. : The tourist guide said that the Pallavas ruled over that region. (or) The tourist guide said that the Pallavas had ruled over that region. 95

Rule VII: The words like this/ now/ here/ today/ yesterday/ tomorrow/ are replaced by that/ then/ there/ that day/ the previous day/ the next day, in the reported speech.

e.g. My friend said, “You must accept this gift.”



My friend insisted that I must accept that gift.

Task 1: Turn to the debate on page 78. Rewrite the words spoken by Preethi and Vidya in the reported form. We can convey the intention of the speaker by using reporting verbs such as request/ deny/ admit/ complain/ refuse, etc. Task 2: Rewrite the following sentences in the indirect speech using the following reporting verbs appropriately: request/ deny/ admit/ complain/ refuse. a) The convict said to the inspector, “Please allow me to go and see my ailingmother.” b) The woman said, “I have not taken the diamond ring.” c) The father said, “I am responsible for the child’s rude behaviour.” d) The tourist said to the hotel manager, “There is too much noise in the neighbourhood at night.” e) The minister said, “I will not apologise to anyone for this.” II. The Passive Voice: Compare the following two sentences:

a. The fisherman caught a strange fish. (Active Voice)



b. A strange fish was caught by the fisherman. (Passive Voice)

Both the sentences convey the same information. In the first sentence, the agent or the doer of the action (the fisherman) is the subject, while the receiver of the action (fish) is the object of the verb (caught). Here the subject (fisherman) is the doer of the action. So this sentence is said to be in the Active Voice. In the second sentence, the object (a strange fish) of the first sentence becomes the subject and passively allows something to be done to it. The agent or the doer of the action (the fisherman ) functions as the object of the preposition ‘by’. This sentence is in the Passive Voice. When we change a sentence from the active to the passive voice, the tense form does not get changed.

96

Read the following chart carefully and understand the different passive tenses of the verbs with the teacher’s help. Tense in the Active Voice

Form of the Passive Verb

Example

Present Simple

‘be’ verb + past participle

Tamil is spoken in Tamilnadu

Present continuous or Present progressive

‘be’ verb + being + past participle

Sorry for the inconvenience! The show room is being renovated.

Past simple

be + past participle

The former leader was respected by all.

Past continuous or Past progressive

be + being + past participle

The girl felt as if she was being cheated.

Present perfect simple

have + been + past participle

All available seats have been filled

past perfect simple

Had + been + past participle

Gopi had been chosen for the award.

Future simple

shall / will + be + past Particilpe

They will be informed in advance.

Auxiliary verbs

May / can / might/ could / should/ would/ must + be + past participle ought / have+ to be + past participle

They may be invited. They ought to be invited. They have to be invited.

Task 1: Rewrite the following sentences in the passive form: a) The policemen stop every car at this junction. b) The workers are painting the walls. c) Gopi has written a poem. d) Ram was driving the car at that time. e) My friend will show you the photographs. f) The Director inaugurated the symposium. g) You must write the answers on one side of the paper only. h) The forensic experts had examined the evidence. 97

Task 2: Complete the chart by providing the suitable forms of the passive voice: Active voice



Passive voice

Builds is building built Was building has built Had built Will build can build The use of ‘by’ phrase in passive voice sentences: The agent or doer in both active and passive voice forms remains the same. Generally the preposition ‘by’ is placed before the agent in passive voice sentences. In fact, the by-phrase cannot be omitted where the agent has to be mentioned to complete the sense conveyed. Compare these two sentences: a) Last year, the Green-India scheme was announced by the Government. b) Rare plants are found in Silent Valley. In the first sentence, the doer/agent is explicitly mentioned because the doer is important in that sentence. But in the second sentence it is not so, because either the agent or doer of the action is too obvious or unknown. The passive construction is quite common in scientific / technical /business writing. In these types of objective writing the emphasis is usually on the action or process or thing that is described. So the ‘by’ phrase is generally omitted in these writings. It is called impersonal passive. Task 1: Complete the following sentences using suitable forms of the passive voice: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Water ……………….(collect) in the tank. A wide variety of liquids ………… (use) in chemical plants. Technology…………..(describe) as the application of scientific knowledge. In primitive times, stone implements ……………. (employ) to kill animals. In the last meeting, the blueprint of the proposed holiday - home ……………. (show). 6. One thousand Internet connections …………… (give) in Pollachi by the end of December 2004. 7. The experiment had to ………….. (stop) because of power failure. 8. English ……….. (speak) all over the world by millions of people. 98

9. Pictures are continually …………… (take) to monitor planetary positions. 10. Metals have ………… (replace) by plastics. Task 2: Using the right forms of the verbs given in brackets complete the following passage: Seventy percent of the world’s total water demand is ………. (use) for irrigation. It is ……… (estimate) that some forty percent is…….. (waste) mostly through seepage and evaporation. This problem is further …. (intensify) by the increasing demands for irrigation water. To solve this problem the irrigation output per unit of available water must be …….. (maximize). Also, the water seepage in field channels must . .……….. (reduce). A number of various schemes have ……… (recommend) by experts to solve this problem.. An optimum use of irrigation water is …….. (ensure) through these labour intensive schemes, for the local farmers are ……. (involve) in them to a large extent. Special point to remember: Intransitive verbs (like ‘go’ and ‘come’) cannot be changed into passive form because they do not take an object. Transitive verbs (like ‘use’ and ‘open’) alone take an object. Therefore, only transitive verbs can be changed into passive form. The Same verbs can be used in both transitively and Intransitively. Look at these examples: a. b. c. d.

The house is burning. The marchers burnt two cars. The glass broke. He broke the glass.

Task 3: Use the following verbs in the active and passive forms and write sentences on your own:

sing, read, grow, recover, change.

G. Writing A project report is a form of written communication produced after an investigation or a survey on a specific topic. It is written for a specific purpose. Even though a project report contains the writer’s opinions and recommendations, it is essentially based on facts and findings collected during the survey.

While preparing a project report the following points should be borne in mind: ● ● ● ●

A suitable title should be given. The language of the report should be appropriate to its content. The language should also be simple, direct and clear. The content should be logically arranged and presented.

99

Task 1: Use the guidelines given below and write a project report on ‘Promoting tourism potential of not-so-popular places in Tamil Nadu’. Introduction: – (The purpose of the project) The Government of Tamil Nadu intends to promote tourism in Tamil Nadu by developing some of the not-so-popular places which have tourism potential. Your school NSS has been asked to take up a project to explore the possibility of making a nearby place a tourist spot. Your headmaster has been asked to submit the report to the Secretary of Tourism Development Corporation, through the District Tourism Officer. Body of the Report: (Description of the project)

Participants: 40 students of Stds. XI & XII

Here you may start by saying, “About 40 students from 11th and 12th standard classes were selected to do the project on …... They were divided into four groups and were asked to go to four different places close to their hometown…..” Here you can name the four places you are writing about. Co-ordinators: Here you may include information about the co-ordinators and mention how they co-ordinated the project. You may start bysaying, “The two teachers who coordinate the NSS/NCC activities of the school, co-ordinated the project. ……….. “ Procedure: Here you can write about the way the study / survey was conducted to collect the necessary data for the project. Findings: 

Types of tourist areas found – temples/mosques/churches / ancient places/wild life sanctuaries/hills/waterfalls/ sea shores/ lakes.



Here provide some authentic information because you are writing about a location which is familiar to you. Restaurants / Cottage Messes / Food Stores

 

Board and Lodging - availability of hotels/ guest houses / youth hostels, etc.



Safety for the tourists – How safe is the place for tourists?



Shopping facilities



Ambience of the place selected - whether it is serene and calm, whether it is overcrowded, etc.

100

Recommendations:

Here you can make recommendations based on the survey and findings.

e.g. 

New roads must be laid from ………..to…………..



Guest houses should be built



The environment must be kept clean



Transport and communication facilities should be improved



Better hygienic restaurants should be run

Conclusion: Here you may give your final comments and concluding remark based on your survey. After the concluding section, you should give the date and place. Since the principal is to submit report, his signature and destignation should be given. Signature (xxxxxx) Date : Principal Place : Designation Language of the Project Report: The first person pronouns (I, my, me) are not used in reports. The passive voice is preferred in describing the procedure and making recommendations. To sum up:

A project report has the following organisation / format.

TITLE I. Introduction: 

Purpose or aim of the report.



Who authorised the action reported?



Who constituted the project group?



Any other background information.

II. The body of the report: 

Detailed description of methods and plans used in the project.



A detailed account of the facts and findings.

Note: This part should not include the writer’s or reporter’s personal views. 101

III. Recommendations: 

Recommendations must be listed.  Impersonal passive voice is generally used.  Imperative sentences should be avoided. IV. Conclusion: Reporter’s concluding remarks or evaluatory statements are to be presented in this part of the report. Task 2: Follow the same format and write a project report on any one of the following topics.

a) Setting up an amusement park near your town / village.



b) The inclusion of tourism as one of the optionals in the Higher Secondary Course.

H. Occupational Competency Presenting information using tables, graphs and charts is a common practice in scientific and technical writing. This is because, through graphs and charts scientific data (which is most of the time related to statistics and numbers) can be presented in a clear and precise manner. Bar charts, graphs, tree-diagrams, organisational charts, flow charts and pie charts are the frequently used pictorial or non-verbal representations. The table is the simplest and the most common direct graphic form used for presenting information. In this form of graphic representation, data is presented in rows and columns. Task 1: The following table gives information about the classification of foreign tourists from four countries according to their mode of travel to India in 2002. Read the table carefully and write a paragraph describing the information provided. Country or

Arrivals

Nationality

(in Numbers)

Proportion to the total (%)

Air Sea Land Japan

59709

94.7 1.1

4.2

Korea (South)

29374

94.3 0.1

5.6

Australia

50743

97.6 0.6

1.8

New Zealand

10811

96.7 0.8

2.5

[Source: INDIAN TOURISM STATISTICS-2002] 102

Another form of graphic representation is the bar chart. The following bar chart gives information about the preferences tourists have in selecting tourist centres. Task 2: Study the chart given below and answer the questions that follow it.

HS

16,000

BR

14,000

10,000 8000 6000 4000

Key

No. of People

12,000

H.M .= Historic Monuments

PC

.PC .= Pilgrim Centres B.R .= Beach Resorts

HM

TP

H.S .= Hill Stations T.P .= Theme Parks

2000

Tourist Centre Preferences 1) Which type of tourist centre is preferred by the second largest number of tourists? 2) Which type of tourist centre is preferred by the least number of tourists? 3) Give your own reasons for more tourists preferring to visit Hill Stations. 4) Make a comparison of the information provided in the chart and write a paragraph. Note: When you compare the information provided, make use of expressions like ‘while’, ‘on the contrary’, ‘but’, ‘both’, ‘whereas’ and so on. Here are some advantages of using graphs and charts in scientific writing. a) A large collection of data can be represented in a clear and compact form. b) Numerical data or information can be more clearly understood from charts and tables than from descriptive texts. c) Any statistical or complex information can be easily grouped in a chart. d) Comparisons of data can be easily made between different items or types of information. The tree-diagram or the organisational chart helps to organise information about work position of individuals in an organisation in relation to others. 103

Task 3: The chart given below describes the organisational structure of the Tamil Nadu Tourism Development Corporation. (Promotion Wing)

Using this model, prepare a chart representing the organisation of a factory or a University or a bank or any other private or public sector department.

Minister of Tourism Secretary Commissioner Joint Director

Deputy Director

Deputy Director

Deputy Director

Asst. Director

Asst. Director

TO

TO

TO

TO

TO

TO

TO

TO

TO

TO

TO

TO

TO

TO

R

R

R

R

R

R

R

R

R

R

R

R

R

R

NTS

NTS

NTS

NTS

NTS

NTS

NTS

NTS

NTS

NTS

NTS

NTS

NTS

NTS

Key : T.O: Tourist Officer R : Receptionist

NTS : Non Technical Staff

The Flow Chart is another form of graphic representation that is extensively used to describe a step by step process or activity. 104

Task 4: Using the information given in the following flowchart, write a paragraph describing the procedure involved before boarding an international flight. Apply for Passport Apply for visa (complete the formalities to obtain VISA) Get Foreign Exchange Book Ticket (On the day of departure) Go to Airport Complete formalities and check in



Get the tickets checked

Collect boarding pass Pass through security check

Wait in the departure lounge for the flight

Board the flight Note: Any sequential activity or process can be effectively described by using the cohesive devices or discourse markers such as ‘firstly’, ‘secondly’, ‘next’, ‘then’, ‘after that’, ‘finally’ and so on.

105

I. Strategic Competency ‘Self-directed Learning’ is an effective strategy you can adopt to develop your competence in English. In self-directed learning you take on the responsibility for your learning of the target language.(English) Self-directed learning can be done in two stages: first is to learn whatever you want to learn at your own pace, place and time. The next is to assess your own knowledge of what you have learnt so far through self-assessment. When you do self-assessment you can write a paragraph or a short essay on a topic of interest and correct it yourself (or) you can give your piece of writing to your friend and request him or her to correct your work. This is called peer-correction.

When you are engaged in self or peer-correction, focus on:



the accuracy of the language used, i.e. subject verb agreement, use of singular and plural nouns, use of tense forms, correct word-order to go with the context and the use of correct spelling



the appropriate choice of words and expression



cohesion and coherence



the appropriacy of the information presented

Task 1: You haven’t visited your grandparents’ place for quite sometime. Write a short essay describing your visit to their place. Give your essay to your friend for peer correction. Task 2: Read a passage in English and record it. Listen to your voice and see if there are any mistakes in pronunciation, stress and intonation. Take the help of your teacher and learn the correct pronunciation, stress and intonation. Make use of an authentic audio-cassette to correct and improve your pronunciation. J. Creative Competency: I. Writing a Travelogue: A travelogue is a piece of narrative writing in which the writer recapitulates his or her travel experiences in a sequential manner. The reading text, ‘To the Land of Snow’, is an example of a travelogue. Task 1: Imagine that you had been to Courtallam Falls on a 2-day tour along with your friends. Using the information given, write a short travelogue describing your experience during those two days. Courtallam: Courtallam, the spa of the South is situated at a height of 167 metres in the Western Ghats. It has seven waterfalls, and these falls are known for their curative properties. The main fall is formed by a sharp three-stage drop of about 90 106

metres height. Courtallam can also be a base to explore the wild life sanctuary at Mundathurai which is just 47 kilometres from Tirunelveli. Access: Tirunelveli (60 km) is the nearest city. Tenkasi (5 km) is the nearest railway station. Regular bus services are available from other towns and cities. Note: Instead of Courtallam Falls you may select any other place of scenic beauty which you are familiar with. Your travelogue must incorporate the following points. ●

Mode of journey from your place to the destination.



Number of friends who accompanied you.

● Arrangements for food and accommodation. ●

The place you visited – a detailed description of the scenic beauty.

● Your experiences – highlighting one or two of the most memorable or interesting ones. ●

The return journey.

Task 2: You haven’t visited your native place for 10 years. You find that your village or town has undergone a tremendous change. The following are some of the striking changes you observe. S.No On the day of your visit

10 years ago

1.

Busy roads.

Lonely - almost deserted roads

2.

Increase in traffic – many public transport buses & minibuses, two wheelers, etc.

Very few vehicles, mostly bullock carts – a few buses and cycles.

3.

Modern houses – RCC buildings, flats.

Small individual houses, some thatched houses.

4.

High and Higher secondary schools.

Panchayat primary school and one middle school.

5.

Good roads.

Muddy and uneven roads.

6.

Government hospital with in-patient facilities. One private nursing home.

Only one primary health centre. One or two private doctors.

7.

Several shops and food stores.

A few village shops.

Write a letter to your friend describing the changes you notice during your visit. Remember to use the appropriate tense form. 107

Task 3: Read a travel related article in English from a newspaper/ magazine and share the information with your friends the next day. II. Translation: An ability to translate is both a skill and an art. Translation can be done from the language being learned (here it is English) into the mother tongue or from the mother tongue into English. Task 1: Read the following story and rewrite it in your mother tongue without the spirit of the text being lost. Give a suitable title to your translated version. The whole family objected violently when my brother and I said we were going to spend our Christmas holidays abroad. Mother said that as there would be a family re-union party, we would have to be present. Though we always enjoyed these occasions, nothing could persuade us to stay. Two days before Christmas, we went to a small town in Southern Germany. We spent the whole of Christmas Eve sightseeing. There was so much activity in the town that it added to our excitement. The streets were crowded with people and the shops were full of wonderful things. In the evening, we went to listen to Christmas carols sung by children around the brightly decorated Christmas tree in the main street. We returned to our hotel late that night, greatly looking forward to the next day when we planned to have a meal at the best restaurant in town. But, in the morning the streets were deserted. To make matters worse, all the shops including the restaurants were shut. We searched in vain for hours and at last had to return to our hotel, feeling very miserable. Our Christmas ‘feast’ was a bag of fruits, which my brother had happened to buy the day before. Our thoughts sadly turned to home where, at that moment, the whole family must have been wishing us a “Merry Christmas”. Task 2: The teacher will give a passage in the vernacular. Translate it into English. Task 3: Read the following proverbs and give their near equivalents in your mother tongue. 1. Empty vessels make the most noise. 2. Make hay while the sun shines. 3. Even Homer nods. 4. Rolling stone gathers no moss. Task 4: Write three proverbs in your mother tongue and their near equivalents in English.

108

POEM A NOISELESS, PATIENT SPIDER

A NOISELESS, patient spider,



I mark’d where on a little promontory it stood isolated,



Mark’d how to explore the vacant vast surrounding,



It launch’d forth filament, filament, filament, out of itself,



Ever unreeling them, ever tirelessly speeding them.



And you O my soul where you stand,



Surrounded, detached, in measureless oceans of space,



Ceaselessly musing, venturing, throwing, seeking the spheres



to connect them,



Till the bridge you will need be form’d, till the ductile anchor hold,



Till the gossamer thread you fling catch somewhere, O my soul. - Walt Whitman

Born on May 31, 1819, Walt Whitman was the second son of Walter Whitman, a house-builder, and Louisa Van Velsor. At the age of twelve Whitman began to learn the printer’s trade, and fell in love with the written word. Largely self-taught, he read voraciously, becoming acquainted with the Bible and the works of Homer, Dante, and Shakespeare. In 1836, at the age of 17, he began his career as a teacher in Long Island. He continued to teach until 1841, when he turned to journalism as a full-time career. He founded a weekly newspaper, Long Islander. During 1850 – 1855 he focussed, on his own poetic work “Leaves of Grass”, and continued to write. He died at the age of 72 in 1892. The first half of this poem describes the spider’s inimitable way of spinning its web. The second half of the poem pictures the human soul reaching out into space and time, seeking something infinite and eternal to serve as the anchor of hope. Glossary: promontory / 'próməntrI/

: high point of land standing out from the coastline

launch’d

: sent out

/ 'lØ:ntSt /

ceaselessly / 'si:sləslI /

: endlessly

musing

: contemplating

/ 'mju:zIN/

109

venturing

/ 'ventSərIN/

: entering

fling

/ flIN /

: throw

Comprehension questions: 1. What is the spider trying to build by its repeated activity? 2. Why is the human soul interested in reaching space? Write an essay on: Walt Whitman’s comparison of the spider to the human soul. Appreciation questions: 1. Has the poet succeeded in conveying what he wanted to convey through this poem? 2. What does the spider symbolise? 3. What is the significance of the gossamer thread? 4. What do you think is the underlying theme of the poem?

110

UNIT IV COMPETENCIES A LISTENING: Listening to one reading aloud B SPEAKING: Participating in group discussions C READING: Reducing a text by rejecting irrelevant information

Understanding the communicative value of an utterance

D VOCABULARY: Using/Identifying words related to computers, media, space, science and technology, environment

Using syllabification for reading, spelling and speaking purposes and for knowing the stress pattern



Spelling words correctly



Identifying words in confusing pairs

E STUDY SKILLS: Transferring information F GRAMMAR: Using primary and modal auxiliaries G WRITING: Transcoding information H OCCUPATIONAL COMPETENCY: Telling a story I

STRATEGIC COMPETENCY: Creating time to think (using gap fillers)

J CREATIVE COMPETENCY: Writing a criticism of an important event / happening

Providing captions for photographs

A. Listening The teacher will read a passage aloud. Listen carefully.

(The teacher reads)

Task 1: Answer the following questions: 1. What is the setting of the incident? 2. Is the speaker the younger of the two siblings? 3. How did the speaker respond when her sister was called first to recite? 4. How did the speaker manage to recite? 5. Why do you think the speaker and her sister were scared of reciting?

● What helped you answer these questions? 111



● When your teacher read aloud which of the factors helped you to listen better?

(a) lip movements (b) eye contact with you while reading (c) pronunciation (d) stress and intonation patterns (e) body language and dramatisation (f) any other

● Did any factor hinder your listening?

Remember, listening to one reading aloud is an exercise not only for listening comprehension, but also to unconsciously improve one’s own ‘reading aloud’ and pronunciation. Task 2: Listen to the day’s English news being read on TV and take down notes under different heads – (a) headlines

(b) regional

(c) national (d) international (e) sports

Did you notice the difference between listening to a lesson being read aloud and the news being read? B. Speaking Read the following story: In a house there were a great many mice. They ran here and there, and they nibbled the food. Then a cat came, and she began to hunt the mice. She soon caught a great many of them. The mice were very much afraid of the cat. So they met together to see what could be done. All the mice spoke in turn. Mouse 1

: We cannot allow things to go on like this. Something has to be done.

Mouse 2

: I think we could run away when we hear pussy coming.

Mouse 3

: But she has pads on her feet and no one can hear her.

Mouse 4

: She has killed five of us this week.

Mouse 5

: I have a plan. Let us hang a bell round the cat’s neck. Then we’ll be sure to hear her.

Mouse 4

: What a good idea!

Mouse 3

: Yes, let’s do it at once.

Mouse 2

: That’s the best thing to do. 112

Mouse 1

: It’s all fine to talk about hanging a bell round the cat’s neck, but who is to ‘bell the cat’?

Others

:

(maintain silence)

The mice had a problem. The mice gathered together to discuss the problem. All the mice spoke in turn. These are the very basics of group discussion. A group discussion is nothing but a problem or issue being discussed. Solutions may or may not be arrived at. It is a platform to air one’s views and make suggestions. Read the following group discussion among three sports lovers: A: After the unimpressive showing at the Athens games, it’s high time that the Indian Olympic Association woke up from its deep slumber and did something drastically to salvage the damaged reputation of Indian Sports. B: Can this be done overnight? C: But, if we do not take immediate steps, the gulf between India and the other countries will only widen further. A: What reason could you attribute for the dismal and unimpressive show of the indian athletes, Olympics after Olympics? B: If I may say so, Indians don’t have the genes, the build and the necessary stamina. C: Add to these, lack of training facilities, gymnasiums, running tracks and financial resources. A: We are a developing country. We cannot afford to spend crores and crores of money on these. B: But, remember, other developing countries from Jamaica to Ethiopia, regularly rake in the medals. C: I remember what happened to one of the contestants. It is alleged that the Miss World crown slipped from her grasp because of the answer she gave for the question, “What is the first thing you would do if you became the ruler of your country?” “I would build a sports stadium”. This response was considered dumb by the judges. A: Sorry. Is it a figment of your imagination? C: I was cautious enough to say, it’s alleged.

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B: Anyhow it is unfortunate that for a country which boasts of a population of 100 crores, a gold medal is still elusive. A: Still I cannot understand why we do so badly even in hockey. B: The land that produced the hockey wizard Dhyan Chand has finished almost at the bottom of the table. The oriental magic has failed once again this time. C: When we could produce a Kalidasa and a Valluvar to match Shakespeare and Milton, and Ramanujam to take on the might of Einstein ....... A: Why did you leave out Infosys’ Narayanamurthy? Isn’t he more than a match to Bill Gates? B: There is no point in trying to cry over spilt milk. The silver lining in the otherwise black cloud is Rathore’s silver medal. C: How could we forget the fleeting moment of glory when Rathore draped the Indian tricolour across his shoulders during the medal ceremony! A: May his tribe increase! Task 1: Practise the above group discussion taking roles. Task 2: Form groups. Discuss the medium of instruction in schools. Task 3: Discuss the role of Tamil as a classical language. C. Reading Pre-reading: 1. Can you remember the first word you learnt in the English language? 2. What is the word you learnt most recently? 3. What are the ways in which you could find the meaning of a word? 4. Read the following passage and answer the questions given below: The origins of the English Dictionary are found in the late 16th century when people became aware of the two levels of English (‘learned’, ‘literacy’ distinct from ‘spoken’, ‘popular’) to an extent that made it desirable to gloss one’s level in the other’s terms. Cawdrey’s ‘Table Alphabetical of Hard Words’ (1604) containing about 3000 words might be called the first English dictionary but it is ‘The Dictionary of the English Language’ brought out in 1755 by Dr. Samuel Johnson that stands as one of the two great landmarks in English lexicographical history. Johnson’s objective was to produce “a dictionary by which the pronunciation of our language may be fixed, and its attainment facilitated; by which its purity may be preserved, its use ascertained, and its duration lengthened.” He wrote the definitions, some playfully, of over 40,000 words illustrating them with about 114,000 quotations 114

drawn from every field of learning and literature from the 16th century onwards. The work, though scanty in etymological knowledge remained without rival until the creation of the Oxford English Dictionary (OED) (1884-1926) edited by a group of lexicographers. The OED attempts to give a full history of the development of all English words since the 12th century with full illustrative quotations, ordered according to the principal distinct sense of the word. It has been updated by a series of supplements through the centuries. The possibility of one organized on synchronic, rather than historical, principles was brought close when in 1984 the OED files began to be converted into a computerized database.

1. When was the first English dictionary compiled?



2. Why was it compiled?



3. What are the features of Johnson’s dictionary?



4. Of the two landmarks of English lexicographical history which is more in use t today? Why?



5. What dictionary do you use and how often do you use it?

A DICTIONARY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE – Samuel Johnson It is the fate of those who toil at the lower employments of life, to be rather driven by the fear of evil, than attracted by the prospect of good; to be exposed to censure, without hope of praise; to be disgraced by miscarriage, or punished for neglect, where success would have been without applause, and diligence without reward. Among these unhappy mortals is the writer of dictionaries; whom mankind have considered, not as the pupil, but the slave of science, the pioneer of literature, doomed only to remove rubbish and clear obstructions from the paths through which learning and genius press forward to conquest and glory, without bestowing a smile on the humble drudge that facilitates their progress. Every other author may aspire to praise; the lexicographer can only hope to escape reproach, and even this negative recompense has been yet granted to very few. I have, notwithstanding this discouragement, attempted a dictionary of the English language, which, while it was employed in the cultivation of every species of literature, has itself been hitherto neglected; suffered to spread under the direction of chance, into wild exuberance; resigned to the tyranny of time and fashion: and exposed to the corruptions of ignorance and caprices of innovation. 115

When I took the first survey of my undertaking, I found our speech copious without order and energetic without rule: wherever I turned my view, there was perplexity to be disentangled and confusion to be regulated; choice was to be made out of boundless variety, without any established principle of selection; adulterations were to be detected, without a settled test of purity; and modes of expression to be rejected or received, without the suffrages of any writers of classical reputation or acknowledged authority. Having therefore no assistance but from general grammar, I applied myself to the perusal of our writers; and noting whatever might be of use to ascertain or illustrate any word or phrase, accumulated in time the materials of a dictionary, which, by degrees, I reduced to method, establishing to myself, in the progress of the work, such rules as experience and analogy suggested to me; experience, which practice and observation were continually increasing; and analogy, which, though in some other words obscure, was evident in others . . . In hope of giving longevity to that which its own nature forbids to be immortal, I have devoted this book, the labour of years, to the honour of my country, that we may no longer yield the palm of philology, without a contest to the nations of the continent. The chief glory of every people arises from its authors. Whether I shall add anything by my own writings to the reputation of English literature, must be left to time. Much of my life has been lost under the pressures of disease; much has been trifled away; and much has always been spent in provision for the day that was passing over me; but I shall not think my employment useless or ignoble, if by my assistance foreign nations and distant ages gain access to the propagators of knowledge, and understand the teachers of truth; if my labours afford light to the repositories of science, and add celebrity to Bacon, to Hooker, to Milton, and to Boyle. When I am animated by this wish, I look with pleasure on my book, however defective, and deliver it to the world with the spirit of a man that has endeavoured well. That it will immediately become popular, I have not promised to myself. A few wild blunders, and risible absurdities, from which no work of such multiplicity was ever free, may for a time furnish folly with laughter, and harden ignorance into contempt; but useful diligence will at last prevail, and there never can be wanting some who distinguish desert; who will consider that no dictionary of a living tongue ever can be perfect, since, while it is hastening to publication, some words are budding, and some falling away; that a whole life cannot be spent upon syntax and etymology, and that even a whole life would not be sufficient; that he, whose design includes whatever language can express, must often speak of what he does not understand; that a writer will sometimes be hurried by eagerness to the end, and sometimes faint with weariness under a task which Scaliger compares to the labours of the anvil and the mine; that what is obvious is not always known, and what is known is not always present; that sudden fits of inadventency will surprise vigilance, slight avocations will seduce attention, and casual eclipses of the mind will darken 116

learning; and that the writer shall often in vain trace his memory at the moment of need, for that which yesterday he knew with intuitive readiness, and which will come uncalled into his thoughts tomorrow. In this work, when it shall be found that much is omitted, let it not be forgotten that much likewise is performed; and though no book was ever spared out of tenderness to the author, and the world is little solicitous to know whence proceed the faults of that which it condemns; yet it may gratify curiosity to inform it, that the English Dictionary was written with little assistance of the learned, and without any patronage of the great; not in the soft obscurities of retirement, or under the shelter of academic bowers, but amidst inconvenience and distraction, in sickness and in sorrow. It may repress the triumph of malignant criticism to observe that if our language is not here fully displayed, I have only failed in an attempt which no human powers have hitherto completed. If the lexicons of ancient tongues, now immutably fixed and comprised in a few volumes, be yet, after the toil of successive ages, inadequate and delusive; if the aggregated knowledge and cooperating diligence of the Italian academicians did not secure them from the censure of Beni; if the embodied critics of France, when fifty years had been spent upon their work, were obliged to change its economy and give their second edition another form, I may surely be contented without the praise of perfection, which, if I could obtain, in this gloom of solitude, what would it avail me? I have protracted my work till most of those whom I wished to please have sunk into the grave, and success and miscarriage are empty sounds: I therefore dismiss it with frigid tranquility, having little to fear or hope from censure or from praise. - from the preface to the dictionary Glossary censure

: /'sen'SE/

- strong criticism, blame

doomed

: /du:md/

- condemned

miscarriage

: /mIs'kærIdZ/

- failure of a plan, hope etc.,

drudge

: /drúdZ/

- a person who has a long hard boring job

lexicographer

: /leksI'kógrEfE/

- who compiles dictionaries

negative compense : - a compensation that does not provide improvement wild exuberance

: /'waIld Ig'zju:brEns/ -strong, uncontrolled excitement

caprices : /kE'pri:siz/ - sudden change in attitude or behaviour with no cause. innovation copious

: /InE'veI∫n/ Ω : /'kE piEs/

- introduction of new ideas and techniques - plentiful, abundant 117

perplexity

: /pE'pleksEti/

- complication, bewilderment, confusion

disentangled

: /dIsIn'tængld/

- simplified, unravelled

suffrages

: /'súfrIdZIz/

- rights to vote

perusal

: /pE'ru:zl/

- reading carefully or thoroughly

analogy : /E'nælEdZi/ - process of reasoning based on partial similarity obscure

: /Eb'skjuE/

- not clearly seen or understood

longevity

: /lón'dZevEtI/

- long life

philology

: /fI'lólEdZI/

- study of the development of a language

trifled away

: /traifld E'wei/

- spent worthlessly

propagators

: / própE'geitEz /

- one who widely spreads knowledge

repositories

: /rI’pósItrIz/

- book or person that stores information

animated

: /'ænImeItId/

- inspired, motivated

risible

: /'rIzEbl/

- ridiculous, laughable

absurdities

: /Eb'sE:dEtIz/

- something unreasonable or foolish

syntax : /sIntæks/ - rules for arrangement of words, phrases, sentences etymology : /etI'mólEdZI/ - study of the origin and history of words and meanings inadvertency

: /InEd'vE:tEnsI/

- unintentional actions

avocation

: /ævE'keISn/

- distraction

seduce

: /sI'dju:s/

- tempt

solicitous

: /sE'lIsItEs/

- concerned, anxious

gratify

: /'grætIfaI/

- satisfy

patronage : /'pætrEnIdZ/ - support and encouragement given by persons, things obscurities

: /Eb'skjuErEtIz/

- things not clearly understood

repress

: /rI'pres/

- restrain, suppress, check

delusive

: /dI'lu:sIv/

- misleading

embodied : /Im'bódId/ - given expression or form to ideas, feeling, etc economy

: /IkónEmI/

- organization 118

protracted

: /prE'træktId/

- prolonged

frigid

: /'frIdZId/

- unfeeling, cold, unfriendly, indifferent

tranquility

: /træN'kwIlEti/

- quiet, calm, undisturbed condition

In hope …. immortal: to lengthen the duration of a language which by nature changes or is replaced. Labours of the anvil and mine : refers to the hard labour meted out to criminals in coal mines and smithies Shelter of academic bowers : universities sunk. . . grave: Johnson’s wife had died three years earlier. Bacon

: Francis Bacon (1567-1626), an essayist

Hooker

: Richard Hooker (1554-1600) a theologian

Milton

: John Milton (1608-1674) a poet

Boyle

: John Boyle (1676-1731) a literary critic

Scaliger

: Joseph Justus Scaliger (1540-1609), a scholar who suggested that criminals should be condemned to writing dictionaries.

