english (reader and supplementary reader) higher secondary - first year part ii - english revised based on the recommendations of the text book develo...

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A publication under Government of Tamilnadu Distribution of Free Textbook Programme (NOT FOR SALE)

Untouchability is a sin

Untouchability is a crime Untouchability is inhuman


College Road, Chennai – 600 006.

© Government of Tamilnadu Revised Edition - 2007 Reprint - 2017

Chairperson Dr. S. SWAMINATHA PILLAI Former Director School of Distance Education Bharathiar University, Coimbatore

Overall Reviewer Thiru S.GOMATHINATHAN Special Officer, ELT / Reader, D.T.E.R.T. (Retired), W – 5 (Old 302), 19th Street, Annanagar Western Extension, Chennai - 600 101. Reviewers : Dr. V. Saraswathi Former Professor of English University of Madras, Chennai.

Dr. Noor Jehan Kother Adam Reader in English Ethiraj College for Women, Chennai.

Authors : Mrs. Nalini Parthiban Ms. Priscilla Josephine Sarah S. Principal (Rtd.) Researcher in ELT Vanavani Matric.Hr.Sec.School W-5 (Old 302), 19th Street, IIT Campus, Chennai. Anna Nagar Western Extension, Chennai. Dr. A. Joseph Dorairaj Reader in English Gandhigram Rural University Gandhigram Dindugul Dist rict.

Thiru. S. Muthukrishnan Principal Jaigopal Garodia VivekanandaVidyalaya Matriculation Higher Secondary School Annanagar, Chennai.

Ms. Nirmala Jairaj Language Consultant 5/36, 13th Avenue, Harrington Rd. Chetpet, Chennai.

Thiru. K.V. Renganathan Former Principal Govt. Muslim Teachers’ Training Institute Triplicane, Chennai.

This book has been prepared by The Directorate of School Education on behalf of the Government of Tamilnadu. This book has been printed on 60 G.S.M. paper. Printed by Offset at : ii


Jana-gana-mana-adhinayaka jaya he

Bharata-bhagya-vidhata. Punjaba-Sindhu-Gujarata-Maratha Dravida-Utkala-Banga Vindhya-Himachala-Yamuna-Ganga Uchchhala-jaladhi-taranga

Tava Subha name jage,

Tava Subha asisa mage,

Gahe tava jaya-gatha.

Jana-gana-mangala-dayaka jaya he


Jaya he, jaya he, jaya he

Jaya jaya, jaya, jaya he.


Jana-gana-mana-adhinayaka jaya he


Jaya he, jaya he, jaya he

Jaya jaya, jaya, jaya he.


Thou art the ruler of the minds of all people,

Thy name rouses the hearts of the Punjab, Sind,

Thou dispenser of India’s destiny. Gujarat and Maratha, of Dravid, Orissa and Bengal.

It echoes in the hills of the Vindhyas and Himalayas,

mingles in the music of the Yamuna and Ganges

and is chanted by the waves of the Indian Sea.

They pray for Thy blessings and sing Thy praise

The saving of all people waits in Thy hand,

Thou dispenser of India’s destiny.

Victory, Victory, Victory to Thee. iii

THE NATIONAL INTEGRATION PLEDGE “I solemnly pledge to work with dedication to preserve and strengthen the freedom and integrity of the nation.” “I further affirm that I shall never resort to violence and that all differences and disputes relating to religion, language, region or other political or economic grievances should be settled by peaceful and constitutional means.”


Bharat is like the face beauteous of Earth clad in wavy seas;

Deccan is her brow crescent-like on which the fragrant ‘Tilak’ is the blessed Dravidian land. Like the fragrance of that ‘Tilak’ plunging the world in joy supreme reigns Goddess Tamil with renown spread far and wide. Praise unto ‘You, Goddess Tamil, whose majestic youthfulness, inspires awe and ecstasy.


PREFACE In your hands is the new English book prepared in accordance with the latest syllabus as part of the competency-based curriculum for school education introduced in the year 2003-2004. The two-year higher secondary education is crucial in the educational system in vogue in Tamilnadu, if not in India. From the more-or-less terminal educational programme of secondary education (upto Standard X) this spell of two years (Stds. XI and XII) is intended to prepare the secondary school leavers both for general and professional higher education. Further, this interlocking subsystem overlaps four different state systems such as State Board, Matriculation, Anglo-Indian and Oriental schools and two different central systems such as Central Board and AllIndia Secondary Schools. The outcomes of these six systems have their confluence in the higher secondary education in Tamilnadu. However the two central systems have their own spell of two years for Stds. XI and XII in which a few outputs of the State systems may also join. Envisaging these eventualities of secondary education, the new higher secondary education curriculum is designed and developed to cater to such diverse entries to follow a joint regulated path towards coaxial development of the most vulnerable and placid stage of adolescent children of the age-group 16+ to 18+ years. This book taking its thread from Std. X aims at developing communicative competence rather than achieving simple and straight objectives. Not merely achievement but more importantly proficiency in English is the focus of all the lessons and tasks provided in this book. High scores in the examination in the subject should in effect correspond with independent ability to use English for academic, occupational and even social purposes. Gradually moving away from the traditional evaluation tied to the textual information this book guides the learners to apply the linguistic competence developed through this book in communicative contexts in real life, academic or professional. The following approach is adopted in this book: I. Cognitive competence

A. Language elements

1. Vocabulary

2. Grammar II. Psychomotor competence

B. Language skills

3. Listening

4. Speaking

5. Reading 6. Writing C. Communication skills 7. Study skills 8. Occupational skills

9. Strategic(social) skills

III. Affective competence


D. Creative skills v

Prose lessons are extracted from existing literature in Indian life of today, but include the British tradition too. Poems selected are in some way or other related to the prose lessons. The suggested work following the lessons comprises a number of tasks, rather than the traditional exercises. A task is more a real-life activity for the learners to gain direct language experience. Unlike the conventional exercises which are repetitive in nature tending to develop in the learners language as a habit, the tasks are intended to provide opportunities for the learners to use English as a dynamic creative tool. The teachers are expected to understand the significance of this communicative approach to language learning and the learners to realise the importance of this approach in enriching their language experience for individualistic application in natural life. The teachers may develop additional parallel tasks to suit the learners of different levels entering into this subsystem. The teacher resources will embark upon novel strategies of classroom transaction adopting interactive teaching techniques to inculcate in the learners the spirit of cooperative learning. The sections on self-evaluation given at the end of each lesson, prose or poem or even non-detailed text, guide the learners to prepare for responding to different types of questions which may constitute the question paper. Parents will do well if they lend adequate support to this approach so that their wards will be well-equipped to take part in competitive and entrance examinations which have become the order of the day in this world of tight but multiple opportunities for the self-reliant and self-confident youth. - The Team


Extensive reading has become the need of the hour. This Supplementary Reader is intended to develop reading skills. Basic skills have been practised in the English Reader. Further development is taken care of in this book. Besides global and local comprehension of a story the student should be able to analyse the events, the characteristics of the persons in each story, the hints of important ideas and their development into continuous writing. Questions given under ‘For Readers’ Practice’ contribute to the understanding of the story. Questions under ‘Self Evaluation’ enable them to practise answering questions in the annual examination. Besides two short stories written by tamil writers Pudumaipithan and Sundara Ramaswamy, one by the Indian Nobel Laureate Rabindranath Tagore, there are three other stories by English writers, viz., Guy de Maupassant, O.Henry and James Herriot. The overall effect of reading these stories will be a regional, national and international outlook on human life and culture. Reading skills developed in the English Reader and strengthened by this Supplementary Reader should enable the students to read any other writing in the media and the book world. Extensive reading is an accomplishment of a good user of any language. Imaginative thinking, analytical process and synthetic approach should stand them in good stead in future studies and career. It is hope that teachers will use this strictly as an extensive reader and not as a text to be taught in classrooms. Home reading, class discussion and internal assessment are recommended for teaching this book. All the strategic competencies developed in the Reader will be of great help in managing the expansion of general knowledge through this book - The Team










PROSE – BON VOYAGE (compiled by S. Priscilla Josephine Sarah)





PROSE – MERCY AND JUSTICE (from ‘Merchant of Venice’) (edited by Dr. A. Joseph Dorairaj)




– SONNET NO: 116

PROSE – THE FARMER (from Takazhi Sivasankara Pillai’s short story) (edited by Ms. Nirmala Jairaj)





PROSE – THE HELPING HAND (E.M. Forster) (compiled by Nalini Parthiban)





PROSE – THE ROAD TO SUCCESS (extracted from ‘Dale Carnegie’) (edited by K.V. Renganathan)





PROSE – VISION FOR THE NATION (from ‘India 2020’) (edited by S. Muthukrishnan)






CONTENTS Supplementary Reader

Page No.


Rabindranath Tagore


Guy de Maupassant



Sundara Ramaswamy


James Herriot

6 KAANCHANAI 273 Pudumaippittan



UNIT I COMPETENCIES A LISTENING: Listening to rhythmic pattern in English sentences B SPEAKING: Participating in dialogues at school Conversing at the doctor’s C READING: Skimming Reading aloud meaningfully D VOCABULARY: Using words related to computers, media, business, sports and games, and weather

Identifying words in their extensive reading and relating them meaningfully


STUDY SKILLS: Using the dictionary independently to identify the whole gamut of a word including usage


F GRAMMAR: Using tenses in relevant contexts

Differentiating between tenses of the same time

Using different tenses for a specific time aspect

G WRITING: Writing a paragraph Writing catchy slogans for advertisements H



STRATEGIC COMPETENCY: Expressing beliefs on language learning


CREATIVE COMPETENCY: Writing an essay on a given topic Writing a dialogue

A. Listening I. The teacher will read a couple of lines from a nursery rhyme and another couple of lines from a poem. Listen carefully. (The teacher reads) II. Did you notice anything in common between the nursery rhyme and the poem? The teacher will read again. Listen. (The teacher reads) III. Now the teacher will read a few nonsense syllables followed by the lines. Listen again. (The teacher reads) Did you notice that the rhythm is the same in both, the lines of the nursery rhyme and the poem? (The ‘tum’ is used for the stressed syllable and the ‘ti’ for the unstressed syllable.) 1

The characteristic rhythm of English speech depends upon the stressed syllables. In English sentences content words are stressed, while structural words are generally not. (Content words are nouns, adjectives, main verbs, adverbs, demonstratives and interrogatives. Structural words are articles, personal and relative pronouns, auxiliary verbs, prepositions and conjunctions.) The basic rule of English rhythm is that the stressed syllables follow each other at regular intervals of time, that is, there is the same amount of time between each pair of stressed syllables in a given sentence. IV. The teacher will read a few sentences. Listen carefully. As she reads each sentence, look at the rhythmic pattern given below.

1. ti 'tum ti 'tum 'tum ti 'tum

2. 'tum 'tum ti 'tum

3. ti 'tum ti ti 'tum ti 'tum ti

4. ti 'tum 'tum ti ti ti 'tum

5. 'tum ti 'tum ti 'tum ti

It is important to remember that a number of short words in English are not stressed. This lack of stress has an effect on the pronunciation of some of them in connected speech, in order to keep time with the rhythm.

e.g. Priyan sang a song.

Here ‘a’ is not pronounced as /eI/, but as /E/. It takes its weak form. This is because the time taken to say /eI/ is longer than that for /E /. As timing is very important in English rhythm, this should be borne in mind. The words which take their weak forms are the auxiliaries, pronouns, articles, conjunctions, prepositions, etc. Task: The teacher will read a few sentences. Each sentence will be read twice. As each sentence is read, match the rhythmic pattern to the sentence read. (Write the number of the sentence against the pattern.)

a) tum tum ti ti ti tum

b) tum ti ti tum ti

c) ti tum tum ti ti ti tum

d) ti tum ti tum

e) ti tum ti ti tum

f) tum ti tum ti tum ti tum

g) tum ti tum

h) tum ti ti tum 2

i) ti ti tum ti ti

j) tum ti tum tum

B. Speaking I. At School (i) The following is a dialogue between two class-mates before the morning bell: Sathya


Hai, Saleema!



Hello Sathya! Did you read today’s paper?



Yes, I did. In fact I wanted to discuss the Columbia shuttle tragedy

with you. Saleema


Yes, it’s very sad. A few have dared to venture into space to satisfy

the curiosity of many.



Sometimes I feel – ‘Space Exploration at what cost?’



Very true. I wish we could explore space using robots instead of

human beings. Sathya


I think scientists have already started working on it.



By the way Sathya, can I borrow your science record? I have got

a diagram wrong. I need to check it.



I’ll give it to you in the evening.



Thank you. There goes the bell.



Let’s go to the assembly.

(ii) The following is a dialogue between a student and a teacher: Student


Excuse me, Madam.

Teacher : Yes. Student : A few of us from our class are representing our school in a Space and Science exhibition. It is to be held next week at the Birla Planetarium, Chennai. We would like to go to the library to refer to books and prepare for it. May we leave early today? Teacher


Yes, you may. But get the principal’s permission first.



Yes, Ma’m.



What have you planned to exhibit?



We are working on a model of a space shuttle.



That’s good. All the best!


Task 1:

Practise the above conversations, taking turns.

Task 2:

Form pairs.

a) Discuss with your partner the day’s news.

b) Ask your neighbour to lend you something /do you a favour /

help you in your studies, etc.

Task 3:

Prepare dialogues between a student and a teacher:

a) clearing doubts

b) asking for permission

c) submitting note-book/record-book

Take turns and practise the dialogues.

Task 4:

Prepare a dialogue between a student and the principal, asking for permission to leave early. Practise the conversation.

Remember to use polite terms like, ‘please’, ‘may’, etc., when talking to the teacher / principal. II. At the doctor’s A student has sustained an injury while trekking, during an NCC camp. He goes to the doctor. Student


Doctor, a couple of days ago while trekking, I slipped. I have pain in my ankle. I’m not able to walk. I’m limping about.



Let me see.



Ouch! It hurts.



Your ankle is swollen badly.



Do you think it could be a fracture? The pain is unbearable.



Looks like a sprain. Still it’s better to go in for an x-ray. You can go to the adjacent lab and have it x-rayed. (Student comes back with the x-ray)



Let me look at the x-ray. Mmm...... Fortunately, you haven’t fractured your ankle. It’s only a sprain. I’ll prescribe some tablets to relieve the pain. In case the pain is very bad you can apply this gel. Take rest for three to four days. Don’t move about much.