Beni

: Paolo Beni severely criticized the first Italian dictionary.

Task: 1 Match the italicized word in the sentence with the appropriate context in the given responses: 1. It is the fate of those . . . . . .to be exposed to censure. a) The film was released only after the removal of the obscene scenes. b) The recent door to door count indicates an increase in population in this locality. c) The police faced heavy criticism for their lathi charge on the protestors. d) We were warned of the fire through this smoke detecting device. 2. There was perplexity to be disentangled. a) There was excitement in the classroom when the bell rang five minutes early. b) The increase in the dosage made the patient more sick. c) A further complication was the non availability of clear space to shelter the earthquake victims. d) The rope is knotted in several places.

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3. Slight avocation will seduce attention. a) This picture tempts me to eat more icecreams. b) The water in the lake has decreased considerably. c) My father will make sure we got the tickets for the journey. d) Good friends generate good habits. 4. It may repress the triumph of malignant criticism. a) She preferred to iron the clothes while they were still damp. b) You need to restrain your anger if you want to stay healthy. c) The children ended their programme with the National Anthem. d) The soldiers retreated when their captain got wounded. 5. When I am animated by this wish I look with pleasure on my book. a) He is encouraged by his friends to act better. b) He is free and generous with his collegues. c) I am acting as a wild animal in the play. d) I am excited at the prospect of being in the Olympic team. Task : 2 Choose the antonym of the italicized word from the options given: 1. It has spread under the direction of chance into wild exuberance.

a) apathy

b) sympathy

c) dislike

d) despair

2. I therefore dismiss it with frigid tranquility.

a) sedation

b) agitation

c) irritation d) desperation

3. I found our speech copious without order.

a) initiative

b) original

c) meagre d) monotonous

4. A few wild blunders and risible absurdities

a) submerged b) serious

c) comical d) pathetic

5. … analogy, which though in some other words obscure, was evident in others.

a) present

b) existing

c) alive

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d) clear

Comprehension Task : 1 Answer briefly : 1. Who, according to Johnson, are fated to be exposed to criticism without hope of praise? 2. What is a writer of dictionaries doomed to do? 3. Among which class of workers does Johnson place writers of dictionaries? 4. What is the lexicographer’s “negative recompense”? 5. What did Johnson find the English speech to be lacking in? 6. Whom or what did Johnson say he has ‘devoted’ his book to ? 7. What caused Johnson to devote his book to the honour of his country? Why did he do it? 8. Why can “no dictionary of a living tongue ever be perfect”? 9. “When I am animated by my wish”. What does this wish refer to? 10. What does Johnson mean by “there never can be wanting some who distinguish desert”? 11. Why does Johnson say “Success and miscarriage are empty sounds”? Task : 2 Answer in a paragraph in 100 words: 1. How did Johnson collect the words for his dictionary? 2. What prompted him to write a dictionary of the English language? 3. What did the first survey reveal of the work ahead of him? 4. What did Johnson hope to achieve by his work? 5. Do you think Johnson is hopeful, or pessimistic, or both about the fate of his dictionary? Explain. 6. What according to Johnson would happen when “useful deligence will at last prevail”? Task : 3 Write an essay in 250 words: 1. The making of Johnson’s Dictionary of the English Language. 2. Johnson’s mixed feelings about his efforts and the fate of his dictionary. 3. Through the ‘Preface’ Johnson himself stands revealed – Comment.

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Task : 4 Here are a few words with their meanings as found in Johnson’s Dictionary. Compare them with those in the Oxford Advance Learner’s Dictionary. What are the differences? How does Johnson indicate the word is a verb? 1. Cream

- The unctuous or oily part of milk which, when it is cold, floats on the top and is changed by the agitation of the churn into butter; the flower of milk.

2. to furnace

- To throw out as sparks from a furnace. A bad word.



He furnaces the thick sighs from him – Shakespeare’s Cymbeline’

3. lexicographer - a writer of dictionaries, a harmless drudge. 4. lifeguard

- The guard of a king’s person.

5. modern

- In Shakespeare, vulgar; mean; common.

We have our philosophical persons to make modern and familiar things supernatural and causeless (Shakespeare). 6. to sneeze

- to emit wind audibly by the nose.

7. Youth

- The part of life succeeding to childhood and adolescence, the time from fourteen to twenty eight.

I. Reducing a text by rejecting irrelevant information Read the following extract from George Bernard Shaw’s speech:

SPOKEN ENGLISH ‘I have said enough to you about the fact that no two native speakers of English speak it alike; but perhaps you are clever enough to ask me whether I, myself, speak it in the same way. I must confess that I do not. Nobody does. I am at present speaking to an audience of many thousands of gramophonists, many of whom are trying hard to follow my words, syllable by syllable. If I were to speak to you as carelessly as I speak to my wife at home, this record would be useless; and if I were to speak to my wife at home as carefully as I am speaking to you, she would think that I was going mad. As a public speaker I have to take care that every word I say is heard distinctly at the far end of large halls containing thousands of people. But at home when I have to consider only my wife sitting within six feet of me at breakfast, I take so little pains with my speech that very often, instead of giving me the expected answer, she says “Don’t mumble; and don’t turn your head away when you speak. I can’t hear a word you are saying”. And she also is a little careless. Sometimes I have to say “what?” 122

two or three times during our meals: and she suspects me of growing deafer and deafer, though she does not say so, because, as I am now over seventy, it might be true. No doubt I ought to speak to my wife as carefully as I should speak to a queen, and she to me as carefully as she would speak to a king; we ought to; but we don’t (don’t by the way, is short for ‘do not’). We all have our company manners and home manners. If you were to call on a strange family and to listen through the key-hole – not that I would suggest for a moment that you are capable of doing such a very unladylike or ungentlemanlike thing; but still – if in your enthusiasm for studying languages you could bring yourself to do it – just for a few seconds to hear how a family speak to one another when there is nobody else listening to them, and then walk into the room and hear how very differently they speak in your presence, the change would surprise you: even when our home manners are as good as our company manners – and of course they ought to be much better – they are always different; and the difference is greater in speech than in anything else. Now look at the following version of the text, where irrelevant information is omitted: ‘I have said enough to you about the fact that no two native speakers of English speak it alike; but perhaps you are clever

I must confess that

do not

enough to ask me whether I, myself,

^

speak it in the same way. ^

I must confess that I do not. Nobody does. I am at present speaking to an audience of many thousands of gramophonists,



me

many of whom are trying hard to follow my words, syllable by syllable. If I were to ^ syllable. If I were to speak to you as carelessly as I speak to my wife at home, this record would be useless; and if I were to speak to my wife at home as carefully as I am speaking to you, she would think that I was going mad. As a public speaker I have to take care that every word I say is heard distinctly at the far end of large halls containing thousands of people. But at home when I have to consider only my wife sitting within six feet of me at breakfast, I take so little pains with my speech that very often, instead of giving me the expected answer, she says “Don’t mumble; and don’t turn your head away when you speak. I can’t hear a word you are saying”. 123



repeat the word

And she also is a little careless. Sometimes I have to say “what?” ^ two or three times during our meals: and she suspects me of growing deafer and deafer, though she does not say so, because, as I am now over seventy, it might be true. No doubt I ought to speak to my wife as carefully as I should speak to a queen, and she to me as carefully as she would speak to a king; we ought to; but we don’t (don’t by the way, is short for ‘do not’).

,

We all have our company manners and home manners. If you were to call on



^

a strange family and to listen through the key-hole – not that I would suggest for a moment that you are capable of doing such a very unladylike or ungentlemanlike thing; but still if in your enthusiasm for studying languages you could bring yourself to do it – just for a few seconds to hear how a family speak to one another when there is nobody else listening to them, and then walk into the room and hear how very differently they speak in your presence, the change would surprise you: even when our home manners are as good as our company manners – and of course they ought to be much better – they are always different; and the difference is greater in speech than in anything else. Now look at the following reduced version of the text, after the rejecting of irrelevant information (for our purpose and from our point of view): No two native speakers of English speak alike. I must confess that I, myself, do not speak it in the same way. I am speaking to an audience of gramophonists, who are trying to follow me syllable by syllable. If I were to speak to you as carelessly as I speak to my wife this record would be useless; and if I were to speak to my wife as carefully as I am speaking to you, she would think that I was mad. As a speaker I take care that every word I say is heard distinctly at the far end of large halls. But at home when I have to consider only my wife sitting within six feet of me I take little pains with my speech that often, instead of giving me the expected answer, she says “Don’t mumble; I can’t hear a word”. And she is a little careless. Sometimes I have to repeat the word “what?” She suspects me of growing deaf, and over seventy, it might be true. No doubt I ought to speak to my wife as carefully as I should to a queen, and she to me as carefully as she would to a king. We all have our company, home manners. If you were to call on a strange family and to listen through the key-hole just for a few seconds to hear how a family speak to one another when there is nobody else listening to them, and then walk 124

into the room and hear how very differently they speak in your presence, the change would surprise you: even when our home manners are as good as our company manners they are always different; and the difference is greater in speech than in anything else. Rejecting irrelevant information and thereby reducing a text is a very useful skill in reading, especially when one needs this information in future. One would not have to go back to the original and scan for those relevant portions. Task: Read the first five paragraphs of your lesson and reduce it by rejecting irrelevant information. Remember information should be decided as relevant or irrelevant depending on the purpose in mind. (Here, keep in mind the theme of the lesson.) You can use some of the devices of notemaking learnt earlier. II. Understanding the communicative value of an utterance Look at the following utterances: Close the door. (command) Please close the door. (request / polite command) Will you close the door? (request) Will you please close the door? (request asked as a favour) Won’t you close the door? (wish in the form of a request) The appropriacy and the quality of one’s communication in the form of utterance is decided by the relationship between the speaker and the person spoken to, the setting, the mood/attitude of the speaker and the choice words / phrases used in the utterance. Task 1: Read the following conversation and answer the questions given below: The note taker :

Woman: cease this detestable boohooing instantly; or else seek the shelter of some other place of worship.

The flower girl :

I’ve a right to be here if I like, same as you.

The note taker :

A woman who utters such depressing and disgusting sounds has no right to be anywhere – no right to live. Remember that you are a human being with a soul and the divine gift of articulate speech: that your native language is the language of Shakespeare and Milton and The Bible; and don’t sit there crooning like a bilious pigeon.

The flower girl :

Ah-ah-ah-ow-ow-oo!

The note taker :

Heavens! What a sound! 125

1. What do you think is the relationship between the two speakers? 2. What do you think is the mood/attitude of the note taker? 3. What do you think is the setting? 4. What do you think is the mood/attitude of the flower girl? 5. How else do you think can the note-taker make his request? 6. How else do you think can the flower girl respond to him? Task 2: Read the following dialogue: A: May I come in? B: Yes. A: Good morning, Sir. B: What’s the matter? A: Sir, I’ve come for a favour from you. B: Mmmm........... A: I need an advance of Rs.10000/- Can you please recommend my application? B: No chance. You may go now. A: Sir, I thought you could help me, Sir. B: Don’t waste my time. Answer the following questions: 1. What is the setting? 2. What is the relationship between A and B? 3. What is the mood of B? 4. Is he courteous to A? 5. How polite is A in his request? Which sentence suggests that? 6. What is your impression about A and B? D. Vocabulary I. What do you understand by the term ‘mass media’? Mass media in English refers basically to TV, radio and newspapers: means of communication, which reaches out, to millions and millions of people all over the world. Just imagine a day in your life without the TV and newspaper! Wouldn’t you become mad? 126



Your grandfather relied on his own hand, pen and paper.

Your father relied on the typewriter. How blessed you are to have the services of the computer! You are in class XII. Haven’t you become computer savvy yet? The whole world is in this box, which is a treasure house of information. Twinkle, twinkle little star, How I wonder what you are! Now it is the stars’ turn to wonder and marvel at man’s romance with space!



The term science and technology includes not just physics, chemistry, botany, zoology, engineering and the rest, but its domain includes nuclear engineering, genetic engineering, information technology, astrophysics, molecular biology, so on and so forth. The growth of science and technology is prodigious and phenomenal which has climaxed in cloning. Under the greenwood tree Who loves to lie with me, And turn his merry note Unto the sweet bird’s throat We hardly find any greenery around, thanks not to woodpeckers but to woodcutters. Thanks to the environmentalists we are becoming eco-friendly, touchwood! Task 1: You have been exposed enough to the vocabulary associated with the above fields. Why don’t you try and pick out the words from the grid and list them according to their field? Task 2: Refer to newspapers and supplementary sections and add more words to the fields. virus

leader

soap opera

ozone layer

greenhouse effect

robot

meteor

spread-sheet

block buster

scanner

ecology

prime slot

cosmos

asteroid

www

NASA

global warming

pollution

astronaut

mutation

hacker

tabloid

episode

cybernetics

voyager

modem

thermal

ultraviolet

radioactive

acid rain

database

deforestation

columnist

Sputnik

taxonomy

chat show

chromosome

virology

Martian

atomic

127

II. Look at the following words taken from your lesson and how they have been syllabified (in the naked form, not in the phonemic form): pre si dent ad van tage dra ma tic ex pres sion

in sti tu tion par ti cu lar com pre hen sive in spi ra tion

ar gu men ta tive al li te ra tion ap pre ci a tion as so ci a tion

Task: Syllabify the following words and classify the words according to the number of syllables, and say with correct stress: facilitate, fantastic, entertain, domestic, donkey, detect, daughter, demonstrate, cucumber, laboratory, intelligent, simultaneous, statistics, stupid, formidable, magnificent, eccentric, confidence, astrology, banana, apparatus, accident, extermination, establishmentarianism III. Read the following passage: Eliza wrote in her diary It was the English class. It was the day of inspection. Ilakya had forgotten to bring her grammer book. Kavya had forgotten to bring her supplimentary reader. Vaidya was absent because of diarhoea. Jalaja was also absent. She was down with pnemonia. It was an embarasment for the teacher. Task 1: Correct Eliza’s spelling. It is not enough that you have enough words in your vocabulary kit. It is not enough that you know your grammar. You should know your spelling too. Spelling is as important for your writing, as pronunciation for your speaking. Here’s a quick recap of the spelling rules that you’ve already learnt (the rules are not exhaustive): Doubling the consonant: Monosyllabic words ending in a single vowel and a single consonant – double the consonant before a suffix beginning with vowel. e.g. running, beggar A few exceptions – bus, gas, etc. Disyllabic words ending in a single vowel and a single consonant – double the final consonant if the last syllable is stressed. e.g. permitted, beginning The consonant ‘l’ is usually doubled even when the stress does not fall on the last syllable.

128

e.g. travel - traveller; quarrel - quarrelled Words in silent ‘e’ drop the ‘e’ before a suffix beginning with a vowel. e.g. live - living; move - movable But the ‘e’ remains before a suffix beginning with a consonant. e.g. hope - hopeful Words ending in ‘ce’ or ‘ge’ retain the ‘e’ before a suffix beginning with ‘a’ ‘o’ ‘u’. e.g. change – changeable A final ‘y’ following a consonant changes to ‘i’ before any suffix except ‘ing’. e.g. beauty – beautiful; happy – happily; cry – crying But ‘y’ following a vowel does not change. e.g. play – played When the suffix ‘full’ is added to words, the second ‘l’ is dropped. e.g. joy – joyful; beauty – beautiful When ‘ie’ or ‘ei’ is pronounced /i:/ the ‘i’ before the ‘e’ except after ‘c’. e.g. believe, relieve and deceive, receive. Always remember that there are exceptions! Task 2: Are you spell bound? Choose the correct option from the pairs given: anomaly



anamoly

heirarchy



hierarchy

accommodation



accomodation

lawlesness



lawlessness

seperation



separation

recommend



recomend

supersede



supercede

superintentent



superintendent

consceince



conscience

ketle



kettle

occurance



occurrence

dilemma



dilema

committee



commitee 129

ridiculous



ridiculuous

glutunous



gluttonous

colloquial



coloquial

From the list, can you identify the word which was misspelled by Gandhiji in his first test? IV. Look at the words in bold in the following sentences: Little Jack Horner’s diary entry read – Visit Old Mac Donald’s dairy. Uncle Tom adopted a child from the orphanage and named the child Topsy. The child adapted herself to the new environment. The pairs of words diary – dairy, adopted – adapted are confusibles. Confusible is a loose linguistic term for one of two or more words that are commonly and easily confused with one another. Task 1: Fill in the blanks in the following sentences choosing from the pair of words given against each: 1. I had no ............ He gave me a ................. of advice. (piece/peace) 2. The story told by the............... old man is not ............. (credible/credulous) 3. They had dates for ................... in the ............... (dessert/desert) 4. The police tried to ........... information from the bootlegger who sells ............ liquor. (illicit/elicit) 5. The most .................. scientist in the world has been warning about the .............. danger of nuclear war. (imminent/eminent) 6. The book which has been ............... for the BA class has been.................. for containing some remarks against a particular religion. (proscribed/prescribed) Task 2: Use the following pairs of words in sentences of your own, to bring out the difference in meaning: stationary



stationery

judicial



judicious

popular



populous

industrial



industrious

luxurious



luxuriant

conscience –

conscious

official



officious

moral



morale

eligible



illegible

emigrant



immigrant

personal



personnel

principal



principle



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E. Study skills It is important to be able to transfer information from verbal to non-verbal presentation for – ● it helps in better organisation ● it helps in better comprehension ● it helps in classification ● it aids quicker revision Non-verbal presentation could be in the form of tables, charts, flow-charts, etc. Read the following passage:

Shakespeare the greatest of playwrights wrote 37 plays.

His History plays are Henry VI Part II (Performed 1590-91 and printed 1594?), Henry VI Part III (Performed 1590-91 and printed 1594?), Henry VI Part I (Performed 1591-92 and printed 1623), Richard III (Performed 1592-93 and printed 1597), Richard II (Performed 1595-96 and printed 1597), King John (Performed 1596-97 and printed 1623), Henry IV Part I (Performed 1597-98 and printed 1598), Henry IV Part II (Performed 1597-98 and printed 1600), Henry V (Performed 1598-99 and printed 1600) and Henry VIII (Performed 1612-13 and printed 1623). His Tragedies are Titus Andronicus (Performed 1593-94 and printed 1594), Romeo and Juliet (Performed 1594-95 and printed 1597), Julius Caesar (Performed 1599-1600 and printed 1623), Hamlet (Performed 1600-01 and printed 1603), Othello (Performed 1604-05 and printed 1622), King Lear (Performed 1605-06 and printed 1608), Macbeth (Performed 1605-06 and printed 1623), Antony and Cleopatra (Performed 1606-07 and printed 1623), Coriolanus (Performed 1607-08 and printed 1623) and Timon of Athens (Performed 1607-08 and printed 1623). His Comedies are Comedy of Errors (Performed 1592-93 and printed 1623), Taming of the Shrew (Performed 1593-94 and printed 1623), Two Gentlemen of Verona (Performed 1594- 95 and printed 1623), Love’s Labour’s Lost (Performed 1594-95 and printed 1598?), A Midsummer Night’s Dream (Performed 1595-96 and printed 1600), Merchant of Venice (Performed 1596-97 and printed 1600), Much Ado About Nothing (Performed 1598-99 and printed 1600), As You Like It (Performed 1599-1600 and printed 1623), Twelfth Night (Performed 1599-1600 and printed 1623), The Merry Wives of Windsor (Performed 1600-01 and printed 1602), Troilus and Cressida (Performed 1601-02 and printed 1609), All’s Well that Ends Well (Performed 1602-03 and printed 1623) and Measure for Measure (Performed 160405 and printed 1623).

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His Romances are Pericles (Performed 1608-09 and printed 1609), Cymbeline (Performed 1609-10 and printed 1623), Winter’s Tale (Performed 1610-11 and printed 1623) and Tempest (Performed 1611-12 and printed 1623). Now look at the following table:

CLASSIFICATION OF SHAKESPEARE’S PLAYS

Histories

Tragedies

Title

Year performed

Year printed

Henry VI Part II

1590-91

1594?

Henry VI Part III

1590-91

1594?

Henry VI Part I

1591-92

1623

Richard III

1592-93

1597

Richard II

1595-96

1597

King John

1596-97

1623

Henry IV Part I

1597-98

1598

Henry IV Part II

1597-98

1600

Henry V

1598-99

1600

Henry VIII

1612-13

1623

Titus Andronicus

1593-94

1594

Romeo and Juliet

1594-95

1597

Julius Caesar

1599-1600

1623

Hamlet

1600-01

1603

Othello

1604-05

1622

King Lear

1605-06

1608

Macbeth

1605-06

1623

Antony & Cleopatra

1606-07

1623

Coriolanus

1607-08

1623

Timon of Athens

1607-08

1623

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Comedies

The Comedy of Errors

1592-93

1623

Taming of the Shrew

1593-94

1623

of Verona

1594-95

1623

Love’s Labour’s Lost

1594-95

1598?

Night’s Dream

1595-96

1600

Merchant of Venice

1596-97

1600

Nothing

1598-99

1600

As You Like It

1599-1600

1623

Twelfth Night

1599-1600

1623

of Windsor

1600-01

1602

Troilus and Cressida All’s Well that End’s

1601-02

1609

1602-03

1623

1604-05

1623

Pericles

1608-09

1609

Cymbeline

1609-10

1623

Winter’s Tale

1610-11

1623

Tempest

1611-12

1623

The Two Gentlemen

A Midsummer

Much Ado about

The Merry Wives

Well Measure for Measure Romances

(Note: Establishing the chronology of Shakespeare’s plays is a difficult task. It is impossible to know the exact order of succession because there is no record of the first production date of any of Shakespeare’s works. However scholars have arrived at a fairly acceptable chronology based on historical events, allusions to those events in the plays, records of performances of the plays, the publication dates, etc. We must keep in mind that the chronology is conjectural and there are many who disagree with the order of plays listed above.) Did you notice the difference in presenting information in the above two formats? Isn’t the latter easier to comprehend and better organised? 133

Task 1: Gather information on the heroes, heroines, villains and comedians of Shakespeare’s plays and tabulate the information, highlighting one important characteristic of each personality. Task 2: Gather information on the world’s greatest batsmen, their records, highest score against which country, not-outs, etc., and tabulate the information. F. Grammar We have learnt enough and more about auxiliaries in the classes gone by. Let us know their characteristics:

There are two kinds of auxiliaries:



Primary and



Modal auxiliaries

An auxiliary is a verb which is used with another verb to help make tenses other than simple present and simple past. Primary auxiliaries are: Be and its form Have and its form Do and its form Be is used in the expression of progressive aspect: e.g. He is reading. Be is used in the passive: e.g. He was clean bowled. Have is used in the expression of perfective aspect. e.g. They have finished their assignment. Do is used when there is no other auxiliary in a verb phrase. It is used to form negatives and interrogatives. e.g. Doesn’t she like it?

She doesn’t like it.

Be, have and do can also occur as principal verbs. Be as a principal verb: My brother is a computer engineer. Be is used to express a command: Be a nice girl. 134

The auxiliary have is unique in the sense it can be used to talk about possession, take, experience and receive. They have a luxuriant garden. (possession) I have my breakfast at 8.00 a.m. (take) He had a mild heart attack. (experience) I have a parcel from the British Council for you. (receive) Do: I do my yoga exercise every morning. Anomalous finites is the term used for the 24 auxiliaries. As we have seen, out of the 24 auxiliaries, 11 are primary auxiliaries, 9 are modal auxiliaries and the remaining 4 are semi- modals. As auxiliaries their function is to help principal verbs to form their tense and moods. As anomalous finites, they have other functions. These verbs are irregular finites, but these irregular finites are different in their functions from other irregular finites and hence are called anomalous finites. These finites have many functions: 1. They are used with the negative not to make a sentence negative:

e.g. He may or may not accept the offer.



(Most have reduced/contracted forms – can’t, won’t, doesn’t.)

2. They form questions by changing positions with the subject:

e.g. Kalam has invited him.



Has Kalam invited him?

3. To avoid repetition:

e.g. Can you hear me?



Yes, I can.

4. For emphasis:

e.g. I did write to him.

5. To form tag questions:

e.g. She can paint well. Can’t she?

Be verbs are usually anomalous. Have verbs are anomalous as principal verbs when they are used to express the idea of possession. 135

Do verbs are anomalous as auxiliaries. As principal verbs, they are not. Out of the 13 modals (including the semi-modals), shall, should, will, would, can, could, may, might, must, ought to and used to are always anomalous. Dare and need are anomalous when used as auxiliaries and not anomalous when they are used as principal verbs. Task 1: Change the positive statements to negative: 1. She knows him very well. 2. I have seen the picture. 3. He wants to work. 4. We need a new car. Task 2: Form interrogatives: 1. They are very anxious to know the score. 2. He has a car. 3. He doesn’t want to work. Task 3: Fill in the blanks with appropriate forms of ‘be’, ‘have’ and ‘do’: 1. I shall go to Delhi after I ............. finished my work here. 2. She ......... playing the guitar when I called on her. 3. The old man ............. become unconscious before the ambulance came. 4. This is what he .............. not seem to appreciate. Task 4: (a) Write at least 5 sentences using ‘be’ verb both as auxiliary verbs and principal verbs.

(b) Write at least 5 sentences using ‘have’ verb both as auxiliary verbs and principal verbs.



(c) Write at least 5 sentences using ‘do’ verb both as auxiliary verbs and principal verbs.

Now let us see about the characteristics of modal auxiliaries: ●

Modals are always the first word in a verb group.



Modals have only one form.

● All modals except ‘ought’ and ‘used to’ are followed by the base form of the verb. ● ‘Ought’ is followed by ‘to’ infinitive.

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● Two modals cannot occur one after the other in a sentence. ● Modals help to form not only negatives and questions but also a wide variety of meanings. ● Of the nine modals, ‘must’ can be used as a noun also. Look at the chart below: Modal auxiliaries

Meanings/Functions

can

ability, permission, request, possibility

could

ability, formal request, possibility

shall

futurity, willingness, intention, suggestion, insistence

should

obligation, necessity, expectation, advisability

will

willingness, intention, prediction, insistence

would

willingness, habitual action in the past, probability, wishes, desire

may

permission, possibility, wishes, purpose, concession

might

permission, possibility, concession, reproach

must

necessity, prohibition, compulsion, obligation, deduction, certainty, probability

Task 1: Using the above chart, fill in the blanks with suitable modals: 1. Eve-teasers ............. be severely punished. 2. A good teacher .............. make even boring lessons interesting. 3. In the army, soldiers ..............obey their officers. 4. The sky is overcast. It ............ rain, but I don’t think it ........ 5. The patient is very critical, but who knows he ................ recover. 6. The world ................ avoid war, in the larger interest of the human race as a whole. 7. I .................. smell something burning in the kitchen. It ............. be the meat in the oven. 8. ................ I come in? Yes, of course, you ............. 9. One ................. always keep his promises. 10. All citizens ............... obey the laws of the land. 11. He asked his boss, “................ I ask you for a favour?” 137

12. I wish you ............. tell me the truth. 13. Visit us tomorrow. My mother .............. be happy to see you. 14. During my teens, I ..................... always sit for hours together before the TV. 15. If you worked hard, you ........... pass. 16. Don’t worry. This ............... happen to anyone. 17. ............... God bless you. 18. I .............. gladly do it for you. 19. Soldiers sacrifice their lives that others .............. be happy. 20. During our trip to the States .................... we visit the Niagara Falls? 21. Even if you ask me not to go, I ................. Task 2: Fill in the blanks in the following with suitable modals: 1. Caesar’s wife ........... be above suspicion. 2. People who live in glass houses ............ not throw stones. 3. Give me a fish I ............. live for a day. Teach me to fish I .......... live for a lifetime. 4. No man ............. call back yesterday. 5. God .............. not be everywhere , so He made mothers. 6. He who pays the piper ............. call the tune. 7. It ............ make a man scratch where he doth not itch to see a man live poor to die rich. 8. Thou ............... not steal. 9. One never knows what the future ............. bring. 10. Law makers ................ not be law breakers. Task 3: Fill in the blanks in the following story choosing the modals given within brackets: A wolf carried off a lamb. The lamb thought, “I .......... teach him a lesson”. “I know you ....... eat me”, said the lamb, “but before that I ............ like to hear you play the flute. I have heard that you ............ play the flute better than anyone else. The wolf was so pleased. The wolf put the lamb down, so that he ............. play the flute. When he had done, the lamb said, “You are, indeed, a fine player. .............. you be so good as to play just once more?” So the wolf played again. The shepherd and the dogs heard the sound, and they came running and fell on the wolf.

(can, could, will, would, shall, should) 138

Task 4: Fill in the blanks in the following story choosing the modals given in brackets: One day a goat was crossing a bridge. At the middle of the bridge, he met another goat. There was no room for them to pass. “Go back”, said the first goat. “Why .............. I go back?” asked the second goat. “You ............. go back, because I am stronger than you”. “Who is stronger?” “We ....... see about that in a minute,” said the second goat. They began to fight. “Stop! If we fight, we ........... both fall into the river. I ........... lie down, and you .......... walk over me,” said the first goat. So the wise goat lay down on the bridge, that the other goat .......... walk over him. So they passed each other, and went on their ways.

(must, shall, might, should, may, will)

Look at the following table: Quasi/semi modals

Meanings/Functions

ought to

moral obligation, probability, certainty, advice, necessity, duty, fitness

used to

discontinued habit

need

necessity, obligation (used in negatives and questions)

dare

defiance, challenge, boldness (used in negatives and interrogatives)

Ought to, Used to, Need and Dare are semi-modals/quasi modals, because technically speaking they are not modals. They do not share all the properties of other modal verbs. ‘Dare’ and ‘need’ can be used both as lexical (main) and auxiliary verbs. e.g. Lexical/main verb: 1. I dare swim in this river against the current. 2. She dares to swim in this river against the current. Auxiliary: 1. They dare not swim in this river against the current. 2. Dare she say it again to me? ‘Need’ follows the same pattern of ‘dare’.

139

Look at the following sentences: A.

1. He ought to submit his work on time. (duty)



2. He ought to be ashamed of his conduct. (fitness)



3. We ought to help the needy. (moral obligation)



4. We ought to hire some furniture for the party. (necessity)



5. He said he would attend the meeting. He ought to be in the Board room. (certainty)



6. I think you ought to discuss this issue with your boss. (advice)

B.

1. My grandfather used to walk for long hours when he was young.



2. My grandmother used to tell me bed-time stories when I was young.

C.

1. I need to buy a carton of milk. (necessity)



2. We need to keep our environment clean. (obligation)



3. You needn’t come tomorrow. (negative)

4. Need I inform him about this? (question)

5. He doesn’t need your advice. (negative)



6. Would they need my help? (question)

D.

1. How dare he say that? (interrogative)



2. She won’t dare to face me after this. (negative)



3. I dare not venture out in the dark. (negative)

Task 1: Fill in the blanks in the following sentences using appropriate quasimodals: 1. We have been here for more than an hour. ........... we wait any longer? 2. You ................. feel sorry for what you’ve done. 3. When I was in the army we ........... a rigorous and punishing schedule. 4. How .............. you ask me such a question? 5. As his class-mates, we ................... stand by him through this crisis. 6. I ........... wake up at 5 o’ clock in the morning when I was a young boy (but now I don’t). 7. My father ............. to take long walks (now he doesn’t).

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8. You ............ not read every chapter. 9. He ............. play football in his college days. 10. My marks are so poor that I ............ show my progress report to my father. Task 2: Comment on the use of ‘dare’ and ‘need’ in the following sentences: 1. He dare not take the risk. 2. I did not need to speak to him. 3. We need not buy any more toys. 4. Need he beat the boy for this small mistake? Task 3: Match the function with the mood expressed in the sentences: strong advice

He must be mad.

obligation

She can play chess very well.

rules

I could read without glasses.

law

You must call the doctor.

requirement

You must be 18 to become a voter.

obligation

You must not smoke in public.

prohibition

We ought to help the poor.

skill

I should visit my friend in the hospital.

past ability

You must have a passport to visit a foreign country.

deduction

You must maintain silence in the classroom.

Task 4: Match the function with the mood expressed in the sentences: ability

He may pass.

certainty

That will be the postman.

possibility

He will arrive exactly at 6.00 p.m.

stronger possibility

He can swim but he can’t drive.

prediction

India will win the match.

G. Writing Transcoding information involves using language to decode graphically presented information. It involves interpreting non - verbal information.

141

Look at the pie-diagram given below and the description that follows: The proportion of the world's books annually published in each language 4.7%

Russian

4.5%

Portugese

4.4%

Korean

4.0%

Italian

2.4%

Dutch

1.6%

Swedish

5.1%

Japanese

6.7%

Spanish

7.7%

French

11.8%

German

13.3%

Chinese

28.0%

English

5.8%

Other

The pie-diagram shows the proportion of the world’s books annually published in each language. English is the most widely used foreign language for book publication – 28% of books published are in English. This is followed by Chinese – 13.3%. Next comes German – 11.8%. While 7.7% books are published in French, 6.7% books are published in Spanish. Japanese comes next with 5.1%. This is followed by Russian – 4.7% , Portugese – 4.5%, Korean 4.4% and Italian 4%. Only 2.4% of books published are in Dutch followed by a poor 1.6% in Swedish. Other languages put together constitute the remaining 5.8%. Task: Using the model given above, describe the bar-diagram given below: The graph shows a comparison in %, in opting for various courses of study at the higher education level, between the early 60’s and late 90’s. 45 40 35 30 25

1960-61

20

1998-99

15 10 5 0

Arts Sc Com Eco Med Edu Agri Law Vet

Oth

(Note: Try to fix the expansions of the abbreviated courses.) 142

H. Occupational Competency Philip Sidney described the magic of story-telling: “... a tale which holdeth children from play and old men from the chimney corner.” Effective storytelling is a fine and beautiful art. A story well-developed and presented can cut across all barriers and hold the interest of the listeners. Stories will be remembered long after every other thing is forgotten. Knowing the basics of storytelling will make your story-telling effective. Storytelling involves one’s ability to narrate, using body language, creating visual pictures, and capturing and sustaining the listener’s attention. One can transfer these skills and employ them effectively and judiciously in any occupation (teaching, law, etc.) Characteristics of a good story ● Should have a single, clearly defined theme ● Should contain a well developed plot ● Should portray vivid word pictures ● Should involve characterisation ● Should have dramatic appeal ● Should be appropriate to the target listeners Delivery elements: ● Involvement in the art of story-telling ● Enthusiasm (This does not mean artificial or noisy excitement) ● Animation (in your gestures, voice, facial expressions) Look at the following pictures and read the story that follows:

143

Once there was a man, who thought he was Sherlock Holmes. He dressed like Holmes, walked like Holmes and talked like Holmes. He had a cat for his companion. He named his cat Watson. He thought it was his business to solve mysteries. Whenever there was a theft, he made it a point to rush to the scene of crime and attempt to solve the mystery. But he never even once succeeded in solving any. One day he saw a man with a gun and suspecting him to be a thief, followed him. He went wearing the mask of a lion, because he thought only in disguise he could nab culprits (as his real identity is not known). The man went inside a tent. Our ‘Holmes’, peeped through a gap. The man was trying to open a big chest. Holmes waited for the man to open the chest so that he could catch him red-handed. The man managed to break open the chest and out came a monkey! The monkey thanked the man for setting it free. Poor ‘Holmes’! How could he know that the man he followed was a zoophilist? ‘Holmes’, the detective was disappointed that he could not solve any mystery. ‘Holmes’, the man was delighted that the monkey was set free. Task: Write a story based on the following pictures and share it with your classmates.

(Tip: Build the story based on the lines of ‘How the Camel got its Hump’ in your Supplementary Reader. This story could begin thus - Long, long ago, the cock was crowing only in the night. He disturbed the sleep of all the animals and birds........) I. Strategic Competency Interruptions in the form of hesitations destroy the effectiveness of speech. Too many vocalisations of gap fillers such as er, ah, uh, hmmm, etc., distract the listener. Speakers must guard against this. Though the rule, ‘don’t vocalise, just pause’, will apply for formal speeches, presentations, lectures, etc., a judicious sprinkling of such fillers is essential in conversational speech as they add charm to one’s speech. One could use discourse markers like, Oh, now, you know, so, you see, let me see, well, etc., instead of non-lexical fillers like er, ah, uh, hmmm, etc. They serve as sentence connecting devices and fill the gaps that arise in conversational speech due to the thinking process. These fillers function as transitional words/phrases in speech and take the place of false starts, hesitations and repetitions. 144

Task: Substitute the non-lexical fillers in the following conversation with discourse markers: Police:

Were you in town that night?

Man:

Uh …… I was certainly in town around midnight.

Police:

Where exactly were you at that time?

Man:

I was in the garage of Spencer Plaza.

Police:

What did you see in the garage?

Man:

Mmmm…. I saw two men looking into all the parked cars.

Police:

Did you hear anything?

Man:

Er …….. yes, I think I did hear a gun shot.

Police:

Why didn’t you tell the police?

Man:

I was afraid ….. uh ……that I would be arrested and questioned.

Police:

At least when you read about the murder in the papers the next day, you could have gone to the police.

Man: Er …. yes, but uh ….........… I was afraid that I will be accused of … the murder. Police:

Can you describe the men you saw?

Man:

uh ….yes, I think I can.

…………………………………. ………………………………… J. Creative Competency I. It is said, ‘Sandwich every bit of criticism between two heavy layers of praise.’ Read the following criticism of four different people on the same issue: 1. It is good that Tamil has been declared a classical language. At this great moment for all Tamil-speaking people, one should also be wary of the possible repercussions this could have in multi-lingual India. One way of avoiding tension is to declare all the 18 official languages spoken in India, including English, Arabic and Urdu as classical languages. 2. It is true that it is an impetus to the Tamil-speaking people but it should not lead to aversion among people speaking other languages. Any language that fits the bill should be recognised as classical forthwith.

145

3. The decision to declare Tamil a classical language and to establish professorship and a centre for its study cannot but meet with full approval. Given its ancient, original Sangam literature, second in age to, but independent of, (Vedic) Sanskrit, it was long overdue. It is hoped that other classical languages such as Ardhamagadhi and Maharastri of the Jaina canon, and Pali of the Buddhist canon will also get the honour. This way, the rich cultural inheritance of India will be given its proper recognition and support. 4. Tamil occupies a distinctive position among the Dravidian languages owing to its geographical expansion (spoken and written by several millions of Tamils living in many parts of the world) and sound grammatical basis. I hope Tamil is also declared a world classical language. Task 1: Answer the following questions: 1. Which of the above lauds the declaration of Tamil as a classical language? 2. Which of the above does not agree to the declaration of Tamil alone as a classical language? 3. Which of the above is positive criticism? 4. Which of the above is negative criticism? Task 2: Write a criticism on the following: 1. English as a compulsory medium of instruction in schools. 2. TV serials 3. Any topical event II. Look at the caption for the photograph:

My striped coat is



my pride



and your envy.

While writing a caption for a photograph, remember: ●

use catchy phrases



be brief and concise



employ pun and wordplay



use known proverbs and maxims



relate the caption to the photograph



be creative 146

Task 1: Write a few more captions for the above photograph. Task 2: Write one or two captions for the following photographs.

147

POEM ENGLISH WORDS

Speech that came like leech-craft



And killed us almost, bleeding us white!



You bleached our souls soiled with impurities.



You bathed our hearts amid tempestuous seas



Of a purer, drearier, delight.



O tongues of fire! You came devouring



Forests of nightshade, creepers that enmesh,



Trees that never remembered to grow,



And shrubs that were but thornmills in our flesh.



You were the dawn, and sunlight filled the spaces



Where owls were hovering.



O winged seeds! You crossed the furrowed seas



To nestle in the warm and silent earth.



Like a golden swarm of fireflies you came



Pining for a new agony, a new birth.



You blossomed into a nascent loveliness.



You ripened into nectar in fruit-jars



That hung like clustered stars.



O winging words! Like homing bees you borrow



Grown murmurous, the honey of delight,



Pollened within our hearts the coming morrow,



Sweetened within our souls for aeons bright:



You kindle in the far corners of the earth



The music of an ever-deepening chant:



The burthen of a waneless, winterless spring,



The gospel of an endless blossoming. 148



Fathomless words, with Indo-Aryan blood



Tingling in your veins.



The spoils of ages, global merchandise



Mingling in your strains!



You pose the cosmic riddles:



In the beginning was the Word



And the Word was God.



The Word is in the middle



And the Word is Man.



In the end will be the Word



And the Word will be God in Man. - V K Gokak

VK Gokak, a famous novelist and poet in Kannada and a professor of English, wrote and published poetry in English as well.This poem expresses Gokak’s admiration for the English language.He brings out the efficacy of English words in delightful and poignant similes. How the language across the seas changed our hearts is shown here. Glossary leech craft /li:tSkra:ft/ : ancient medical remedy of using leeches to remove the impure blood bleached

/bli:tSt/

tempestuous

/tem'pestju s/

: violent

drearier

/'driEriE/

: gloomier

devouring

/dI’va EriN/

: consuming large quantities

enmesh

/In'meS/

: to catch, as if, in a net

furrowed

/'fúrE d/

Ω

Ω

Ω

: made white, (here) cleaned

: deep and wavy

nestle /'nesl/ : settle comfortably nascent

/'næsnt/

homing



/'hə mIŋ/



: of the ability to find one’s way home

aeons



/'i:əns/



: ages, infinitely long periods

burthen



/'bə: ðn/



: burden

Ω

: beginning to develop

149

gospel

/'góspl/

: good news

waneless

/'weInlIs/

: not growing smaller

fathomless

/'fæðəmlIs/

: too deep to be measured or understood

Ω

: referring to the branch of the Aryans Indo-Aryan /Ində 'eərIən/ who came to India through Iran (English belongs to Germanic, an Indo-Aryan language) Comprehension questions 1. How efficacious is speech according to the poet? 2. What are English words compared to, by the poet? 3. What is the impact of speech on men? 4. Explain the meaning of the line ‘the gospel of an endless blossoming’. 5. What is the significance of the ‘Word’? Appreciation questions 1. Who is the poem addressed to? 2. What does the poet mean by ‘you crossed the furrowed seas’? 3. ‘You pose the cosmic riddle’ – What’s the riddle? Has the riddle been solved? 4. Words have divinity in them – Explain. Answer the following passages with reference to the context: 1. You bleached our souls soiled with impurities

You bathed our hearts amid tempestuous seas.

2. You were the dawn, and sunlight filled the spaces

Where owls were hovering.

3. You ripened into nectar in fruit-jars

That hung like clustered stars.

4. O winging words! Like homing bees you borrow

Grown murmurous, the honey of delight,

5. The spoils of ages, global merchandise

Mingling in your strains! 150

6. In the end will be the Word

And the Word will be God in Man.

Write an essay on:

V K Gokak’s address to English words.

Activity Form groups and discuss:

(a) The reasons for the growth of English.



(b) If not for language, how would man have communicated?

151

UNIT V COMPETENCIES A LISTENING: Listening to dialogues B SPEAKING: Giving short speeches C READING: Understanding text organisation Understanding different registers

Understanding graphs, tables, charts, etc.

D VOCABULARY: Using/identifying words formed by clipping and blending

Building words with particular suffixes



Using eponyms, euphemisms and cliche

E STUDY SKILLS: Making notes F GRAMMAR: Using relative clauses – defining and non-defining G WRITING: Writing with correct punctuation H OCCUPATIONAL COMPETENCY: Writing advertisements I

STRATEGIC COMPETENCY: Taking risks (Feeling confident enough to try out something in English)

J CREATIVE COMPETENCY: Preparing the concept for an advertisement A. Listening Task 1: The teacher will read a short dialogue. Listen carefully and answer the questions given below:

(The teacher reads)

1. Name the two commuters speaking to each other. 2. How long has the bus been trapped in the traffic jam? 3. At what time was Ramu to have his presentation? 4. On which street do the two commuters work and in which offices? 5. Who suggested walking to their work places? 6. How long would it take to reach the office if they walked the distance? 7. Is there any mention of the reason for the traffic jam? Task 2: Suresh and Ramu meet again the next day at the bus stop. Listen to the teacher read the dialogue between them and answer the questions that follow:

(The teacher reads) 152

1. How did Ramu’s presentation go off? 2. What caused the previous day’s traffic jam? 3. Where were the children being taken? 4. What distracted the van driver, according to the report? 5. Were there any casualties? Task 3: The teacher will read a dialogue between a parent and a teacher. Listen to the dialogue and fill in the blanks in the statements given below.

(The teacher reads)

1. According to Vijay’s mother, Vijay has not ……. and is …….. 2. Vijay’s mother wants him to do ……………... 3. ............. are not the indicators of one’s.......... 4. Vijay has ……………… competency. 5. Vijay has ……………. 6. Vijay has a ……………… imagination. 7. Vijay has …………. in expression. 8. Vijay is extremely good in ………… presentation. 9. The teacher feels that Vijay can make it big in ………. 10. The teacher believes that success ………….. B. Speaking (i) The following is an address of welcome by the School Pupil Leader of your school on the occasion of the Annual Day Celebrations. “Honourable Chief Guest Dr. Kamala Sriram, Director,Institute of Environmental Studies; Mr. Nagaraj, Director, SPCA, respected members of the PTA, respected Principal, teachers and my dear friends. It’s my proud privilege to extend a hearty welcome to you all. (Turning to the Chief Guest) Madam, we are happy to have you here to grace this occasion. (Turning to Mr. Nagarajan) Sir, we are equally happy to have you in our midst to share with us your experiences in the SPCA. We hope you will stay with us through the programme to carry with you pleasant memories of the evening.

Thank you!

Task 1: Practise the above speech. Task 2: Imagine you are the Principal of your school and welcome the gathering at the flag hoisting ceremony on Independence Day. 153

(ii) The following is a Vote of Thanks proposed by the Science Club Secretary at the Valedictory function of the Science Project Day. It gives me immense pleasure to propose the vote of thanks on behalf of the Science Club of our school. I express my gratitude to the chief guest for having delivered a thought- provoking lecture. It will go a long way in inculcating in us the much needed scientific temper. I am thankful to our Science teachers for their constant guidance. Without their valuable suggestions this project would not have been possible. I’d like to thank our friends who man the laboratory for providing us with the necessary equipment and specimens. I thank the parents and visitors for their active participation. I also thank all those who have recorded their comments and suggestions in the visitor’s book. Finally I thank my fellow-members of the club for their untiring work in making this a big show.

Thank you once again!

Task 1 : Read the speech aloud and practise it. Task 2 : Prepare a vote of thanks for the Annual Day celebrations in your School. Use the following phrases: 1. It gives me great/immense pleasure …………. 2. I am extremely thankful to ………… 3. Our thanks in full measure goes to ……………. 4. I’d like to thank ……………….. Task 3: Prepare a Vote of Thanks for the Teachers’ Day celebrations organised by the Student Council. C. Reading Pre-reading questions 1. Write down the unforgettable day of your middle school life. 2. Narrate it to the class. 3. Have you at anytime done something for fun or just to feel important, but found yourself in trouble instead? 4. What is your opinion about dissecting living creatures for research purposes in labs? 5. What creature are you most afraid of? Is it a walking, flying, creepy or crawly creature? Why are you afraid of ‘it’?

154

THE MARK OF VISHNU - Khushwant Singh “This is for the Kala Nag,” said Gunga Ram, pouring the milk into the saucer. “Every night I leave it outside the hole near the wall and it’s gone by the morning.”

“Perhaps it is the cat,” we youngsters suggested.

"Cat!" said Gunga Ram with contempt. “No cat goes near that hole. Kala Nag lives there. As long as I give him milk, he will not bite anyone in this house. You can all go about with bare feet and play where you like.”

We were not having any patronage from Gunga Ram.

“You’re a stupid old Brahmin,” I said. “Don’t you know snakes don’t drink milk? At least one couldn’t drink a saucerful every day. The teacher told us that a snake eats only once in several days. We saw a grass snake which had just swallowed a frog. It stuck like a blob in its throat and took several days to dissolve and go down its tail.We’ve got dozens of them in the lab in methylated spirit. Why, last month the teacher bought one from a snake-charmer which could run both ways. It had another head with a pair of eyes at the tail. You should have seen the fun when it was put in the jar. There wasn’t an empty one in the lab. So the teacher put it in one which had a Russels viper. He caught its two ends with a pair of forceps, dropped it in the jar, and quickly put the lid on. There was an absolute storm as it went round and round in the glass tearing the decayed viper into shreds.”

Gunga Ram shut his eyes in pious horror.



“You will pay for it one day. Yes, you will.”

It was no use arguing with Gunga Ram. He, like all good Hindus, believed in the Trinity of Brahma, Vishnu and Siva – the creator, preserver, and destroyer. Of these he was most devoted to Vishnu. Every morning he smeared his forehead with a V mark in sandalwood paste to honour the deity. Although a Brahmin, he was illiterate and full of superstition. To him, all life was sacred, even if it was of a serpent or scorpion or centipede. Whenever he saw one he quickly shoved it away lest we kill it. He picked up wasps we battered with our badminton rackets and tended their damaged wings. Sometimes he got stung. It never seemed to shake his faith. The more dangerous the animal the more devoted Gunga Ram was to its existence. Hence the regard for snakes; above all, the cobra, who was the Kala Nag.

“We will kill your Kala Nag if we see him.”

“I won’t let you. It’s laid a hundred eggs and if you kill it all the eggs will become cobras and the house will be full of them. Then what will you do?” 155

“We’ll catch them alive and send them to Bombay. They milk them there for anti-snake-bite serum. They pay two rupees for a live cobra. That makes two hundred rupees straightaway.” “You doctors must have udders. I never saw a snake have any. But don’t you dare touch this one. It is a phannyar – it is hooded. I’ve seen it. It’s three hands long. As for its hood!” Gunga Ram opened the palms of his hands and his head swayed from side to side. “You should see it basking on the lawn in the sunlight.” “That just proves what a liar you are. The phannyar is the male, so it couldn’t have laid the hundred eggs. You must have laid the eggs yourself.”

The party burst into peals of laughter.



“Must be Gunga Ram’s eggs. We’ll soon have a hundred Gunga Rams.”

Gunga Ram was squashed. It was the lot of a servant to be constantly squashed. But having the children of the household make fun of him was too much even for Gunga Ram. They were constantly belittling him with their new-fangled ideas. They never read their scriptures. Nor even what the Mahatma said about nonviolence. It was just shotguns to kill birds and the jars of methylated spirit to drown snakes. Gunga Ram would stick to his faith in the sanctity of life. He would feed and protect snakes because snakes were the most vile of God’s creatures on earth. If you could love them, instead of killing them, you proved your point. What the point was which Gunga Ram wanted to prove was not clear. He just proved it by leaving the saucerful of milk by the snake hole every night and finding it gone in the mornings. One day we saw Kala Nag. The monsoons had burst with all their fury and it had rained in the night. The earth which had lain parched and dry under the withering heat of the summer sun was teeming with life. In little pools frogs croaked. The muddy ground was littered with crawling worms, centipedes and velvety ladybirds. Grass had begun to show and the banana leaves glistened bright and glossy green. The rain had flooded Kala Nag’s hole. He sat in an open patch on the lawn. His shiny black hood glistened in the sunlight. He was big – almost six feet in length, and rounded and fleshy, as my wrist.

“Looks like a King Cobra. Let’s get him.”

Kala Nag did not have much of a chance. The ground was slippery and all the holes and gutters were full of water. Gunga Ram was not at home to help. Armed with long bamboo sticks, we surrounded Kala Nag before he even scented danger. When he saw us his eyes turned a fiery red and he hissed and spat on all sides. Then like lightning Kala Nag made for the banana grove.

156

The ground was too muddy and he slithered. He had hardly gone five yards when a stick caught him in the middle and broke his back. A volley of blows reduced him to a squishy-squashy pulp of black and white jelly, spattered with blood and mud. His head was still undamaged.

“Don’t damage the hood,” yelled one of us. “We’ll take Kala Nag to school”.

So we slid a bamboo stick under the cobra’s belly and lifted him on the end of the pole. We put him in a large biscuit tin and tied it up with string. We hid the tin under a bed. At night I hung around Gunga Ram waiting for him to get his saucer of milk. “Aren’t you going to take any milk for the Kala Nag tonight?”

“Yes”, answered Gunga Ram irritably. “You go to bed.”



He did not want any more argument on the subject.



“He won’t need the milk any more.”



Gunga Ram paused.

“Why?” “Oh, nothing. There are so many frogs about. They must taste better than your milk. You never put any sugar in it anyway.” The next morning Gunga Ram brought back the saucer with the milk still in it. He looked sullen and suspicious.

“I told you snakes like frogs better than milk.”

Whilst we changed and had breakfast, Gunga Ram hung around us. The school bus came and we clambered into it with the tin. As the bus started we held out the tin to Gunga Ram.

“Here’s your Kala Nag. Safe in this box. We are going to put him in spirit.”



We left him standing speechless, staring at the departing bus.

There was great excitement in the school. We were a set of four brothers, known for our toughness. We had proved it again.

“A King Cobra.”



“Six feet long.”



“Phannyar.”



The tin was presented to the science teacher.

157

It was on the teacher’s table, and we waited for him to open it and admire our kill. The teacher pretended to be indifferent and set us some problems to work on. With studied matter-of-factness he fetched his forceps and a jar with a banded Krait lying curled in muddy methylated spirit. He began to hum and untie the cord around the box. As soon as the cord was loosened the lid flew into the air, just missing the teacher’s nose. There was Kala Nag. His eyes burnt like embers and his hood was taut and undamaged. With a loud hiss he went for the teacher’s face. The teacher pushed himself back on the chair and toppled over. He fell on the floor and stared at the cobra, petrified with fear. The boys stood up on their desks and yelled hysterically. Kala Nag surveyed the scene with his bloodshot eyes. His forked tongue darted in and out excitedly. He spat furiously and then made a bid for freedom. He fell out of the tin onto the floor with a loud plop. His back was broken in several places and he dragged himself painfully to the door. When he got to the threshold he drew himself up once again with his hood outspread to face another danger. Outside the classroom stood Gunga Ram with a saucer and a jug of milk. As soon as he saw Kala Nag come up he went down on his knees. He poured the milk into the saucer and placed it near the threshold. With hands folded in prayer he bowed his head to the ground craving forgiveness. In desperate fury, the cobra hissed and spat and bit Gunga Ram all over the head – then with great effort dragged himself into a gutter and wriggled out of view. Gunga Ram collapsed with hands covering his face. He groaned in agony. The poison blinded him instantly. Within a few minutes he turned pale and blue and froth appeared in his mouth. On his forehead were little drops of blood. These the teacher wiped with his handkerchief. Underneath was the V mark where the Kala Nag had dug his fangs.

Glossary contempt

/ kEn'tempt /

: total lack of respect

patronage

/ 'pætrEnIdZ /

: support or encouragement

methylated spirit

/meθIleItId 'spIrIt/



: type of alcohol used for preserving dead insects and animals in the lab

Russels viper

/ 'rúslz vaIpE /

: a type of poisonous snake

forceps

/ 'fØ:seps /

: pincers or tongs used for gripping things

battered

/ 'bætEd /

: hit hard and often

158

anti-snake-bite serum : a medicine for treating snake bite victims – / AntI sneIk baIt sIErEm / produced with the help of the snake’s poison udders / 'údEz / : bag-like organs of a cow or female goat which produce milk basking

/ 'bå:skIN /

: sitting or lying enjoying warmth

squashed

/ 'skwóSt /

: silenced or subdued

belittling

/ bI'lItlIN /

: making one seem unimportant or worthless

new-fangled

/ 'nju: fæNgld /

: newly introduced into fashion

sanctity

/ 'sæNktItI /

: holiness

vile

/ vaIl /

: evil

parched

/ på:tSd /

: very dry and hot

teem

/ ti:m /

: be present in great numbers

littered

/'lItEd/

: scattered

slithered

/ ’slIðEd /

: slided unsteadily

squishy-squashy

/ skwISI skwóSI /

: squeezed and smashed

spattered

/ 'spætEd /

: splashed, scattered or sprinkled in drips

sullen

/ 'súlEn /

: silent, bad-tempered

suspicious

/ sEs'pISEs /

: showing doubt or mistrust

clambered

/ 'klæmbEd /

: climbed with difficulty

indifferent

/ In'dIfErEnt /

: showing no interest

banded

/ 'bændId /

: striped

krait / kraIt / : a type of poisonous snake yellow in colour with black spots embers

/ 'embEz /

: small pieces of burning or glowing wood or coal in a dying fire

petrified



/ 'petrEfaId /

: motionless with fear

hysterically

/ hI'sterIkElI /

: with uncontrollable emotion

surveyed

/ sE’veId /

: looked carefully from a distance

plop

/ plóp /

: sound of a smooth object dropping onto the floor 159

Match the italicised word in the sentence to the appropriate synonym in the given responses. 1. He picked up wasps we battered with our badminton rackets.

a) The Queen of hearts thrashed the knave of hearts for stealing her tarts



b) The carpenter hammered the nail into the wood.



c) The batsman struck the ball for a sixer.

2. Snakes were the most vile of God’s creatures.

a) The terrorists are cruel people.



b) The robber was so stealthy that even though the inmates were awake, they did not hear him.



c) Socrates’ wife had a bad and evil temper.

3. He fell on the floor and stared at the Cobra, petrified with fear.

a) The boy trembled with fear when he was caught copying in the test.



b) The child screamed with fear when she saw the man with a mask.



c) The elephant suddenly charged at the mahout who stood immobile with fear.

In the sentences below fill in the blanks with words from the lesson which are opposite in meaning to the words italicised. 1. While Brahma is the creator, Shiva is the …………. 2. Our teacher is interested in monitoring those students who are …………… to studies. 3. Though the employer trusted the authenticity of his certificates, he was …………… of his capabilities. 4. There are many people who despise the snake but there are as many who ……………. it. Comprehension: I.

Level I

Answer the following questions briefly: 1. Who was Gunga Ram? 2. Why did the author consider Gunga Ram as a stupid old Brahmin? 3. What was Gunga Ram’s opinion about the narrator and his brothers?

160

4. Why did Gunga Ram never hurt animals? 5. How did the narrator and his brother manage to capture the Kala Nag? 6. When did Gunga Ram realise that the boys had captured the Kala Nag? 7. Narrate briefly the incident in the classroom. 8. How did Gunga Ram show his devotion to Kala Nag when he realised that it had been captured? 9. Why did the Kala Nag bite Gunga Ram? 10. Do you think the snake recognised Gunga Ram as the one who had been feeding it every day? Give reasons for your answer. II.

Level II

1. This story brings out certain differences of opinion between the young and the old, the liberal and the conservative, and the rational and the superstitious. Highlight them in the context of the narration. 2. Gunga Ram’s death was ironical. Do you agree? Support your answer with details from the narration. III. Write a paragraph on: 1. The capture of the Kala Nag. 2. Gunga Ram’s regard for snakes. IV. Write an essay on:

Gunga Ram’s Kala Nag

I.

Understanding Text Organisation:

As the story unfolds you see Gunga Ram’s reactions at every stage. It starts with his contempt at the youngster’s suggestion that it was a cat which drank the milk every night. Task 1: Given below in Column A are Gunga Ram’s various reactions. Arrange his reactions in the order of sequence and match the reaction to the situation in Column B.

Column A Column B

1.

Dismay

2.

Contempt When the saucer still contained milk next morning

When he told the children that he would not let them kill Kala Nag

161

3.

Remorse At the suggestion that the cat, not Kala Nag drank the milk

4.

Derision When he placed the saucer of milk at the threshold

5.

Confidence At what was done to the snakes in the laboratory

6.

Suspicion That the snake had been attacked by the children

7.

Horror When the boys talked about milking the snakes for anti-snake-bite serum

Task 2: The following is D.H. Lawrence’s observation when he gave his mother a book that he had written. He describes his mother’s reaction. The sentences however, are jumbled. Rearrange the sentences to make a sensible paragraph. 1. She looked at the outside, and then at the title-page, and then at me with darkening eyes. 2. Somewhere, in the helpless privacies of her being, she had wistful respect for me. 3. And though she loved me so much, I think she doubted whether it could be much of a book since no one more important than I had written it. 4. The very first copy of the “The White Peacock” that was ever sent out, I put into my mother’s hands when she was dying. 5. But for me in the face of the world, not much. II. Understanding different registers: You learnt about different registers in Std XI. The following passages are taken from various sections of ‘The Hindu’. Note the registers used under each section. 1. “The vitality of the music of Sanjay Subramanian is to stress the depths and foundations of Carnatic music at the cost of Sangita Sowkhyam. In the raga alapanas, there were expressions with occasional vocal exaggeration and with a catchy technique of presentation (Magazine section, Friday Review - Arts and Fine Arts). 2. He drew the attention of academics to the new paradigm, whereby higher education was getting “transformed from being faculty-centred to student– centred like the Montessori system,” that too in a media-rich environment. Learning was becoming life-long, interactive, and ubiquitous ‘for both students 162

and faculty’ (News: Education) 3. Sharapova breezed through the first set in 30 minutes and then held off Osterloh who had a break point at 4 – 3.Sharapova held her serve for a 5 – 3 lead and finished off the match with a hard backhand return down the line. (Sports Section). 4. Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) allows the removal of a cell from an embryo created through in-vitro fertilisation. The cell so removed is studied for any genetic disorders. This technique combined with tissue typing allows the parents to choose the embryo that has a perfect (tissue) match with the sibling suffering from genetic disorder (Science & Technology Section). 5. The public offer for 5.54 crore shares of Re.1 each with an indicative price band of Rs.775 – 900 per equity share will close on August 5. Apart from the 5.54 crore shares on offer in the IPO, the Tata Company has made provision to issue additional 15 percent shares (Business Section). Task 1: Read the given sentences which have been taken from a popular newspaper. Identify each sentence with the field in the list given below. Underline the word / words in the sentences which serve as a clue. 1. Ram, at his fluent best, put Ranjith in his place with three boundaries in one over. 2. The improvements in our margins and profitability has been achieved, overcoming the challenge of record high crude oil prices. 3. The deadlock over the agenda for the peace talks continued with no agreement between the two leaders. 4. The Centre was directed to file an affidavit within two days giving details of the constitutional process it had followed. 5. A hybrid derivative of the cross between CO5 and N331, the improved fodder cowpea is semi-spreading, erect in early stages of growth and later on creeping. agriculture, sports, politics, law, commerce III. Understanding graphs, tables, charts, etc. Look at the graph given below: A family spends 20% of its income on rent and 30% on food. 25% of the family income goes towards meeting the education expenses of the children. Medical expenses, clothes, festivals and other miscellaneous expenditure take up 15% of the income. Only a meagre 10% of the income goes towards savings.

163

Percentage of expenditure

A Family’s expenditure

35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Rent

Food

Education

Miscellaneous

Savings

Items Task 1: Using the above example describe the graph given below. Bar Chart

No. of students

Modes of transport used by school-going students in your locality.

120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Bus

Train

Bicycle

Moped

Car

Mode of Transport Task 2: The pie-diagrams given below represent the insect population in a specific area before and after it was used as a dumping yard for the city’s garbage. Study the graph and present the details in a paragraph. 164

INSECT POPULATION Before dumping garbage

15% 5%

Butterflies Moths Dragon flies Flies Mosquitoes Bugs Beetles

40%

5% 5% 10% 20%

After dumping garbage

20%

10% 15%

10%

5%

25%

15%

Butterflies Moths Dragon flies Flies Mosquitoes Bugs Beetles

D. Vocabulary (i) a. Words formed by clipping The following words are formed by clipping a part of a larger word while retaining the meaning of the original word.

e.g: lab - lab(oratory)



ad - ad(vertisement)

Words are formed by front clipping as in: 1. (Hand) kerchief, (fountain) pen 2. Back clipping as in lab(oratory), gym(nasium) 3. Front and back clipping as in (de) marc(ate) = mark

165

Task 1: In the following sentences the words formed by clipping are presented in italics. Match the words with those given in the box to form the original word. 1. She has been on the phone for the last one hour. 2. I need a kilo of sugar to make this sweet. 3. The porter carried the cases to the waiting taxi. 4. My baby sister falls asleep in the pram when we take her out on a walk. 5. He likes to spend Saturday nights at the disco.

suit ______ , _______ gram, ____e_____bulator,



_______theque, tele________, ______ cab

Task 2: Check the dictionary to give the unclipped form of the following words.

1. burger 2. copter



4. tele

3. demo

5. mike

(i) b. Using / identifying words formed by blending

Some words in English are formed by combining elements of two other words.

e.g. a) news + broadcast = newscast

The closing ceremony of the Olympics will feature in our newscast today.

e.g. b) international + police = Interpol The Interpol are on the look-out for inter-continental smugglers. Task 1: Form words by ‘blending’:

1.

travel + catalogue

=



2.

electro + execute

=



3.

helicopter + airport

=



4.

documentary + drama

=



5.

education + entertainment =

Task 2: Rewrite the following sentences replacing the word in italics with an explanatory phrase.

e.g. We can stop at a motel for lunch.