Doctor, next week we have our sports meet. I’m in the relay team. Will I be able to participate?



Why not? In three or four days you should be fit.



Thank you, doctor. 4

Task 1: Practise the above dialogue taking roles. Task 2: Complete the following dialogues using the words/phrases given in brackets and practise it. (sneezing, remedy, running, ache, suffering from, temperature, hurt, runny, sore, cough) a)


: Doctor, I’m ..................... forgetfulness.


: Since when?


: Sorry, I don’t remember.



: Doctor, I have a ........... throat.


: Take lime and honey.


: That’s my grandmother’s ..............


: My grandmother’s too.



: I have a tooth........, doctor.


: Open your mouth. Your gums are bleeding.


: I don’t use gum. I only use a glue-stick.


: ?!



: I have a very bad cold and ........... I’ve been ........... a lot too.


: And I see you have a .......... nose.


: Yes, I hope nobody catches it!



: Doctor, I fell down and .......... my knees.


: Where is she?



: (taking the thermometer from the patient’s mouth) You’re


................. a high .............. : No. I’m running in the 400 m relay.

C. Reading Pre-reading questions Twinkle, twinkle little star, How I wonder what you are! Up above the world so high, Like a diamond in the sky! Have you ever gazed at twinkling stars and wondered what they are? How often have you wondered what is beyond the wide, blue canopy of the sky? Have you ever wanted to reach out to the moon? Have you ever wanted to touch the fluffy clouds? Ever wanted to pay a friendly visit to our neighbouring planets? Well, here’s wishing bon voyage to all those who want to! 5

I. BON VOYAGE ‘The heights by great men reached and kept Were not attained by sudden flight, But they, while their companions slept, Were toiling upward in the night.’ - H W Longfellow “That’s one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind”, said Neil Armstrong, stepping on to the moon’s surface on 21st July 1969. Well, when she stepped into space, not once but twice, it proved to be a real leap for womankind, especially for the Indian woman. It was a leap bridging the gap between the impossible and the possible. ‘You can’t cross a great chasm in two short steps; it needs one big leap’. That’s exactly what she did. ................... Having slept under a canopy of stars in Karnal, Haryana, a sleepy little town in Northern India, where she was born, ‘A strong desire to travel beyond the blue yonder, to fly into the heavens and touch the stars some day .......’, was all that Kalpana Chawla dreamt of even as a child. Maybe she was rightly named Kalpana – ‘imagination’. Even as a young girl she preferred to sketch and paint airplanes rather than dress up her Barbie dolls. A close friend remembers that Chawla often spoke about travelling to Mars as being her greatest ambition. Not only did she dare to dream but she also went the distance to fulfil her motto, ‘Follow your dreams’. She went on to clock an incredible 760 hours in space, travelling 10.4 million km, as many as 252 times around the earth! In realisation of her dream, she was to say one day, “I could then see my reflection in the window and in the retina of my eye the whole earth and sky could be seen reflected ........ so I called all the crew members one by one and they all saw it and everybody said, ‘Oh, wow!’” Kalpana Chawla was born on the 1st of July 1961, into a middle-class family, as the youngest of four siblings. She maintained a brilliant academic record throughout school. She took part in almost everything, from athletics to dance and science modelling. She graduated from Tagore school, Karnal, in 1976. She went on to pursue her Bachelor of Science Degree in Aeronautical engineering through Punjab Engineering College. She happened to be the only girl in the aeronautics branch. Though her family initially resisted her decision to pursue a career in aeronautics, they finally relented, knowing her determined nature. This led on to a Master of Science degree in Aerospace engineering from Texas University in 1984, again after having to fight it out with her father who was very reluctant. Finally a mere five days before the last date 6

for admissions closed, he relented on condition that her brother, Sanjay, accompany her to the States. Then followed her Doctorate of philosophy in Aerospace engineering from Colorado University in 1988. Chawla enjoyed flying, hiking, backpacking and reading. Her passion for flying began very early in life. Even when she was in school, she drew airplanes in drawing competitions and made models of the universe and constellations for geography projects. Her friends remember how she incessantly talked about designing and flying planes, “It was obvious that she wanted to do something special and she would achieve it”. While she was pursuing her engineering, her brother Sanjay had enrolled himself in the Karnal flying school. During a break from studies, Chawla accompanied her brother to the flight school, but the authorities wanted a written consent from her guardian before they would let her fly. Her father refused. It was then that Chawla got some valuable advice from her brother that she remembered all through her life: ‘Everyone fights their (his) own battles’. It was this advice which encouraged her, to later earn her pilot’s licenses for airplanes and gliders. She enjoyed flying aerobatics and tail-wheel airplanes. In fact, her inspiration to take up flying was JRD Tata, who flew the first mail flights in India. As a first-year student at Punjab Engineering College, she had surprised everyone by presenting a paper on time lapse in space. As secretary of the aero-astro club of the same college, she had arranged for a screening of the movie: ‘Those magnificent men in their flying machines’. Her path to the ‘Milky Way’ was laid then. She had a single-minded determination to be an astronaut. Where did this grit come from? Surely from the steely resolve of her father, Banarsi Dass Chawla who had to flee Pakistan during Partition. He had tried his hand at odd jobs, and having practically no money to invest he had succeeded in building a thriving tyre business from scratch. Rakesh Sharma, the first Indian to go into space, in the guest column of a cover story in ‘The Week’, featuring Kalpana Chawla, said, “Often I have been asked if, as a child, I had ever dreamt of going into space. I answered truthfully in the negative, explaining that India never had a manned space programme, and so dreaming about it would have been futile. Kalpana, on the other hand, was a small-town girl who dreamt big and had the self-belief to chase that dream. She chased it half way across the globe, caught up with it and then, lived it. That was the difference between us.” Don Wilson, her thesis guide at the University of Texas, Arlington, recalls her as a “quiet and shy girl who was intimidated by her surroundings”. But this was not for long. She adapted well, showing a burning desire to be an astronaut. “She just refused to take ‘no’ for an answer. And she was also an amazingly good student,” he was to say later. 7

In 1988, Kalpana Chawla started work at NASA Ames Research Center. Meanwhile she married Jean-Pierre Harrison, a flight instructor, drawn towards him probably because of her fascination for flying. In 1993, she joined Overset Methods Inc., Los Altos, California, as Vice President and Research Scientist. In December 1994, she was selected by NASA out of 2962 applicants as an astronaut candidate in the 15th group of astronauts. According to NASA, her academic accomplishments, intense physical fitness and experience as a pilot made her a natural choice. She reported to the Johnson Space Center in March 1995. Her path to the ‘Milky Way’ was paved now. She had to undergo a year’s rigorous training and evaluation. The training was so arduous that it could deter an average human being, but not Chawla. It was a training, which included experiencing the pull of gravity, which would increase the pulse rate from 72 to 102 within seconds – a training where every movement could be a discovery of pain. The training required immense levels of fitness. In 1996, her dream became true. She started off on her path to the ‘Milky Way’. She was assigned as mission specialist on STS-87 Columbia, for a 16-day mission between November 19 to December 5, 1997, as part of a six astronaut crew. She became the first Indian or Indian-American to fly in the US space shuttle. She made history by becoming the first Indian born woman to achieve this feat, for she had sought American citizenship in the early 90’s. Though her dream became true, she was blamed for making mistakes that sent a science satellite tumbling out of control. Other astronauts went on a space walk to capture it. However a post-flight NASA evaluation absolved her of blame, rating her a ‘terrific astronaut’. Following her first space flight, in 1997, Chawla said, “The Ganges valley looked majestic, mind-boggling”. “Africa looked like a desert and the Nile a vein in it”. She said sunrises and sunsets defined her experience in space. “It is almost as if everything is in fast forward. Then the moon races away from us and is lost in the glow of the earth’s curvature”. She yearned for a second chance. The chance came in 2000, when she was assigned to the crew of STS-107 scheduled for launch in 2003. Once again she had succeeded. It was not only good fortune, but also her having worked very, very hard. On being selected again, she said, “Just looking at Earth, looking at the stars during the night part of Earth; just looking at our planet roll by and the speed at which it goes by and the awe that it inspires; just so many such good thoughts come to your mind when you see all that,” “Doing it again is like living a dream – a good dream – once again”. But this time it was to be her eternal voyage. She became one with the space that she dared to dream about, and yet still dared to explore. 8

The 16-day flight which began on January 16th 2003 was a dedicated science and research mission. The crew successfully conducted 80 experiments. On February 1st 2003, a breezy blue day over Florida, during entry, the space shuttle exploded into a ball of fire, sixteen minutes prior to scheduled landing. Kalpana Chawla and the other six crew members died an unfortunate death leaving the whole world mourning. Under the wide and starry sky, Dig the grave and let me lie.’ - R L Stevenson

Probably R L Stenvenson’s yearning was Kalpana Chawla’s too!

She had said after her first space flight, that as the shuttle repeatedly passed over India, especially New Delhi, she pointed it out to the other crew members and said, “I lived near there”. Now each time we look up into the sky, it’s our turn to say, “She’s up there”. .................. Kalpana Chawla carved an identity for herself in an otherwise men’s domain. She will always inspire many young women as she has paved the way for them to dream - to think beyond horizons and reach for the stars. Her passion for space exploration has made her an inspiration and an icon to every little Indian girl. No wonder as many as 28,000 web-sites host information about her. In her last interview to the press, Chawla said, “ ‘I was not born for one corner. The whole world is my native land.’ So said Seneca, the philosopher. I have felt that connection for the Earth for as long as I can remember. And not just for Earth, but the whole universe. In summers, while growing up in India, we often slept in the courtyard under the stars. We gazed dreamily at the Milky Way, and once in a while caught some shooting stars. Times like those gave me the opportunity to wonder and ask all those very basic questions. That sense of awe for the heavens started there. The family and the surrounding community were mostly folks who had come to the area after Partition, most of them without many possessions. You couldn’t lose by working hard and everyone seemed to follow that rule. It helped instil the notion that no matter what the circumstances, you could indeed follow your dreams.” In the same interview, her message to Indian children was, “....... the journey matters as much as the goal. Listen to the sounds of nature......Take good care of our fragile planet.” When asked why anybody would want to climb Mt. Everest, Sir Edmund Hillary replied, “Because it is there!” To all the Hillarys, Armstrongs, Norgays, Pearys, Columbuses and Chawlas who want to explore “because it is there,” in the generations to come, it is wishing bon voyage! 9

Glossary: bon voyage



‘have a good journey’




a deep narrow opening




a type of roof




over there








a layer at the back of the eyeball that receives light and sends pictures of what the eye sees to the brain




brothers and/or sisters




of the study of travel through air




gave in




groups of stars forming a pattern








a light air-craft without an engine


/eErE 'bAtIks/


feats of flying performed for an audience


/eErE AstrE /


relating to the air and stars/space

Milky Way

/'mIlkI weI/


the galaxy of which our solar system is a part




one trained to travel in a spacecraft

steely resolve



firm determination




very successful




operated by men






National Aeronautics Administration (Acronym)









keen interest






/'å:dj Es/


requiring a lot of effort





space shuttle

/'speIs Sútl/


a rocket-launched spacecraft




a natural object moving round a larger object in space or an artificial body placed in orbit round the earth or another planet to study it






cleared of blame






/maInd 'bóglIN/


over whelming




the degree to which something is curved


/dE 'meIn/








Choose the synonyms of the italicised words from the options given.

e.g. A strong desire to travel beyond the blue yonder ....

(yearning, happiness, thrilling, enjoying)


Even as a young girl she preferred to sketch and paint airplanes.

(decided, hated, chose, enjoyed)


She maintained a brilliant academic record.

(outstanding, shining, twinkling, consistent)


“It was obvious that she wanted to do something special .....”

(unsure, apparent, obsolete, unknown)


Where did this grit come from?

(greatness, innocence, power, determination)


The training required immense levels of fitness.

(intense, strict, great, maximum)

Choose the antonyms of the italicised words from the options given.

e.g. Other astronauts went on a space-walk to capture it.

(seize, cease, free, photograph)


“The Ganges valley looked majestic.....”

(great, beautiful, humble, shining)


...just looking at our planet roll by ........ and the awe that it inspires .....

(fear, disrespect, surprise, honour)


The heights by great men reached ... were not attained by sudden flight.

(swift, slow, calm, gradual)


Though her family initially resisted her decision .....

(accepted, prevented, disliked, proposed)


She had to fight it out with her father who was very reluctant.

(relentless, exultant, eager, pleasant) 11

The following words are taken from the lesson. Supply the missing letters to find their synonyms. 1. consent


app _ _ _ a l

2. dare


br _ _ _

3. accompany


esc _ _ _

4. special


ex _ _ _ ord _ _ _ ry

5. follow


_ _ _ sue

6. fragile


fee _ _ _

The following words are taken from the lesson. Supply the missing letters to find their antonyms. 1. remember


_ org _ _

2. valuable


worth _ _ _ _

3. succeeded


fai _ _ _

4. mourning


rej _ _ _ ing

5. quiet


talk_ _ _ _ _

6. futile


_ _ _ ful

Comprehension: I. Level I 1. What did Neil Armstrong say on stepping onto the moon’s surface? 2. What was Kalpana Chawla’s strong desire? 3. How was she different from others, as a young girl? 4. What was her brother’s advice? How did it help her? 5. Who was Chawla’s inspiration to take up flying? What was his achievement? 6. What was the difference between Rakesh Sharma and Chawla? 7. What did her thesis guide at the University of Texas say of her? 8. What sort of training did she undergo at NASA? 9. When and how did Kalpana Chawla’s dream become true? 10. What did Chawla say on being selected again to go into space? II. Level II 1. Why did ‘it’ prove to be a real leap for womankind? 2. ‘Maybe she was rightly named Kalpana – ‘imagination’ ’. Why? 3. Why is Kalpana Chawla said to have inherited her grit from her father? 4. ‘She yearned for a second chance’. Why? 12

5. ‘Probably R L Stevenson’s yearning was Kalpana Chawla’s too!’ Why? 6. Why is Kalpana Chawla an icon to every Indian girl? 7. ‘I have felt that connection for the Earth for as long as I can remember’ – What is that connection? 8. How did Kalpana Chawla come to believe that one could follow one’s dreams? III. Answer in a paragraph: 1. Kalpana Chawla’s education and initial career. 2. What was Kalpana Chawla’s achievement in space and how did she describe her experiences? 3. Describe her second space-flight. 4. Describe her last interview. What was her message to children? IV. Write an essay on: 1. Kalpana Chawla’s path to the ‘Milky Way’. 2. Her grit, dreams and realisation of her dreams. Skimming Task 1: Go through the following passages A and B. Do not read in detail. As you give a cursory glance, keep the following questions in mind:

• • • • • • • • • • •

What is the main content of both the passages? Which country/countries are involved in each? Which passage deals with a human being and which deals with an animal? Do both events take place in the same decade? Have any names been mentioned in each of the passages? Is there anything common in the achievement of the main characters in both the events? Which passage involves training? Which passage involves conducting an experiment? In which passage is there a tragic ending involving loss of life? Which passage talks about a memorial and relates to the present also? Are there any scientific terms used in the passages?