We can stop for lunch at a hotel on the motorway (highway). 166

1. Most industrial towns are covered in smog in the early hours of the day. 2. Deepak is a techno-wizard. 3. I prefer a vegeburger to a sandwich. 4. The British Council runs an infomercial centre to help students who want to go abroad. 5. The Russian ballet dancer presented a lecdem at the Russian Cultural Centre (ii) Word-building

1. Building Words with particular suffixes:

You are very familiar with the word-formation device ‘suffix’ Here are a few more suffixes used in ‘building words’: S. Suffix No.

Meaning in English

Example

1.

-archy

Rule or form of government or society

Oligarchy (by a few) Monarchy (by one) Hierarchy (officials) Matriarchy (society where women have authority and are the heads of families)

2.

-cracy

Rule or form of government

Kakistocracy (by worst men) Bureaucracy (officials) Democracy (by, of, for the people) Plutocracy (by a rich and powerful class of people)

3.

-ology

Study, science, knowledge or expression

Zoology, Pathology Theology, Phonology

4.

-ist

Person believing in or concerned with; a specialist

Toxicologist Violinist, Socialist, Herpetologist

Task 1: Can you guess the meaning of the italicised words in the sentences given below? 1. In the absence of the teacher, the class was in a state of anarchy. 2. Our government may become a gerontocracy if all our youth and middle-aged renounce politics leaving the field to older people. 3. During the election times, psephologists have a field day. Task 2: Pick out from the newspapers, words that are formed with the suffixes given in the table above. 167

2. Eponymous words Words whose origin is traced to individuals are known as Eponyms and the words derived from these names are called Eponymous words. e.g.: 1. ‘Boycott’ means ‘to shun or refuse to have dealings with as a means of protest or to force change’. Captain Charles Boycott, a 19th Century Irish land agent was shunned by local tenants for refusing to lower their rents. 2. ‘Mesmerism’ means ‘the process or practice of inducing a hypnotic state’. Dr.Franz Anton Mesmer (1734 – 1815) was a German Physician who popularised the practice. 3. ‘Machiavellian’ means ‘cunning, crafty, seizing opportunities’. Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527), a Florentine statesman, in his book ‘The Prince’, described how a determined ruler could gain and keep political power regardless of morality. Task 1: Given below are words derived from the name of persons. A brief account of the person is provided. Can you guess the meaning of the word from the account? 1. Silhouette - Etienne de Silhouette, a French Author (1709-1767) (Noun) and politician, decorated his residence with outline portraits. 2. Draconian - Draco, Chief Magistrate of Athens, introduced a harsh penal (Adjective) code in 621 BC. 3. Lynch - Captain William Lynch, an 18th century Virginian Planter and (verb) Justice of Peace, would summarily execute the arrested persons usually by hanging without a proper trial. Task 2: Look up the dictionary for the meaning of the following eponymous words and associate the word with the person: 1. bowlderise

7. sadist

2. chauvinism

8. guillotine

3. thespian

9. pasteurise

4. maverick

10. braille

5. sandwich

11. dunce

6. quisling

12. narcissism

Task 3: Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with the appropriate word from Task 2. 1. I was busy during the lunch hour, so all I could eat was a … 2. The milk co-operative society ……….. the milk before they seal it in packets and cartons. 168

3. The visually impaired students learn ………… so that they can read on their own without help. 4. Sivaji Ganesan is known as Tamilnadu’s greatest …….. both in films and on stage. 5. He derives pleasure in inflicting pain on others. He is a real…….. 3. a. Euphemisms Euphemism is the use of an inoffensive word or phrase in place of a harsh or possibly offensive one.

e.g. This school is for the visually challenged. (blind)

Here are a few sentences in which euphemisms have been used: 1. The funeral director / mortician (undertaker) was called to carry out the preparations for the funeral. 2. You will find the rest-room (lavatory) at the end of the corridor. 3. My mother is a homemaker. (housewife) Task 1: Replace the italicised word with a euphemistic expression from the list below. 1. The free distribution of clothes is for those who are very poor. 2. Don’t condemn them as dull students. They might prove to be slow-learners. 3. This dress is made for that fat woman. 4. The rules don’t permit beating children with a cane in the school. in the low income level, corporal punishment, full-figured, mentally ill, late-bloomers 3. b. Cliche The word ‘cliché’ comes from the French word ‘clicher’ ‘Cliché’ refers to ‘a phrase or word which is used too often to the point of monotony’. A good user of English will be too careful to avoid clichés in his speech and writing. Look at the following sentences: 1. Both of us have not prepared for tomorrow’s test and we are sailing in the same boat. 2. The class leader appealed to his classmates to maintain silence but it fell on deaf ears. 169

3. My joy knew no bounds when I received the first prize in the oratorical competition. Task 1: Given below are sentences each with a cliché. Rewrite the sentences without the cliché to convey the same meaning.

e.g. …….. and last but not least I thank my teachers for their guidance and



support in organising this programme.

…………. Finally, I thank my teachers for their guidance and support in organising this programme. 1. Winning the prestigious ICC Player of the Year Award is yet another feather in Rahul Dravid’s cap. 2. I gave him a long rope but he has still not changed his ways. 3. She is so vocal in her argument but when it comes to taking a decision which involves risk, she always takes the back seat. 4. The accountant was hand in glove with the manager in the embezzlement of the funds. 5. In the recent elections, the Conservative party came out in flying colours. Task 2: With the help of a dictionary give the meaning of the following clichés. 1. to put the cart before the horse 2. to add insult to injury 3. no smoke without fire 4. there is no reason or rhyme 5. every Tom, Dick and Harry 6. with bag and baggage 7. the long and short of it 8. through thick and thin 9. first and foremost 10. kith and kin E. Study Skills You have learnt ‘note-making’ skill in Std XI. The following tasks are for strengthening this skill:

170

Task 1: Read the given passage carefully: Each one of us must realise that the future of India lies in religious harmony, through tolerance and co-existence, which has been the essence and ethos of our culture. The constitution of our country has been formulated on this principle. That is why India is defined as a ‘secular’ state in our constitution. ‘Secular’ does not mean ‘irreligious’. ‘Secularism’ means equal respect for all faiths. We have to always keep in mind this vital aspect of our culture. Our constitution gives equal opportunities for everyone. Those who indulge in disruptive activities are only creating animosity among Indians and are trying to destroy the very fabric of Indian culture. In the eyes of the world our image is sullied and we stand totally exposed. Answer the following: 1. Give a title to this passage (main idea). 2. Pick out the key points which extend the title idea (supporting ideas). 3. Pick out points if any, which substantiate the supporting ideas (supporting details). 4. Condense the answers of Questions 2 and 3 using relevant phrases, abbreviations, acronyms, etc. 5. Pick out the concluding idea in the passage. 6. Organise the points and number them in the following format: Title 1. ………………………

a) ……………………



b) ……………………

2. ……………………. 3. …………………….

a) …………………….



b) …………………….



Conclusion

Task 2: Make notes on the following passage. Speaking well can have a definite ‘say’ on your professional and private life. How well or otherwise you speak is judged by the quality of your voice apart from other linguistic features. So linguists maintain that the impression you make on others often depends on how you speak rather than what you speak. 171

From the quality of your voice and your manner of saying things, people will deduce a great deal about your personality in general and your feelings in particular at the moment of speaking – whether you are feeling confident or diffident, excited or depressed, hostile or friendly. They will, to some extent, come to know your age and sex (if you are speaking on the telephone) as also your geographical and social background from your accent. They may deduce your physical and psychological condition as your voice often reveals your poor health and stress. Your personality, too, shows through your voice. If you speak very rapidly, for example, you may give the impression of being less confident. If, on the other hand, you drawl, you will tend to sound bored. A liltingly buoyant voice, full of expressive changes of pitch and pace suggests a lively mood whereas a ‘tired’ or ‘flat’ voice suggests a more reflective, subdued mood or even depression. A clear confident articulation usually indicates a firm and astute grasp of the subject. Halting or hesitant speech often indicates confusion or uncertainty. No one, however, needs to be a slave to poor speaking habits. These fetters can be broken by constant practice. Build your selfconfidence. Confidence helps you communicate more effectively. F. Grammar Relative Clause

In Std. XI you have identified



a) defining and non-defining relative clauses



b) combined sentences using relative clauses

Attempt the following tasks to test your knowledge. Task 1: Identify the type of relative clauses used in the following sentences: Caution: Appearances may be deceptive. 1. Every night Gunga Ram kept a saucerful of milk for Kala Nag, who lived in a hole which was near the wall. 2. We saw a grass snake which had just swallowed a frog. 3. The teacher bought a snake from a snake-charmer which could run both ways. 4. The teacher, who teaches Biology, put the snake in a jar. 5. He put it in one which had a Russels viper. 6. Gunga Ram, who was a good Hindu, smeared his forehead with a V mark in sandalwood paste. 7. My father, who is over eighty, is an ardent fan of Dhanraj Pillai. 172

8. The earth, which had lain parched and dry under the withering heat of the summer sun, was teeming with life. 9. The Kala Nag, whose eyes burnt like embers, was still alive. 10. The Kala Nag, which had bitten Gunga Ram all over the head, dragged himself into a gutter. 11. The manager of the company, who goes abroad frequently, was not in the office on that day. 12. The top scorers in the class are always those who have worked very hard through the year. 13. Mrs. Gupta, who teaches us Geography, is our class teacher. 14. The tallest building, which has a restaurant on the thirteenth floor, was on fire. 15. The water which is brought by the lorries is contaminated with rusted iron particles. Task 2: Fill in the blanks with suitable relative pronouns: 1. This is the boy ………won the race. 2. Show me the book ……… you bought yesterday. 3. Is there any one ……… can help me do this homework? 4. That is the house ……… I was born. 5. The wrong deeds ……… we do are more often remembered than our good ones. 6. My friend, ………father works in Agra, has made a clay model of the Taj Mahal. 7. Most of the friends ……… she had invited came for her wedding. 8. The film is about a leader ......... led the freedom struggle of his country. 9. Kumaraswamy, ………house I live in, owns most of the mills in this town. 10. Shakespeare, .............. lived in the 16th century, is considered to be the greatest dramatist. Task 3: Combine the following sentences using relative pronouns: 1.

Gunga Ram picked up wasps. The boys had battered them with badminton rackets.

2. They were a set of four brothers, known for their toughness. They had proved it again. 3.

The children of the household constantly belittled Gunga Ram. They never read the scriptures. 173

Task 4: The following passage is a lengthy one. There are sentences in the passage which if combined will read better. Rewrite the passage by combining sentences using relative clauses, both defining and nondefining wherever suitable and possible. There is a house. It is at the corner of the street. It is my mother’s house. I lived in that house. It was many years ago. I was a child at that time. I remember. A huge mango tree grew in the garden. The tree bore mangoes. The mangoes were called ‘Salem Gundu’. This variety was very large and sweet. Four ten year- olds could share one mango. The mango would be as large as a coconut. We enjoyed eating those tasty mangoes. I remember a particular holiday. It was the autumn of 1947. It was our Independence day. My mother said that people had fought for our Independence. They had sacrificed their needs and pleasures. She said that we too must sacrifice something on Independence Day. We sacrificed our mangoes. We loved our mangoes. We gave them all away. We gave them to the children. The children were orphans and were poor. We did this every year. It gave us great joy. Ten years later the tree was struck down by lightning. The orphans stood round the tree. The orphans had eaten its fruit for ten years. They wept. G. Writing “The chief purpose of punctuation is to make the meaning of a written passage clear. Punctuation marks are not just an optional frill: they are essential to the accurate exchange of written information. Punctuate carelessly and you will communicate inefficiently and probably misleadingly - ambiguity thrives on poor punctuation.”

- Reader’s Digest “How to write and speak better”.

Punctuation Mark

Full stop or period

Symbol

Given below is a table of various punctuations and their uses. Go through the table before you attempt the tasks.

.

Use

a) at the end of declaratives and imperatives b) in contracted forms (as we call) of nouns * Note: Conventionally stops were used inabbreviations. Contemporary usage avoids the use of full stops after abbreviations. 174

Example

This is a pen. Capt. (Captain) Sun. (Sunday) M.A.

Comma

,

a) to separate main clauses linked by conjunctions:‘and’,‘but’, ‘or’, ‘for’, and ‘nor’ b) to separate words c) to resemble brackets d) to list words

e) to introduce the direct speech Semicolon

;

Colon

:

To separate two clauses that could have been one complete sentence a) to introduce material that explains, amplifies or interprets what precedes it b) to introduce the quotation after identification of the speaker in dialogues

The bus was late, but I reached school on time. I came, I saw, I conquered. Tell her, please, that I shall contact her. I need a pair of scissors, thread, thimble, and cloth, to stitch something. She said, “I don’t understand.” He lost his textbook; he was afraid he would be punished. Another Monday morning: it was a rush for the bus. Gopal: Why don’t you apply for the post of Art Director? Suresh: No, I don’t think I’ll fit that job.

The eight parts of speech are: Noun, Verb, Adjective …….. in certain compound words up-to-date coffee-flavoured a) functions as commas and The women ___they brackets do, to surround a part of lived in the next the sentence that is not essential street ___came to it rushing to her rescue. c) before enumeration

Hyphen The dash

_

b) to summarise, explain or interrupt Talent, hard work, good luck __ these are the ingredients of success. c) to indicate hesitant speech

175

I __um__er__I don’t know__I __I can’t do that

Apostrophe Question Mark

Exclamation Mark Quotation Mark

Brackets

Capital letters

’ ? ! “” ()

A B C D ....

a) in possessives – singular and plural nouns b) in contraction of auxiliaries a) in interrogative sentences b) in half questions

A judge’s first case The judges’opinions I will not = I won’t Why did she say that? What? Yes? Why not?

a) after emphatic utterances b) after interjections

Go away! Oh!

a) to denote direct speech

She said, “I don’t know you.” I saw “Titanic” three times.

b) to denote titles

- dates &references The Annual Exams (March) Sri Krishna Gopal (1848 – 1890) b) to put words in parenthesis - in place of dashes & commas He needed help (he had had an accident) so I gave him some money. c) as a final bracket only, for listed The main reasons items for his failure: 1)………… 2)…………. a) to surround or enclose

a)

to begin proper nouns

b) c)

to begin a sentence for references to a supreme being (nouns and pronouns) for the pronoun ‘I’

d)

Kushwant Singh Kala Nag You will pay for it! The Almighty, Lord, God, He, Him I will come.

Task 1: Punctuate the following lines: 1. the mark of vishnu is a short story written by kushwant singh a well known novelist short story writer historian and translator 2. kala nag was a king cobra the kind that is usually revered by the devotees of vishnu 3. the krait the viper the cobra these are snakes which are considered deadly that is they are so venomous their poison could cause death 4. the children of the household according to gunga ram had no godliness they did not respect life let alone realise the sanctity of it 176

Task 2: The following are some of Gandhiji’s sayings. Some punctuation errors distort the ideas in the statements. Correct the errors to bring out Gandhiji’s views:

On Unity

“We are all leaves of a majestic tree, whose trunk cannot be shaken off its roots, which are deep down in the bowels of the earth.”

On Truth

“Use truth as your anvil, non-violence as your hammer and anything that does not stand the test. When it is brought to the anvil of truth and hammered with nonviolence, reject it.”

On Cowardice



“No! Police or military in the world can protect people who are cowards.”



On Faith

“Faith is not imparted like secular subjects, it is given through the language of the heart.” Task 3: Punctuate the following extract from, ‘Chicken soup for the soul’. Encouragement dante gabriel rossetti the famous 19th century poet and artist was once approached by an elderly man the old fellow had some sketches and drawings that he wanted rossetti to look at and tell him if they were any good or if they at least showed potential talent rossetti looked them over carefully after the first few he knew that they were worthless showing not the least sign of artistic talent but rossetti was a kind man and he told the elderly man as gently as possible that the pictures were without much value and showed little talent he was sorry but he could not lie to the man the visitor was disappointed but seemed to expect rossettis judgement he then apologised for taking up rossettis time but would he just look at a few more drawings these done by a young art student rossetti looked over the second batch of sketches and immediately became enthusiastic over the talent they revealed these he said oh these are good this young student has great talent he should be given every help and encouragement in his career as an artist he has a great future if he will work hard and stick to it rossetti could see that the old fellow was deeply moved who is this fine young artist he asked your son

177

no said the old man sadly it is me forty years ago if only i had heard your praise then for you see i got discouraged and gave up too soon H. Occupational Competency: Read the following advertisements taken from a local newspaper and answer the questions below: (Classified ad) TUITION / COACHING GATE, IES 2005 CSE, IT, ECE, EEE, Instrumentation, Mechanical, Production / Chemical, Civil to enrol pay Rs.1000/-, Rs.2000/- off in fees before 27th Aug SSC 2473301 / 32683210 (Block ad)

GATE/IES/IAS CSE / IT / ECE / EEE / Instrumentation / Mechanical / Production / Civil / Chemical Engineering. REGULAR BATCHES COMMENCE ON 20 / 27TH AUG. ’04 TO ENROLL PAY JUST RS. 1000/-

Get Rs. 2000 off before 27th Aug.

CLASSES AT : KODAMBAKKAM, ANNA NAGAR

SSC LEARNING CENTRE

To enroll, walk in / Call # 3, Station View Road, Kodambakkam, Chennai - 24.

Ph : 24733011 / 32683210

1. What is being advertised in the above ads? 2. How does the first advertisement differ from the second? 3. In which advertisement do you find more details? The above advertisements are common along with poster or display advertisements, picture advertisements and hoardings. Writing classified advertisements The main points to remember: a) Precision in words b) Clarity in meaning c) Relevancy of information 178

Classified ads generally appear in newspapers and tabloids and the advertiser is charged for the number of words and lines used. It is therefore necessary to see that you do not write long detailed sentences nor use ambiguous language which will not directly convey your message. Note that in the above classified ad, SSC Learning Centre has not provided its address along with the phone number. Similarly, the venue of the classes have been omitted, as such information can be availed of through phone when contacted. The objective of classified ads is to provide initial information only and therefore information must be followed with contact phone number or address. SITUATIONS VACANT Wanted female Receptionist. Graduate with Computer Knowledge, fluency in English and Good Communication skills. Contact: 044 – 24568921. MATRIMONIAL Wanted bride for USA software Engineer, 28, well settled, Hindu Vanniyar, clean habits,visiting India soon. Caste no bar. Contact: Email:[email protected] yahoo.com, Box No.HB6023, THE HINDU, Chennai –600 002. Writing Block Ads: Points to remember: 1. Block Ads are charged for the space used. 2. They are used to provide information and to get a response. 3. Should contain catchy phrases. 4. Pictorial depiction may feature. 5. Print can vary in size and fonts.

179

Task 1: Prepare classified ads for the following: 1. ‘For Sale’ ad for antiques. 2. A ‘Situation Vacant’ ad for the post of a teacher of English in your school. 3. A ‘Bride/bridegroom wanted’ ad for a family friend. 4. A ‘Pups for sale’ ad. 5. A ‘Rental’ ad for accommodation. Task 2: Prepare block ads for the following: 1. A coaching centre in your locality 2. A Chinese restaurant 3. An Internet Café 4. A pet clinic Task 3: List the various headings used for classified ads in your local newspaper. Task 4: In the following situations which column of the newspaper would you look up for help? Situation

Column

You are planning your holiday trip Your aunt is moving to another city and needs to transport her belongings. Your landlord has served you notice You have to prepare for the TNPCEE. Your dad’s car has become out-dated. Your grandma is lonely and she loves dogs. You are posted abroad for a fifteen-year tenure. You have a fully furnished house. You need a job. You like teaching. You return from a holiday and find your house infested with cockroaches and lizards. You want to buy a TV but you would rather go in for a second hand one. I. Strategic Competency There is a difference between the ‘learning’ of a language and the ‘acquisition’ of a language. While ‘learning’ applies to the conscious process of accumulating knowledge of the vocabulary and grammar of a language, ‘acquisition’ refers to the 180

gradual development of ability in a language by using it naturally in communicative situations. It is found that even in ideal acquisition situations very few adults seem to reach native-like proficiency in using a second language. However, it has been demonstrated that students who are willing to attempt using the language without self-consciousness or embarrassment, acquire the skills quicker and more effectively than others. You need to overcome your inhibitions, taking risks in using the language to express yourself. When you continually use the language in communicative situations without worrying about the mistakes you may make, you will find that you become as proficient in English as you are in your native language. Task 1: A few words are provided below. Write a paragraph on any topic of your choice using the given words. You may use the words in any form (nouns, verbs,adjectives, etc.) as the context and the structure demands. Don’t limit your vocabulary to the given items. Are you afraid of making mistakes? It doesn’t matter. That is the only way to learn. collect, drive, outcome, child, cheerful, examination, jostle, pilot, state, in the mean time, look out, make hay while the sun shines, call on, call off, call upon, Rome was not built in a day, be a Roman while you are in Rome, take over, take to, prevention is better than cure, pen is mightier than the sword, exhaust, arrive. Task 2: Attempt a short poem using the following rhyming words. You may introduce more rhyming words if necessary.

cloud, loud; sound, found; hue, view; showers, flowers; dream, stream ; bird, heard

J. Creative competency Preparing the concept for an advertisement: “Writing advertisements is the ultimate test of your ability to say the most in the fewest words”. The concept for an advertisement is set on the Brand Positioning Statement of the client in tandem with the advertising agency. In short, the advertisement displays what the seller wants the buyer to see and the advertisement displays it in such a way that the buyer accepts what the seller offers. The concept of the advertisement is generally what makes the advertisement effective. For effective impact, the advertisement depends on language and the language highlights certain features of the product.

181

Here are a few common advertisements: 1. “Steel that’s well-built, style that’s in-built. The all new Skoda Octavia Rider, the luxury car.”

(suggests that the product is of high quality)

2. “Fresh Stock! Sale upto 50% off. Sale till 20th August - Om Shree Designer Sarees!"

(suggests that there is value for one’s money)

3. Onida - Neighbour’s Envy, Owner’s Pride.

(suggests being more attractive or important)

4.

“Indulge your top brass with a versatile notebook. Introducing Multimobile quite possibly the World’s most versatile notebook Computers from Multi Tech Systems! The right answer every time.”



(suggests that the product has scientific backing)

5. “Hansa Vision! An exciting Consumer Fair – Home-needs Exhibition! Better products for better living – a wide variety ranging from kitchen appliances to fashion accessories and furniture”. (suggests luxury and comfort) Note: Advertisers also use rhyme and alliteration for added effect. e.g. Guaranteed hot from hut to home – Pizza Hut! Task 1: Given below in Column A are a list of products to be advertised. In Column B are listed words/phrases which could suitably highlight the products’ features. Match the products with the appropriate words in Column B. Some words / phrases may suit more than one product. A B Digital Camera

Buy now pay later

Five-Star Hotel

Proven to ensure health

Lipstick

Say cheese and freeze

Credit Card

Pearls in your mouth

Air Conditioner

Live on the lap of luxury

Basmati Rice

Bring Switzerland into your room

Toothpaste

Paint the town red

182

Task 2: The following is an advertisement from a local Newspaper. Can you identify any of the features of effective advertising in this ad? NO MORE SUMMER! CHILLERS IS HERE! Melt in your mouth desserts from Old time Singapore! Eye-popping concoctions with fresh fruit, body-cooling jellies and crushed ice so irresistible and yet so healthy! BE HERE TODAY: INAUGURAL OFFER BUY ONE, GET ONE FREE!!!

SINGAPORE KACHANG PARLOUR Karaikudi Restaurant Complex 84, Dr. Radhakrishnan Salai, (Opp. AVM Kalyana Mandapam) Chennai 600 004. Task 3: Prepare Classified ads for the following: 1. A travel agency 2. A second hand vehicle 3. A nursery school Task 4: Prepare Block ads for the following. Use the tips given in the flow-chart below: 1. An art exhibition 2. An electronic gadget 183

Brain Storm (discuss) to collect ideas for the ad Which aspect to highlight? Shortlist and decide on one idea

Discuss the text (words for the idea)

Decide the visual to be used

What scene or picture will you depict? What colours will you have?

What will you say? Which words will you use? Slogans, Phrases, etc.

LAY OUT Size of the Ad? Arrangement of copy? Size of visual? Place? Words to highlight. Where to place them? Exhibit your ads on your class notice board. A : Is that a poem of a long snake on the next page? B : Yes, of a very lo o oo oooo oo ng snake.

184

POEM SNAKE A snake came to my water-trough On a hot, hot day, and I in pyjamas for the heat, To drink there. In the deep, strange-scented shade of the great dark carob-tree I came down the steps with my pitcher And must wait, must stand and wait; for there he was at the trough before me. He reached down from a fissure in the earth-wall in the gloom And trailed his yellow-brown slackness soft-bellied down, over the edge of the stone trough, And rested his throat upon the stone bottom, And where the water had dripped from the tap, in a small clearness, He sipped with his straight mouth, Softly drank through his straight gums, into his slack long body, Silently. Someone was before me at my water-trough, And I, like a second comer, waiting. He lifted his head from his drinking, as cattle do, And looked at me vaguely, as drinking cattle do, And flickered his two-forked tongue from his lips, and mused a moment, And stooped and drank a little more, Being earth-brown, earth-golden from the burning bowels of the earth, On the day of Sicilian July, with Etna smoking. The voice of my education said to me: He must be killed, For in Sicily the black, black snakes are innocent, the gold are venomous. And voices in me said: If you were a man You would take a stick and break him now, and finish him off. 185

But must I confess how I liked him, How glad I was he had come like a guest in quiet, to drink at my water-trough And depart peaceful, pacified, and thankless, Into the burning bowels of this earth? Was it cowardice, that I dared not kill him? Was it perversity, that I longed to talk to him? Was it humility, to feel so honoured? I felt so honoured. And yet those voices: If you were not afraid, you would kill him. And truly I was afraid, I was most afraid; But even so, honoured still more That he should seek my hospitality From out the dark door of the secret earth. He drank enough And lifted his head, dreamily, as one who has drunken, And flickered his tongue like a forked night on the air, so black, Seeming to lick his lips, And looked around like a god, unseeing, into the air, And slowly turned his head, And slowly, very slowly, as if thrice adream, Proceeded to draw his slow length curving round And climb again the broken bank of my wall-face. And as he put his head into that dreadful hole, And as he slowly drew up, snake-easing his shoulders, and entered farther, A sort of horror, a sort of protest against his withdrawing into that horrid black hole, Deliberately going into the blackness, and slowly drawing himself after, Overcame me now his back was turned.

186

I looked round, I put down my pitcher, I picked up a clumsy log And threw it at the water trough with a clatter. I think it did not hit him, But suddenly that part of him that was left behind convulsed in undignified haste, Writhed like lightning, and was gone Into the black hole, the earth-lipped fissure in the wall-front, At which, in the intense still noon, I stared with fascination. And immediately I regretted it. I thought how paltry, how vulgar, what a mean act! I despised myself and the voices of my accursed human education. And I thought of the albatross, And I wished he would come back, my snake. For he seemed to me again like a king, Like a king in exile, uncrowned in the underworld, Now due to be crowned again. And so, I missed my chance with one of the lords Of life. And I have something to expiate; A pettiness. - D.H. Lawrence David Herbert Lawrence (1885-1930) occupies a unique position among the leading Modernist writers of the generation that came of age before the outbreak of the First World War. D.H. Lawrence was born near Nottingham in the English Midlands. D.H. Lawrence spent several years as a teacher before turning to writing for a livelihood. Although D.H. Lawrence is best known for his novels and short stories, he was also a fine poet who wrote free verse. His poetry concentrates on the life-giving force of nature and exalts the physical and instinctual over the purely intellectual. Glossary pitcher

/ 'pItSə /

trough

/ tróf /



: large earthenware container for liquids : long narrow open container for animals to feed or 187

drink from fissure

/ 'fISə /



: a long deep crack in rock or in the earth

Etna

/ 'etnə /



: a volcanic mountain in Sicily

perversity

/ pə'və:sətI /

: unacceptable behaviour

convulsed / kən'vúlst /

: caused sudden violent, uncontrollable movements

paltry

: unimportant

/ 'pØ:ltrI /

expiate / 'ekspIeIt /

: accept punishment for a wrong and do something to show one is sorry; make amends for, atone for

albatross

: a sea-bird common in the Pacific and Southern

/ 'ælbətrós /



Oceans. Here, the reference is to Samuel



T Coleridge’s 'The Rime of the Ancient Mariner'.



The mariner shoots the albatross, a traditional



symbol of good luck.

I. Comprehension questions: 1. What was the poet on his way to do when he first became aware of the snake? 2. What was the snake doing? 3. What did the ‘voice of his education’ tell the poet he should do? 4. How did he actually feel about the snake when the voices told him to kill it? 5. What caused the poet’s horror towards the snake? 6. What did the poet do? 7. What does he feel after having done it? 8. What does the poet mean by “the voices of my accursed education.” Why are they accursed? 9. Why does the poet call the snake one of the ‘Lords of Life’? 10. Why does the poet call his sin a ‘pettiness’? II. Write an essay on: What underlying statement do you think the poet is making in ‘Snake’ about human beings in general and himself in particular? Support your answer with a quotation from the poem.

188

UNIT VI COMPETENCIES A

LISTENING: Listening to educational programmes on TV

B

SPEAKING: Compering a programme

C

READING: Understanding cohesion/coherence



Appreciating literary pieces

D

VOCABULARY: Using/ identifying phrasal verbs /idioms in speech/writing



Giving the meanings of foreign words/phrases



Using/identifying foreign words/ phrases in speech/writing



Using words/phrases appropriately in relevant spoken/written contexts

E

STUDY SKILLS: Editing/drafting

F

GRAMMAR: Using simple, compound and complex sentences



Transforming sentences from one type to another

G

WRITING: Writing articles for magazines

H

OCCUPATIONAL COMPETENCY: Describing a process

I

STRATEGIC COMPETENCY: Creating time to think (using gap fillers)

J

CREATIVE COMPETENCY: Preparing the script for a children’s radio/TV programme

A. Listening Task 1: The teacher will read aloud the script of an interview presented on an Educational channel on TV. Listen to the interview and take notes using the format given below: (The teacher reads) 1. Name of Interviewee : ................................................ 2. Interviewee’s position : ................................................ 3. His campaign : ................................................ 4. Dr. Kathirvel’s first step : ................................................ 5. Why don’t human beings : ................................................ keep their environment clean? 6. Dr. Kathirvel’s assessment : a) ............................................... of today’s youth b) ............................................... c)............................................. d)............................................. 189

7. What’s the joke?

: ................................................

8. What are the proverbs?

: ................................................

9. Was there a discussion

on noise pollution?

: ................................................

10. Are the waste materials

‘dumped’ once and for all?

................................................



Do they have a rebirth?!

................................................

Task 2: The teacher will read a report. Listen carefully. After listening to the reading of the report, fill in the blanks given below. (The teacher completes the reading) 1. .......................... nuclear tests have been conducted since 1945. 2. Most of the tests were ………………… 3. The first indication of radioactive fallout was in ……………. 4. The crew of ……………….. were irradiated. 5. The crew members were ……………… nationals. B. Speaking The audience are waiting for the curtain to rise. It is the ‘Culturals’ of the school and the entertainment is to begin shortly. At the stroke of four, the curtain goes up. Meena is all set to try her hand at her maiden compering. She begins “Good evening Ladies and Gentlemen! The students of Std.XII will perform for your benefit ‘Silappadhiharam’ – a Dance Drama. The dance is choreographed by our Dance Teacher Mr. Nataraj and directed by our Music Teacher Mrs. Geetha. The Dance drama will begin soon after the Invocation song sung by Kavitha of Std. XII. Here we go …… Give a big hand to our budding artistes …”. Meena, as the compere, will be using the following phrases at every stage of the dance drama. ●

I am happy to present..........................

● We take pride in presenting.......................... ● You will now see……………………. ●

The next item on the programme is..........................

● Next we have a ……………………. ●

And now for the most awaited item of the evening ...................... 190

● Coming on stage to perform for you are.......................... ● We continue with the next item.......................... ●

Here is the fitting finale' to the programme…………….



Now we present the last item of the day ………….



Now, the National Anthem to be sung by the school choir. Let’s all join.

Task 1: The following is a programme of the Youth Club Anniversary, of which you are the secretary. You have to compere the programme. Prepare and present. PROGRAMME

Invocation Ramya Raman



Address of Welcome

President of the Club

Speech Chief Guest

Variety Entertainment:



Club Orchestra



‘Cinderella’-play in English

Faridha & friends



‘Harvest Time’ - a folk dance

Surya & friends

of Tamilnadu

A pageant of India’s Great Leaders

(Children under 10)



Vote of thanks

Joint Secretary

National Anthem Task 2: Your class is conducting a debate on the topic, “Speech is more important than writing.” Divide yourselves into groups and perform the roles in turns. 1. A compere 2. A panel of judges (three) 3. Four to six speakers (care be taken to have equal number of speakers ‘for’ and ‘against’ the proposition) 4. A time manager

191

Task 3: Your school has invited a speaker to address the students on the topic, ‘The role of the army in defending the nation’. The speaker is a retired Major of the Indian Army who has led a Company in the Kargil war. You are asked to: (1) Introduce the speaker to the audience (2) Announce the presentation of bouquets / mementos to the guests on the dais. Begin with “I call upon ............. to present a ........ to ...........” (3) Call upon the chief guest to address the gathering “May I request you sir / madam to ............” (4) Request someone to present the vote of thanks. C. Reading Pre-reading questions: During the Deepavali season 1. Do you like firing crackers? 2. Were you at any time injured by fire crackers? 3. Do you approve of firing crackers during festivals? 4. Is it a kind of an entertainment or an adventure? 5. Do you feel that atom bombs, as a part of the crackers, are to be banned? 6. Have you ever seen a bomb explosion on TV or in the movies? With what result/ effect?

192

HIROSHIMA - F. Raphael “THE VERY cruel bomb” compelled the Empire of Japan to surrender to the Americans. The bomb was the product of many minds. For decades, physicists had dreamed of unleashing the power which lay imprisoned in the tiniest particle of matter that the current scientific theories postulated: the atom which, by schoolboy definition, was ‘the smallest portion of an element which still retained all the qualities of that element.’ If once the power latent in an atom could be released, they promised - sanguinely or guardedly, according to their several temperaments - the world’s work could be, soon would be, transformed to child’s play. In their laboratories, men of genius, of talent, of craftsmanship conducted obscure experiments: ‘bombarding’ atoms with electricity, experimenting with radium, building elaborate apparatus, producing flames that leapt from point to point, flashes representing an astronomical number of volts. The war in Europe was scientific enough: pilotless planes, rockets which struck unheralded by sound or sight - but the war in Europe had drawn to its end. A nation of eighty million had been smitten from an eminence greater than that of Napoleon’s France into catastrophic defeat. Yet still, wearily, drearily, savagely, the war in the East went on. While the marines and the sailors, the soldiers and the airmen were working their way from bases in Australia to assail Okinawa and raid the island of Honshu, the scientists were working in Los Alamos in desert New Mexico, in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, working furiously, in spite of all the patience science imposes, against time, striving to harness the ultimate secret, to liberate the ultimate power in Nature ... not for peace, but for warlike purposes. With an element called uranium - a special variety of uranium designated U235 - they finally achieved what was termed a ‘chain reaction’ a substance which proliferated explosion as a cancer proliferates its diseased cells, a proliferation accelerated to something like the speed of light. By the slow process of trial and error, correcting, amending, improving, they finally produced a working bomb. It was tested in the ‘bad lands’ where it would do no harm. The news of the achievement was given to Washington - and to London. The statesmen and the politicians were confronted with a tragic and agonising dilemma: to use it, or not. To withhold it meant the deaths of uncountable men, the protraction of untellable suffering, the condemnation to still further torture of prisoners who had already been beaten and starved and subjected to bestial cruelties. 193

At such an hour the hardest-headed statesmen and soldiers with the stoniest hearts must have cursed the gift - perhaps the illusion - of free will. Imagine the debate between high principles and low practice: the apostles of “the greatest good for the greatest number” joining hands with the savagely vindictive protagonists whose argument was no more than, “They started it, didn’t they? They asked for it well, let ‘em have it. To hell with it”. “To hell with it” - a facile, trivial phrase, said as one orders an extra drink or smokes a forbidden cigarette, but “it”, in this case, was a city of a quarter of a million people. Some of these people were men who had tortured prisoners, or approved of the torture. Yet there were men and women gentle enough to admire the petals of chrysanthemums or cherry blossom, industrious enough to slave in the paddy-fields. They expected to live, as does every human being, in the ritual circle of birth and marriage and death. For long the argument continued in the West; to withhold, or to drop the bomb. At last the decision was taken. Ultimately that decision lay in the hands of three men: President Truman, Premier Attlee, Marshal Chiang Kai-Shek. Franklin Roosevelt, who had transcended American tradition by serving not only three Presidential terms but a fourth, was dead. Winston Churchill, embodiment of embattled Britain, had been - unbelievably cast aside by the electorate in the very hour of his triumph. In place of the great liberal and the great European, there sat at the council table men of undeniably smaller stature; one, a smalltown politician thrust unexpectedly on to the stage during a crisis which required statesmen of world rank, the other, a man of integrity who had come to his party leadership as a compromise candidate. The third figure was an enigma: the Chinese who had turned from Communist to Nationalist, whose conflict with Japan had endured for many years longer than that of the Allies.

Stalin was no party to the consultations: Russia was still at peace with Japan.

Seven Boeing Super-Fortresses were detailed for the operation. Three were sent ahead, to report on weather conditions and to consider alternative targets (including Nagasaki, which, a few days later, was able to be ‘atomised’). Two aircrafts were detailed to carry instruments and observers. One, stationed at Iwo Jima, was ready to take over the bomb if anything happened to the B29 into which it was actually loaded. From Tinian, in the Mariana islands, Colonel Paul W.Tibbets, U.S.A. Air Force, took off at a quarter to three on the morning of 6 August 1945. For over five hours he sailed serenely through the lightening sky. It was bright sunshine when he arrived more than five miles above his target, flying at some 31,000 feet. 194

Hiroshima was just settling to another day. The summer sun gave promise of fair weather, and the air-raid warning meant no more, probably, than just another inconvenient routine interruption of the day’s war-work. Raiding aircraft, no matter what their target, always assembled at Lake Biwa and, almost inevitably, crossed the city’s sky. Then - ironically - sounded the All-clear; only the three advance machines had been plotted and by the time Colonel Tibbets was overhead they had passed the city. Unseen in the empyrean, Tibbets ignored the anti-aircraft shells that burst in futility about him. The bomb was fused, set to explode not on contact but after dropping the height of Everest: 29,000 feet. It was to burst just 2,000 feet above the town, "thereby achieving the maximum destruction, disseminating its force as widely as possible”. For just about 42 seconds after the bomb-doors were opened, nothing happened - absolutely nothing. The instrument fell in its irresistible acceleration - 32 feet per second is the formula - gathering speed and impetus. In the final second of its descent, it travelled, screaming unheard, something like a quarter of a mile. High above it, racing to escape it, eyes guarded with dark glasses, instruments attuned, sat the air-crew. On the kindly earth, the little people - men, women and children - went about their daily tasks: some of them, it is true, tasks of destruction and duties of death. Then ... the sun went out, eclipsed not by shadow but by light: a light too blindingly incandescent, that the familiar ball of fire which travels through the sky seemed for an instant extinguished. There was no sound. No ‘crump’, no thud, no explosion. Only, as the survivors regained consciousness, the brilliant morning was obscured as if a sudden mist had been cast by an enchanter’s hand: a mist formed of infinitesimal particles of brick and stone, of earth and vegetation and human tissue. The scientists had achieved the chain reaction. The new age had been born, not with a bang but a whimper: the whimper of a child whose mother had been blown from its side a hundred feet in physical space, and the irremediable distance between life and death, away. No one in Hiroshima heard a thing. For hours afterwards there hung about the span of sky over the town, ominous and evil in its brownish-purple colour, the mushroom-shaped cloud that is, today, the commonplace concurrent of an atom-bomb in the minds of men. Four and seven-tenths square miles of Hiroshima were devastated. Eight percent of the city’s buildings were damaged or destroyed. In a settlement of, at that time, a quarter of a million inhabitants (for evacuation had reduced the population by nearly 135,000) three-fifths were casualties, major or minor. 195

One single bomb had killed as many, wounded as many, as a mass raid of 279 huge aircrafts, laden to capacity with bombs, striking at a city ten times as populous. There come moments when even those who hold that one weapon differs from another only in degree must recognise, that, when the degree or difference reaches such a scale, the difference becomes one of kind. The single items are poignant enough: the cry of a woman: “There are people here about to be drowned - help us - the water is rising”; groups on a spot of land jutting into the river so weak that they could not climb into the boat come to help them; girls shivering, though they burned; skin sloughing off suppurating, scalded flesh. Ten thousand casualties went to a single hospital - and the only light the surviving doctors had to work by were candles held by ten nurses and, of course, the conflagrations outside. The victims had not eaten all day but, when food was brought to them, the stench of not only the wards but the whole area surrounding the hospital was so nauseating that they could not swallow. Apart from the magnitude of the onslaught, its quality was unutterable. It is neither relevant nor wholesome to sup on horrors: a catalogue of atrocity defeats its own end. So let a single attested incident convey this unique quality of unearthly evil: the words are Hersey’s: ‘He (Father Kleinsorge, a German missionary) heard a voice ask from the underbrush, “Have you anything to drink?” He saw a uniform. Thinking there was just one soldier, he approached with the water. When he had penetrated the bushes, he saw there were about twenty men, and they were all in exactly the same nightmarish state: their faces were wholly burned, their eye sockets were hollow, the fluid from their melted eyes had run down their cheeks.’ The atomisation of Hiroshima - and later of Nagasaki - was, in every sense, monstrous enough, inflicting on 160,000 men, women and children, indiscriminately, death, mutilation, irreparable loss. But the immediate effect, horrific beyond belief as it was, is not all. The aftermath of atomisation is not fully charted, even by scientists. Many who were not charred or shattered, who were out of the immediate reach of the bomb explosion, and the blast that spread over a circle with a radius of a couple of miles, were stricken down secretly in one way or another. When an explosion generates a heat which fuses tiles with a melting point of o 1,300 C as far as 600 yards away, the aftermath can be expected to be extensive. The effects on those remote from immediate injury vary. Some - victims, it is believed, of radiation - are permanently sterilised; the pregnant women in Hiroshima aborted and did not conceive again. Others are reduced by wasting diseases, where 196

the corpuscles of the blood diminish. Father Kleinsorge’s white blood-count fell within a month from the normal 5,000/7,000 to 3,000. Surface wounds - grazes, abrasions, scratches - close and, for no reason, reopen. Hair suddenly starts falling and a minor burn may take months to heal. Fever, accompanied by an almost dysentery-like diarrhoea, sends temperatures rocketing up as high as 1060 F. Then, nearly a month later, comes bleeding, usually from the gums; a drop in the white blood-count, a drop in the red bloodcount. Nature, striving to re-establish her equilibrium, bred leucocytes by the billion, until the white blood-count rose as far above normal as it had dropped below, and this frantic endeavour also brought death and new disease in its train. The aftermath of the disease was due to radiation: the physicians described the symptoms as akin to those due to overexposure to X-rays. Over Hiroshima, an atom-bomb based on uranium. Only a few days later, over Nagasaki, an atom-bomb based on plutonium: one of even greater power. Now, the key has been found to release forces yet more destructive: the force of hydrogen. Side by side with the memory of these two unique air-raids, the scientists are busy trying to harness atomic-energy, as was at first so happily dreamed, for the benefit of mankind. But a measure of guilt remains for the action of 6 August 1945, when upon one of the civilian centres of an enemy, was let fall the first atomic weapon. Glossary: unleash

/ ún‘li:S /



: let loose

Ω

postulate / 'póstj leIt / : put something forward as a fact or accept as true sanguine

/ 'sæNgwIn /

: hopeful, optimistic

eminence

/ 'emInəns /

: state of being famous or distinguished



catastrophe / kə'tæstrəfI / Ω

proliferate / prə 'lIfəreIt /

: sudden great disaster or misfortune : produce new growth rapidly, multiply

dilemma / dI'lemə / : situation in which one has to choose between two undesirable things or courses of action protraction / prə'trækSn /

: extending; making something last longer

bestial

: brutish; of or like a beast

/ 'bestjəl / Ω





protagonist /prə 'tægənIst/

: leader or advocate of a cause 197

facile / 'fæsaIl / : easily stated but superficial or of poor quality embodiment / Im'bódImənt /

: a person or thing that gives a visible form to a thought or feeling

enigma

/ I'nIgmə /

: mystery

serenely

/ sI'ri:nlI /

: calmly

ironically

/ aI'rónIkəlI /

: sarcastically





futility / fju:'tIlətI / : a state of having no effect or achieving nothing disseminating / dI'semIneItIN /

: spreading

incandescent / Inkæn'desnt /

: shining when heated

infinitesimal / InfInI'tesIml /

: extremely small

ominous / 'ómInəs / : suggesting that something bad is about to happen poignant

/ 'pØ:Injənt /

sloughing

/ slúfIN /



Ω

: affecting one’s feelings deeply : falling off

suppurating / 'súpj əreItIN /

: forming pus due to infection

atrocity

: great wickedness or cruelty

/ ə'trósItI /

Choose the appropriate synonyms of the italicised words from the options given: 1. Rockets which struck unheralded by sound or sight

a) unrecorded

b) unannounced



c) unprepared

d) unheard

2. A proliferation accelerated to something like the speed of light

a) increased

b) speeded up



c) hastened

d) rushed

3. Striving to harness the ultimate secret

a) capture

b) reveal



c) control

d) conquer

198

4. The stench .... was nauseating

a) stink

b) odour



c) flavour

d) perfume



5. They were .... industrious enough to slave in the paddy-fields

a) humble

b) productive



c) sincere

d) hard-working

Choose the appropriate antonym of the italicised words from the options given below: 1. To liberate the ultimate power in Nature

a) final





c) external

b) initial d) closest

2. The familiar ball of fire which travels through the sky seemed for an instant extinguished

a) hidden

b) begun



c) faded

d) lit

3. In place of the great liberal .... there sat men ... of smaller stature

a) miser

b) reformist



c) tyrant

d) conservative

4. The stoniest of hearts must have cursed the gift

a) praised

b) blessed



c) appreciated

d) lauded

5. ‘To hell with it’ - a facile, trivial phrase

a) unimportant

b) worthy



c) significant

d) long

Comprehension I. Level I 1. Where was “the very cruel bomb” dropped? 2. Which were the countries that were involved in the bombing of Hiroshima? 3. What was the element used in the bomb and what was its function? 199

4. Who were the three men who took the final decision to drop the bomb on Hiroshima? 5. Describe the preparations made on the 6th of August 1945 when the bomb was dropped. 6. Who was in charge of the plane carrying the bomb? 7. What was the immediate impact of the bomb on Hiroshima? II. Level II 1. Why has uranium been compared to cancer? 2. Why were the statesmen and politicians in a dilemma? 3. Why does the author say that “the stoniest hearts must have cursed the gift”? 4. Why was the “All-clear” siren ‘ironical’? 5. “They started it, didn’t they? They asked for it - well, let’ em have it. To hell with it” - Is this the author’s opinion? Give reasons for your answer. 6. Why does the author refer to the bombing as ‘an unearthly evil’? 7. Why did the doctors have to work by candle-light in the daytime? 8. What do you think must have been the feelings of Colonel Tibbets? III. Explain the following with reference to the context: 1. Imagine the debate between high principles and low practice. 2. The new age had been born, not with a bang but a whimper. 3. There come moments when even those who hold that one weapon differs from another only in degree must recognise that when the degree or difference reaches such a scale, the difference becomes one of kind. 4. It is neither relevant nor wholesome to sup on horrors. 5. Nature, striving to re-establish her equilibrium, bred leucocytes by the billion. IV. Write an essay on: 1. The aftermath of atomisation on Hiroshima. 2. How do you rate the decision of the three men? Substantiate your answer with logical arguments and valid points. Refer to the history of World Wars I & II to back up your statements with authenticity. 3. Had you been Colonel Paul W Tibbets, would you have dropped the bomb? Give reasons for your answer.

200

Understanding cohesion/ coherence Writing is a means of communication and good communication involves good writing techniques which will effectively convey one’s ideas and feelings to others. The hallmarks of good writing can be listed as the ABCs of communicative writing: 1. Accuracy and appropriacy; avoidance of ambiguity. 2. Brevity in expression. 3. Clarity, consistency and coherence (logical construction) with cohesion (comprehensive unit). Look at the following sentence: “Kumar very skilfully cheated in the class during all the exams, but he was never caught red-handed”. The sentence coveys a false contrast as the two ideas linked by the word ‘but’ are in harmony rather than in conflict. It is not surprising that Kumar was not caught as he was skilful in cheating! Perhaps ‘and’ or ‘so’ would have been more appropriate to create a real contrast! Look at these sentences: a) No sugar for me thanks - I’m diabetic b) No sugar for me thanks - I’m off to Trichy tomorrow. In sentence (a) the second part of the sentence gives a logical conclusion. Even though there is a logical gap from the first part of the sentence to the second, the logical gap is narrow and visible and the reader is able to make a conclusion. In sentence (b) the gap is too wide for the reader to cross unaided. The writer has left out some crucial links between the first and second halves of the sentence.

If we fill in the gap the sentence might have to be a paragraph as follows:

No sugar for me thanks. I had my sugar level tested today as a precaution before my trip to Trichy. My sugar level is a little high and my Insulin shots cannot be increased. As I have to eat at hotels while in Trichy, the doctor has advised me that I should strictly keep off sugar for a few days. Just as sentences need to be logically meaningful, so should ideas and points in paragraphs and essays. Task 1: a) Pick out the main idea in the para beginning ‘The bomb ....’ and make a sentence. b) Now link it to the idea in the next paragraph and make yet another sentence. 201

Task 2: Pick out the central idea of each paragraph in the lesson and see if there is logical coherence. Task 3: The following passage is neither coherent nor cohesive. Re-arrange the sentences to make it a logical and meaningful reading: The fateful night of April 15 was bitterly cold. The Titanic was doing between twenty-one and twenty-two knots without vibration. Not the slightest puff of breeze, however, ruffled the flat sea. Already, from captain to deck-boy, the crew of Titanic were satisfied that their ship was supreme. This was the time, not for recordbreaking, but for testing and observation. There was every indication, on her performance, that she was easily capable of setting up an Atlantic record, though no attempt was being made to do so. So, too, was Mr. Joseph Bruee Ismay, Chairman and Managing Director of the White Star Line, who was among the passengers. Task 4: The following is an extract from Dr APJ Abdul Kalam’s “Wings of Fire”. Read the passage, a) pick out the main ideas and b) arrange in logical sequence. On my return from France, after successfully testing the SLV- 3 apogee motor, Dr Brahm Prakash informed me one day about the arrival of Werenher Von Braun who made the lethal V-2 missiles that devastated London in the Second World War. In the final stages of the war, Von Braun was captured by the Allied forces. As a tribute to his genius, Von Braun was given a top position in the rocketry programme at NASA. Working for the US Army, Von Braun produced the landmark Jupiter Missile, which was the first IRBM with a 3000 km range. When I was asked by Dr Brahm Prakash to receive Von Braun at Madras and escort him to Thumba, I was naturally excited. The V-2 missile (an abbreviation of the German word Vergeltungswaffe) was by far the greatest single achievement in the history of rockets and missiles. It was the culmination of the efforts made by Von Braun and his team in the VFR (Society for Space Flight) in the 1920s. What had begun as a civilian effort soon became an official army one, and Von Braun became the technical director of the German Missile Laboratory at Kummersdorf. The first V-2 missile was first tested unsuccessfully in June 1942. It toppled over on to its side and exploded. But on 16 August 1942, it became the first missile to exceed the speed of sound. Under the supervision of Von Braun, more than 10,000 V- 2 missiles were produced between April and October in 1944 at the gigantic underground production unit near Nordhausen in Germany. That I would be travelling with this man - a scientist, a designer, a production engineer, an administrator, a technology manager all rolled into one - what more could I have asked for?

202

Appreciating literary pieces Look at the table and try to understand how poetry differs from prose. The definitions for the literary terms and poetic devices employed in poetry, are given below the table. Prose

Poem

Enunciates

Exaggerates

More factual than fictitious

More fictitious than factual

Imagination

Imagery Word order may be reversed Rhyme and rhythm is the heartbeat

Diction

Poetic Diction

Syntactic rules are strictly adhered to.

Licence to take occasional liberty for breaking the language rules.

Colloquialism permitted

Archaic words are permissible.

Rhyme: Usually, the similarity of sounds in the words at the ends of lines of verse.

e.g. The noisy geese that gabbled over the pool



The playful children just let loose from school

Alliteration:To sit in solemn silence in a dull, dark, dock

(repetition of consonant sounds in the beginning of words, in a line)

Rhythm: The arrangement of accented or stressed and unaccented or unstressed syllables.

e.g. When I / have fears / that I / may cease / to be

[10 syllables – 5 units of rhythm (pentameter). Each unit has unstressed followed by stressed syllables.] Poetic license: The freedom, considered to be a poet’s prerogative, in taking liberty with language rules.

e.g. Shakespeare’s ‘most unkindest cut of all.’

Imagery: Comparison between two unrelated objects or ideas to clarify the sense.

e.g. The sea that bares her bosom to the moon. (metaphor) O, my love is like a red, red, rose. (simile) 203

Diction: A choice of words to create an effect.

Brutus is noble, wise, valiant and honest



Caeser was mighty, bold, royal and loving

Archaism: A word which is no longer in use.

e.g. “There was a ship,” quoth he.

Task 1: The poem given below is one that you have read under parallel reading activity in Std. XI. Try to appreciate keeping in mind the poetic devices defined above.

(Caution: All the devices may have not been employed here.) The Soldier - Rupert Brooke



If I should die, think only this of me:









That there’s some corner of a foreign field

That is forever England. There shall be



In that rich earth a richer dust concealed;



A dust whom Earth bore, shaped, made aware,









Gave, once, her flowers to love, her ways to roam,

A body of England’s, breathing English air,



Washed by the rivers, blest by suns of home.



And think this heart, all evil shed away



A pulse in the eternal mind, no less



Her sights and sounds; dreams happy as her day;



Gives somewhere back the thoughts of England given,

And laughter, learnt of friends, and gentleness,

In hearts at peace, under an English heaven.

204

Task 2: Take a poem of your choice and appreciate it. D. Vocabulary I. Phrasal Verbs: Look at the following sentences taken from the lesson: 1. One, stationed at Iwo Jima, was ready to take over the bomb. 2. Colonel Paul W.Tibbets, U.S.A. Airforce, took off at a quarter to three. 3. The little people went about their daily tasks. 4. Then ... the sun went out. 5. Yet still wearily, drearily, savagely, the war in the East went on. The italicised words are called phrasal verbs which can be defined “as units consisting of a verb and one or more adverbs or prepositions, often having idiomatic meaning”. e.g: 1)

take over - assume charge



took off - left the ground (‘took off’ could also mean ‘remove’ as in, ‘He took off his tie and relaxed on the sofa.’)

2)

went about - did as a routine



went out - stopped, ended, or was not in existence



went on - continued without changing

Task 1: Fill in the blanks with suitable adverbs / prepositions from the list given below: 1. After the sweltering heat, I think that the weather is going to take........... at last. 2. The child took ............ her teacher from the moment they met. 3. The new manager will take ............ from me, next week. 4. He will take ............ the added responsibility of supervision along with finance and administration. 5. Your daughter is exactly like you. She has perhaps taken ............ you. 6. The fighting had gone ............ all through the night. 7. You must not go ............ the advice of your parents. 8. The school has decided to go ............ with the preparations for the sports day in spite of the inclement weather. 9. The principal doesn’t show favour to anyone. She always goes ............ the rules. 205

10. I’ve gone ......... all the shelves in the library but I can’t find a Thesaurus.

over off

through against

to ahead away after

by along up into across down on

Task 2: Given below is a list of phrasal verbs with particles. Using the phrasal verbs make meaningful sentences.

break

call

cut

wait

see

in

away

out

up

off

keep

on

up

off

upon

out

up

over

for

look

after

off

into

in in

on on

off

up

short

pick

over

up

out

around

up

behind

back

on

pull

on

up

through

over through to stand about

by in for out up

II. Idioms English is rich in idioms. Idioms are an integral part of the language. Idiom is nothing but the special use of language. Unless you are proficient in English, you may not understand what an idiom means in a given context. Idioms do not give the literal meaning of the individual words used in the idiom. e.g: “a change of heart” would literally mean a heart transplant. However, idiomatically it would mean ‘a change in one’s attitude or feelings’ especially towards “greater friendliness or co-operation”.

Here is another example:



I am in two minds about taking the job offered - I am doubtful. 206

Here are a few idioms taken from the newspapers: 1. The union members accused the employer of taking a hard line on their demand. 2. The Indian team stands a chance of winning the Asian cup this year. 3. The treaty would go a long way in improving the relationship between the two countries. Task 1: Pick out as many idioms as possible from your favourite column in the newspaper. Task 2: Here are some common idioms with their meanings. Complete the sentences that follow choosing an appropriate idiom from the given list: 1. to give (someone) a piece of one’s mind

: to tell someone frankly what one thinks especially when one disapproves of the other’s behaviour

2. to be at logger heads

: to disagree strongly

3. to be at the end of one’s

: to have no power, patience or

tether endurance left 4. to be on cloud nine

: to be extremely happy

5. a bolt from the blue : unexpected event; complete surprise (usually unwelcome) 6. a yellow streak

: cowardice in one’s character

7. in the pink (of health)

: extremely healthy, in perfect condition

8. a shadow of one’s self

: not having the strength, former influence, etc., that one once had

9. honour bound (to do something)

: required to do as a something as a moral duty but not by law

10. put on airs

: behave in an unnatural way to impress others

a. I’ve been looking after my sister’s three troublesome children all day and I am ............................ b. He used to be a great actor but now he’s only ........................... c. In spite of being seventy-five, my grandfather is............................ d. The principal summoned Rahim for playing truant and …………............................ e. She was ........................... after winning the Gold medal at the Asian Games.

207

f. I feel ........................... to help him because I promised I would. g. The captain and the vice-captain of the team are always at........................... h. The news of Randhir Singh’s selection to represent the country in hockey overlooking Dhanam, came as ............................ i. Ever since she won the Miss Chennai Title at the beauty contest, she has been ............................ j. The soldier showed his ........................... when he sneaked away from the battle field. III. Foreign words and phrases English language has borrowed profusely from other languages of the world, and absorbed and assimilated them. Here are a few such words: 1. Till the election of the speaker, the senior member of the Parliament will hold the post ad interim. (temporarily) 2. People always resist changes. They want to maintain the status quo. (in the former state) 3. On the eve of his friend’s departure to the States, Rangan bid him adieu! (Goodbye) 4. The most dreaded criminal Shankar, alias (otherwise known as) Guru, was shot dead in a police encounter. 5. According to Shakespeare, old age is a period sans eyes, sans teeth …….. (without) 6. The candidates were asked to fill in a proforma before the walk-in-interview. (for the sake of form) 7. Boswell who wrote the biography of Dr. Johnson is Johnson’s protégé. (dependant who is helped and taught by an expert) 8. Kings of ancient India travelled in cognito (in disguise) to get to know the problems of their subjects. 9. The couple booked a table exclusively for them, at The Regency, to have a téteá-téte. (an intimate private conversation between two) 10. Though English is a foreign language, it is our lingua franca. (a common language)

208

Task: Given below is a list of foreign words and phrases. Look up their meanings in the dictionary and make sentences of your own. 1. elite

6.

in memoriam

2. versus

7.

en masse

3. fait accompli 8.

nouveau riche

4. alibi

9.

déja vu

10.

verbatim



5. bon homie IV. Usage

Using the language appropriately and in the most acceptable way is expected of an educated user of English. When you speak and write the language in question, you must always be on the guard against usage traps. Look at the following sentences:

He took up gymnastic when he was eight years old. 



He took up gymnastics when he was eight years old.



a)

‘Gymnastic’ (without ‘s’) is an adjective



e.g. His gymnastic ability is on a par with international standards.



Gymnastics (with ‘s’) is a noun.

b)



e.g. His career as a professional in gymnastics began with his winning the inter-school tournament.

Task 1: In the given pairs, put a tick mark (v) against the correct / acceptable sentence: 1. The trains often are late.

The trains are often late.

2. His salary is Rs.20,000/- per year.

His salary is Rs.20,000/- a year.

3. I am not understanding the problem. I don’t understand the problem. 4. Have you had your meal?

Have you had your meals?

209

5. He invited us to stay a few days with him. He invited us to spend a few days with him. 6. My sister was recently operated upon for appendicitis.

My sister was recently operated for appendicitis.

7. Thirukkural has been translated to many languages.

Thirukkural has been translated into many languages.

8. There is no reliable evidence to show that he is guilty.

There are no reliable evidences to show that he is guilty.

9. I bought a blue colour shirt and a tie.

I bought a blue shirt and a tie.

10. There is always heavy traffic during peak hours.

There is always a heavy traffic during peak hours.

11. I am not on talking terms with my neighbour.

I am not on speaking terms with my neighbour.

12. The teacher says, “He is making a good progress in studies”.

The teacher says, “He is making good progress in studies”.

13. He was proclaimed a traitor by the king.

He was proclaimed as a traitor by the king.

14. The letter was written partially in English and partially in Tamil.

The letter was written partly in English and partly in Tamil.

15. We are unable to identify the mistake.

We are unable to locate the mistake.

Task 2: Use the following words/phrases in sentences of your own to bring out their meanings. Look up the dictionary, if necessary, for their meanings: 1. interfere

-

intervene

2. signal

-

sign

3. rehearse

-

revise

4. evade

-

avoid 210

5. in the shade of

-

in the shadow of

6. series

-

serials

7. announce

-

pronounce

8. peer

-

peep

9. overlook

-

oversee

10. take note of

-

take notice of

E. Study skills a) Editing Having been through with English language for about 12/10 long years, you must have acquired enough skills in using (a) Vocabulary (b) Grammar and developed enough reading and writing skills. By way of language acquisition, you have learnt the proper spelling of words and punctuation. With this linguistic support at your command, you should now be able to edit a piece of writing with ease. Remember a thorough proof reading is essential for making your editing a foolproof one. Task 1: Given below is a part of a story, the first paragraph of which has been edited. Study the editing symbols used to indicate errors. Edit the remaining paragraph. (The symbols are not accepted ones, but only meant for your immediate classroom purpose.)

gr

-

grammar



sp

-

spelling



caps -

capital letter



l.c

small letter (lower case)



punc -

punctuation



//

-

begin new paragraph



v

-

vocabulary / usage



^

-

include omitted word or punctuation



d

-

delete

-

211

^a (gr.) was

Nicholas was _ little boy who lived in Patara in Turkey. his parents died when he is young and he was brought up by his Uncle, who was a monk in a monast^ry. His uncle taught him all about the God. Nicholas thought that when he grow up he would become a monk.

caps l.c / ^e (sp.) d e (gr.)

nichola’s parents had left behind a loot of wealth to their son. But the boy was not happy. You know why? Every monks he knew were very poor. So how he could becme a monk when he was Rich? He decided that he must give off his wealth and become poor and then only he can become a monk. Task 2: Exchange your composition pieces and correct, edit and proof-read them. b) Drafting you:

Drafting is a stage in the process of writing. The following guidelines will help

1. Choose a method that is suitable to the theme and purpose. Some people like to make a detailed outline. Others like to make a quick, rough draft and then revise it many times. 2. Whichever method you may choose, plan well before you write. 3. As and when you get ideas, jot them down immediately. You can revise and proof-read your work later. 4. As you write, fresh ideas may keep coming, include those ideas also. Revising your draft Revising is the process of editing and thereby refining your draft. Read the draft time and again. As you read the draft, correct the mistakes then and there. Ask yourself the questions in the checklist given below. If your answer is ‘no’ to any of the questions, revise your draft until you can answer ‘yes’ to all questions. Checklist for Revision 1. Topic & Purpose:

Is the topic clear?



Does the writing have a specific purpose?











Does it achieve its purpose?

212

2. Reader / listener: Will the written matter be clear to the reader / listener? Will it be interesting?

Will it kindle the right response?

3. Word choice:

Does the writing convey the impression intended?

Is the language appropriate?









Have vague and undefined terms been avoided?











Have vivid and specific words been used?



Have jargon, clichés, slang and verbiage been avoided?

4. Content and

Have unnecessary and unrelated



ideas been avoided?

Development:



Has the topic been fully developed?

Have supporting details and examples been provided? Are the sources of information unbiased, authentic and up-to-date?

Are quotations exact, word for word?

5. Form:

Is the writing logically organised?

Have linkers and connectors been used to make the organisation perfect? Given below is a draft of a report on the school project day: School Project Day Outline Date of Project Chief guest - inauguration Classes and the topics of their projects General opinion Draft The School Project Day was held on 7.8.2004 in the school area. Dr. Murali, Managing Director of Saraswathi Mills inaugurated it. The theme of the project was “Water.” 213

Std. VI presented the sources of water. Std. VII highlighted Rain Water Harvesting and Conservation of Water. Std. IX and X brought out the techniques of conversion of sea water into potable water through the process of ‘Reverse Osmosis’. Everyone liked the project very much. The Chief Guest saw all the displays. Final Report after editing the draft: The school held its ‘Project Day’ for Stds. VI to X on the 7th of August 2004 in the school premises. The theme of the Project was ‘Water’. Dr. Murali, the Managing Director of Saraswathi Mills was the Chief Guest who declared open the Project Exhibition. He went round the stalls and observed the demonstration of the working models of all the projects displayed. He evinced great interest in the project. While Std. VI highlighted the sources of water, Std. VII displayed posters, charts and models on the importance of Rain - Water Harvesting and Conservation of water. Stds. IX and X enlightened the visitors on how seawater could be converted into potable water. Their model of the process of obtaining drinking water through Reverse Osmosis was very much appreciated by all. Task: Prepare a report on one of the social service activities undertaken by your school. Follow the steps of:

1) Outline



2) Rough Draft



3) Final Composition



(Use the checklist before preparing your final composition.)