Near the end of the 1950s, the USSR was preparing to send a dog into orbit above Earth. Scientists in the Soviet Union were sure that organisms from Earth could live in space. To demonstrate that, they sent the world’s second artificial space satellite – Sputnik 2 on November 3, 1957. On board was a live mongrel dog named Laika (Barker in Russian), on a life- support system. While other animals had made suborbital flights, Laika was the first animal to go into orbit. Laika had been a stray dog around three years old – rounded up from the streets and trained for space flight. The Sputnik 2 was outfitted with life-support systems but was not designed for recovery. A harness allowed some movement and access to food and water. Electrodes transmitted vital signs including heartbeat, blood pressure and breathing rate. Laika captured the hearts of people around the world as the batteries that operated her lifesupport system ran down and the capsule air ran out. Life slipped away from Laika a few days into her journey. Later, Sputnik 2 fell into the atmosphere and burned on April 14, 1958. Today, Laika again captures the hearts of people who see a monument erected 40 years after her space flight, by the Russians to honour fallen cosmonauts at Star City outside Moscow. The likeness of Laika can be seen peeping out from behind the cosmonauts in the monument. Passage B: THE FIRST INDIAN COSMONAUT The manned space programme of the Indian Space Research Organisation has depended entirely upon Russia. The first Indian cosmonaut became the 138th man into space; he was Squadron Leader Rakesh Sharma, a 35 year old Indian Air Force pilot. He spent eight days in space aboard the space station Salyut 7. He was launched along with two other Soviet cosmonauts aboard Soyuz T –11 on 02 April, 1984. During the flight, Squadron Leader Sharma conducted multi-spectral photography of northern India in anticipation of the construction of hydroelectric power stations in the Himalayas. Squadron Leader Sharma and his backup, Wing Commander Ravish 14

Malhotra, also prepared an elaborate series of zero-gravity Yoga exercises which the former practised aboard the Salyut 7. He was trained for one-and-a-half years for the eight-day trip. He said that the worst moment of his trip was when the Soyuz T –11, caught fire while landing. “The space capsule burnt when it re-entered the earth’s atmosphere .............. the spaceship began to burn off in layers. I can still recall ....... it was all so noisy ..... It was quite frightening to bail out of a burning spaceship. We had to parachute out over the desert of Kazakhstan”. How did you arrive at the answers to the following questions? You did not read in detail. Yet you were able to arrive at the answers. How was this possible? This is by the process of ‘skimming’. Skimming is used to quickly identify the main ideas of a text. In skimming you don’t look for specific information. You don’t know exactly what you are looking for. Therefore you question yourself - who, what, when, where? With a questioning mind you direct your eyes down the column of print, or in a zig-zag. Look for exact names of people, places, things, ideas and numbers. When you first start to learn to skim you may see only the words in bold type, italics, digits, or capitalised words. Soon you will note new or unusual vocabulary. As you become an efficient skimmer your span of perception will widen. It’s a good practice to skim everything after reading the title and first paragraph. You may get all the information you want. You generally skim everything you intend to read before you make a final decision to read, discard, or study the material. For example, before reading the newspaper one generally skims through in order to decide what to read. Skim all highlighted words and develop a read-skim pattern to use for rapid review. Reviewing frequently and rapidly is the best way to memorise (or simply remember information) from notes and long text assignments. This is very helpful when revising what is already learnt. Skimming is done at a speed three to four times faster than normal reading. People often skim when they have lots of material to read in a limited amount of time. Use skimming when you want to see if an article may be of interest. There are many strategies that can be used when skimming. Some people read the first and last paragraphs. You might read the title, subtitles, subheading, and illustrations. Consider reading the first sentence of each paragraph. This technique is very useful. Task 2: Take the day’s English daily. Skim through the paper to have an idea of the general contents. Use the above techniques to skim. After skimming (1) discuss with your teacher and classmates the time taken to skim 15

the whole paper and the time taken to read any particular article that interested you (2) write down the important headlines that caught your attention Reading aloud Task 1: Read aloud the passage from the lesson, beginning from the title ‘BON VOYAGE’ ........... ‘That’s exactly what she did’, to a friend who has not read the lesson. After you finish reading, ask questions to your friend to see if he/she has been able to comprehend. While reading aloud keep an eye on pronunciation – correct articulation of sounds, proper stress, intonation, pause, etc. In writing, punctuation plays an important role. In speech, the above features take over. Remember, audibility is very important when reading aloud to a group. The more you practise reading aloud the better it is for your pronunciation. Reading aloud will come in handy when you present papers, reports, etc. Task 2: Read aloud the paragraph, ‘In her last interview ............ follow your dreams,’ from the lesson. The teacher will check your pronunciation, pause and intonation. Task 3: Take turns and read aloud items from the day’s newspaper to the class as would be read by a newsreader. D. Vocabulary I. Look at the following sentences taken from the lesson.

......having practically no money to invest ......

She had arranged for a screening of the movie ....

In her last interview to the press .......

...... in the guest column of a cover story in ‘The Week’, featuring ....

She took part in almost everything, from athletics to dance ......

On February 1st 2003, a breezy blue day over Florida, ......

No wonder as many as 28,000 web-sites host information about her.

Task 1: The words in bold belong to different fields. Put them under the different heads. Business: Computers: Media: Sports: Weather:


Here are some more examples: Business







small screen



stock broker





stock exchange


yellow journal










cover story






ice hockey





base ball




box office

pole vault


Task 2: The meanings of the above words are given below. Match the words with their meanings. A popular game played in America


Profit; yield


A disk for recording and storing data


A game played on horseback


One who presents programmes


Very cold : Violently rotating winds : Property of a company : A game played with ball which is hit against the walls : A film with an exciting plot


A game played by two or four persons with small, hard balls, driven with clubs into a series of 9 or 18 holes


A secret code which allows restricted entry


A competitive sport where a light spear is thrown


The main article in a newspaper


An extremely violent wind or storm



Spending or using up : Mild showers : Hockey played on an icy surface


Frequent change in market prices


Rumour : Jumping over a high bar using a long flexible pole


A journal with sensational news


Full of fog : A game played on a table


Machines and other devices, making up a computer : Damp : Main article in a magazine


Television : Covered with clouds : A ticket-counter : The set of systems in the form of programs rather than machine parts


A list of possible actions displayed on a computer screen : One who buys and sells stocks


Moving from site to site on the Internet


Place where stock is bought and sold


A computer, small and light enough to be held in one hand : A continuing rise in prices


With strong winds blowing : The amount of business done


A computer that is portable and small enough to be held on one’s knees for use 18


Task 3: Use the above words in sentences of your own. e.g.

When he went through the expenditure column in the ledger, he was taken aback.

He always keeps keying into his laptop.

The ‘Titanic’ was a box-office hit.

Sergei Bubka is the world record holder in pole vault.

The fishermen have been asked not to venture into the sea as there is warning of a hurricane.

II. Read the following news items: Asteroid heading for Earth LONDON: A giant asteroid is heading for Earth and could hit it in 2014, US astronomers have warned British space monitors. But for those fearing Armageddon, don’t be alarmed – the chances of a catastrophic collision are just one in 909,000. Asteroid “2003 QQ 47” will be closely monitored over the next two months. Its potential strike date is March 21, 2014, but astronomers say that any risk of impact is likely to decrease as further data is gathered. On impact, it could have the effect of 20 million Hiroshima atomic bombs .................... Asteroids are chunks of rock left over from the formation of the solar system 4.5 billion years ago. Most are kept at a safe distance from the Earth in the Asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter. Fears allayed PARIS: The Earth is not quite so doomed, experts said on Wednesday. Fears that a giant asteroid could wack into the planet on March 21, 2014 and plunge it into a nuclear winter are misplaced, they said. ...... NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), making a preliminary estimate of its orbit, said there was a tiny chance – one in only 909,000 – that it would collide with Earth. Around 1.2 km across, and hurtling through space at 120,000 km per hour, 2003 QQ 47 would unleash energy equivalent to ............

While reading, were you able to understand the meanings of all the words?

How did you try to fix the meanings of most of the words?

- you already knew the meaning of the familiar words

- you tried to guess the meaning from the context

- you referred to a dictionary

- you asked somebody

In your extensive reading, when you read the newspaper, a magazine or a book, you adopt one or more or all of the above to interpret the meanings of words. 19

Task 1:

Look at the underlined words in the above news items. Their meanings are given below, see if you can match the meaning with the word.


an approximate calculation



going in the direction of


removed crash to release suddenly Task 2: Look at the words in bold. See if you know the meaning already. Otherwise try to guess the meanings of these words. Write down the meanings. Check with the dictionary to see if you have got it/guessed it correctly. Task 3:

Look at the words in italics. Refer to the dictionary and find the meanings of these words.

E. Study skills: I. In order to improve one’s vocabulary it is important to refer to the dictionary. The dictionary is referred to for various purposes:

• to know the spelling

• to know the meaning

• to know the part of speech

• to know the derivatives of a word, e.g. happy – happily, happiness

• to know the Synonyms and Antonyms

• to know the use of the word in different contexts

• to know the correct usage

concern1 v.t 1. to relate to 2. to cause anxiety to Syn. 1. involve, interest 2. worry – concerned, concerning USAGE – I met the concerned officer and explained my position, is wrong. I met the officer concerned and explained my position, is right. When concerned means involved or connected, it goes after the noun it describes. Placed before the noun it means anxious. concern21. n.c a matter of interest 2. n.c/u worry or anxiety 3. n.c a firm or company Syn. 2. burden, care 3. enterprise


Task 1:

Refer to a Dictionary and fill in the details in the following table. Word


Part of Speech


explore adventure astronomy gravity universe Task 2:

Refer to either a Standard Dictionary or a Thesaurus and fill in the details in the following table. Word



daring tragic knowledge eager risky Task 3:

Refer to a Dictionary and find the different meanings of the following words and how each is used.

land :

hike :

thirst :

space :

air :

Task 4:

Find the difference between ‘travel’, ‘journey’ and ‘voyage’. Refer to a Standard Dictionary and find the correct usage. You may have to look up all the three entries. The difference in usage will be given under any one entry.

II. Arvind’s younger brother has written a paragraph on Galileo to be displayed on the school bulletin board, during the ‘Space week’. Arvind has edited and drafted it.


Galileo used look up at the stars through a telescope. When he r



tuned his telescope towards the sky he see that the moon was really a ^

^ 21


world covered by mountains and valleys. He looked at Venus, which we the



call an evening star, and found that it changed as the moon, and ^




sometimes was new, sometime full. He looked at Jupiter and find that it had



have four moons. Sometimes those moons grows dark with the shad dow of ^




Jupiter, je st as the moon in a eclipse grows dark with the shadow of





earth. He saw that Saturn had a number of rings. He have find that the

s ^ o

earth move, which is a fact that people at that time did not kn ew.

^ ^

His enemies did not like him. Fair Draft: Galileo used to look up at the stars through a telescope. When he turned his telescope towards the sky he saw that the moon was really a world covered with mountains and valleys. He looked at Venus, which we call the evening star, and found that it changed like the moon, and sometimes was new, sometimes full. He looked at Jupiter and found that it had four moons. Sometimes those moons grow dark with the shadow of Jupiter, just as the moon in an eclipse grows dark with the shadow of the earth. He saw that Saturn has a number of rings. He found that the earth moves, which is a fact that people at that time did not know. Editing and drafting is a process which involves correcting spelling/ grammatical/punctuation errors, simplifying/refining the language and leaving out unnecessary details. While writing, one tends to make slips and errors. Revising what is written helps us improve the draft. This revision which involves editing can be done by oneself or with the help of someone. Task 1:

Correct, edit and draft the following passage.

Some people feels that the money spent on space travel is the waste. They say it could be used to help the poors. It is truth that the poor needs help, But it also true that man’s knowledge must grew. We has to learn much and more. Space travel has opened the doors to new and intresting discoveries. These persuit of knowledge is necesary even if it is expensive. 22

Some even laugh at space scientists. People has always laughed at new ideas an daring experiments. Galileo was laughed at when he say that the earth went round sun. Louis Pasteur was laughed at far saying that smell germs was present everywhere, which could be seen threw a microscope. Ultimately Galileo and Pasteur proved to be right. Task 2:

Write a paragraph on whether space travel is necessary. Before finalising the draft, correct and edit it.

F. Grammar

It is the 21st of July 1969.

People are watching a historic moment on television. Man was attempting to land on the moon. During the final stages the Lunar Module blasted away from the Command Module. Then, when the Eagle had been briefly hovering at 500 feet above the Sea of Tranquillity, Armstrong made up his mind to land. In case of sudden emergency, the Eagle would have blasted back into orbit to join the Command Module.

Then they landed on the moon.

The message came, ‘The Eagle has landed’.

Generations to come will remember Armstrong’s words, “That’s one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind”. As soon as he stepped out, Armstrong gave a description of the surface, “The surface is fine and powdery.......It adheres in fine layers to the sides of my boots.” It was evident that no life had existed there before Armstrong and Aldrin stepped onto the moon. We will be saying down the ages, “Man breathed on the moon”. Using the moon soil and rocks, man has been conducting several experiments for the past few years. If man hadn’t stepped onto the moon already, we will have been dreaming about stepping onto it.