F. Grammar You have learnt the structure of a phrase/clause. You have also learnt the structure of simple, compound and complex sentences. You have also been told how to transform sentences, how to convert phrases into clauses and vice versa, etc. The following tasks will serve as revision. Task 1: Do as directed: 1. Having completed my homework, I set out to play. (Change the phrase to a clause) 2. In spite of his illness at the time of the exam, he obtained a high score in the subject. (use ‘though’) 3. I had to walk back home as the transport workers were on strike. (use ‘so’) 214

4. The villagers moved out of their village as they had no rains that year. (use ‘because of’) 5. When the cat is away, the mice are at play. (change the italicised clause to a phrase) 6. On seeing the dog the thief ran away. (use ‘when’) 7. The commuters boarded the bus. Then it left the bus-stand. (use ‘only after’) 8. She was poor, she was always happy. (use ‘in spite of’) 9. If you miss the bus, take a taxi. (use ‘in case of’) 10. We must eat to live. (Change into complex and compound.) Task 2: Combine the sentences as directed: 1. This is a mango from my garden. It is sweet. (form a simple sentence) 2. Priya has recovered after the accident. Her fractured arm is still in a cast. (form a compound sentence) 3. You run three miles every day. You burn up 500 calories. You do it three times a week, you will lose one and a half kilos a week. (form a complex sentence) 4. Venkat shared his lunch with the boy. He had only one sandwich. (form a complex sentence using ‘though’) 5. More buildings and roads are constructed. The natural habitat of animals is shrinking. (form a simple sentence using ‘due to’). 6. We still do not know. Prakash decided to make England his home. (Form a complex sentence using ‘why’) 7. Papa stayed in the US for five years. She taught Indian Classical dance. (form a simple sentence) 8. I wanted to buy a house somewhere. There is greenery and fresh air. (form a complex sentence using ‘where’) 9. I like tea. I prefer coffee. (form a complex sentence) 10. Thara types quickly. Thara types correctly. (form a simple sentence) Task 3: Combine each of the following into a single simple sentence: 1. Ram lost the match. He decided to resign as captain. 2. Bharath is very arrogant. He will not apologise. 3. All citizens have civic responsibilities. They must discharge them. 4. Anne Mansfield Sullivan was poor and ill. Yet she taught Keller with a passion. 215

5. The hunter took his rifle. He took aim. He shot the man eater. Task 4: Combine each of the following into a simple complex sentence: 1. The day broke. Birds came out of their nests. 2. I stand for justice and fair play. The whole world knows about it. 3. The rain stopped. The play resumed. 4. The man is a notorious criminal. I saw him in the court. 5. The doctor was not there. I was disappointed. I had to come back. Task 5: Change the complex sentences into compound: 1. It is really surprising that he has not been arrested by the police. 2. Unless you work hard, you will not clear the semester. 3. As my uncle was not willing to help me, I had to apply for a loan from the bank. Task 6: Convert the compound sentences into complex sentences: 1. Look at the signature carefully and you will know that it is forged. 2. I studied very hard, but failed. 3. The pick pocket saw the policeman and ran away. Task 7: Here’s a slightly challenging one. Try! Combine the following groups of sentences into a single complex sentence: 1. Members are elected to parliament by the voters. Members who are known as MPs come from all parts of the country. 2. Debates are under the control of the speaker.

He has to be impartial.



Sometimes the debates are acrimonious.

3. The policy of the government is decided by the Prime Minister.

He is helped by the Cabinet.



Each member of the Cabinet is responsible for one department.

G. Writing Writing articles for magazines Keep in mind the following points: ● Settle on the topic. ●

Discuss the relevancy of the topic with your friends who have similar interests.

● Keep in mind the nature of the magazine and who the magazine caters to. 216

● For factual information, refer to an encyclopaedia, year books and back numbers of newspapers. ●

Avoid clumsiness, verbiage and redundancy in your writing.

● Write in plain, simple English. ● Sprinkle your essay with humour. ● Begin with a bang and end with a bigger bang. ● Use appropriate quotes and anecdotes. ● End with a punch line. ● See that your article makes light and interesting reading. ● Circulate it among your close friends who are unbiased critics, before sending it to the editor of the magazine. Task: Using the above guidelines prepare articles for a magazine, on the following topics: 1.

A dream which I never dreamt.

2. Is India going uphill or down dale? (from a student’s point of view) 3. Computer illiteracy is as bad as not knowing the three ‘R’s. 4. You see more of India by road than by train. 5. Is a gold in the Olympics a wild goose chase? (What will you do if your article is rejected by the magazine?) H. Occupational Competency Describing a process Describing a process involves outlining the procedure of an activity. The description may be in the form of (a) a guideline to be followed before actually doing / performing the task or (b) recounting the actual process. (Care should be taken to maintain the sequence of steps.) e.g. 1. On making a cup of Tea: “Take a tea pot with the required quantity of water. Heat it on a stove. When the water boils drop in the tea leaves - a heaped spoon per cup. Add an extra spoon of tea leaves for the pot. Close the pot and remove from stove. Allow tea leaves to settle. Strain tea decoction into a cup. Add milk and sugar to taste”. Here you find that the instructions have been given to carry out the action, hence verbs in the imperative mood have been used. 217

e.g. 2. Making a cup of tea: A pot with required quantity of water is taken. It is put on a stove and heated. When the water is boiled, the required quantity of tealeaves is added to it.............. You find that the passive voice has been used here to indicate the actual process. It’s always wise and advisable to use passive constructions while describing a process. Task: Form groups and discuss the steps for the following: 1. Making coffee 2. Performing a surgery 3. Opening an account in the nearby bank I. Strategic Competency Proficiency in English is no doubt an advantage. However proficient one may be, there are occasions when one finds himself in an embarrassing situation for want of proper words and phrases while interacting with others. This is where gap fillers come in handy. Avoid frequent unnecessary pauses which ‘fracture the smooth flow of speech’. In your conversation, it is natural to pause briefly to choose the right words or to gain time to correct yourself. It is the pauses that could make or break the effect of your communication. Well spaced pauses may give the speaker an opportunity to think and settle for the right word, idiom or phrase. Unit IV talks about the gap-fillers under Strategic competency. Avoid too many of them (ums, ers, hmms, I mean, you know, do you know what I mean?, actually, well, etc.). All these sounds and phrases become meaningful only when used sparingly. Read the following dialogue between a salesman in a bookshop and a customer: Mr. Rajesh : You stock books published by reputed publishing houses, (The customer) I’m told. I’d like to know if you have any books by African authors? Pradeep : Hm.. well... you’re right. We do have books by (The salesman) international publishers. Now .... let me see. Hmm… (checks the catalogue) Oh! ... Here it is ... I’ll get it for you. Mr. Rajesh :

What’s the price of the book?

Mr. Pradeep:

Mmm…….. one moment please …. Rs.1000/218

Mr. Rajesh :

Oh my God! ….er .. . in that case … well let me see …. it’s alright …. anyhow, I need the book.

As Pradeep is not very sure about the availability of the book at the moment, he has to pause and use gap fillers before giving a satisfactory reply. Task 1: Why should Rajesh use gap-fillers? Task 2: Choose the gap-fillers from the box given below and use them appropriately in the dialogues: 1. A : Would you like a cup of tea?

B : Normally, I don’t take tea. Could I have a cup of coffee instead?

2. A : Which book is yours?

B : (Pause) .. it’s this one here, yes, this one.

3. A : It’s quite a problem.

B : Can I help you?



A : Would you? Thank you very much!

4. A : What shall we do next?

B : How about going to the beach?



C : Let’s go!

5. A : Is it spicy?

B : Yes. It’s a chilly and capsicum pizza. well

now

now then

right / ok

listen / look hmm

er

I mean

mind you

Ah! yes

uh… uh

let me see

J. Creative Competency The following is the script for a children’s TV programme: Date of recording: ………. Date of telecast: …………. Duration: 10 minutes

219

- Title song is played ‘Say ‘No’ to crackers’ Presented by the Class XII students of T I School, Ambattur, Chennai Voice:

In the beginning there was nothing but darkness. God said, “Let there be light.” And there was light.

(All lights off – total darkness – gradually becomes bright) (Background noise of bursting of firecrackers) Scene 1: A tableau – ● Children working in a cracker manufacturing unit. ● A child with burn injuries being carried to hospital. ● Little children play with firecrackers (mock) smoke all over (use a lot of incense sticks for this smoke), an old man coughs. ● A boy closes his ears and tries to study. A sick old woman on the cot by his side, tosses and struggles to sleep. ● A father with bundles and bundles of firecrackers, children around him smiling. A little girl in rags stands watching them. ● A hut on fire. People running helter skelter and wailing. (Use red cellophane around bulbs to create an impression of a fire. Fans could be used to make it a raging fire.) (Light focusses on children working) Voice: Do we want our brothers and sisters to labour for our pleasures? Say ‘No’ to crackers. (Light focusses on child with burn injuries) Voice: The world began with a big bang. Should her world end with one? Say ‘No’ to crackers. (Light focusses on old man) Voice: Should we deprive him of fresh air in the evening of his life? Say ‘No’ to crackers. (Light focusses on boy and old lady)

220

Voice: Should we disturb his studies and her sleep? Say ‘No’ to crackers. (Light focusses on father, children and girl in rags) Voice: Should we waste huge sums of money when the basic needs of our lesser brothers and sisters are not met with? Say ‘No’ to crackers. (Light focusses on hut on fire) Voice: Should we deprive them of a roof over their heads? Say ‘No’ to crackers. Lights dim) Scene 2: Krishna and Narakasura enter – dance – Narakasura is killed. (Play relevant music) Voice: Deepavali, the ‘festival of lights’ celebrates the triumph of good over evil. Let us rid the world of these evils Say ‘No’ to child labour. Say ‘No’ to air pollution. Say ‘No’ to noise pollution. Say ‘No’ to crackers. (Let us crack jokes, not crackers!) What are we to do for the hundreds and thousands of child labourers and those workers employed in the cracker manufacturing units? Shouldn’t we find alternative employment for them? Tips for preparing a TV/Radio script: ●

Plenty of drama and action increases the entertainment value of the script.



An element of humour too helps.

● Use of familiar life-style habits create a favourable impact. ● Judicious use of repetition ensures effective communication of ideas. ● Present accurate facts in an organised and logically sequential fashion. ● Take care not to hurt the sentiments of any particular group. ●

Give specific hints on music, lighting, costume, stage props, etc.

Remember: Radio is an audio medium; TV is an audio-visual medium. Hence, there is a difference in the writing of scripts for these two media. For radio, 221

● Create sound-pictures through words and sound-effects. ● Create the necessary atmosphere through your narration. ● Use dialogues which would enable the listener to get more details about people and places. (dialogue should be able to compensate the visual impact) Task:

Do you know the magnum opus of the Russian novelist Leo Tolstoy? If not, find out. Prepare the script for a Radio /TV programme on the theme of his book.

Tips: Rajaji - Gandhiji - Rajmohan Gandhi - Martin Luther King Jr - Aung San Suu Kyi - Nobel Laureates for Peace - Kalinga war - World Wars I & II

222

POEM THE MAN HE KILLED “Had he and I but met By some old ancient inn, We should have sat us down to wet Right many a nipperkin!” “But ranged as infantry, And staring face to face,

I shot at him as he at me, And killed him in his place.” “I shot him dead because —Because he was my foe, Just so: my foe of course he was; That’s clear enough; although.” “He thought he’d ’list, perhaps, Off-hand like — just as I — Was out of work — had sold his traps — No other reason why.” “Yes; quaint and curious war is! You shoot a fellow down You’d treat if met where any bar is Or help to half-a-crown.” - Thomas Hardy

Thomas Hardy (1840 - 1928) was both a novelist and a poet. In his novels he depicted people striving against overwhelming odds within a society that was uncaring. However, he sought to improve society. Hardy’s poetry marks a bridge between the Victorian Age and the Modernist movement of the twentieth century. Hardy’s use of ‘non-poetic’ language and odd rhymes, coupled with his fatalistic outlook, were both a source and inspiration to numerous twentieth - century writers. 223

Glossary nipperkin

/ 'nIpəkIn/

: a small glass for beer or wine

’list

/ lIst /

: enlist

traps / træps / : two-wheeled horse carriage (reference to this is to indicate that there is perhaps no justifiable reason or joining the army) quaint

/ kweInt /

half-a-crown

/ hå:fə'kra n / : former British coin. A crown was worth five





: strange

Ω

shillings (twenty five pence)

Comprehension questions 1. What does the poet suggest might have happened had he and the other man met earlier? 2. Where did they meet instead? 3. What happened? 4. What similarities does the poet note between him and the other man? 5. What do you think is the purpose of the quotation marks in each stanza? To whom is the poet addressing the poem? 6. Who do you suppose the speaker is? 7. In what way is war “quaint and curious”? 8. Is Hardy writing about war in general or about a specific war?

Give reasons for your answer.

Appreciation questions 1. Bring out the use of frequent hyphens in the poem. 2. What are the emotions expressed in this poem? Write an essay on:

The man he killed.

Suggested reading:

Wilfred Owens’, ‘The strange meeting’.

224

APPENDIX UNIT - I A. Listening “Friends and comrades, the light has gone out of our lives and there is darkness everywhere. I do not know what to tell you and how to say it. Our beloved leader, Bapu as we called him, the father of the nation, is no more. Perhaps, I am wrong to say that. Nevertheless, we will not see him again as we have seen him for these many years. We will not run to him for advice and seek solace from him, and that is a terrible blow, not to me only, but to millions and millions in this country, and it is a little difficult to soften the blow by any other advice that I or anyone else can give you.”

UNIT - II A. Listening Note to the teacher: Read the following passage without pause in the first reading and with appropriate pause in the second reading. My entrance into the House of Commons was not, as some thought, in the nature of a revolution. It was an evolution. My husband was the one who started me off on this downward path – from the fireside to public life. If I have helped the cause of women he is the one to thank, not me. A woman in the House of Commons! It was almost enough to have broken up the House, I don’t blame them – it was equally hard on the woman as it was on them. A pioneer may be a picturesque figure, but they are often rather lonely ones. I must say for the House of Commons, they bore their shock with dauntless decency. No body of men could have been kinder and fairer to a “pirate” than they were. When you hear people over here trying to run down England, please remember that England was the first large country to give the vote to women and that the men of England welcomed an American born woman in the House with a fairness and a justice which, at least, this woman never will forget. (Part of a speech by Lady Astor, the first woman to be elected to the British House of Commons.) Task: (For a student to read) Read the following passage with appropriate pauses. Pause wherever there is a punctuation mark. Love all God’s creation, both the whole and every grain of sand. Love every leaf, every ray of light. Love the animals, love the plants, love each separate thing. If you love each thing you will pierce the mystery of God in all, and when you perceive this, you will from then on grow every day to a fuller understanding of it, until you come at last to love the whole world with a love that will then be all-embracing and eternal. 225

UNIT – III A. Listening Panel Discussion: Anchorperson

:

Good evening, ladies and gentlemen. We are here today, to share our views on how tourism can be further developed in our country. We have with us, four eminent personalities, each an expert in his/her own field. Mr.Balbir Singh, Director for Tourism. Good evening, Sir.

Mr.Balbir Singh

:

Good evening.

Anchorperson

:

Miss Priya, a lover of nature and an avid traveller.

Priya

:

Hello!

Anchorperson

:

Miss Ayisha Banu, President, Golden Orchard Group of Hotels.

Miss AB

:

Hello!

Anchorperson

:

And also with us is, Mr.M.C.Thomas, CEO, Star Tourism Corporation.

Mr.M.C.T.

:

Good evening.

Anchorperson

:

We all know that tourism in India has flourished over the past decade or so. Mr.Balbir Singh, how does the government plan to keep up this momentum?

Mr. Balbir Singh

:

India has definitely seen a tremendous growth in the field of tourism. The Ministry of Tourism has taken many steps to ensure that travel becomes more of a pleasure and less of a hassle. We have well-laid roads now connecting tourist spots. Our airline network too has been enhanced and strengthened.

Anchorperson

:

Why is it then, that the tourist is never completely satisfied?

Tourist

:

No one denies that facilities have improved but there is so much more that can be done. That could come only at a very heavy price. But, you must know that there is a price for everything in a developing country like India.

226

Hotelier

:

Though many may say good things in life always come at a price, we at Golden Orchard are always ready to cater to the customers with multifarious requirements at an affordable price.

Mr.M.C.T

:

And in the case of transport, one can always choose the mode of transport according to one’s personal requirements.

Tourist

:

Yes, we have the choice, but isn’t it limited by the factors such as money available and the place we choose to visit?

Mr.M.C.T

:

True…… but it is necessary to make certain sacrifices to gain some reward. For e.g: you can’t go up a rocky-terrained hill station on your rickety old scooter. You better choose a jeep which, though costlier, is better suited for such a venture.

Anchorperson

:

I also think that the tourism department should take enough measures to keep the tourist spots neat, tidy and litter-free.

Director

:

Efforts are on to make the tourists conscious of their social responsibility to help the administration keep the environment clean.

Tourist

:

Even in our tourist association meetings, we keep discussing and addressing ourselves this question. But in reality even the most civic conscious tourist hardly finds any dustbins. Are we to carry the garbage around in search of bins?

Director

:

Very true. Your point is well taken. I’m sorry. We are guilty of this negligence. We’ll set it right.

Anchorperson

:

Even the historical monuments such as the Taj Mahal, Agra, have not been spared. Due to apathy, negligence and insensitivity of the tourists and the authorities concerned, we face the danger of these monuments losing their original charm and grandeur.

Director

:

Already we have about 30 scientists and 20 archaeologists working on a project round the clock, to restore the country’s monuments, to their original glory with almost 10 of them concentrating on the Taj Mahal.

Tourist

:

You may spend so much on preserving these monuments, but a visit to these places is beyond the common man’s budget. Couldn’t something be done about this? 227

Director

:

Discount prices are usually available in most hotelier’s union during the season. Also, the hotelier’s union is planning to set up a chain of hotels around the country for middle class families at an affordable price.

Tourist

:

Could we then, be assured of a better deal hereafter for the tourist by way of accommodation, at a very reasonable and modest cost?

Anchorperson

:

Hope this has been a meaningful discussion and a serious attempt has been made to find practical solutions for some of the problems faced by the tourists, at least in principle. Thank you for being with us. Viewers, do write to us about your views on this programme. Goodbye!

E. Study Skills: Task 1: Goa, an ideal Beach Resort: Goa is a vibrant, living entity and more than just a geographical sunspot on the western coast of India. Famous for its silver sands and mesmeric sunsets, its recorded history dates back to the 3rd century B.C. It is blessed with marvellous weather, fabulous beaches, picturesque hill-top forts, gracious people and awe inspiring cathedrals. Arombol 50 km north of Panaji is a unique beach, which is both rocky and sandy. It has a sweet water pond right near the seashore that’s very pleasant to bask in. Goa not only has almost 120 km long silver beaches but also offers long, wide and picturesque rivers and scenic lakes. Aqua sports hold great attraction for tourists to Goa. Some of the most popular aqua sports are swift rides on water scooters and speedboats at the Bay of Dona Paula. The best time to visit Goa, the ideal Serene Beach Resort is during the relatively cool winter months between late September and mid-March. Task 2: Quiet: Midway between Pondicherry and the international township of Auroville, off the new East Coast Road, nestling beside a fishing village lies Quiet overlooking the Bay of Bengal’s calm turquoise waters. Tranquility and serenity are the two elements that make up the unique character of Quiet— Auroville’s famed centre for natural health and renewal of strength. Quiet, named so by the Holy Mother for its peace, is renowned for its unique and creative health programme. Quiet has some rare programmes not found elsewhere in India. Most notable of these is Watsu or water shiatsu also known as aqua balancing. Watsu is a rare 228

and new form of body-work performed in warm water in a shallow tank. The individual is put through a series of gentle movements and stretches that induce a profoundly blissful state. This state of deep relaxation is conducive to healing as it helps to clear blockages both physical and emotional, returning to the body lots of fresh energy and life. Bio Resonance is another singular therapy practised only at Quiet. The bicom machine makes “readings” of a person’s cellular vibration. These vibrations become disharmonious when the body is in a state of stress or ill health. Bio Resonance is the means by which complimentary healthy vibrations can be transmitted back to the body’s cells to re-invigorate them, thereby giving a new lease of health and wellbeing.

UNIT – IV A. Listening Our new teacher said each of us had to get up and recite in front of the class, who was to listen. My sister and I had memorized the lesson perfectly. We said it to each other at home, one chanting, one listening. The teacher called on my sister to recite first. It was the first time a teacher had called on the second-born to go first. My sister was scared. She glanced at me and looked away; I looked down at my desk. I hoped that she could do it because if she could, then I would have to. She opened her mouth and a voice came out that wasn’t a whisper, but it wasn’t a proper voice either. I hoped that she would not cry, fear breaking up her voice like twigs under foot. She sounded as if she were trying to sing though weeping and strangling. She did not pause or stop to end the embarrassment. She kept going until she said the last word, and then she sat down. When it was my turn, the same voice came out, a crippled animal running on broken legs. You could hear splinters in my voice, bones rubbing jagged against one another. I was loud, though. I was glad I didn’t whisper.

UNIT – V A. Listening Task 1: Suresh

:

We’ve been stuck here for ten minutes now. I can’t afford to be late today!

Ramu

:

I have an important presentation at 9.30 a.m.

Suresh

:

Gosh! That’s just fifteen minutes from now. Where do you work? 229

Ramu

:

At ‘Lintas’ on Gandhi Street. It is the second turning on the right from here. In fact I have to walk 200 mts. from the next bus-stop.

Suresh

:

Hey! I work on the same street! I work for Radius Computers! How come we have never bumped into each other?!

Ramu

:

Listen! I think this traffic jam will not be cleared for another hour! Why don’t we get down and walk? We’d reach our office in ten minutes if we walk along the kerb. Wouldn’t we?

Suresh

:

That’s a good idea! Let’s get off the bus. Come on! Quick! Hurry up!

Suresh

:

Hi, Ramu! Were you on time for your presentation yesterday? Was it well received?

Ramu

:

I was just on the dot. There were mixed reactions to my presentation.It went down well with a few, and just a lukewarm response from the others.

Suresh

:

That happens …….. Did you see the report about the accident which caused yesterday’s traffic jam?

Ramu

:

Yes. It says there was a head-on collision between a goods carrier and a school van taking the children on a picnic to the Snake park.

Suresh

:

How reckless the drivers are!

Ramu

:

Don’t jump to conclusions. Don’t put the blame on the driver. The report says that the van driver could have been distracted by the wild excitement of the children.

Suresh

:

Thank God a few escaped with minor injuries! It wasn’t fatal.

Parent

:

Good Morning Mrs. Viswanath! Could I have a few minutes with you please? Of late Vijay has not been his usual self. He is slightly withdrawn. I would like to know how Vijay fares in the class.

Teacher

:

Of course Mrs. Raman! In fact I would like a little more than a few minutes to discuss! And I want to talk about Vijay the boy, not Vijay the student!

Task 2:

Task 3:

230

Parent

:

Why! Is anything wrong? Has Vijay been causing problems?

Teacher

:

Certainly not! I wanted to talk to you about his aptitude and I thought I need to warn you not to force him into a course he may not enjoy.

Parent

:

But, Ma’am we have been preparing him for medicine from middle school days. You see, I and my husband are doctors and we have our own hospital. It’s only natural that our children take over from us. His elder sister has just completed MBBS and his younger brother is also planning to be a doctor!

Teacher

:

That’s just the problem Mrs. Raman. You want Vijay to do medicine but what does Vijay want? Have you asked him? Have you ever tried to understand where his ability and aptitude lie?

Parent

:

Ma’am, he’s been getting good marks in science, hasn’t he? Especially in Biology… you just wait and see Ma’am. In the X Board Exam he will be the topper in science.

Teacher

:

Mrs. Raman, I cannot deny that your boy is a good scorer in science nor can I ignore the possibility of him doing proud to the school through a centum in science. Marks are not the indicators of one’s aptitude. Look at his marks in English especially in his second paper. Aren’t they good too? He has a high level of linguistic competency, creativity, fertile imagination and clarity in expression. He is extremely good in visual presentation – his biology record book is a proof of it! He has the potential for making it big in the fields of advertising, journalism and event management. And there is big money in these jobs, if you want, too!

Parent

:

Well! I ………er……….

Teacher

:

Don’t you think that Vijay has to enjoy all that he does? He should feel a sense of purpose and fulfillment. Success in life is not measured in terms of money alone.

Parent

:

I could see your point and it’s well taken.

Teacher

:

All the best Mrs. Raman, I’m sure you’ll do what is best for Vijay. Goodbye.

231

UNIT – VI A. Listening Task 1: Compere

:

Welcome Viewers! In today’s ‘Face-to-Face’ we have a very special guest in our studios. He is the Director of the Research Institute of Environmental Studies in Chennai and a strong and ardent campaigner of a ‘noise free and litter free’ environment. He is none other than Dr. Kathirvel, the familiar figure to Chennaiites. One could often see him with enthusiastic student volunteers on the streets. Welcome to our studios Dr. Kathirvel!

Dr.Kathirvel

:

Thank you! And I thank the channel for giving me this opportunity to reach out to a larger audience!

Interviewer

:

Sir, what prompted you to take up this venture?

Dr. Kathirvel

:

People have been callous and insensitive to the welfare of their fellow human beings. They don’t seem to realise their civic responsibilities and obligations. When we destroy the environment we destroy ourselves as well! Mmm... Don’t we? This provoked me to take up this cause.

Interviewer

:

And how do you propose to go about it, Sir?

Dr. Kathirvel

:

The first step of course, is to tackle the problem at the grass- rootl level and educate them on the need to keep their surroundings clean. Then we will have to look into the various garbage disposal systems available and set right the system to help the citizens dispose of the garbage with least inconvenience to their neighbours. Our environment is unclean because we don’t look beyond our house.

Interviewer

:

Nor beyond our nose!

Dr. Kathirvel

:

(Laughs) Once the garbage is thrown out of the house we feel we have done our duty. Probably we have misinterpreted the saying, “Charity begins at home”.

Interviewer

:

How were you able to rope in the youth into your campaign? Did they volunteer or ………..?

232

Dr.Kathirvel

:

Today's youth are more knowledgeable, more informative, more civic conscious and more environment-friendly than we were. The only thing is, their energy has to be channelised properly. They have really understood the proverb, “Cleanliness is next to Godliness” – both personal cleanliness and environmental cleanliness. They are never guilty of throwing rubbish, waste, and throw materials on the streets. Rather they prefer to litter their schools and colleges! Jokes apart, I have immense faith in our younger generation, educational institutions and NGOs.

Interviewer

:

How do you say that?

Dr. Kathirvel

:

Our NGOs and educational institutions are gradually creating an awareness in the society through the students. They arrange cleaning - campaigns; they get sponsors to give awards to the cleanest street in their locality; they organise essay and oratorical competitions for school students, as part of their club activities, to instil in the young minds an awareness of being environmental friendly.

Interviewer

:

Can’t we do something with the waste materials or are they once and for all ‘dumped’?

Dr. Kathirvel

:

From among the waste materials the non-biodegradable materials are segregated and recycled.

Interviewer

:

Thank you Dr. Kathirvel. All said and done - sorry to ask you this question - have you succeeded in making your zone litter-free?

Dr. Kathirvel

:

I invite you to come and see for yourself how litter-free my zone is.

Interviewer

:

For want of time, we could not take up the hazards of noise pollution. Dr. Kathirvel will be with us same time next week to discuss the issue. See you same time, same day next week!

Task 2: Since 1945, 2051 nuclear tests have been conducted all over the world. Of these, 528 have been in the atmosphere, under water, or in space. The rest were underground tests. The international awareness of the dangers of radioactive fallout from atmospheric tests came with the 1954 ‘Bravo’ thermonuclear test conducted by the US. All 23 crew members of a Japanese fishing boat, inappropriately named ‘Lucky Dragon’ that was fishing about 160 kms from the test location were irradiated. Several fell sick and one died, creating international outrage. 233

SUPPLEMENTARY READER

234

THE SELFISH GIANT - Oscar Wilde

Oscar Wilde, the brilliant wit and playwright, was born



in Dublin in 1854. At Oxford he shocked his teachers



and fellow students with his avant garde philosophy,



irreverent quips and his flamboyant clothing. Apart



from essays and novels, he wrote a string of successful



plays such as, “The Importance of being Earnest”, as



well as a number of short stories such as, “The Happy



Prince”, which began as bed time tales for his children.

Every afternoon, as they were coming from school, the children used to go and play in the Giant’s garden. It was a large lovely garden, with soft green grass. Here and there over the grass stood beautiful flowers like stars, and there were twelve peach-trees that in the spring-time broke out into delicate blossoms of pink and pearl, and in the autumn bore rich fruit. The birds sat on the trees and sang so sweetly that the children used to stop their games in order to listen to them. “How happy we are here!” they cried to each other. One day the Giant came back. He had been to visit his friend the Cornish ogre, and had stayed with him for seven years. After the seven years were over he had said all that he had to say, for his conversation was limited, and he determined to return to his own castle. When he arrived he saw the children playing in the garden. “What are you doing here?” he cried in a very gruff voice, and the children ran away. “My own garden is my own garden,” said the Giant, “any one can understand that, and I will allow nobody to play in it but myself,” So he built a high wall all round it, and put up a notice board. TRESPASSERS will be PROSECUTED

He was a very selfish Giant.

The poor children had now nowhere to play. They tried to play on the road, but the road was very dusty and full of hard stones, and they did not like it. They 235

used to wander round the high walls when their lessons were over, and talk about the beautiful garden inside. “How happy we were there,” they said to each other. Then the Spring came, and all over the country there were little blossoms and little birds. Only in the garden of the Selfish Giant it was still winter. The birds did not care to sing in it as there were no children, and the trees forgot to blossom. Once a beautiful flower put its head out from the grass, but when it saw the noticeboard it was so sorry for the children that it slipped back into the ground again, and went off to sleep. The only people who were pleased were the Snow and the Frost. “Spring has forgotten this garden,” they cried, “so we will live here all the year round.” The Snow covered up the grass with her great white cloak, and the Forst painted all the trees silver. Then they invited the North Wind to stay with them, and he came. He was wrapped in furs, and he roared all day about the garden, and blew the chimneypots down. “This is a delightful spot,” he said, “we must ask the Hail on a visit.” So the Hail came. Every day for three hours he rattled on the roof of the castle till he broke most of the slates, and then he ran round and round the garden as fast as he could go. He was dressed in grey, and his breath was like ice. “I cannot understand why the Spring is so late in coming,” said the Selfish Giant, as he sat at the window and looked out at his cold white garden, “I hope there will be a change in the weather.” But the ‘Spring’ never came, nor the ‘Summer’. The Autumn gave golden fruit to every garden, but to the Giant’s garden she gave none, “He is too selfish,” she said. So it was always Winter there, and the North Wind, and the Hail, and the Frost, and the Snow danced about through the trees. One morning the Giant was lying awake in bed when he heard some lovely music. It sounded so sweet to his ears that he thought it must be the King’s musicians passing by. It was really only a little linnet singing outside the window, but it was so long since he had heard a bird sing in his garden that it seemed to him to be the most melodious music in the world. Then the Hail stopped dancing over is head, and the North Wind ceased roaring, and a delicious perfume came to him through the open casement. “I believe the Spring has come at last,” said the Giant, and he jumped out of bed and looked out.

What did he see?

He saw a most wonderful sight. Through a little hole in the wall the children had crept in, and they were sitting in the branches of the trees. In every tree that he could see there was a little child. And the trees were so glad to have the children back again that they had covered themselves with blossoms, and were waving their arms gently above the children’s heads. The birds were flying about and twittering with delight, and the flowers were looking up through the green grass and laughing. It was a lovely scene, only in one corner it was still winter. It was the farthest corner 236

of the garden, and in it was standing a little boy. He was so small that he could not reach up to the branches of the tree, and he was wandering all round it, crying bitterly. The poor tree was still quite covered with frost and snow, and the North Wind was blowing and roaring above it. “Climb up! Little boy,” said the Tree, and it bent its branches down as low as it could, but the boy was too tiny. And the Giant’s heart melted as he looked out. “How selfish I have been!” he said, “now I know why the Spring would not come here. I will put that poor little boy on the top of the tree, and then I will knock down the wall, and my garden shall be the children’s playground for ever and ever.” He was really very sorry for what he had done. So he crept downstairs and opened the front door quite softly, and went out into the garden. But when the children saw him they were so frightened that they all ran away, and the garden became winter again. Only the little boy did not run, for his eyes were so full of tears that he did not see the Giant coming. And the Giant stole up behind him and took him gently in his hand, and put him up into the tree. And the tree broke at once into blossom, and the birds came and sang on it, and the little boy stretched out his two arms and flung them round the Giant’s neck, and kissed him. And the other children, when they saw that the Giant was not wicked any longer, came running back, and with them came the Spring. “It is your garden now, little children,” said the Giant, and he took a great axe and knocked down the wall. And when the people were going to market at twelve o’clock they found the Giant playing with the children in the most beautiful garden they had ever seen. All day long they played, and in the evening they came to the Giant to bid him good-bye. “But where is your little companion?” he said, “the boy I put into the tree.” The Giant loved him the best because he had kissed him.