Look at the following table: Tense




Perfect Continuous



are watching

has landed

has been conducting



was attempting had existed

had been hovering


will remember

will be saying

will have been dreaming

would have blasted

Now look at the following sentences taken from the lesson: A close friend remembers that Chawla often spoke about travelling to Mars ...... (Simple Present) She graduated from Tagore School. (Simple Past) She will always inspire many young women. (Simple Future)

While she was pursuing her engineering ........(Past Continuous)

Her brother Sanjay had enrolled himself in the Karnal flying school. (Past Perfect) I have felt that connection for the Earth ...... (Present Perfect) Now, let us see how the various tenses are used: Tense


Simple Present For habitual actions: I read the newspaper everyday. For instantaneous present: (commentaries, demonstrations) He bowls from the pavilion end. For historical present: Here goes Laika into space. Future expressed with certainty: He arrives on the 7th. To indicate possessions: He has a quartz watch. In proverbs: Haste makes waste. Simple Past

To refer to past actions/events: I saw the film ten days ago. To refer to present time (to show politeness): I wondered if I could borrow your bike. In conditional clause 2: If I were a bird, I would fly high. In reported speech: NASA asked her to join duty. 24

Simple Future

To refer to future time or events with certainty: I will go to his house tomorrow. To refer to ordinary future actions: The count-down will begin at 8.00 a.m. tomorrow.

Task 1:

Form pairs, take turns and ask your neighbour the following questions:


What do you do in the evenings?

(I read, play cricket, etc.)

What did you do last week-end?


(I visited my friend, attended music classes, etc.)

What will you do during the summer holidays?


Task 2:

(I will go to my village, will learn Karate, etc.) Fill in the blanks with the suitable tense form of the verbs given in brackets, without deviating from the rules given in the above table:

1. Slow and steady ............ (win) the race. 2. Tomorrow, owing to the bandh, all shops ..................... (open) only at 6.00 p.m. in the evening. 3. I ............ (think) I could ask you a favour. 4. She ........... (have) a new bike now. 5. ............... (add) a spoon of sugar to the mixture. 6. Rekha ................ (sing) well at the competition yesterday. 7. If I ............. (is) a kite, I would reach the moon. 8. The President ................. (leave) for Japan next Friday. 9. The teacher ................ (ask) me why I was late. 10. He ............. (visit) his father everyday. 11. Here .............. (come) Hamlet. 12. Radha .................. (meet) me day after tomorrow. Tense Present Continuous

Uses To refer to an action in progress at the moment of speaking or writing: He is reading the newspaper. With ‘always’ to express anger or irritation: He is always disturbing me when I’m studying. 25

To refer to future time: They are visiting the planetarium next week. Past Continuous

To refer to an action in progress in the past: He was surfing the net. To refer to an action which started before the action in the simple past: He was watching cricket when I phoned him.

Future Continuous

To refer to an action as going on some time in the future: They will be coming to my house next Sunday.

Tense Present Perfect

Uses To refer to an action just completed: He has bought a telescope. To refer to a past action recollected at the present time: I have visited all the tourist spots in Tamilnadu. To refer to past actions or events whose results are seen in the present: It has rained here.

Past Perfect

To refer to the earlier of the two past actions: When he switched on the computer, the power had failed.

Future Perfect

To refer to an activity or state extending up to a definite point in the future: They will have settled the problem next week.



Present Perfect Continuous

To refer to an action which began in the past and is in progress at the present moment: It has been raining heavily since last night.

Past Perfect Continuous

To refer to an activity of limited duration in the distant past: Last year, he had been pestering his father for a full week to give his share of the property.

Future Perfect Continuous

To refer to an activity or state in progress at a definite point in the future: Next month by now I will have been travelling to North India.

Task 3: Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with the continuous, perfect or perfect continuous form of the verb given in brackets: 1. Tendulkar ................................... (bat) since the match started this morning. 2. Shoba ........ always ................. (play) loud music. 3. I ............................ (watch) all his movies. 4. Tomorrow by now, she ................................................... (perform) on the stage. 26

5. Sudha ........................ (see) the doctor tomorrow evening. 6. Look at the progress report. He ...................... (pass) the examination. 7. Saraswathi ......................... (finish) her homework. 8. “What were you doing last evening?” “I ...................(play) tennis at the club.” 9. Raghu ........................ (ask) his boss for a hike last year. 10. They .......................... (find) a solution tomorrow evening. 11. Sankar ....................(eat) his breakfast. Let’s wait for him. 12. I ...................... (talk) to my mother, when the guests arrived. 13. The news ..................... (reach) them, when he came home. 14. My father ..............................(buy) me a computer tomorrow. Task 4:

Fill in the blanks in the following sentences using the suitable form of the Present Tense:

1. This photograph ............ (show) the sun in all its glory. 2. The scientist .............. (leave) India on the 12th of January. 3. The little girls ........... (have) a toy each. 4. Joan ....................... (finish) her lesson. 5. The ground is dry. All the water ......................... (drain). 6. I .............. (brush) my teeth every morning and night. 7. A stitch in time ............ (save) nine. 8. Radha and Prema ............................... (travel) to Tirunelveli the day after tomorrow. 9. Our neighbour’s dog ....... always ............... (bark). 10. The magician ............. (pull) out a rabbit from the hat. 11. Here .............. (come) Caesar. 12. Sundar ......................... (tour) all over the world in these ten years. 13. The sun .................. (glow) steadily for more than four billion years. 14. The sun ......................... (demand) everyone’s attention now. Task 5:

Fill in the blanks in the following sentences using the suitable form of the Past Tense:

1. Rani ................... (wash) the clothes this morning. 2. If I .................(is) the wind, I would travel everywhere. 3. Amudha ..................... (sleep) when I knocked at the door. 4. When Usha and Sunitha reached Ananda’s house, the guests ...................... (leave). 27

5. Priya .............. (buy) an atlas yesterday. 6. They .............................. (hunt) for a new house whole of last October. 7. I ................... (think) I could give you a lift. 8. Aruna’s mother ................... (tell) her not to go out in the rain. Task 6:

Fill in the blanks in the following sentences using the suitable form of the Future Tense:

1. The Cabinet .......................... (decide) on the bill next week. 2. Saro .................... (complete) the project next Tuesday. 3. Viji and Amala ........................ (visit) me next week. 4. Next week by now, I ............................. (enjoy) my holiday. 5. The Republic Day parade ........................ (commence) at 6.00 a.m. tomorrow. G. Writing I. Read the following passage: Man’s eternal romance with the Himalayas ‘Mount Everest conquered,’ ‘Tenzing and Hillary climb summit,’ ‘British expedition’s success’ – the news flashed all over the world on Wednesday, the 3rd of June 1953. May 29th 2003 marks the 50th anniversary of the ascent of Mount Everest by Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay. Their feat is still talked about. Though 1,200 mountaineers have followed in Hillary and Norgay’s footsteps and 175 have died in the process, Mount Everest continues to challenge and fascinate man. It seems to have cast an eternal spell on mankind – a spell that is both exhilarating and dangerous at the same time. Through it all the Himalayas sits like a brooding elephant over several thousand kilometres. Its magnificence fills one with awe. Even five decades after its conquest, the highest peak in the world continues to lure man. The above is a model of a ‘paragraph’. What is a paragraph? It is either a section of a longer prose piece or a short piece by itself. It has a number of sentences strung together relating to one topic.

While writing a paragraph, remember:

• • •

A paragraph revolves around one topic or idea only. (the title given in the above paragraph) The sentences in the paragraph should be logically connected. In other words there should be coherence. (the underlined words) The opening and closing sentences are very important, as they give an idea about the topic. The first is the topical sentence and the last sums up the topic. (the sentences in italics) 28

Task: Using the tips and model given above, write a short paragraph on any one of the following topics:

1. How I wish I could fly!

2. The invention of the aeroplane by the Wright brothers.

3. Save Planet Earth!

II. Look at the following sentences: Quartz Timekeeping took man to the moon, Now Timex brings it back to earth This is a slogan advertising Timex quartz watches. The meaning it conveys is that The quartz was crucial to the precision of the Apollo moon missions. For several years, many manufacturers have struggled to bring the quartz watch within the reach of the common man. But none has been able to manufacture a quartz watch that’s within the buying power of the general public. Now Timex has managed to bring the prices of Quartz watches right down to earth. (quartz: a hard mineral substance, used in making very exact watches and clocks) A slogan:

• • • • • •

Task 1:

conveys a message in a nut-shell is catchy so as to draw immediate attention is brief and to the point promotes a product or a movement employs pun/word-play uses proverbs/sayings in a modified version Here are some slogans. Match the slogan with the product/ movement. Slogan


Save Planet Earth!

Opening of a circulating library

Calling all bookworms!


Moonwalk in comfort

Environmental awareness

NIC is the best policy


The sunbeam in your hand



Task 2:

Form pairs and write slogans for the following:

1. Computer 2. Telescope


Rainwater harvesting


Campaign against child labour

H. Occupational competency Families flee to West by Balloon 17, September ’79 - by Michael Farr in Bonn Two East German families escaped to the West early yesterday by a hot-air balloon made out of curtains and bed sheets. The balloon, carrying four adults and four children, came down near the town of Naila after a 30- minute flight in darkness from East Germany. But the families were not certain they had reached the West. While the women and children hid in a barn, the men tried to find out where the balloon had landed. Eventually they stopped a police car and discovered they were in West Germany. They are the first people to escape from East Germany by balloon. The sheets and curtains used to make the balloon had been stitched together by the two wives, and the hot air for the craft came from four gas cylinders. It was the families’ second attempt at a balloon escape from East Germany. Naila, with 9,500 inhabitants, welcomed the families yesterday. The mayor said flats and jobs would be found for them. The above is an example of a report. When do you report? When something interesting or eventful happens and you either witness it or are able to gather first-hand information about it, you convey it to others by means of a report. A report should: - be in the form of a narrative - be in the past tense - include all relevant details - focus on one particular event only - mention the date and time of occurrence - mention the venue - mention the facts - mention the cause, result, etc. Task:

Using the model and tips given above, prepare a report on:

1. An interesting incident that you witnessed recently 2. Your visit to the Birla Planetarium 30

I. Strategic competency Two students discuss their beliefs on learning English: A:

I strongly feel that it is not necessary to learn English. It is enough if we speak in our mother-tongue.


I don’t think so. You see, especially in a country like ours, where we have a number of languages, we need a link language.


I am not convinced.


I think it is necessary, keeping in mind the place English holds in the international arena today. In science, technology, industry, telecommunication, mass media, space, ...... you name the field and there we see how English dominates. I think in order to keep abreast of today’s world we ought to learn English.


Isn’t knowing a few words enough for communication? Even a street vendor can speak to a foreign tourist and understand him.


I don’t agree with you. For that matter, we don’t need words at all for communication. Gestures would do. I think it is not enough to speak a few words and understand just a little. We should have enough command over the English language, in all its aspects. Otherwise our communication will not be effective.


How do you say that?


In the highly competitive world, language ability matters. By language ability I mean the effective communicative ability which is vital for one’s survival and success in the present day world.


Still .......

And the argument went on and on and on ....... Task: Form groups/pairs, and discuss your beliefs on learning English. Cite instances and examples to justify your views. J. Creative Competency I. The lesson ‘BON VOYAGE’ is a biographical essay in the form of a narrative. What is an essay? An essay literally means an attempt. It is an attempt or a trial in writing a piece of composition.

Essays are of different types. Some of them are –

Narrative (narration of some event – a story, incident, accident, etc.)

Descriptive (description of a place or thing)

Expository (explaining something – scientific theories, literary topics, etc.) Imaginative (not based on actual experience – ‘If I were ....’, ‘A Donkey tells his tale’, etc.) 31

Argumentative (presenting a case for and against – ‘Is space travel necessary?’)

Reflective (ideas or thoughts born out of reflection – philosophical, social topics)


Tips to be remembered while writing an essay:

• • • • •

An essay should have a definite theme or purpose. This should be the main idea around which supporting ideas revolve. Logical order and coherence should be paid attention to. An essay should be brief and not rambling. The style should suit the purpose. e.g. A light-hearted tone can’t be used to discuss a tragedy. It should be objective and not too subjective. Though it expresses the writer’s views, a biased or prejudiced tone should be avoided.

The structure of an essay: It should have a good and catchy introduction, which would lead to the main text. The main idea should be high-lighted here. The main text should be divided into paragraphs, each dealing with one supporting idea.

It should have a good concluding paragraph, summing up the main idea.

Before writing an essay:

One should read a lot in order to be well-informed.

One should be able to collect information from various sources – books, newspapers, magazines, Internet, conversations, observations, etc. One should have a collection of anecdotes, quotes, proverbs, etc., which would come in handy. While writing an essay:

Think clearly and jot down the main and sub-points.

Write a rough-draft.

Read, revise, edit, correct and proof-read it.

Make a fair draft.


Task: Read the lesson ‘BON VOYAGE’ again to serve as a model. Keep in mind the above points and write an essay on any one of the following: 1. If I were to be the first human to visit the Mars. 2. An autobiography of the moon. 3. A Space and Science Exhibition held at your school. II. The following is an imaginary dialogue between Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay, on their way to the summit of the Everest. Norgay


Ready? Shall we make a move?



My feet are numb and chill. Why don’t you go in the front, cutting

steps? I’ll follow you close behind.


All right.


(They start moving) Norgay


Be careful! Don’t go to your left. The thin crust is very soft. It might

give way. Hillary


I’ll be careful. (After walking a few hundred feet)



Look here’s a tiny hollow.



See what I’ve found – two oxygen bottles.



Must have been left behind by Evans and Bourdillion who came

earlier. Norgay


Must be. Let us check if there’s any oxygen left.



Scrape off the ice first.



(A sigh of relief on his face) We’re lucky. There’s still several

hundred litres left. Should definitely see us through. (After some time)



My! Watch your step. Here take my hand. Are you all right?



Yes, I somehow slipped. I think from now on it’s going to be pretty

risky. Do you think it’s advisable to continue?



The condition is quite bad. But, as you wish.



Mmm... let’s try and keep going.

A dialogue is a conversation between two people. The tone here is quite colloquial and informal. There should be naturalness in speaking. 33

Tips to be remembered while writing a dialogue:

• • • • • • • •

Put yourself in the place of both the people in the conversation, in order to present both their points of view. Give equal representation to both. Let not one person alone monopolise the conversation. Pay attention to logical order and coherence. Let not the utterances be too long, unless the situation demands. Let not one speaker keep interrupting the other often. Use apt punctuation marks to express feelings and emotions. Give relevant details alone. Any extra information could be in parenthesis.

Task: Using the above model and the tips given, write a dialogue on any one of the following: 1.

Between the sun and the moon


Between Kalpana Chawla and an interviewer (after her first space flight)


Between yourself and a space scientist

Self - Evaluation : Task 1 : Answer the following questions using the correct form of the tenses : 1.

What kind of games do you enjoy?

I.................. 2.

When will he tell you about his tour programme?

He................... 3.

When do you get up?

Generally I....................


Where did you spend your summer holidays last year?

I ....................


Who did you go with?

I................... 6.

When will you turn eighteen?

I....................... 34

Task 2 :

Replace the words in italics with present continuous or past continuous tense of the verbs in capitals :

1. I have arranged to TAKE a week’s holiday. 2.

I’ll SEE him tomorrow.


I can’t see you this evening because I plan to GO out.

Task 3 : Complete the sentences using the perfect tense of the verb in brackets : 1.

I don’t know your father. I........... (never meet) him.


He is very tired because he...............(not sleep).



You can start the Count Down, you can take a last look;

You can pass me my helmet from its plastic hook;

You can cross out my name in the telephone book –

For I’m off to Outer Space tomorrow morning.

There won’t be any calendar, there won’t be any clock;

Daylight will be on the switch and winter under lock.

I’ll doze when I’m sleepy and wake without a knock –

For I’m off to Outer Space tomorrow morning.

I’ll be writing no letters; I’ll be posting no mail.

For with nobody to visit me and not a friend in hail,

In solit’ry confinement as complete as any gaol

I’ll be off to Outer Space tomorrow morning.

When my capsule door is sealed and my space-flight has begun,

With the teacups circling round me like the planets round the sun,

I’ll be centre of my gravity, a universe of one,

Setting off to Outer Space tomorrow morning.

You can watch on television and follow from afar,

Tracking through your telescope my upward shooting star,

But you needn’t think I’ll give a damn for you or what you are

When I’m off to Outer Space tomorrow morning.

And when the rockets thrust me on my trans-galactic hop,

With twenty hundred light-years before the first stop,

Then you and every soul on earth can go and blow your top –

For I’m off to Outer Space tomorrow morning.

- Norman Nicholson 36

Glossary and notes: Count Down


the final moments counted backwards from

10 to 0 before the launch daylight will be on the switch


there will be a continuous switching

over from day to night winter under lock


there will not be any changing seasons

I’ll doze when I’m sleepy


as there are no fixed day/night hours,

I’ll sleep when I feel sleepy



within earshot; within hearing distance




gaol : prison teacups circling round me


teacups circling because of lack of

gravitational pull tracking : following But you needn’t think I’ll give a damn for you or what you are


don’t think I will have time to think

about you trans-galactic


across galaxies

blow your top


explode in anger

Comprehension questions 1. Why does the poet say ‘you can take a last look;’ and ‘You can cross out my name in the telephone book –’? 2. What does, ‘There won’t be any calendar, there won’t be any clock;’ signify? 3. ‘Space’ and ‘confinement’ signify concepts that are opposite. Why does the poet choose to talk about ‘solit’ry confinement’ in ‘Outer Space’? 4. Why does the poet say ‘I’ll give a damn ....... are’?


Appreciation questions 1. What is the place of repetition in this poem? Is it effectively used? 2. What is the overall tone/mood of the poem?

a) sadness

b) jubilation

c) down-to-earth

d) humorous

e) nonchalance

3. Simile features twice in the poem. Can you find it? 4. Give the rhyme scheme of the poem. Answer the following passages with reference to the context: 1. I’ll be centre of my gravity, a universe of one,

Setting off to Outer Space tomorrow morning.

2. And when the rockets thrust me on my trans-galactic hop,

With twenty hundred light-years before the first stop.

Activity 1. Put yourself in the place of an astronaut who will be off to outer space tomorrow morning. Jot down the emotions that you would feel. 2. When you read or hear about a space shuttle being blown up along with the crew, what do you feel? Parallel Reading Read the following poem: WONDERFUL WORLD

Great, wide, beautiful, wonderful World,

With the wonderful water round you curled,

And the wonderful grass upon your breast,

World, you are beautifully drest.

The wonderful air is over me,

And the wonderful wind is shaking the tree,

It walks on the water, and whirls the mills,

And talks to itself on the tops of the hills. 38

You friendly Earth! How far do you go,

With the wheat-fields that nod and the rivers that flow,

With cities and gardens, and cliffs and isles,

And people upon you for thousands of miles?

Ah, you are so great, and I am so small,

I tremble to think of you, World, at all;

And yet, when I said my prayers to-day,

A whisper inside me seemed to say,

“You are more than the Earth, though you are such a dot:

You can love and think, and the Earth can not”.

- W.B. Rands Compare both the poems. Is there anything different in the tone/ mood between the two poems?

Both the poems are in the form of:


a song


an address




UNIT II COMPETENCIES A LISTENING: Using correct word stress – functional stress and stress shift B SPEAKING: Conversing at the super-market (buying things, asking the price, etc.)

Conversing over the telephone

C READING: Scanning

Understanding cohesion/coherence

D VOCABULARY: Identifying words belonging to different semantic net- works/ fields

Using syllabification for reading, spelling and speaking purposes and for correct stress pattern

Using words according to their grammatical function


STUDY SKILLS: Referencing – using the library effectively

F GRAMMAR: Differentiating the three types of ‘If’ clauses G WRITING: Writing essays

Writing reports


OCCUPATIONAL COMPETENCY: Presenting non-verbal items


STRATEGIC COMPETENCY: Experimenting – trying out different learning strategies


CREATIVE COMPETENCY: Attempting to write a poem

Writing short skits

A. Listening I. The teacher will read a conversation between two friends. Listen carefully. Pay attention to the manner in which certain syllables are stressed or accented in the content words. (The teacher reads) Task 1:

The teacher will read the conversation again. As you listen, classify the words on the following basis:


Words ending in -tion


Words ending in -ity


Words ending in -graphy 40


Words ending in -ical


Words ending in -cian


Words (verbs) ending in -ate


Words (verbs) with two syllables


Words ending in -ic


Words ending in -logy

Task 2: The teacher will now read these words aloud. Listen carefully and mark the stress. Where does the stress or accent fall on these words? Are you able to derive any rule? Refer to a good dictionary (Oxford Advanced Learners’ Dictionary or Daniel Jones’s English Pronouncing Dictionary), to check your answer.

Look at these examples: introduction and eradicate

in tro 'duc tion

This word has four syllables: in - tro - duc- tion

-tion is the ultimate syllable

-duc is the penultimate syllable

-tro is the antepenultimate syllable in is the first syllable.

The stress or accent is on the penultimate syllable.

in tro 'duc tion

ultimate syllable penultimate syllable antepenultimate syllable

first syllable

e 'ra di cate

This word has four syllables: e - ra - di - cate

-cate is the ultimate syllable

-di is the penultimate syllable

-ra is the antepenultimate syllable e is the first syllable

The stress or accent is on the antepenultimate syllable. 41

e 'ra di cate

ultimate syllable penultimate syllable antepenultimate syllable

first syllable

The stress or accent in the case of intro'duction is on the penultimate syllable and it is indicated by the mark ' placed on top and before the syllable that is stressed or accented. In the case of e'radicate the stress is on the antepenultimate syllable. Here are some general rules for word stress: 1. All word endings like -tion, -cion and -ssion have the stress on the penultimate syllable. e.g. calcu'lation co'ercion communi'cation sus'picion prepa'ration pos'session edu'cation com'passion intro'duction re'jection 2. Words with three and more syllables ending in -ity have the stress on the antepenultimate syllable. e.g. ac'tivity


crea'tivity produc'tivity elas'ticity rela'tivity 3. Words ending in -graphy have the stress on the antepenultimate syllable. e.g.



ge'ography radi'ography 4. Words ending in -ical have the stress on the antepenultimate syllable.




'logical mathe'matical po'litical theo'retical 42

Note: When -ly is added to words ending in -ical there is no change in the stress pattern. eco'nomical eco'nomically po'litical po'litically 5. Words ending in -cian have the stress on the penultimate syllable.




elec'trician ma'gician poli'tician statis'tician 6. Verbs with three syllables and more ending in -ate have the stress on the antepenultimate syllable. e.g. an'ticipate


con'gratulate 'educate e'radicate par'ticipate 7. Almost all words ending in -ic have the stress on the penultimate syllable. e.g. e'lastic


fan'tastic philo'sophic


8. Words ending in -logy have the stress on the antepenultimate syllable. e.g. bi'ology


psy'chology zo'ology Task 3: The teacher will say a few words. Listen carefully and write them down. The teacher will say the same words again. As the teacher says each word, mark the stress. II. Functional Stress: Listen to the teacher reading the following utterance: Teacher: Maran, pre'sent (verb) yourself before the principal. He wants to give you a 'present (noun). The disyllabic word present is used twice in this utterance. When it is used as a verb, the stress falls on the second syllable. When it is used as a noun, the stress falls on the first syllable.


Task 1:

The teacher will read the following words. Listen carefully to the stress in each word. Write against each word whether it is a noun/adjective or a verb and mark the stress. absent
















Task 2: The teacher will read a few sentences. In each sentence, one word occurs twice. Listen carefully and write down the words, and find the number of syllables in each word. Did you notice that the words you have taken are disyllabic words? The teacher will read the sentences again. As (s)he reads note the difference in stress in the same word in each sentence. Note that when the word is used as a noun or an adjective, the stress falls on the first syllable. When the same word is used as a verb, the stress falls on the second syllable. This is known as ‘functional stress’. III. Stress Shift: Note the shift in stress for the following words. Some derivational suffixes affect the stress pattern of the main word. It is very clear from the words you find in column ‘B’. A


Main word

With suffix
















scien'tific 44

Note: When -ly is added to those words ending in -ic and/or -ical, there is no change in word stress. e.g. e'lectric e'lectrical e'lectrically elec'tronic elec'tronical elec'tronically mathe'matics mathe'matical mathe'matically po'etic po'etical po'etically Task 1: Add two more examples to the category: e'lectric-e'lectricale'lectrically (-ic, -cal, -ly). Task 2:

Write down the derivational suffixes against each of the main words given below and mark the stress. Main word

With suffix

mediate million employ beauty complex B. Speaking I. At the Supermarket: The following is a dialogue between Priya and a salesperson: (At the provisions section) Priya

: May I have a kilo of green gram please?

Salesperson : Sure, Madam. It is Rs. 20/- a kilo. Priya

: How much is a kilo of basmati rice?

Salesperson : There are two varieties. This one is Rs. 45/- per kilo and the other is Rs. 32/- per kilo. Priya

: Seems expensive! Give me a kilo of the second variety.

Salesperson : Anything else, Madam? Priya

: Please pack 5 cakes of Hamam soap, 1 loaf of bread, a packet of safety pins and 5 chocolate bars.

Salesperson : Here is the bill, Madam. You can collect the items at Counter No. 1. Priya

: Thank you. (At the electrical goods section) 45


: Let’s take a look at the washing machine.


: They all look good. Let’s take a look at their functions and the price.


: This one has a wash tub and a drier and a 2-year guarantee.


: How much does it cost?

Salesperson : It comes to Rs. 15,000/Priya

: Don’t you have any festival offer?

Salesperson : You will get a 10% discount and a gift as well, Madam. Priya

: Could you please check the piece for me? Also, please explain the various functions.

Salesperson : Gladly, Madam. Task 1:

Practise the above dialogue in pairs.

Task 2:

Fill in the blanks and practise the completed dialogue. (At the stationery section)


: May I have a file?


: Sure, .............................................................


: Well, I’m not sure. But I definitely want something cheap.


: ....................................................................


: No, I don’t like plastic files.


: In that case what type do you want? ..................................


: How about that folder?


: Which folder? There are many varieties in different colours.


: The red one in the last shelf. How much does it cost?


: .........................................................................


: All right, I’ll take it. Here is Rs. 15/-


: .........................................................................


: In that case, where do I pay?


: Counter No. 2, please.


: Thank you.


: You are welcome, Sir. 46

II. Over the Telephone: The following dialogue is a telephonic conversation between Sheela and the receptionist: (Rani Nursing Home) Sheela

: Hello, I’m calling from 2343486. Is that Rani Nursing Home?


: Yes, it is Rani Nursing Home.


: Can you please tell me if the pediatrician is available now?


: Whom do you want - Dr. Chandran or Dr. Peter?


: I’d like to meet Dr. Peter. He is our pediatrician.


: I’m sorry, Madam. He is not available now. But he’ll be here in the

evening after 6.00. Sheela

: Can I have an appointment then?


: Definitely. May I know the child’s name?


: He is Prakash and is two years old.


: Please come at 6.15 p.m. Your token number is 4.


: Thank you. We’ll be there at 6.00 p.m.


: Please be on time.

Task 3:

Practise the above dialogue taking roles.

Task 4:

Fill in the blanks and practise the completed dialogue. (Kumar Nursing Home)


: Hello, is that Kumar Nursing Home?


: Good morning, yes it’s Kumar Nursing Home.


: I’m calling from ..........................................................


: Yes, Dr. Kumar will see patients today.


: .....................................................................................


: He hasn’t come yet. He’ll be here by 10.00 a.m.


: .....................................................................................


: He usually leaves by 12 noon.


: Can you please fix an appointment?


: ......................................................................................


: Yes, I’ll be there at 11.00 a.m.


: Have you met the doctor before?


: Yes, ..............................................................................


: Could you please give me your hospital card number? 47


: Please be on the line. The number is B-2205.


: Please bring the card.


: .......................................................................................

C. Reading Pre-reading questions: 1. Have you read stories based on justice, with a twist at the end? Some of the world’s best-known stories are those of the wise King Solomon. Here is one such story. “Two women claim a baby as their own and King Solomon decrees that the baby be cut in two. One of them agrees while the other gives up her claim so that the baby might live. Thus the true mother is identified and the false one is punished.” 2. Narrate some stories based on justice. You can use the tales of Akbar and Birbal. 3. Have you witnessed the proceedings in a courtroom? Mention ten words and phrases related to courts (e.g. trial, judge, prima facie, etc.) 4. Name any five Shakespearean plays. 5. Who is the Chief Justice of India? Mention some eminent personalities in the legal field in India.