“We don’t know,” answered the children, “he has gone away.”

“You must tell him to be sure and come here tomorrow,” said the Giant. But the children said that they did not know where he lived, and had never seen him before; and the Giant felt very sad. Every afternoon, when school was over, the children came and played with the Giant. But the little boy whom the Giant loved was never seen again. The Giant was very kind to all the children, yet he longed for his first little friend; and often spoke of him. “How I would like to see him!” he used to say. Years went over, and the Giant grew very old and feeble. He could not play about any more, so he sat in a huge armchair, and watched the children at their games, and admired his garden. “I have many beautiful flowers,” he said, “but the children are the most beautiful flowers of all.” 237

One winter morning he looked out of his window as he was dressing. He did not hate the Winter now, for he knew that it was merely the Spring asleep, and that the flowers were resting. Suddenly he rubbed his eyes in wonder, and looked and looked. It certainly was a marvelous sight. In the farthest corner of the garden was a tree quite covered with lovely white blossoms. Its branches were all golden, and silver fruit hung down from them, and underneath it stood the little boy he had loved. Downstairs ran the Giant in great joy, and out into the garden. He hastened across the grass, and came near to the child. And when he came quite close his face grew red with anger, and he said, “Who hath dared to wound thee?” For on the palms of the child’s hands were the prints of two nails, and the prints of two nails were on the little feet. “Who hath dared to wound thee?” cried the Giant, “tell me, that I may take my big sword and slay him.”

“Nay!” answered the child, “but these are the wounds of Love.”

“Who art thou?” said the Giant, and a strange awe fell on him, and he knelt before the little child. And the child smiled on the Giant, and said to him, “You let me play once in your garden, today you shall come with me to my garden, which is Paradise.” And when the children ran in that afternoon, they found the Giant lying dead under the tree, all covered with white blossoms. Task 1: Choose the correct answer: 1. The children visited the giant’s garden everyday/ every week/ once a month. 2. The giant stayed with his friend for 10 years/ seven months/ seven years. 3. The poor children had many places/ no place/ a few places to play. 4. The children entered the giant’s garden through a little hole in the wall/ the rear gate/ the main gate. 5.

The giant died when he became old and feeble/ was young/ was middle-aged.

6. The only people who were pleased to stay in the giant’s garden were the Spring and the Summer/ the snow and the frost/ the birds and the animals. 7. The giant’s final journey was to Paradise/ to his friend’s place/ to the neighbouring village. Task 2: Write short answers to the following questions: 1. Why did the children like to play in the giant’s garden? 238

2. What steps did the giant take to prevent the children from playing in his garden? 3. Give the names of the people who enjoyed their stay in the giant’s garden. 4. How did the Hail spend his time in the giant’s garden? 5. Describe the ‘wonderful’ scene, which the giant saw in his garden. 6. Which incident melted the giant’s heart? 7. How did the giant make the children realise that he was no longer the wicked one? 8. Why did the giant love a particular boy the most? 9. Describe the ‘marvellous’ scene, which the giant saw in his garden. 10. Who came and took the giant to Paradise? Task 3: Say whether the following statements are ‘true’ or ‘false’: 1. The children felt very happy about the giant’s return to his castle. 2. The giant built a huge wall around his garden in order to be away from the society. 3.

After the giant’s return to his castle, all the four seasons visited his garden.

4. The king’s musicians played special music to the giant. 5. The little boy did not run because he was too small to run. 6. Every day, the giant saw the little boy playing with his friends. 7. According to the giant the children are the most beautiful flowers. 8. The giant was covered with yellow blossoms when he was lying dead. 9. The giant remained a selfish person till the end of his life. Task 4: Choose the right option based on the context: 1. rattled

- shook repeatedly / moved swiftly / / talked quickly

2. melted

- became liquid / gradually disappeared/ became sympathetic

3. longed

- wanted very much / awaited / cherished

4. stretched

- extended / continued / showed

Task 5: Write an essay on the following: 1. Oscar Wilde’s Selfish Giant. 2. The transformation of the Selfish Giant. 239

THE LOTTERY TICKET

- Anton Chekhov

Anton Chekhov, one of the greatest Russian masters of the short story, came from a poor family and helped support his family by writing humorous sketches. The stories and plays that he later wrote highlight the conflicts that go on continuously inside us and the tragic-comic aspects of everyday life. A man with a keen social conscience, Chekhov actively involved himself in famine and epidemic relief work, was a volunteer census taker, and ran a free medical clinic.He died of TB in 1904. In ‘The Lottery Ticket,’ Chekhov dramatises the unleashing of selfish and cruel impulses in the human mind when it is lured by the prospect of sudden riches. Ivan Dmitritch, a middle-class man who lived with his family on an income of twelve hundred a year and was very well satisfied with his lot, sat down on the sofa after supper and began reading the newspaper. “I forgot to look at the newspaper today,” his wife said to him as she cleared the table. “Look and see whether the list of drawings is there.”

“Yes, it is,” said Ivan Dmitritch, “but hasn’t your ticket lapsed?”



“No, I took the interest on Tuesday.”



“What is the number?”



“Series 9,499, number 26.”



“All right . . . we will look . . . 9,499 and 26.”

Ivan Dmitritch had no faith in lottery luck, and would not, as a rule, have consented to look at the lists of winning numbers, but now, as he had nothing else to do and as the newspaper was before his eyes, he passed his finger downwards along the column of numbers. And immediately, as though in mockery of his skepticism, no further than the second line from the top, his eye was caught by the figure 9,499! Unable to believe his eyes, he hurriedly dropped the paper on his knees without looking to see the number of the ticket, and, just as though someone had given him a douche of cold water, he felt an agreeable chill in the pit of the stomach; tingling and terrible and sweet!

“Masha, 9,499 is there!” he said in a hollow voice.

His wife looked at his astonished and panic-stricken face, and realized that he was not joking.

240

“9,499?” she asked, turning pale and dropping the folded tablecloth on the table.

“Yes, yes . . . it really is there!”



“And the number of the ticket?”

“Oh, yes! There’s the number of the ticket too. But stay . . . wait! No, I say! Anyway, the number of our series is there! Anyway, you understand . . . Looking at his wife, Ivan Dmitritch gave a broad, senseless smile, like a baby when a bright object is shown to it. His wife smiled too; it was as pleasant to her as to him that he only mentioned the series, and did not try to find out the number of the winning ticket. To torment and tantalize oneself with hopes of possible fortune is so sweet, so thrilling! “It is our series,” said Ivan Dmitritch, after a long silence. “So there is a probability that we have won. It’s only a probability, but there it is!”

“Well, now look!”

“Wait a little. We have plenty of time to be disappointed. It’s on the second line from the top, so the price is seventy-five thousand. That’s not money, but power, capital! And in a minute I shall look at the list, and there - 26! Eh? I say, what if we really have won?” The husband and the wife began laughing and staring at one another in silence. The possibility of winning bewildered them; they could not have said, could not have dreamed, what they both needed that seventy-five thousand for, what they would buy, where they would go. They thought only of the figures 9,499 and 75,000 and pictured them in their imagination, while somehow they could not think of the happiness itself which was so possible. Ivan Dmitritch, holding the paper in his hand, walked several times from corner to corner, and only when he had recovered from the first impression began dreaming a little. “And if we have won,” he said - “why, it will be a new life, it will be a transformation! The ticket is yours, but if it were mine I should, first of all, of course, spend twenty-five thousand on real property in the shape of an estate, ten thousand on immediate expenses, new furnishing . . . travelling . . . paying debts, and so on. . . The other forty thousand I would put in the bank and get interest on it.” “Yes, an estate, that would be nice,” said his wife, sitting down and dropping her hands in her lap. “Somewhere in the Tula or Oryol provinces . . . In the first place we should need a summer villa, and besides, it would always bring in an income.” 241

And pictures came crowding on his imagination, each more gracious and poetical than the last. And in all these pictures he saw himself well-fed, serene, healthy, felt warm, even hot! Here, after eating a summer soup, cold as ice, he lay on his back on the burning sand close to a stream or in the garden under a lime-tree . . … it is hot. His little boy and girl are crawling about near him, digging in the sand or catching ladybirds in the grass. He dozes sweetly, thinking of nothing, and feeling all over that he need not go to the office today, tomorrow, or the day after. Or, tired of lying still, he goes to the hayfield, or to the forest for mushrooms, or watches the peasants catching fish with a net. When the sun sets he takes a towel and soap and saunters to the bathing shed, where he undresses at his leisure, slowly rubs his bare chest with his hands, and goes into the water. And in the water, near the opaque soapy circles, little fish flit to and fro and green water weeds nod their heads. After bathing there is tea with cream and milk rolls… In the evening a walk or vint with the neighbours. “Yes, it would be nice to buy an estate,” said his wife, also dreaming, and from her face it was evident that she was enchanted by her thoughts. Ivan Dmitritch pictured to himself autumn with its rains, its cold evenings, and its St. Martin’s summer. At that season he would have to take longer walks about the garden and besides the river, so as to get thoroughly chilled, and then drink a big glass of vodka and eat a salted mushroom or a soused cucumber, and then drink another.The children would come running from the kitchen-garden, bringing a carrot and a radish smelling of fresh earth. And then, he would lie stretched full length on the sofa, and in leisurely fashion turn over the pages of some illustrated magazine, or covering his face with it and unbuttoning his waistcoat, give himself up to slumber. The St. Martin’s summer is followed by cloudy, gloomy weather. It rains day and night, the bare trees weep, and the wind is damp and cold. The dogs, the horses, the fowls - all are wet, depressed, downcast. There is nowhere to walk; one can’t go out for days together; one has to pace up and down the room, looking despondently at the grey window. It is dreary!

Ivan Dmitritch stopped and looked at his wife.



“I should go abroad, you know, Masha,” he said.

And he began thinking how nice it would be in late autumn to go abroad somewhere to the South of France . . . to Italy . . . to India! “I should certainly go abroad too,” his wife said. “But look at the number of the ticket!”

“Wait, wait! . . .”

242

He walked about the room and went on thinking. It occurred to him: what if his wife really did go abroad? It is pleasant to travel alone, or in the society of light, careless women who live in the present, and not such as think and talk all the journey about nothing but their children, sigh, and tremble with dismay over every farthing. Ivan Dmitritch imagined his wife in the train with a multitude of parcels, baskets and bags; she would be sighing over something, complaining that the train made her head ache, that she had spent so much money . . . at the stations he would continually be having to run for boiling water, bread and butter. She wouldn’t have dinner because of its being too dear. “She would begrudge me every farthing,” he thought, with a glance at his wife. “The lottery ticket is hers, not mine! Besides, what is the use of her going abroad? What does she want there? She would shut herself up in the hotel, and not let me out of her sight . . . I know!” And for the first time in his life his mind dwelt on the fact that his wife had grown elderly and plain, and that she was saturated through and through with the smell of cooking, while he was still young, fresh, and healthy, and might well have got married again. “Of course, all that is silly nonsense,” he thought; “but . . . why should she go abroad? What would she make of it? And yet she would go, of course . . I can fancy . . . In reality it is all one to her, whether it is Naples or Klin. She would only be in my way. I should be dependent upon her. I can fancy how, like a regular woman, she will lock the money up as soon as she gets it. She will look after her relations and grudge me every farthing.” Ivan Dmitritch thought of her relations. All those wretched brothers and sisters and aunts and uncles would come crawling about as soon as they heard of the winning ticket, would, begin whining like beggars, and fawning upon them with oily, hypocritical smiles.Wretched, detestable people! If they were given anything, they would ask for more; while if they were refused, they would swear at them, slander them, and wish them every kind of misfortune. Ivan Dmitritch remembered his own relations, and their faces, at which he had looked impartially in the past, struck him now as repulsive and hateful.

“They are such reptiles!” he thought.

And his wife’s face, too, struck him as repulsive and hateful. Anger surged up in his heart against her, and he thought malignantly: “She knows nothing about money, and so she is stingy. If she won it she would give me a hundred roubles, and put the rest away under lock and key.” And he looked at his wife, not with a smile now, but with hatred. She glanced at him too, and also with hatred and anger. She had her own daydreams, her own 243

plans, her own reflections; she understood perfectly well what her husband’s dreams were. She knew who would be the first to try to grab her winnings. “It’s very nice making day dreams at other people’s expense!” is what her eyes expressed. “No, don’t you dare!” Her husband understood her look; hatred began stirring again in his breast, and in order to annoy his wife he glanced quickly, to spite her at the fourth page on the newspaper and read out triumphantly:

“Series 9,499! Number 46, Not 26!”

Hatred and hope both disappeared at once, and it began immediately to seem to Ivan Dmitritch and his wife that their rooms were dark and small and low-pitched, that the supper they had been eating was not doing them good, but lying heavy on their stomachs, that the evenings were long and wearisome . . . “What the devil’s the meaning of it?” said Ivan Dmitritch, beginning to be illhumoured. “Wherever one steps there are bits of paper under one’s feet, crumbs, husks. The rooms are never swept! One is simply forced to go out. Damnation take my soul entirely! I shall go and hang myself on the first aspen-tree!” Task 1: Choose the correct answer: 1. The possibility of winning the prize in the lottery ticket thrilled them / bewildered them/ motivated them. 2. The first twenty five thousand of the prize money was spent on real property/ never spent/ never received. 3. Ivan went to Italy/ India/ none of these places. 4. Masha did not dream/ was interrupted in the middle of Ivan’s dream/ did not like to dream. 5. Disappointment in not winning the prize made Ivan and Masha hate each other/ love each other/ be more sympathetic to each other. Task 2: Give short answers to the following questions. 1. What was the topic of conversation of Ivan and his wife? 2. Give the serial number of the lottery ticket. 3. Who dreamt more, Masha or Ivan? 4. Why did they want to go abroad? 5. Who are the ‘reptiles’ referred to? 6. How did Ivan’s wife want to spend the prize money? 244

7. Describe the reaction of Ivan and Masha when they found out that they had missed the lottery prize. 8. If the prize money was Ivan’s, how would he spend the money? 9. Where did Ivan want to go in late autumn? 10. Did Ivan and his wife want to go abroad together? 11. Why did Ivan say ‘That’s not money, but power, capital’? Task 3: Say whether the following statements are ‘true’ or ‘false’ from your understanding of the text: 1. The last two digits of their lottery ticket is 46. 2. Hope changed into hatred as soon as they imagined to have won the lottery prize. 3. Ivan had great faith in lottery luck. 4. Ivan was not satisfied with his income of twelve hundred a year. 5. The prize money was seventy five thousand. 6. Ivan considered the prize money as a mere fortune or luck. Task 4: Choose the right option: 1. detestable

- extremely hateful / abominable / repulsive

2. stingy

- ill tempered / hesitant to spend money / being miserly

3. slander

- gossip / scandal / a false or malicious report

4. transformation - change of form / metamorphosis / change of character 5. torment

- suffering / torture / ill-treatment

6. bewildered

- confused / afraid / tortured

7. pictured

- imagined / decided / talked

Task 5: Write an essay on the following: 1. The Dmitritchs’ lottery ticket. 2. Compare and contrast the dreams of Ivan Dmitritch and his wife.

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THE LAST LEAF - O’Henry William Sydney Porter was a failure for most of his life - he was even jailed for embezzlement. Then, using O’Henry as his nom de plume, he started writing humorous, poignant tales, with a twist at the end. He quickly became popular and rich. But he went downhill again and when he died in 1910 at the age of 48, he was a pauper. Many of the hundreds of stories he wrote continue to delight readers to this day. The O’ Henry Prize, an award instituted in his honour, is considered America’s most prestigious award for short fiction. In a little district west of Washington Square the streets have run crazy and broken themselves into small strips called “places.” These “places” make strange angles and curves. One Street crosses itself a time or two. An artist once discovered a valuable possibility in this street. Suppose a collector with a bill for paints, paper and canvas should, in traversing this route, suddenly meet himself coming back, without a cent having been paid on account! So, to quaint old Greenwich Village the art people soon came prowling, hunting for north windows and eighteenth-century gables and Dutch attics and low rents. Then they imported some pewter mugs and chafing dish or two from Sixth Avenue, and became a “colony.” At the top of a squatty, three-storey brick house Sue and Johnsy had their studio. “Johnsy” was familiar for Joanna. One was from Maine; the other from California. They had met at the table d’hote of an English Street “Delmonico’s,” and found their tastes in art, chicory salad and bishop sleeves so congenial that the joint studio resulted. That was in May. In November a cold, unseen stranger, whom the doctors called Pneumonia, stalked about the colony, touching one here and there with his icy fingers. Over on the east side this ravager strode boldly, smiting his victims by scores, but his feet trod slowly through the maze of the narrow and moss-grown “places.” Mr. Pneumonia was not what you would call a chivalric old gentleman. A mite of a little woman with blood thinned by Californian zephyrs was hardly fair game for the red-fisted, shortbreathed old duffer. But Johnsy he smote; and she lay, scarcely moving, on her painted iron bedstead, looking through the small Dutch window-panes at the blank side of the next brick house. One morning the busy doctor invited Sue into the hallway with a shaggy, grey eyebrow.

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“She has one chance in - let us say, ten,” he said, as he shook down the mercury in his clinical thermometer. “And that chance is for her to want to live. This way people have of lining-up on the side of the undertaker makes the entire pharmacopoeia look silly. Your little lady has made up her mind that she’s not going to get well. Has she anything on her mind?”

“She - she wanted to paint the Bay of Naples some day,” said Sue.

“Paint? - bosh! Has she anything on her mind worth thinking twice - a man for instance?” “A man?” said Sue, with a jews’ harp twang in her voice. “Is a man worth - but, no, doctor; there is nothing of the kind.” “Well, it is the weakness, then,” said the doctor. “I will do all that science can. So far as it may filter through my efforts, can accomplish. But whenever, my patient begins to count the carriages in her funeral procession I subtract 50 percent from the curative power of medicines. If you will get her to ask one question about the new winter styles in cloak sleeves I will promise you a one-in-five chance for her, instead of one in ten.” After the doctor had gone Sue went into the workroom and cried a Japanese napkin to a pulp. Then she swaggered into Johnsy’s room with her drawing board, whistling ragtime. Johnsy lay, scarcely making a ripple under the bedclothes, with her face towards the window. Sue stopped whistling, thinking she was asleep. She arranged her board and began a pen-and-ink drawing to illustrate a magazine story. Young artists must pave their way to Art by drawing pictures for magazine stories that young authors write to pave their way to Literature. As Sue was sketching a pair of elegant horseshow riding trousers and a monocle on the figure of the hero, an Idaho cowboy, she heard a low sound, several times repeated. She went quickly to the bedside. Johnsy’s eyes were open wide. She was looking out the window and counting - counting backward. “Twelve,” she said, and little later “eleven”; and then “ten,” and “nine”; and then “eight” and “seven”, almost together. Sue looked solicitously out the window. What was there to count? There was only a bare, dreary yard to be seen, and the blank side of the brick house twenty feet away. An old, old ivy vine, gnarled and decayed at the roots, climbed half way up the brick wall. The cold breath of autumn had stricken its leaves from the vine until its skeleton branches clung, almost bare, to the crumbling bricks.

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“What is it, dear?” asked Sue.

“Six,” said Johnsy, in almost a whisper. “They’re falling faster now. Three days ago there were almost a hundred. It made my head ache to count them. But now it’s easy. There goes another one. There are only five left now.”

“Five what, dear? Tell your Sudie.”

“Leaves. On the ivy vine. When the last one falls I must go, too. I’ve known that for three days. Didn’t the doctor tell you?” “Oh, I never heard of such nonsense,” complained Sue, with magnificent scorn. “What have old ivy leaves to do with your getting well? And you used to love that vine so, you naughty girl. Don’t be a goosey. Why, the doctor told me this morning that your chances for getting well real soon were - let’s see exactly what he said - he said the chances were ten to one! Why, that’s almost as good a chance as we have in New York when we ride on the street cars or walk past a new building. Try to take some broth now, and let Sudie go back to her drawing, so she can sell the editor man with it, and buy port wine for her sick child, and pork chops for her greedy self.” “You needn’t get any more wine,” said Johnsy, keeping her eyes fixed out the window. “There goes another. No, I don’t want any broth. That leaves just four. I want to see the last one fall before it gets dark. Then I’ll go, too.” “Johnsy, dear,” said Sue, bending over her, “will you promise me to keep your eyes closed, and not look out the window until I am done working? I must hand those drawings in by tomorrow. I need the light, or I would draw the shade down.”

“Couldn’t you draw in the other room?” asked Johnsy, coldly.

“I’d rather be here by you,” said Sue. “Besides, I don’t want you to keep looking at those silly ivy leaves. “Tell me as soon as you have finished,” said Johnsy, closing her eyes, and lying white and still as a fallen statue. “because I want to see the last one fall. I’m tired of waiting. I am tired of thinking. I want to turn loose my hold on everything, and go sailing down, down, just like one of those poor, tired leaves.” “Try to sleep,” said Sue. “I must call Behrman up to be my model for the old hermit miner. I’ll not be gone a minute. Don’t try to move till I come back.” Old Behrman was a painter who lived on the ground floor beneath them. He was past sixty and had a Michael Angelo’s Moses beard curling down from the head of a satyr along with the body of an imp. Behrman was a failure in art. Forty years he had wielded the brush without getting near enough to touch the hem of his Mistress’s robe. He had been always about to paint a masterpiece, but had never yet begun it. For several years he had painted nothing except now and then a daub in the line of 248

commerce or advertising. He earned a little by serving as a model to those young artists in the colony who could not pay the price of a professional. He drank gin to excess, and still talked of his coming masterpiece. For the rest he was a fierce little old man, who scoffed terribly at softness in any one, and who regarded himself as especial mastiff-in-waiting to protect the two young artists in the studio above. Sue found Behrman smelling strongly of juniper berries in his dimly lighted den below. In one corner was a blank canvas on an easel that had been waiting there for twenty-five years to receive the first line of the masterpiece. She told him of Johnsy’s fancy and how she feared she would, indeed, light and fragile as a leaf herself, float away, when her slight hold upon the world grew weaker. Old Behrman, with his red eyes plainly streaming, shouted his contempt and derision for such idiotic imaginings. “Vass!” he cried. “Is dere people in de world mit der foolishness to die because leafs dey drop off from a confounded vine? I have not heard of such a thing. No, I will not bose as a model for your fool hermit-dunderhead. Vy do you allow dot silly pusiness to come in der brain of her? Ach, dot poor leetle Miss Yohnsy.” “She is very ill and weak,” said Sue, “and the fever has left her mind morbid and full of strange fancies. Very well, Mr.Behrman, if you do not care to pose for me, you needn’t. But I think you are a horrid old-old flibbertigibbet.” “You are just like a woman!” yelled Behrman. “Who said I will not bose? Go on. I come mit you. For half an hour I haf peen trying to say dot I am ready to bose. Gott! Dis is not any blace in which one so goot as Miss Yohnsy shall lie sick. Some day I vill baint a masterpiece, and ve shall all go away. Gott! Yes.” Johnsy was sleeping when they went upstairs. Sue pulled the shade down to the window-sill, and motioned Behrman into the other room. In there they peered out the window fearfully at the ivy vine. Then they looked at each other for a moment without speaking. A persistent, cold rain was falling, mingled with snow. Behrman, in his old blue shirt, took his seat as the hermit miner on an upturned kettle for a rock. When Sue awoke from an hour’s sleep the next morning she found Johnsy with dull, wide-open eyes staring at the drawn green shade.

“Pull it up; I want to see,” she ordered, in a whisper.



Wearily Sue obeyed.

But, lo! After the beating rain and fierce gusts of wind that had endured through the livelong night, there yet stood out against the brick wall one ivy leaf. It was the last one of the vine. Still dark green near its stem, with its serrated edges tinted with the yellow of dissolution and decay, it hung bravely from the branch some twenty feet above the ground. 249

“It is the last one,” said Johnsy. “I thought it would surely fall during the night. I heard the wind. It will fall today, and I shall die at the same time. “Dear, dear!” said Sue, leaning her worn face down to the pillow, “think of me, if you won’t think of yourself. What would I do?” But Johnsy did not answer. The lonesomest thing in all the world is a soul when it is making ready to go on its mysterious, far journey. The fancy seemed to possess her more strongly as one by one the ties that bound her to friendship and to earth were loosed. The day wore away, and even through the twilight they could see the lone ivy leaf clinging to its stem against the wall. And then, with the coming of the night the north wind was again loosed, while the rain still beat against the windows and pattered down from the low Dutch eaves. When it was light enough Johnsy, the merciless, commanded that the shade be raised.

The ivy leaf was still there.

Johnsy lay for a long time looking at it. And then she called to Sue, who was stirring her chicken broth over the gas stove. “I’ve been a bad girl, Sudie,” said Johnsy. “Something has made that last leaf stay there to show me how wicked I was. It is a sin to want to die. You may bring me a little broth now, and some milk with a little port in it, and - no; bring me a handmirror first, and then pack some pillows about me, and I will sit up and watch you cook.”

An hour later she said:



“Sudie, some day I hope to paint the Bay of Naples.”

The doctor came in the afternoon, and Sue had an excuse to go into the hallway as he left. “Even chances,” said the doctor, taking Sue’s thin, shaking hand in his. “With good nursing you’ll win. And now I must see another case I have downstairs. Behrman, his name is - some kind of an artist, I believe. Pneumonia, too. He is an old, weak man, and the attack is acute. There is no hope for him; but he goes to the hospital today to be made more comfortable.” The next day the doctor said to Sue: “She’s out of danger. You won. Nutrition and care now - that’s all.” And that afternoon Sue came to the bed where Johnsy lay, contentedly knitting a very blue and very useless woollen shoulder scarf, and put one arm around her, pillows and all. 250



“I have something to tell you, white mouse,” she said.

“Mr. Behrman died of peneumonia today in the hospital. He was ill only two days. The janitor found him the morning of the first day in his room downstairs helpless with pain. His shoes and clothing were wet through and icy cold. They couldn’t imagine where he had been on such a dreadful night. And then they found a lantern, still lighted, and a ladder that had been dragged from its place, and some scattered brushes, and a palette with green and yellow colours mixed on it, and look out the window, dear, at the last ivy leaf on the wall. Didn’t wonder why it never fluttered or moved when the wind blew? Ah, darling, it’s Behrman’s masterpiece - he painted it there the night that the last leaf fell.” Task 1: Choose the correct answer: 1. Sue and Johnsy were photographers/ painters/ musicians by profession. 2. Mr.Pneumonia was a rude / kind / deadly person. 3. Johnsy started counting backward from number twelve/ eleven/ ten. 4. Mr.Behrman was a friend/ a relative/ an enemy/ to Sue. 5. The woollen shoulder scarf which Sue was knitting was green/ blue/ yellow in colour. 6. Sue found Behrman smelling strongly of wine / juniper berries / cherries. 7. Mr. Behrman died of malaria / pneumonia / typhoid. 8. Behrman’s masterpiece was a woollen scarf / the Bay of Naples / the last leaf. Task 2: Give short answers to the following questions: 1. How did Sue and Joanna become friends? 2. Who was Mr.Pneumonia? 3. What was Johnsy doing when she was lying on the sick bed? 4. What did the doctor tell about Johnsy to Sue? 5. What did Sue tell Behrman about Johnsy? 6. How did Behrman react to what Sue said about Johnsy? 7. What made Johnsy change her mind? 8. What lesson did Johnsy learn from the last leaf of the vine? 9. What did the doctor say about Mr.Behrman’s condition? 10. As a painter, what was Johnsy’s ambition in life?

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11. How and when did Behrman paint his ‘Masterpiece’? 12. What according to you, is a more suitable title to the story - ‘The Last Leaf’ or ‘The Master Piece’? Why? Task 3: Say whether the following statements are ‘true’ or ‘false’: 1. Sue was from California. 2. According to the doctor Johnsy had bright chances of survival. 3. Sue knew the exact reason for Johnsy falling sick. 4. Sue wept bitterly after she heard what the doctor told about Johnsy. 5. The ivy leaves symbolised the withering life for Johnsy. 6. Behrman promised Sue that he would paint a ‘Masterpiece’. 7. Behrman and Sue looked at each other silently because they were angry with each other. 8. Behrman earned his living as a ‘model’. 9. The last leaf conveyed life’s message to Sue. 10. The last ivy leaf did not fall because it was fresh and strong. 11. Behrman was responsible for Johnsy’s new life. 12. Johnsy had an attack of pneumonia. Task 4: Choose the right option based on the context: 1. solicitously

-

anxiously / with concern / earnestly

2. fixed



-

made firm / fastened / eyes focussed in one direction

3. derision

-

ridicule / mockery / scorn

4. peered

-

saw / looked casually / looked carefully

5. clinging

-

holding tightly / resisting separation / depending on

6. scorn

-

look of disapproval / kind look / surprise

7. ripple

-

small wave like folds / dripping / circles

8. curative

-

curing / tempting / healing

Task 5: Write an essay on the following: 1. ‘The last leaf’ - Behrman’s masterpiece. 2. The friendship between Sue and Johnsy. 252

HOW THE CAMEL GOT ITS HUMP - Rudyard Kipling Rudyard Kipling of “East is East and West is West, and Never the Twain Shall Meet” fame was born in Bombay in 1865. His “Jungle Book” stories were made into hugely successful Walt Disney films. Kipling was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1902 and he was the first Englishman to win the prize. A prolific writer, even of barrack room ballads and popular poems like “If”, he became a recluse after the death of his son. Kipling died in 1936. In the beginning of years, when the world was so new and all, and the Animals were just beginning to work for Man, there was a Camel, and he lived in the middle of a Howling Desert because he did not want to work; and besides, he was a Howler himself. So he ate sticks and thorns and tamarisks and milkweed and prickles, most ’scruciating idle, and when anybody spoke to him he said ‘Humph!’ Just ‘Humph!’ and no more. Presently the Horse came to him on Monday morning, with a saddle on his back and a bit in his mouth, and said, “Camel, O Camel, come out and trot like the rest of us.”

“Humph!” said the Camel, and the Horse went away and told the Man.

Presently the Dog came to him, with a stick in his mouth, and said, “Camel, O Camel, come and fetch and carry like the rest of us.”

“Humph!” said the Camel, and the Dog went away and told the Man.

Presently the Ox came to him, with the yoke on his neck and said, “Camel, O Camel, come and plough like the rest of us.”

“Humph!” said the Camel, and the Ox went away and told the Man.

At the end of the day the Man called the Horse and the Dog and the Ox together, and said. “Three, O Three, I’m very sorry for you (with the world so newand-all); but that Humph-thing in the Desert can’t work, or he would have been here by now, so I am going to leave him alone, and you must work double-time to make up for it.” That made the Three very angry (with the world so new-and-all), and they held a palaver, and an indaba, and a panchayat, and a pow-wow on the edge of the Desert; and the Camel came chewing on milkweed-most ’scruciating idle, and laughed at them. Then he said “Humph!” and went away again. Presenty there came along the Djinn in charge of All Deserts, rolling in a cloud of dust (Djinns always travel that way because it is Magic), and he stopped to palaver 253

and pow-wow with the Three. “Djinn of All Deserts,” said the Horse, “is it right for any one to be idle, with the world so new-and-all?”

“Certainly not,” said the Djinn.

“Well,” said the Horse, “there’s a thing in the middle of your Howling Desert (and he’s a Howler himself) with a long neck and long legs, and he hasn’t done a stroke of work since Monday morning. He won’t trot.” “Whew!” said the Djinn, whistling, “that’s my Camel, for all the gold in Arabia! What does he say about it?”

“He says ‘Humph’!” said the Dog, “and he won’t fetch and carry.”



“Does he say anything else?”



“Only “Humph!”; and he won’t plough,” said the Ox.



“Very good,” said the Djinn. "I’ll humph him if you will kindly wait a minute.”

The Djinn rolled himself up in his dust-cloak, and took a bearing across the desert, and found the Camel most ’scruciatingly idle, looking at his own reflection in a pool of water. “My long and bubbling friend,” said the Djinn “what’s this I hear of your doing no work, with the world so new-and-all?”

“Humph!” said the Camel.

The Djinn sat down, with his chin in his hand, and began to think a Great Magic, while the Camel looked at his own reflection in the pool of water. “You’ve given the Three extra work ever since Monday morning, all on account of your ’scruciating idleness,” said the Djinn, and he went on thinking Magics, with his chin in his hand.