II. THE MERCHANT OF VENICE - William Shakespeare (The Plot) Antonio, a merchant of Venice, and Bassanio are very close friends. Bassanio needs money to marry a wealthy lady in Belmont named Portia. He borrows money from a cunning, Jewish moneylender called Shylock. Shylock lends him a heavy sum but makes Antonio sign a bond that if the money is not repaid within three months, he would cut a pound of flesh from Antonio’s body. Meanwhile, Portia, who has to face many suitors, waits for the arrival of her beloved, Bassanio. Before he died, Portia’s father, realising her difficulty in choosing the right man, had left a test for her suitors. Each man was to be presented with three caskets, of gold, silver and lead. Inside one of them was Portia’s picture, and whoever chose this casket would become her husband. The Prince of Morocco chooses the gold casket but finds inside it a skull and a warning. The Prince of Aragon chooses the silver casket and finds the portrait of an idiot and another warning. Bassanio chooses the lead casket, the one with Portia’s picture, and claims her as his wife. And his friend Gratiano marries Nerissa, Portia’s maid. As the merry-making commences, there comes a letter from Antonio. His ships are lost at sea, and hence unable to pay his debt, he has to keep his word with Shylock, 48

and offer him a pound of his flesh. Portia offers money but Shylock insists on a pound of Antonio’s flesh as mentioned in the bond. When their husbands leave for Venice, Portia and Nerissa too follow them in disguise. Portia disguises herself as a (male) lawyer with Nerrisa as her clerk. Portia leaves her house in the care of Jessica, Shylock’s daughter who has left her father and married Lorenzo. All the great men of Venice gather at the Duke’s court but Shylock is unmoved by their arguments. He feels that the law is on his side and demands justice according to the bond. Portia enters the court and changes the entire nature of the argument. She speaks not of justice but of mercy. Portia wins the battle of wits and Shylock is forced to leave the courtroom in defeat. Thanks to the brilliance of Portia’s reasoning, the misfortunes of Antonio, the merchant of Venice, are finally ended, and the married couples are ready for a life of happiness.

Note: The following is an extract from the court scene, Act IV. Place: The court of justice in Venice. Enter Portia, dressed like a doctor of laws.


: You are welcome: take your place.

Are you acquainted with the difference That holds this present question in the court? PORTIA

: I am informed thoroughly of the cause.

Which is the merchant here, and which the Jew? DUKE

: Antonio and old Shylock, both stand forth.


: Is your name Shylock?


: Shylock is my name.


: Of a strange nature is the suit you follow;

Yet in such rule, that the Venetian law Cannot impugn you as you do proceed. (To Antonio) You stand within his danger, do you not? ANTONIO

: Ay, so he says.


: Do you confess the bond?


: I do.


: Then must the Jew be merciful.


: On what compulsion must I? Tell me that.


: The quality of mercy is not strain’d 49

It droppeth as the gentle rain from heaven Upon the place beneath. It is twice blessed: It blesseth him that gives and him that takes: ’Tis mightiest in the mightiest; it becomes The throned monarch better than his crown; His sceptre shows the force of temporal power, The attribute to awe and majesty, Wherein doth sit the dread and fear of kings; But mercy is above this sceptred sway, It is enthroned in the hearts of kings, It is an attribute to God himself; And earthly power doth then show likest God’s When mercy seasons justice. Therefore, Jew, Though justice be thy plea, consider this That, in the course of justice none of us Should see salvation; we do pray for mercy, And that same prayer doth teach us all to render The deeds of mercy. I have spoke thus much To mitigate the justice of thy plea, Which if thou follow, this strict court of Venice Must needs give sentence ’gainst the merchant there. SHYLOCK

: My deeds upon my head! I crave the law,

The penalty and forfeit of my bond. PORTIA

: Is he not able to discharge the money?


: Yes, here I tender it for him in the court;

Yea, twice the sum, if that will not suffice, I will be bound to pay it ten times o’er, ………………………………………………… PORTIA

: I pray you, let me look upon the bond.


: Here ’tis, most reverend Doctor, here it is.


: Shylock, there’s thrice thy money offer’d thee.

…………………………………………………….. PORTIA

: Why, this bond is forfeit;

And lawfully by this the Jew may claim 50

A pound of flesh, to be by him cut off Nearest the merchant’s heart. Be merciful. Take thrice the money; bid me tear the bond. SHYLOCK

: There is no power in the tongue of man

To alter me. I stay here on my bond. ANTONIO

: Most heartily I do beseech the court

To give the judgment. PORTIA

: Why then, thus it is:

You must prepare your bosom for his knife. SHYLOCK

: O noble judge! O excellent young man!

…………………………………. PORTIA

: Therefore, lay bare your bosom.


: Ay, his breast -

So says the bond: doth it not, noble judge? “Nearest his heart;” those are the very words. PORTIA

: It is so. Are there balance here to weigh The flesh?


: I have them ready.


: Have by some surgeon, Shylock, on your Charge,

To stop his wounds, lest he do bleed to death. SHYLOCK

: Is it so nominated in the bond?


: It is not so express’d, but what of that?

‘Twere good you do so much for charity. SHYLOCK

: I cannot find it; ’tis not in the bond.

…………………………………….. PORTIA

: A pound of that same merchant’s flesh is thine.

The court awards it, and the law doth give it. SHYLOCK

: Most rightful judge!


: And you must cut this flesh from off his breast.

The law allows it, and the court awards it. SHYLOCK

: Most learned judge! A sentence! Come, prepare.


: Tarry a little; there is something else.

This bond doth give thee here no jot of blood; The words expressly are “a pound of flesh:” Take then thy bond, take thou thy pound of flesh; 51

But, in the cutting it, if thou dost shed One drop of Christian blood, thy lands and goods Are, by the laws of Venice, confiscate Unto the state of Venice. …………………………………………….. SHYLOCK

: Is that the law?


: Thyself shalt see the act;

For, as thou urgest justice, be assured Thou shalt have justice, more than thou desir’st. ………………………………………………. SHYLOCK

: I take this offer then: pay the bond thrice, And let the Christian go.


: Here is the money


: Soft!

The Jew shall have all justice. Soft! No haste: He shall have nothing but the penalty. William Shakespeare (1564-1616) was born at Stratford-on-Avon and was educated at the free Stratford Grammar School. There is no authentic documentation of his early life. He married Anne Hathaway in 1582 and moved to London in 1586 to become an actor, poet, dramatist and theatre manager. His well-known comedies are A Midsummer Night’s Dream, The Merchant of Venice and Much Ado About Nothing, while his outstanding tragedies are Hamlet, King Lear, Othello and Macbeth, among many more. Glossary: difference


: dispute



: A race who presently live in Israel. During Shakespeare’s times, the Jews were ruthless moneylenders and were hated by the Christians. They hated the Christians too.

stand forth

/stAnd fØ:†/

: come forward

strange nature

/streIndZ 'neItSE/

: unusual because he demands a pound of flesh even when he is offered ten times the original sum of money



: oppose or resist



: yes


/bónd /

: agreement 52



: forced

twice blessed

/twaIs blest/

: Mercy has a double blessing. It blesses him that gives and him that receives it

it becomes . . .. .

.his crown

: The King earns greater respect when he is merciful.


/ 'tempErEl/

: worldly

His sceptre . . .. . . fear of kings

: The king’s sceptre (royal staff) is a symbol of his earthly power and he is feared.

But mercy. . . . .God himself

: But mercy is above this earthly power. It resides in the hearts of kings and is an attribute of God.

And earthly power. . seasons justice

: Earthly power is revealed like God’s power when justice is tempered with mercy.


: tempers, strengthens


in the course of justice

: if strict justice were to take its course


: lessen


I crave the law

: I pray for what the law entitles me to. ..



: give up as penalty for doing something wrong



: be sufficient



: earnestly ask for



: mentioned



: wait



: directly shown



: take or seize



: wait


I. Choose the appropriate synonyms of the italicised word from the options given. 1. Though justice be thy plea, consider this.

(a) argument (b) request (c) support

(d) quest

2. I crave the law the penalty and forfeit of my band.

(a) lose

(b) withdraw (c) continuation

(d) implement

3. If that will not suffice, I will be bound to pay it ten times.

(a) continue

(b) suffer

(c) work

(d) be enough

4. I do beseech the court.

(a) order

(b) implore (c) persuade

(d) ask

5. Thy lands and goods are, by the laws of Venice, confiscate.

(a) take away (b) give

(c) remain

(d) enforce

II. Choose the appropriate antonyms of the italicised word from the options given. 1. His sceptre shows the force of temporal power.

(a) spiritual

(b) limited (c) temporary

(d) strong

2. I have spoke thus much to mitigate the justice of thy plea.

(a) reduce

(b) increase (c) militate

(d) annual

3. This strict court of Venice...

(a) rigid

(b) big

(c) strong

(d) lenient

4. There is no power in the tongues of man to alter me.

(a) argue

(b) change (c) fix

(d) frighten

5. The Venitian law cannot impugn you.

(a) question

(b) stop

(c) acquit

(d) convict

Comprehension: I. Level I 1. What was the agreement between Antonio and Shylock? 2. Why did Portia’s father leave a test for the suitors? 3. Why was Antonio unable to pay his debt? 4. Who was Nerissa and whom did she marry? 5. How, according to Portia, is mercy “twice blessed”? II. Level II 1. Does Portia come across to you as a modern woman? Give reasons. 2. What are the problems and issues involved in money lending and borrowing? 54

III. Answer the following questions in a paragraph each: 1. How is Shylock’s character revealed in this scene? 2. How does Portia turn the argument against Shylock? IV. Write a short essay on – The qualities of mercy as expressed by Portia.

Scanning: Scanning is going through a text quickly with a view to looking or searching for a specific piece of information. Looking through a telephone directory to locate a particular phone number is an exercise in scanning. Quite often there is a link between skimming and scanning for readers skim a passage for a general idea of its content and then scan it for specific information. Skimming involves looking through a text quickly to derive the gist of something. It involves a degree of inference and interpretation. In skimming, the reader takes a quick look at the passage by allowing his/her eyes to wander over the text to get a general, superficial idea of the content which will help him/her decide if the material needs to be read carefully and intensively. Discuss the following questions in groups:

• • • •

How do you read a newspaper? How do you read an important lesson in History, English or Science? Do you read a storybook and a textbook in an identical manner? What do you do when you want to find out the timing of a TV serial from the Newspaper? Do you skim or scan?

Task: Scan the following passage and answer the questions given below. Mysterious Lake Vostok (from The Hindu dated 16-08-2003) Lake Vostok is about 250 kilometres long and 40 kilometres wide making it one of the largest lakes. But nobody has yet touched its waters. This is because it lies under almost four kilometres of ice, in the centre of Antarctica, below Russia’s Vostok Station. Surprisingly, its water is not frozen. Heat from the earth’s interior, and the insulating properties of the thick blanket of ice above it, keep the water in a liquid state. Though the existence of the lake was suspected since the 1970s, Russian and British scientists using radar technology confirmed it only in 1996. Answer the following questions: 1. Where is Lake Vostok? 2. Who confirmed the existence of the lake? 55

3. What technology was used to confirm the existence of the lake? 4. What keeps its waters in a fluid state? Cohesion and Coherence: Cohesion refers to the links or connection between successive clauses and sentences in a text. Look at these two examples:

Sunitha is a clever student. She gets good marks in all subjects. Here the pronoun ‘she’ provides the link or connection between these two sentences. He reached the railway station very late. So he missed the train. Here the conjuction ‘so’ provides the connection between these two sentences.

Coherence is the reader’s understanding or perception that a text (paragraph or essay) is logical and meaningful. Look at this example:

Shobha is a clever student. She likes to wear a gold watch. She gets good marks in all subjects. Her mother is a teacher. She watches TV for long hours.

Is there any coherence in this example? Are the sentences logically and meaningfully connected to one another? Why? Task 1:

Given below are eight jumbled sentences. Arrange them logically and meaningfully so as to form a paragraph. Retain sentences one and eight. WHERE ARE OUR ATHLETES?

1. How much importance is given to sports in our country?

• • • • • •

Adequate facilities and incentives like scholarships and jobs are not given to them. It is sad to note that India is yet to produce world class athletes. One of the major reasons for this sad situation is the fact that many educational institutions do not give strong support to their sports persons. In spite of its huge population there are very few prominent and notable athletes in our country. Besides, our athletes get very little exposure, both at the national and international levels. But in countries like USA, UK and France athletes receive a lot of support and encouragement from their schools and colleges.

8. If India is to succeed in sports at the international level and produce athletes like Anju George and P.T Usha, it has to do a lot to sports persons. 56

Task 2: Given below are seven jumbled sentences. Arrange them logically and meaningfully so as to form a paragraph. Retain sentences one and seven. THE POWER OF GARLIC 1. The power of garlic is widely discussed today by the medical community.

• • • • •

Once cholesterol levels are lowered cardiac risks are also reduced. There is increasing evidence that garlic can also lower cholesterol levels. Garlic thus proves to be an inexpensive but wonderful medicine. Today doctors tell us to include garlic in our diet in some form. Current studies tell us that if you take garlic every day your chances of getting affected by stomach cancer and heart diseases are comparatively less.

7. It may smell bad, but it can save your life! Task 3:

Given below are nine jumbled sentences. Arrange them logically and meaningfully so as to form a paragraph. Retain sentences one and nine. THE GREAT INDIAN DESERT

1. The only desert in India is the Great Indian Desert in Rajasthan.

• • • • • • •

The desert has extreme climate. But during the day when the sun is shining it is very hot. To its east are the Aravalli Hills and to the south are the plains of Gujarat. It is also called the Thar Desert. This means that the summers are very hot and the winters are very cold. At night, the sand gets cold very quickly and the desert turns cold too. And it stretches further west into Pakistan.

9. Very little rain falls here and so it is an extremely dry region. D. Vocabulary I. Words belonging to different semantic fields:

Look at the following words taken from the lesson:

merchant, money-lender, bond, debt

These words are normally used in the field of commerce and business.