“Humph!” said the Camel.

“I shouldn’t say that again if I were you,” said the Djinn; "you might say it once too often. Bubbles, I want you to work.” And the Camel said “Humph!” again; but no sooner had he said it than he saw his back, that he was so proud of, puffing up and puffing up into a great big lolloping humph. “Do you see that?” said the Djinn. “That’s your very own humph that you’ve brought upon your very own self by not working. Today is Thursday, and you’ve done no work since Monday, when the work began. Now you are going to work.”

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“How can I,” said the Camel, “with this humph on my back?”

“That’s made a-purpose,” said the Djinn, “all because you missed those three days. You will be able to work now for three days without eating, because you can live on your humph, and don’t you ever say I never did anything for you. Come out of the Desert and go to the Three, and behave. Humph Yourself!” And the Camel humphed himself, humph and all, and went away to join the Three. And from that day to this the Camel always wears a humph (we call it ‘hump’ now, not to hurt his feelings); but he has never yet caught up with the three days that he missed at the beginning of the world, and he has never yet learned how to behave. Task 1: Choose the correct answer: 1. The camel lived in the middle/ at the Southern end/ in a corner/ of a Howling Desert. 2. The camel refused to work because he was lazy/ angry/ sad. 3. The three animals patiently did the work/ made a complaint to the man/ made a complaint to the Djinn. 4. Djinn punished the camel using/ his magic/ his power/ his whip. 5. The camel did not work for two days/ three days/ four days. 6. All the animals were happy / unhappy / indifferent with the camel’s attitude Task 2: Give short answers to the following questions: 1. What was the horse’s request to the camel? 2. What was the reaction of the other three animals when they found the camel not doing any work? 3. What was the Djinn’s reply to the animals? 4. What advice did the Djinn give the camel? 5. Give your reason why the camel was looking at his own reflection? 6. What exactly did the Djinn mean when he said “I’ll humph him”? 7. What punishment was given to the camel? 8. Why was the camel unable to get back the three days he had lost? 9. Name the characters that appear in the story. 10. Who is called a ‘howler’ in the story?

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Task 3: Say whether the following statements are ‘true’ or ‘false’: 1. All the animals worked for the man. 2. The three animals were very happy to work double time. 3. All the three animals individually made complaints to the Djinn. 4. The camel was looking at the fish in a pool of water. 5. The camel obeyed the Djinn immediately. 6. The camel has a short neck and long legs. 7. The camel was a dodger. 8. The camel finally agreed to work out of fear. Task 4: Choose the right option: 1. howler

- a stupid / a joker / a stupid mistake which makes everyone laugh

2. hump

- a small hill / a lump on one’s back / a raised place of ground

3. bearing

- relevant / the way one stands / the way one moves

4. puffing

- breathing loudly and quickly / sending out small amount of smoke

5. ’scruciating

- very painful / very difficult to bear

6. fetch

- get something / throw something

Task 5: Write an essay on the following: 1. How did the camel get its hump? 2. ‘Laziness doesn’t bring happiness’.

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TWO FRIENDS - Guy de Maupassant Guy de Maupassant published his first short story in 1880 and became famous overnight. During the next ten years he wrote novels, poems, travelogues, plays and more than three hundred short stories. Masterly craftsmanship is evident in the fine structure of his tales where his unerring eye for drama is balanced by his instinct for simplicity and all is expressed in a style that is scrupulous, lucid and concise. A master of distillation, Maupassant can illuminate an entire code of values by means of a few telling details, yet he states clearly rather more than he implies, leaving little, open to interpretation. Besieged Paris was in the throes of famine. Even the sparrows on the roofs and the rats in the sewers were growing scarce. People were eating anything they could get. As Monsieur Morissot, watchmaker by profession and idler for the nonce, was strolling along the boulevard one bright January morning, his hands in his trousers pockets and his stomach empty, he suddenly came face to face with a friendMonsieur Sauvage, a fishing companion. Before the war broke out, Morissot had been in the habit, every Sunday morning, of setting forth with a bamboo rod in his hand and a tin box on his back. He took the Argenteuil train, got out at Colombes, and walked thence to the Ile Marante. The moment he arrived at this place of his dreams he began fishing and remained till nightfall. Every Sunday he met at this spot Monsieur Sauvage, a stout, jolly, little man, a draper in the Rue Notre Dame de Lorette, and also an ardent fisherman. They often spent half the day side by side, rod in hand and feet dangling over the water, and a sincere friendship had sprung up between the two. Some days they did not speak; at other times they chatted; but they understood each other perfectly without the aid of words, having similar tastes and feelings. In the spring, about ten o’clock in the morning. When the early sun caused a light mist to float on the water and gently warmed the backs of the two enthusiastic anglers, Morissot would occasionally remark to his neighbour: Isn’t it pleasant here?”

To which the other would reply. ‘I can’t imagine anything better.” 257

And these few words sufficed to make them understand and appreciate each other. In the autumn, towards the close of day, when the setting sun shed a bloodred colour over the western sky, and the reflection of the crimson clouds tinged the whole river, it brought a glow to the faces of the two friends, and gilded the trees, whose leaves were already turning at the first chill touch of winter, Monsieur Sauvage would sometimes smile at Morissot, and say: ‘What a glorious spectacle!’ And Morissot would answer, without taking his eyes from his float: ‘This is much better than the boulevard, isn’t it?” As soon as they recognized each other they shook hands cordially, affected at the thought of meeting in such changed circumstances. Monsieur Sauvage, with a sigh, murmured: ‘These are sad times.’ Morissot shook his head mournfully.

‘And such weather! This is the first fine day of the year.’

The sky was, in fact, of a bright, cloudless blue. They walked along, side by side, reflective and sad. ‘And to think of the fishing!’ said Morissot. ‘What good times we used to have!’

‘When shall we be able to fish again?’ asked Monsieur Sauvage.

They entered a small café, took an absinthe together, and then resumed their walk along the pavement.

Morissot stopped suddenly.



‘Shall we have another absinthe?’ he said.



‘If you like’, agreed Monsieur Sauvage.



And they entered a wine shop.

They were quite unsteady when they came out, owing to the effect of the alcohol on their empty stomachs. It was a fine, mild day, and a gentle breeze fanned their faces. The fresh air completed the effect of the alcohol on Monsieur Sauvage. He stopped suddenly, saying. ‘Suppose we go there?’ ‘Where?’ ‘Fishing.’

‘But where?’



‘Why, to the old place. The French outposts are close to Colombes. I know 258

Colonel Dumoulin, and we shall easily get leave to pass.’

Morissot trembled with desire.



‘Very well. I agree.’



And they separated, to fetch their rods and lines.

An hour later they were walking side by side on the highroad. Presently they reached the villa occupied by the colonel. He smiled at their request, and granted it. They resumed their walk, furnished with a password. Soon they left the outposts behind them, made their way through deserted Colombes, and found themselves on the outskirts of the small vineyards which border the Seine. It was about eleven o’clock. Before them lay the village of Argenteuil, apparently lifeless. The heights of Orgement and Sannois dominated the landscape. The great plain, extending as far as Nanterre, was empty, quite empty - a waste of dun-coloured soil and bare cherry trees. Monsieur Sauvage, pointing to the heights, murmured: ‘The Prussians are up yonder!’ And the sight of the deserted country filled the two friends with vague misgivings. The Prussians! They had never seen them as yet, but they had felt their presence in the neighbourhood of Paris for months past ruining France, pillaging, massacring, and starving the people. And a kind of superstitious terror was added to the hatred they already felt towards this unknown, victorious nation.

‘Suppose we were to meet any of them?’ said Morissot.

‘We’d offer them some fish,’ replied Monsieur Sauvage, with that Parisian lightheartedness which nothing can wholly quench. Still, they hesitated to show themselves in the open country overawed by the utter silence which reigned around them. At last Monsieur Sauvage said boldly: ‘Come, we’ll make a start; only let us be careful!’ And they made their way through one of the vineyards; bent double, creeping along, beneath the cover afforded by the vines, with eyes and ears alert. A strip of bare ground remained to be crossed before they could gain the river bank. They ran across this, and, as soon as they were at the water’s edge, concealed themselves among the dry reeds.

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Morissot placed his ear to the ground, to ascertain, if possible whether footsteps were coming their way. He heard nothing. They seemed to be utterly alone.

Their confidence was restored, and they began to fish.

Before them the deserted, Ile Marante hid them from the farther shore. The little restaurant was closed, and looked as if it had been deserted for years. Monsieur Sauvage caught the first gudgeon, Monsieur Morissot the second, and almost every moment one or other raised his line with a little, glittering, silvery fish wriggling at the end; they were having excellent sport. They slipped their catch gently into a close-meshed bag lying at their feet; they were filled with joy – the joy of once more indulging in a pastime of which they had long been deprived. The sun poured its rays on their backs; they no longer heard anything or thought of anything. They ignored the rest of the world;they were fishing. But suddenly a rumbling sound, which seemed to come from the bowels of the earth, shook the ground beneath them: the cannons were resuming their thunder. Morissot turned his head and could see towards the left, beyond the banks of the river, the formidable outline of Mont Valerien, from whose summit arose a white puff of smoke. The next instant a second puff followed the first, and in a few moments a fresh detonation made the earth tremble. Others followed, and minute by minute the mountain gave forth its deadly breath and white puff of smoke, which rose slowly into the peaceful heaven and floated above the summit of the cliff.

Monsieur Sauvage shrugged his shoulders.



‘They are at it again!’ he said.

Morissot, who was anxiously watching his float bobbling up and down, was suddenly seized with the angry impatience of a peaceful man towards the madmen who were firing thus, and remarked indignantly:

‘What fools they are to kill one another like that!’



‘They’re worse than animals’, replied Monsieur Sauvage.

And Morissot, who had just caught a bleak declared, ‘And to think that it will be just the same so long as there are governments!’

‘The Republic would not have declared war’, interposed Monsieur Sauvage.

Morissot interrupted him: ‘Under a king we have foreign wars; under a republic we have civil wars.’ 260

And the two began placidly discussing political problems with the sound common sense of peaceful, matter-of-fact citizens – agreeing on one point: that they would never be free. And Mont Valerien thundered ceaselessly, demolishing the houses of the French with its cannon balls, grinding lives of men to powder, destroying many a dream, many a cherished hope, many a prospective happiness; ruthlessly causing endless woe and suffering in the hearts of wives, of daughters, of mothers, in other regions.

‘Such is life!’ declared Monsieur Sauvage.



‘Say, rather, such is death!’ replied Morissot, laughing.

But they suddenly trembled with alarm at the sound of footsteps behind them, and turning around they perceived close at hand four tall, bearded men, dressed after the manner of liveried servants and wearing flat caps on their heads. They were covering the two anglers with their rifles.

The rods slipped from their owners’ grasp and floated away down the river.

In the space of a few seconds they were seized, bound, thrown into a boat, and taken across to the Ile Marante. And behind the house they had thought deserted were about a score of German soldiers. A shaggy-looking giant, who was bestriding a chair and smoking a long clay pipe, addressed them in excellent French with the words:

‘Well, gentlemen, have you had good luck with your fishing?’

Then a soldier deposited at the officer’s feet the bag full of fish, which he had taken care to bring away. The Prussian smiled. ‘Not bad, I see. But we have something else to talk about, Listen to me, and don’t be alarmed. ‘You must know that, in my eyes, you are two spies sent to report my movements. Naturally, I capture you and I shoot you. You pretend to be fishing, the better to disguise your real errand. You have fallen into my hands, and must take the consequences.Such is war. ‘But as you came here through the outposts you must have a password for your return. Tell me that password and I will let you go.’ The two friends, pale as death, stood silently side by side, a slight fluttering of the hands alone betraying their emotion. ‘No one will ever know’, continued the officer. ‘You will return peacefully to your homes, and the secret will disappear with you. If you refuse, it means death – instant death. Choose!’ 261



They stood motionless, and did not open their lips.

The Prussian, perfectly calm, went on, with hand outstretched towards the river. ‘Just think that in five minutes you will be at the bottom of that water. In five minutes! You have relations, I presume?’

Mont-Valerien still thundered.

The two fishermen remained silent. The German turned and gave an order in his own language. Then he moved his chair a little way off, that he might not be so near the prisoners, while a dozen men stepped forward, rifle in hand, and took up a position twenty paces off.

‘I give you one minute’, said the officer; ‘not a second longer.’

Then he rose quickly, went over to the two Frenchmen, took Morissot by the arm, led him a short distance off, and said in a low voice. ‘Quick! The password! Your friend will know nothing. I will pretend to relent.’

Morissot answered not a word.

Then the Prussian took Monsieur Sauvage aside in like manner, and made him the same proposal.

Monsieur Sauvage made no reply.



Again they stood side by side.



The officer issued his orders; the soldiers raised their rifles.

Then by chance Morissot’s eyes fell on the bag full of gudgeon lying in the grass a few feet from him. A ray of sunlight made the still quivering fish glisten like silver. And Morissot’s heart sank. Despite his efforts at self-control his eyes filled with tears.

‘Goodbye, Monsieur Sauvage’, he faltered.



‘Goodbye, Monsieur Morissot’, replied Sauvage.

They shook hands, trembling from head to foot with a dread beyond their mastery.

The officer cried: ‘Fire!’



The twelve shots were as one.

Monsieur Sauvage fell forward instantaneously. Morissot, being the taller, swayed slightly and fell across his friend with face turned skyward and blood oozing from a rent in the breast of his coat.

The German issued fresh orders. 262

His men dispersed, and presently returned with ropes and large stones, which they attached to the feet of the two friends; then they carried them to the river bank.

Mont-Valerien, its summit now enshrouded in smoke, continued to thunder.

Two soldiers took Morissot by the head and the feet; two others did the same with Sauvage. The bodies, swung vigorously by strong hands, were cast to a distance, and, describing a curve, fell feet foremost into the stream. The water splashed high, foamed, eddied, and then was still again; tiny waves lapped the shore.

A few streaks of blood flecked the surface of the river.

The officer, calm throughout, remarked, with grim humour: ‘It’s the fishes’ turn now!’

Then he retraced his way to the house.

Suddenly he caught sight of the net full of gudgeons, lying forgotten in the grass. He picked it up, examined it, smiled and called: ‘Wilhelm!’ A white-aproned soldier responded to the summons, and the Prussian, tossing him the catch of the two dead men, said: ‘Have these fish fried for me at once, while they are still alive, they’ll make an excellent dish.’

Then he relit his pipe.

Task 1: Choose the correct answer: 1. Messieurs Morrisot and Sauvage had a common interest in shooting / fishing / gambling 2. The people of Paris were friendly / angry with the Prussians 3. The two friends drank coffee / absinthe / wine / when they met after long time 4. They encountered the Prussians while walking along the road / drinking in the club / fishing in the river 5. The friends were taken prisoners / killed without enquiry / given a wonderful send off by the Prussians 6. The Prussians offered to release the friends in exchange for a ransom of a thousand Francs / for the password / for military weapons 7. The friends were finally let off with a warning / shot dead 8. After shooting them dead the Prussians threw them into the river / buried with military honours / burnt them 9. Finally the Prussian officer threw the fish into river / fried them alive to eat / allowed them to rot 263

10. The value highlighted in this story is patriotism / friendship / humanism Task 2: Give short answers to the following questions: 1. How did Morissot and Sauvage become friends? 2. Why did the two go to the wine shop? 3. What prompted them to go back to the river after a long time? 4. Who gave them permission to pass through the outpost? 5. What was happening in the mountains? 6. Why was the entire place deserted? 7. What did the Prussians want from them? 8. Did they get it from Morissot and Sauvage? 9. Which is the war spoken of here- World War I or World War II? 10. What do you learn about the quality of the common French people from your reading of the story? Task 3: Say whether the following statements are True or False: 1. The Prussian rulers were very kind people and never liked War. 2. The Prussians invaded France and killed many French people. 3. The two friends were spies who were helping their motherland France. 4. The Prussians’ fatherland is Germany. 5. The Prussian officer offered to release them, if they revealed the secret password to him. 6. The friends betrayed their country France, so they were shot dead. 7. On that last day of their lives the friends were able to catch a lot of fish. 8. The Prussians were laying siege to Paris to save the city. 9. ‘It is the fishes’ turn now’ – is a grim humour which means that the fish could eat the men now. 10. The fish were golden in colour. Task 4: Write an essay on the following: 1. Bring out the patriotism and loyalty portrayed in‘Two friends’. 2. Describe the capture and torture of Messieurs Morissot and Sauvage.

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THE REFUGEE - Pearl S Buck Pearl S Buck, novelist, short story writer and translator spent many years in China, as a result of which many of her books have a Chinese background. She was awarded the Pulitzer prize in 1932 and the Nobel prize for literature in 1938. Among her best known books are ‘The Good Earth’, ‘My several worlds’, ‘Far and near stories’ and ‘The Child Who Never Grew’. She unlocked for the West the interior of China. Philis Bentley says that Pearl Buck’s main theme is not presentation of China to the West, but rather “the continuity of life.” They walked through the new capital, alone and from a far country, yes, although their own lands were only a few hundred miles perhaps from this very street upon which they now walked. But to them it was very far. Their eyes were the eyes of those who have been taken suddenly and by some unaccountable force from the world they have always known and always thought safe until this time. They, who had been accustomed only to country roads and fields, walked now along the proud street of the new capital, their feet treading upon the new concrete side-walk, and although the street was full of things they had never seen before, so that there were even automobiles and such things of which they had never even heard, still they looked at nothing, but passed as in a dream, seeing nothing. There were several hundreds of them passing at this moment. If they did not look at anything nor at anyone, neither did any look at them. The city was full of refugees, many thousands of them, fed after a fashion, clothed some-how, sheltered in mats in great camps outside the city wall. At any hour of the day lines of ragged men and women and a few children could be seen making their way towards the camp, and if any city-dweller noticed them it was to think with increased bitterness: “More refugees—will there never be an end to them? We will all starve trying to feed them even a little.” This bitterness, which is the bitterness of fear, made small shopkeepers bawl out rudely to the many beggars who came hourly to beg at the doors, and it made men ruthless in paying small fares to the rickshaw pullers, of which there were ten times as many as could be used, because the refugees were trying to earn something thus. Even the usual pullers of rickshaws, who followed this as their profession, cursed the refugees because, being starving they would pull for anything given them, and so fares were low for all, and all suffered. With the city full of refugees, then, begging at every door, swarming into every unskilled trade and service, lying dead on the streets at every frozen dawn, why should one look at this fresh horde coming in now at twilight of winter’s day? 265

But these were no common men and women, no riff-raff from some community always poor and easily starving in a flood time. No, these were men and women of which any nation might have been proud. It could be seen they were all from one region, for they wore garments woven out of the same dark blue cotton stuff, plain and cut in an old-fashioned way, the sleeves long and the coats long and full. The men wore smocked aprons, the smocking done in curious, intricate, beautiful designs. The women had bands of the same plain blue stuff wrapped like kerchiefs about their heads. But men and women were tall and strong in frame, although the women’s feet were bound. There were a few lads in the throng, a few children sitting in baskets slung upon a pole across the shoulders of their fathers, but there were no young girls, no young infants. Every man and every lad bore a burden on his shoulder. This burden was always bedding, quilts made of the blue cotton stuff and padded. Clothing and bedding were clean and strongly made. On top of every folded quilt, with a bit of mate between, was an iron cauldron. These cauldrons had doubtless been taken from the earthen ovens of the village when the people saw the time had come when they must move. But in no basket was there a vestige of food, nor was there a trace of food having been cooked in them recently. This lack of food was confirmed when one looked closely into the faces of the people. In the first glance in the twilight they seemed well enough, but when one looked more closely, one saw they were the faces of people starving and moving now in despair to a last hope. They saw nothing of the strange sights of a new city because they were too near death to see anything. No new sight could move their curiosity. They were men and women who had stayed by their land until starvation drove them forth. Thus, they passed unseeing, silent, alien, as those who know themselves dying are alien, to the living. The last one of this long procession of silent men and women was a little wizened old man. Even he carried a load of a folded quilt, a cauldron. But there was only one cauldron. In the other basket it seemed there was but a quilt, extremely ragged and patched, but clean still. Although the load was light it was too much for the old man. It was evident that in usual times he would be beyond the age of work, and was perhaps unaccustomed to such labour in recent years. His breath whistled as he staggered along, and he strained his eyes to watch those who were ahead of him lest he be left behind, and his old wrinkled face was set in a sort of gasping agony. Suddenly he could go no more. He set his burden with great gentleness, sank upon the ground, his head sunk between his knees, his eyes closed, panting desperately. Starved as he was, a little blood rose in dark patches on his cheeks. A ragged vendor selling hot noodles set his stand near, and shouted his trade cry, and the light from the stand fell on the old man’s drooping figure. A man passing stopped and muttered, looking at him:

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“I swear I can give no more this day if I am to feed my own even nothing but noodles – but here is this old man. Well, I will give him the bit of silver I earned today against tomorrow and trust to tomorrow again. If my own old father had been alive, I would have given it to him.” He fumbled in himself and brought out of his ragged girdle a bit of a silver coin, and after a moment’s hesitation and muttering, he added to it a copper penny. “There, old father,” he said with a sort of bitter heartiness, “let me see you eat noodles.” The old man lifted his head slowly. When he saw the silver, he would not put out his hand. He said: “Sir, I did not beg of you. Sir, we have good land and we have never been starving like this before, having such good land. But this year the river rose and men starve even on good land, at such times; Sir, we have no seed left, even. We have eaten our seed. I told them, we cannot eat the seed. But they were young; and hungry and they ate it.” “Take it,” said the man, and he dropped the money into the old man’s smocked apron and went on his way, sighing.

The vendor prepared his bowl of noodles and called out:



“How many will you eat, old man?”

Then was the old man stirred. He felt eagerly in his apron and when he saw the two coins there, the one copper and the other silver, he said:

“One small bowl is enough.”



“Can you eat only one small bowl, then?” asked the vendor, astonished.



“It is not for me,” the old man answered.

The vendor started astonished, but being a simple man he said no more but prepared the bowl, and when it was finished, he called out. “Here it is.” And he waited to see who would eat it. Then the old man rose with a great effort and took the bowl between his shaking hands and he went to the other basket. There, while the vendor watched, the old man pulled aside the quilt until one could see the shrunken face of a small boy lying with his eyes fast closed. One would have said the child was dead except that when the old man lifted his head so his mouth could touch the edge of the little bowl he began to swallow feebly until the hot mixture was finished. The old man kept murmuring to him:

“There, my heart – there, my child.” 267



“Your grandson?” said the vendor.

“Yes, said the old man. “The son of my only son. Both my son and his wife were drowned as they worked on our land when the dikes broke.” He covered the child tenderly and then, squatting on his haunches, he ran his tongue carefully around the little bowl and removed the last trace of food. Then, as though he had been fed, he handed the bowl, back to the vendor. “But you have the silver bit,” cried the ragged vendor, yet more astonished when he saw the old man ordered no more. The old man shook his head. “That is for seed,” he replied. “As soon as I saw it, I knew I would buy seed with it. They ate up all the seed and with what shall the land be sown again?” “If I were not so poor myself,” said the vendor, “I might even have given you a bowl, but to give something to a man who has a bit of silver!” he shook his head puzzled. “I do not ask you, brother,” said the old man. “Well, I know you cannot understand. But if you had land you would know, it must be put to seed again or there will be starvation yet another year. The best I can do for this grandson of mine is to buy a little seed for the land – yes, even though I die, and others must plant it, the land must be put to seed.” He took up his load again, his old legs trembling, and straining his eyes down the long straight street, he staggered on. Task 1: Choose the correct answer: 1. The refugees were well-dressed in uniform / not properly dressed. 2. The uncommon men and women who entered the city were from one region / different regions / two different regions. 3. The noodle vendor stopped near the old man because he was kind / keen on selling / tired. 4. The vendor made the old man to buy noodles / to go away / to rethink of his decision to buy. 5. The old man decided not to spend his money on food because he was too tired to eat / too frugal / he decided to spend the money on buying seeds to sow. Task 2: Answer the following questions : 1. Who is the central character in the story – the grand-son or the old man? 2. Describe the refugees. Were they men and women of which any nation could be proud of? 268

3. What does the old man do for his grandson? Point out the motive behind his action? 4. Why did the small shop-keepers bawl out rudely to the beggars? 5. What made the usual rickshaw-pullers curse the refugees? 6. What do you understand by the “bitterness of fear”? How did the city-dwellers suffer from it? Task 3: Say whether the following statement are True or False: 1. They walked through a strange place. 2. The city was full of soldiers. 3. The rickshaw pullers were not happy with the refugees. 4. Their baskets were full of food items. 5. The old man was struggling hard to walk. Task 4: Write an essay on the following: 1. Narrate the plight of refugees as described by Pearl S Buck. 2. ‘Land is dearer than anything else’- Justify.

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THE OPEN WINDOW - ‘Saki’ Hector Hugh Munro wrote a number of stories under the pen-name ‘Saki’. He was born in 1870 in Burma. After working as a teacher and then as a police officer, he took to writing seriously. His stories make interesting reading. “My aunt will be down presently, Mr. Nuttel,” said a very self-possessed young lady of fifteen, “in the meantime you must try and put up with me.” Framton Nuttel endeavoured to say the correct something which should duly flatter the niece of the moment without unduly discounting the aunt that was to come. Privately he doubted more than ever whether these formal visits on a succession of total strangers would do much towards helping the nerve cure which he was supposed to be undergoing. “I know how it will be”, his sister had said when he was preparing to migrate to this rural retreat, “you will bury yourself down there and not speak to a living soul, and your nerves will be worse than ever from moping. I shall just give you letters of introduction to all the people I know there. Some of them, as far as I can remember, were quite nice.” Framton wondered whether Mrs.Sappleton, the lady to whom he was presenting one of the letters of introduction, came into the nice division. “Do you know many of the people round here?” asked the niece, when she judged that they had had sufficient silent communion. “Hardly a soul, “ said Framton, “My sister was staying here, at the rectory, you know, some four years ago, and she gave me letters of introduction to some of the people here.”

He made the last statement in a tone of distinct regret.

“Then you know practically nothing about my aunt?” pursued the selfpossessed young lady.

“Only her name and address,” admitted the caller.

He was wondering whether Mrs Sappleton was in the married or widowed state. An undefinable something about the room seemed to suggest masculine habitation. “Her great tragedy happened just three years ago,” said the child, “that would be since your sister’s time.”

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“Her tragedy?” asked Framton, somehow in this restful country spot tragedies seemed out of place. “You may wonder why we keep that window wide open on an October afternoon,” said the niece, indicating a large French window that opened on to a lawn. “It is quite warm for the time of the year,” said Framton, “but has that window got anything to do with the tragedy?” “Out through that window, three years ago to a day, her husband and her two young brothers went off for their day’s shooting. They never came back. In crossing the moor to their favourite snipe-shooting ground they were all three engulfed in a treacherous piece of bog. It had been that dreadful wet summer, you know, and places that were safe in other years gave way suddenly without warning. Their bodies were never recovered. That was the dreadful part of it.” Here the child’s voice lost its self possessed note and became falteringly human. “Poor aunt always thinks that they will come back some day, they and the little brown spaniel that was lost with them, and walk in at that window just as they used to do. That is why the window is kept open every evening till it is quite dusk. Poor dear aunt, she has often told me how they went out, her husband with his white waterproof coat over his arm, and Ronnie, her youngest brother, singing. ‘Bertie, why do you bound?’ as he always did to tease her, because she said it got on her nerves. Do you know, sometimes on still, quiet evenings like this, I almost get a creepy feeling that they will all walk in through that window.” She broke off with a little shudder. It was a relief to Framton when the aunt bustled into the room with a whirl of apologies for being late in making her appearance.

“I hope Vera has been amusing you?” she said.



“She has been very interesting,” said Framton.

“I hope you don’t mind the open window,” said Mrs.Sappleton briskly, “my husband and brothers will be home directly from shooting, and they always come in this way. They’ve been out for snipe in the marshes today, so they’ll make a fine mess over my poor carpets. So like you men-folk, isn’t it?” She rattled on cheerfully about the shooting and the scarcity of birds, and the prospects for duck in the winter. To Framton it was all purely horrible. He made a desperate but only partially successful effort to turn the talk on to a less ghastly topic; he was conscious that his hostess was giving him only a fragment of her attention, and her eyes were constantly straying past him to the open window and the lawn beyond. It was certainly an unfortunate coincidence that he should have paid his visit on this tragic anniversary.

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“The doctors agree in ordering me complete rest, an absence of mental excitement, and avoidance of anything in the nature of violent physical exercise,” announced Framton, who laboured under the tolerably wide-spread delusion that total strangers and chance acquaintances are hungry for the least detail of one’s ailments and infirmities, their cause and cure. “On the matter of diet they are not so much in agreement,” he continued. “No?” said Mrs Sappleton, in a voice which only replaced a yawn at the last moment. Then she suddenly brightened into alert attention – but not to what Framton was saying. “Here they are at last!” she cried. “Just in time for tea, and don’t they look as if they were muddy up to the eyes!” Framton shivered slightly and turned towards the niece with a look intended to convey sympathetic comprehension. The child was staring out through the open window with dazed horror in her eyes. In a chill shock of nameless fear Framton swung round in his seat and looked in the same direction. In the deepening twilight three figures were walking across the lawn towards the window; they all carried guns under their arms, and one of them was additionally burdened with a white coat hung over his shoulders. A tired brown spaniel kept close at their heels. Noiselessly they neared the house, and then a hoarse young voice chanted out of the dusk; “I said, Bertie, why do you bound?” Framton grabbed wildly at his stick and hat; the hall-door, the gravel-drive, and the front gate were dimly-noted stages in his headlong retreat. A cyclist coming along the road had to run into the hedge to avoid an imminent collision. “Here we are, my dear,” said the bearer of the white mackintosh, coming in through the window, fairly muddy, but most of it’s dry. Who was that who bolted out as we came up?” “A most extraordinary man, a Mr.Nuttel,” said Mrs.Sappleton, “could only talk about his illnesses, and dashed off without a word of good-bye or apology when you arrived. One would think he had seen a ghost.” “I expect it was the spaniel,” said the niece calmly, “he told me he had a horror of dogs. He was once hunted into a cemetery somewhere on the banks of the Ganges by a pack of mongrel dogs, and had to spend the night in a newly dug grave with the creatures snarling and grinning and foaming just above him. Enough to make anyone lose their nerve.”

Romance at short notice was her speciality.

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Task 1: Choose the correct answer: 1. windows

- windows reaching the floor (French window) / balcony / attic

2. endeavoured - overworked / tried hard / ended 3. communion

- ceremony / communication / union activity

4. bog

- fog / quagmire / water

5. faltering

- unsteady / false / falling

6. snipe

- shoot / ripen / save

7. ghastly

- beautiful / shocking / gas-light

Task 2: Give short answers to the following questions: 1. Who gave Mr Framton Nuttel the letter of introduction? 2. What is the tragedy that the girl Vera described to Mr Nuttel? 3. What is snipe shooting? 4. What is a bog? 5. Why were the (French) windows kept open? 6. How did Mrs Sappleton’s brother address her affectionately? 7. W hat was Mr Nuttel suffering from? 8. What is the breed of the dog that accompanied the hunting party? 9. What did Mr Nuttel do on seeing the men-folk returning home? 10. What kind of a girl is Vera? Task 3: Say whether the following statements are True or False: 1. Mr Nuttel and Mrs Sappleton were friends. 2. Vera was the daughter of Mrs Sappleton. 3. The (French) window was kept open for the men-folk to return through it. 4. The hunters who went to snipe-shoot were buried in the bog. 5. Mrs Sappleton’s talk about her husband and brothers unnerved Mr Nuttel and made him flee. 6. The doctors had advised Mr Nuttel to do heavy and violent physical exercise. 7. The men-folk who entered through the window were ghosts. 8. Vera, on seeing the hunters returning rushed to them with excitement. 273

9. A motorist screeched to a halt on seeing Mr Nuttel running like a mad man. 10. Vera played a prank on the ‘innocent’ visitor Mr Nuttel. 11. Romance was Vera’s speciality. Task 4: Fill in the blanks with suitable words or phrases: 1. While visiting Mrs Sappleton, Mr Nuttel carried ………… 2. The girl Vera talked to him about ……………… 3. The hunting party went through ……………….. 4. Mrs Sappleton told the visitor that the men-folk had gone out……………… 5. Vera, on seeing the men-folk approaching the window looked………………… 6. The figures who came in carried a …………..and...……….. 7. On seeing them Mr Nuttel took his hat and walking-stick and rushed out ………………… 8. Vera said that the visitor might have been terrified on seeing the……………… 9. ……………… at short notice was Vera’s speciality 10. Vera’s action is ………………… Task 5: Write an essay on the following: 1. ‘Romance at short notice was her speciality’ - Elaborate. 2. Describe Mr. Nuttel’s visit to the Sappletons’.

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