Look at the following words and classify them according to the following fields:

(i) religion e.g. worship

(ii) computer e.g. Internet (iii) sports e.g. match

(iv) medicine e.g. surgeon (v) cooking e.g. roast 57

(vi) politics e.g. vote

Task 2:









































Pick out the words from the lesson belonging to the semantic field, ‘law’. e.g. court.

II. Syllabification: Listen to the following words and classify them according to the number of syllables in each word. basket





















development believe


Words can be divided according to the number of syllables in them: Monosyllabic words (words with only one syllable):






call drove test bright blast Disyllabic words (words with two syllables): divide river across further daughter corner reject teacher typist doctor Trisyllabic words (words with three syllables): multiply magazine calendar resemblance educate



computer 58



Tetrasyllabic words (words with four syllables):

eradicate liberation political

calculation activity

engineering population electronic biology


Pentasyllabic words (words with five syllables):




administrator mathematical


anticipated participated inhumanity disability

Task 1:

Give more examples for each category (mono-, di- and trisyllabic words) and mark the stress as well.

Task 2:

Mention two words which have more than five syllables (polysyllabic words).

e.g. autobiographical

Task 3:

Read carefully the extract from ‘The Merchant of Venice’ and choose words for mono-, di- and trisyllabic words.

III. Words with different grammatical functions:

Look at the following sentences taken from the lesson:

Portia and Nerissa too follow them in disguise.

Portia disguises herself as a lawyer. See how the word ‘disguise’ is used as a noun in the first sentence and as a verb in the second sentence. The same word is used with different grammatical functions. ‘Disguise’ is a noun. ‘Disguises’ is the inflectional suffix of the noun ‘disguise’. We have a number of words whose forms are the same. The origin may be different. They have different grammatical functions in different contexts with different meaning. Note: The following words may be used as verbs, nouns and/or adjectives or adverbs, of course as lexically different items. 1. bark: The barks of certain trees are used as medicine. (noun) Dogs bark at strangers. (verb) 2. date:

Dates are good for health. (noun)

Can you postpone the meeting to a later date? (noun)

3. tear:

When she heard that she had won the first prize she had tears in her eyes. (noun)

He usually tears all letters after reading them. (verb) 59

4. bank:

Madurai is on the banks of the Vaigai. (noun)

Most banks in this area are computerised. (noun)

It is unfortunate that most students bank on market guides while preparing for their examinations. (verb)

5. file:

Where is my personal file? (noun)

File all these papers alphabetically. (verb)

6. sign:

Did you notice the sign? (noun)

Sign the papers. (verb)

7. leave:

Can you please grant me medical leave for ten days? (noun)

Please leave the hall immediately after the programme. (verb) 8. live:

This is a live telecast. (adjective)

Not many people live in extremely dry areas. (verb)

9. play: The play was suspended because of rain. (noun)

Hamlet is considered the best play of Shakespeare. (noun)

Children love to play for long hours. (verb)

10. train: The train was late by two hours. (noun) Students trained in communication skills face interview boards confidently. (verb) Task:

• • • • • •

Use the following words in sentences of your own. break (noun and verb) free (verb, adjective and adverb) face (noun and verb) need (noun and verb) park (noun and verb) waste (noun, verb and adjective) 60

• • • •

exhibit (noun and verb) convert (noun and verb) direct (adjective and verb) fly (noun and verb)

E. Study Skills (Referencing Skills - Using a Library):

“Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested; that is, some books are to be read only in parts; others to be read, but not curiously; and some to be read wholly, and with diligence and attention.” Francis Bacon “Of Studies” Discuss the following in groups:

• • •

How often do you visit your school library? How many books (apart from your textbooks) do you read in a month? Name any two major libraries that you have visited.

Note: Libraries classify books following the Dewey decimal system or the Library of Congress System. A . The Dewey decimal system classifies books under ten major categories:


General Works


Philosophy and Psychology

200 Religion


Social Sciences




Natural Sciences and Mathematics


Technology and Applied Sciences


Fine Arts




Geography and History

B. The Library of Congress system classifies books under twenty major headings:


General Works


Philosophy, Psychology and Religion


General History


World History 61


American History


Geography and Anthropology


Social Sciences


Political Science








Fine Arts


Language and Literature










Military Science


Naval Science


Bibliography and Library Science

The three important sections of a library are: (i) The Reference section where Dictionaries, Encyclopedias, Yearbooks, Atlases and Gazetteers are kept; (ii) The Stack where books are kept; and (iii) The Journal Section where journals, both current and back issues, are kept. Searching an online catalogue: Most libraries have an online catalogue of holdings (e.g., books, journals, electronic publications and audio-visual materials) available with them. An online catalogue is a list of the materials available in the library, and this list can be accessed through the computer. You can make use of the online catalogue to locate books and other materials. How will you use the online catalogue? The most common ways of locating a book are by (i) author’s name; (ii) title; and (iii) subject. If you type the author’s name, e.g., Shakespeare, William, the computer produces a list of all works written by Shakespeare that are available in that library. Here is another example: If you type Tagore, Rabindranath, the computer will produce a list of all works written by Tagore (Rabindranath) that are available in that library. Note that you have to enter the surname first (e.g., Shakespeare, William or Tagore, Rabindranath or Einstein, 62

Albert). If you enter the surname alone, e.g., Tagore, the computer will produce a list of all authors whose surname is Tagore and there are many Tagores in India. If you are not sure of the author’s name, you can enter the title of the work. For example, if you enter Gitanjali, the computer displays all details concerning Gitanjali, a collection of poems written by Tagore. If you are neither sure of the author’s name nor the title, you can enter the subject word, and the computer will display all titles related to that subject. For example, you want to refer to Abdul Kalam’s book Wings of Fire: An Autobiography and you do not know either the author’s name or the title. If you type “wings” or “fire” the computer will show a list of all titles that are related to “wings” or “fire”. Yet another way of searching is by using the Library Accession Number. Once you enter the Library Accession Number the computer displays all relevant details of that book. Apart from the online catalogue, you can use the card catalogue. Books in a card catalogue are usually listed by author, title and subject. Note that these cards are arranged alphabetically, and it is easy to locate either an author or a book. Both the online and card catalogues supply us with all relevant details, namely, the author, the complete title, the place of publication, the publisher’s name, the year of publication, Accession Number, ISBN (International Standard Book Number) and in some cases the exact location of the book in the library. The online catalogue will also inform us if anyone has borrowed a particular book and when he/she will return it. Here is a sample entry from an online catalogue: AUTHOR: Michael Lewis


IMPRINT: London: Language Teaching Publications, 1986.



The English Verb





In Library

PHYSICAL FEATURES: 180 p.: 20 cm.

SUBJECT : Grammar

LC CARD: 84251

ISBN: 81-85986-11-8


Here are two sample entries from a card catalogue:

Type: 1



822.33 T7 Sha

Acc No Call No

Type: 2

Call No

821. 954 Tag G.5

Tagore (Rabindranath)

Gitanjali: Song Offerings

Macmillan 1977


Acc No Tasks: 1. What system of classification does your library use - Dewey decimal system or the Library of Congress system? 2. Find out the titles of Shakespeare’s works that are available in your library. 3. Copy down any sample entry from an online catalogue. 4. Find out the Call Number and the Accession Number of the following books in your library:

The Wings of Fire by Abdul Kalam

My Experiments with Truth by MK Gandhi

5. What sort of books are kept in the Reference Section of your School Library? Why? 6. Visit the major libraries in your city/town and write a paragraph on your visit. F. Grammar If clauses (conditional clauses): When Solonia asks Shylock why he should be so particular about the pound of flesh, Shylock says, 64

“If you prick us we will bleed,

If you tickle us we will laugh,

If you poison us we will die,

If you wrong us we will revenge.”

Look at the structure of these sentences. They are ‘If Clause -Type I’ Note: There are three types of “If clauses” or conditional clauses. Type I:

If you play well you will win the match.

Condition: If you play well (Simple Present Tense)

Result : you will win the match (Simple Future Tense)

Structure: If /unless + Present Simple + (Main) Future/Modal e.g. If it rains, they will cancel the meeting. If you study well, you will get a seat in the medical college. If you walk fast, you will catch the train. If Bassanio chooses the right casket, he will marry Portia. Negative Form: If you do not play well, you will not win the match. Unless you play well, you will not win the match. If you do not study well, you will not get a seat in the medical college. Unless you study well, you will not get a seat in the medical college. In these sentences, the conditional clauses represent open conditions, that is, conditions that may or may not be fulfilled. Sometimes this type is labelled as probable condition. Type II:

If it rained, they would cancel the magic show.

Condition: If it rained (Simple Past Tense)

Result : They would cancel the magic show (would + Simple

Present Tense / Conditional Tense.)

Structure: If/unless + Past + (Main) would Note: Type II sentences refer to the present or future events; they may be unreal or hypothetical (imaginary).The condition may be theoretical, couched in unreality and improbability. This type is known as hypothetical conditional clause. 65

e.g. Ravi would go to Chennai, if he had time. How would you go to the match, if it rained heavily? Type III:

If you had played well, you would have won the match.

Condition: If you had played well (Past Perfect Tense)

Result : You would have won the match (would + have + past participle of the verb / Perfect Conditional.)

Implication: You did not play well. Therefore, you did not win the match.

Structure: If + Past perfect + would, should, could, might + perfect

Note: Type III sentences refer only to past unreality and what is contrary to past fact. It is totally hypothetical. e.g.

If you had studied well, you would have got a seat in the medical college.

Had you studied well, you would have got a seat in the medical college.

If you had walked fast, you would have caught the train.

Had you walked fast, you would have caught the train.

If Shylock had accepted the money, there would not have been any problem.

Had Shylock accepted the money, there would not have been any problem.

Task 1:

Fill in the blanks with the suitable forms of the verbs given in brackets.

1. If you play well you ............. (include) in the school team. 2. If you ............. (answer) all the questions you would have got high marks. 3. If she does not submit the application before Monday she ............. (not join negative form) the hostel. 4. If she ............. (take) the medicine regularly, she will be all right within a week. 5. Unless you start now you ............. (catch) the train. 6. If I were you I ............. (accept) the challenge. 7. If you post the letter today it ............. (reach) New Delhi on Thursday. 8. ............. the captain ............. (win) the toss we would have batted first. 9. If I get above 98% I ............. (join) IIT, Chennai. 10. If you had taken my advice, you ............. (lost) the money. 11. How ............. they .............. (manage) if there is no electricity for two days? 12. If you had come on time you ............. (meet) the doctor. 66

13. If Bassanio had not chosen the right casket he ............. (marry) Portia. 14. Unless Kavitha attends the drama rehearsal she ............. (include - negative form) in the drama troupe. 15. What would have happened to the patient if the doctor ............. (arrive - negative form) on time? Task: Complete the following. 1. What would you do if you were the Prime Minister of India?

Write a short paragraph. The first sentence is already given. Add five more sentences.

“If I were the Prime Minister of India I would make primary education compulsory.”

2. What would you do if you were to win rupees one crore in the ‘Master mind Quiz Competition’.

Write a short paragraph. The first sentence is already given. Add five more sentences.

“If I were to win rupees one crore in the ‘Master mind Quiz Competition’, I would buy a big house for my parents.”

G. Writing I. Essay Writing: Task 1:

Develop the following hints into an essay of about 400 words:

Title: The role of women in modern India

I. Introduction:

What is the status of women in India today?

Ours is a male-dominated (patriarchal) society

Women are treated as second class citizens (denied equal rights)

II. Body:

Empowerment of women:

Women should be educated

They should be encouraged to take up jobs

With education and employment they become independent and confident

The Changing Scenario:

More and more women are getting educated

Women compete with men in many fields

More and more women take up positions and jobs such as administrators, pilots, engineers, IT professionals, etc. 67

Programme of Action:

Self-help groups and Mathar/Mahalir Sangams to be established/ promoted. Fight against the evils of illiteracy, dowry system and female infanticide. Women should be encouraged to play active part in politics and nation-building

III. Conclusion:

Both men and women should work for the empowerment of women

When women are empowered, the home and the nation develop and prosper

Task 2:

Develop the following hints into an essay of about 400 words:

Title: Caring for the elderly

I. Introduction:

Who are the elderly people? What is their age group?

What is geriatrics? Geriatrics is that branch of medicine concerning illnesses, health, matters, etc., of old people. II. Body:

What are the needs of the elderly?


Need food, shelter and clothing

But more importantly need love, caring and understanding

What are their problems?


Their biggest problem is loneliness and being left out and sidelined

What can we do for them?

Take care of their physical and medical needs

Most importantly spend time with them and listen to them

Need for trained counsellors in this area

III. Conclusion:

The elderly are an important section of our society

It is our duty to take care of them

We should not forget that all of us will one day become old

Task 3:

Write an essay on any one of the following topics:

1. The impact of cable television on the youth 2. Advantages of rain water harvesting 68

Follow the procedure given below:

• • • • • • •

Brainstorming and collecting ideas from various sources including the Internet Sorting the ideas Organising them logically and meaningfully Expanding them into an essay in the form of four or five paragraphs Draft I - correction (preferably by classmates/parents) Draft II - revision (by teacher) Final Draft

II. Report Writing: Look at this report from The Hindu dated 15-11-2003 titled “500 children take part in painting contest”: Task1: Discuss this report in groups and answer the following questions: 1. Why has this news been reported in the newspaper? Is it significant? 2. What is the objective/purpose of this report? 3. What kind of language has been used? Active or passive voice? Direct or indirect speech? First person or third person account/ narration? Why? 4. Have the facts been presented in a clear and accurate manner? 5. Have all significant facts and details (Where, when and how did the accident take place, etc.?) been included in this report?

What is a report? Reports are accurate and objective descriptions or accounts of significant events which could be political, social and academic. These events are significant in 69

the sense that they attract a lot of attention, either positively (example: India winning a cricket match against Australia) or negatively (example: A train accident in which many are killed). The most important aspect of report writing is that it should be accurate and objective. Therefore, the report writer has to personally collect, check and verify the facts or collect the facts from authentic and reliable sources. In report writing the language should be simple and clear, for the purpose is to convey information accurately. It is better to present the report from a third person point of view using the passive voice. The use of the third person point of view and the passive voice will ensure that the report is objective.

Note that there are also informal reports which are personal and subjective.

Task 2: Imagine you are the correspondent of an English Newspaper called ‘People’s Paper’. Write a report of the court scene in ‘The Merchant of Venice’ to the newspaper. Sentences 1, 2, 9 and 10 are given here. Add the remaining sentences. 1. Last week in Venice, Italy there was an interesting legal battle. 2. The persons involved in that legal battle were Antonio, a merchant of Venice, Shylock, a greedy and heartless moneylender, and Portia, a young and brilliant lawyer. 9. Thanks to Portia’s brilliant arguments Antonio’s life was saved and Shylock had to not only accept defeat, but also face punishment. 10. The case proved that justice should be combined with mercy. Task 3:

Develop the following hints and write a report (100 words) for an English daily called ‘The Morning Times’. Bus Accident near Virudhunagar

A private bus going to Nagercoil from Madurai and a lorry coming from Thiruvananthapuram collided near Virudhunagar- 5 persons died on the spot- 13 injured and taken to the Government hospital, Virudhunagar - some are seriously injured - reasons for the accident not known - but suspected that the lorry driver lost control after one of the tyres burst - police are investigating Task 4:

Present a report of your school Sports Day or Annual Day.

Task 5:

Arrange a visit to the local Government Hospital and write a report based on your observations.


H. Occupational competency Presenting Non-verbal Items Encoding and Decoding are two common and useful strategies in presenting data. Encoding is the process by which data (facts, figures, etc.) is presented in a non-verbal form, i.e., as tables, graphs, etc. Decoding is the process by which graphic representations such as tables and graphs are interpreted so that the data is made meaningful to the readers. Tables and figures (non-verbal presentations) make the presentation not only simple and clear but attractive as well. Look at the following charts (bar chart and pie chart). Both present data regarding the composition of the hostellers in MMM Higher Secondary School, Tiruchi. There are 60 students in that hostel from Dindigul district, 18 from Madurai district, 70 from Virudhunagar district, 160 from Tiruchi, 45 from Perambalur and 133 from Thanjavur. And these details have been presented in an attractive manner in the form of a bar chart and a pie chart.


• •

Discuss in groups any three advantages of presenting data in the form of tables and graphs. Pick up five items from Newspapers and Magazines that are presented in the form of graphs and tables (e.g. Runs per over in a cricket match).

Task 2:

Present the following data in the form of a table.

Here is a comparative study of Tenth Standard results of NN Boys High School, Chennai, and VV Girls High School, Chennai, in 2002-2003. Both are run by the same management. Present the data in the form of a table with three columns, namely, Subject, NN Boys School and VV Girls High School. 71

In Maths, all students in both the schools passed. In English, NN secured 96% while for VV the pass percentage was 93%. In Tamil, both the schools secured a pass percentage of 98%. But in Science there was a difference between the two schools. While VV could secure 97 % MM could manage 89%. In Social Studies, there is not much difference between the two schools. NN’s percentage stood at 96 while for VV it was 1 % less than NN. (Note: Alphabetise the entries.) Subject

NN Boys School VV Girls School


Task 3:

A Central Minister is visiting the Meenakshi Amman temple in Madurai. Present his tour programme in the form of a table. Here are the details:

The minister leaves Chennai at 1:05 p.m. and reaches Madurai by a special aircraft at 1:55 p.m. From the airport, he goes straight to the Collector’s office. He spends 20 minutes with the collector (from 2:40 p.m. to 3:00 p.m.). At 3:00 p.m. he leaves for the Meenakshi Amman temple. From 3:15 p.m. to 4:00 p.m. he is at the temple. He leaves for the airport at 4 p.m. and takes his return flight to Chennai at 4:40 p.m. and catches the Delhi flight at 6:10 p.m. Present this data in the form of a flow chart as well. You can work it out in a group. Task 4: Present the following weather report (recorded in Tamilnadu on September 3, 2003) in the form of a table. Have four columns: Place, Maximum Temperature and Minimum Temperature in Celsius and rainfall during the last 24 hours. Alphabetise the entries. Vellore 32 - 24 - 0; Coimbatore 33 - 22 - 3; Chennai 35 - 26 - 0; Thanjavur 34 - 25 - 3; Kanyakumari 30 - 24 - 0; Ooty 18 - 13 - 4; Salem 34 - 24 - 7; Nagappattinam 37 - 23 - 48; Madurai 35 - 25 - 0. Place

Max. Temp.

Min. Temp.



Present this report in the form of a paragraph as well. I. Strategic competency: Experimenting and trying out different learning strategies:

• • • •

There are different learning strategies. Learning strategies are contextualised, i.e., depending on the lesson and the objectives, the learner chooses and varies his/her strategies. Each individual has his/her own learning strategy. A smart learner thinks of short cuts (mnemonics) and time savers. e.g. VIBGYOR (the seven colours of the rainbow)

Task 1: Read the following story and find out the meanings of the words in bold: A man found an eagle's egg and placed it under a brooding hen. The eaglet hatched with the chickens and grew to be like them. He clucked and cackled; scratched the earth for worms; flapped his wings and managed to fly a few feet in the air. Years passed. One day, the eagle, now grown old, saw a magnificent bird above him in the sky. It glided in graceful majesty against the powerful wind, with scarcely a movement of its golden wings. Spellbound, the eagle asked, "Who's that?" "That's the king of the birds, the eagle," said his neighbour. "He belongs to the sky. We belong to earth,we're chickens."

So the eagle lived and died a chicken, for that's what he thought he was.

(From Tony de Mello's ‘The Song of the Bird’)

In order to find the meaning -

Would you consult a dictionary?

Refer to the dictionary and find out the meaning of spellbound.

Would you consult your friends and classmates? Consult your classmates and find out the meaning of eaglet. Would you consult the teacher? Consult your teacher and find out the meaning of clucked and cackled. 73

Would you guess the meaning of most words from the context? Guess the meaning of the words flapped and glided from the context and check them with your teacher.

Task 2:

• • •

Discuss in groups:

Do you read prose and poetry in the same way? Why? Do you study English and Tamil in a similar manner? Why? Do you study English and other subjects like Maths, Science and History in an identical manner? Why? Remember that you should train and familiarise yourself with different learning strategies.

J. Creative competency I. Attempting to write a poem: Writing poetry need not be a difficult task. It can be a joyful activity, for it means playing with language. It also brings into play your imagination. Task 1:

Provide rhyming words for the following list. Make sure that the words are related.

e.g. strain-pain age-sage honey-money word- wood- soul joy- take- noise bend- chair- star task- wealth- cloud shake- wind- taleTask 2:

Provide words to form alliteration.

e.g. marriage - minds

sad - stories

tough - loving

heavy -

fierce -

pleasant - silent wicked - cold strict - dark Task 3: Compose a poem on the topic “Rain”. You may use the following words:

water, cloud, breeze, comforting, rainbow,

sky, sun, dry, earth, parched

life, spring, hope, people, happy 74


Task 4:

Darker the clouds, quicker the rain Faster the breeze, farther the rain Compose a poem on “A Plane Crash”. The first two stanzas are given to you. Add two more stanzas.

(On June 23, 1985, Air India’s Boeing Kanishka, flying from Canada to India, plunged into the Atlantic ocean killing all 329 persons on board. It was an act of terrorism and the whole world condemned it.) Oh Kanishka

Mercilessly blasted by heartless terrorists

Crashed the Boeing into the quiet sea

With all three hundred and twenty nine on board -

Men and women, young and old, with innocent children.

Bits and pieces of both the plane and people

Sank slowly into the dark, deep sea.

With them sank our joys and hopes

Into the deadly sea of inhumanity.

Task 5:

Compose a poem on “A Rose” or “My Mother”. The first stanza is given to you. Add two more stanzas.

A Rose

A rose bloomed in my garden.

Red and lovely it was

Nodding its head gently.

Is it God’s gift to me?

My Mother

No better person can there be!

Mother, you are our life-giver.

In you we place all our hope

And certainly see God in you.

II. Writing short skits: Note that a skit is a short funny play or a piece of writing. You can write a skit on a simple theme with just three or four characters. Simple dialogues and costumes are enough. The setting need not be elaborate.


Task 1:

Write a short skit based on the following story.

You are all familiar with the Greek legend Midas. Midas is good to Bacchus, and pleased with his hospitality. Bacchus grants his wish that whatever he touches should be turned into gold, for Midas is very fond of gold. So whatever Midas touched (flowers, stones, plates, etc.) turned into gold. He found that the food he touched also turned into gold. And when he touched his daughter who came running to him she too turned into gold, and then he realised his foolishness. Then he prayed to Bacchus to take back the boon, and his daughter is restored to life.

Characters: Bacchus


Midas’s daughter

Some servants Task 2:

Write a skit on the evils of ‘noise pollution’.

Limit the number of characters to four: A doctor (ENT specialist), an old man who has lost his hearing (hearing impaired), his son who is in college and a nurse. The old man who has lost his hearing, visits the ENT specialist in his clinic and the action takes place inside the clinic. Use terms like: decibel, deafness and hearing aids. Self-Evaluation: I.

Mark the stress on the following words:

(i) permission (ii) develop (iii) atmosphere (iv) patriotism (v) refugee

(vi) content (noun)

II. Write down who the following characters are: e.g. Shylock - the Jewish money-lender Portia

Lorenzo -

Jessica -

Nerrisa -

Bassanio -

Antonio -

III. Fill in the blanks with suitable form of the verbs given in brackets. 1. If Mani ................ (attend) the interview, he would have been selected. 2. If I................ (is) rich, I would help the poor. 3. If Mala.................. (try) hard, she will get the prize. (Rewrite using Unless) 76


Let me not to the marriage of true minds

Admit impediments. Love is not love

Which alters when it alteration finds,

Or bends with the remover to remove.

O, no! it is an ever-fixed mark,

That looks on tempests and is never shaken;

It is the star to every wand’ring bark,

Whose worth’s unknown, although his height be taken.

Love’s not Time’s fool, though rosy lips and cheeks

Within his bending sickle’s compass come;

Love alters not with his brief hours and weeks,

But bears it out even to the edge of doom.

If this be error and upon me prov’d,

I never writ, nor no man ever lov’d.

- William Shakespeare Note: The first collected edition of Shakespeare’s sonnets appeared in 1609. There are totally 154 sonnets and the major themes of these sonnets include the destructive power of time, the permanence of poetry (art), triangular love and the analysis of amorous emotion (love). It has to be noted that apart from these 154 sonnets Shakespeare also wrote two long poems titled ‘Venus and Adonis’ and ‘The Rape of Lucrece’. Sonnet: A sonnet is a lyric (short, personal poem) written in a single stanza consisting of fourteen lines. Sonnet 116 (“Let me not to the marriage . . .”) deals with the theme of true love. Many critics consider it “incomparable” and call it “the finest of all”. In this poem various images are used to highlight the nature of true and deep love. Glossary and notes: admit impediments


refers to the Christian marriage service where the priest asks the peopled gathered if they have any objections to the couple getting married “Impediments” means obstacles

ever-fixed mark


a prominent land or sea-mark which guides ships; true love guides one through the voyage of life 77

it is the star...height be : taken

during Shakespeare’s time people believed that the stars influenced men’s character; in the journey of life, to many a “wandering bark” (a lost boat) the star of genuine love turns out to be the guiding factor; a star’s “height” (altitude) can be measured but the extent to which it controls the fate of man (its “worth”) cannot be determined; similarly, the depth (“worth”) of true love cannot be measured

love’s not...compass come


true love cannot be destroyed by Time; external beauty can be destroyed by time but not true love; note the destructive power of time (“bending sickle”)

edge of doom


day of the last judgement (on the last day of the world)

Comprehension questions: 1. Mention any two qualities of true love. 2. What is inconstant love? 3. Comment on the nature of Time. What does Time do to beauty? Appreciation questions: 1. Give a suitable title to the poem. Give reasons for your choice. 2. Do you like the poem? Why? 3. Alliteration is the repetition of the same consonant sound in several nearby words. Example: “Let me not to the true marriage of true minds.” 4. What are the other instances of alliteration in this sonnet? Give two examples. Answer the following passages with reference to the context: 1. ‘Which alters when it alteration finds,

Or bends with the remover to remove.’

2. ‘It is the star to every wand’ring bark,

Whose worth’s unknown, although his height be taken.’

Activity: 1. Translate the poem into Tamil. 2. Collect poems in Tamil which speak of true love. 3. Who is your close friend? Write a poem on your friendship.


UNIT III A LISTENING: Using correct intonation patterns (placing nuclear accent for prominence, to express hesitation, sympathy, etc.) B SPEAKING: Conversing at the railway station, bus stop, airport, etc. (Reservation enquiry, bus/flight reservation/timings) Lodging complaints at the police station C READING: Predicting

Understanding paragraph organisation

D VOCABULARY: Spelling words correctly

Identifying words in confusing pairs

Identifying differences in spelling in British/American English

Identifying differences between spelling and pronunciation

Identifying the sound/spelling regularity which co-exists with sound/ spelling irregularity


STUDY SKILLS: Accessing the Internet

Understanding and using e-mail language

F GRAMMAR: Using other conditional clauses - ‘unless’, ‘otherwise’, ‘in case’, etc., & Concessional clause G WRITING: Writing a diary

Using correct punctuation


OCCUPATIONAL COMPETENCY: Preparing advertisements


STRATEGIC COMPETENCY: Noting down/writing important items as they occur (items observed – errors)


CREATIVE COMPETENCY: Giving an opinion about something Preparing script for a talk-show over the TV/Radio

A. Listening I. The teacher will read aloud an extract from a radio announcement, which is an account of the plight of farmers. Listen carefully. You may listen to it 2-3 times. (The teacher reads) Task 1:

Listen and then indicate whether the statements given below are True () or False (x). The first one is done for you. 79

1. Farmers are happy about the RBI Loan.

( x)

2. The loans would help all farmers

( )

3. Farmers find it difficult to pay the interest on their loan amount.

( )

4. They borrow money only from banks.

( )

5. Drought in the last two years had added to the farmers’ problems.

( )

Task 2:

Work in pairs and discuss:

(i) What helped you to understand the news item? (ii) Did the way in which the sentences were spoken – the ‘tune’- help you? (iii) Did the emphasis on certain words make the meaning clearer? Note: How you say something is as important as what you say. II. The teacher will read the following sentences aloud.

Farmer Kesavan




→ We ought to produce more food. → Ought we to produce more food?

How were the two sentences spoken?

The first sentence is a statement. Did you hear it spoken with a falling tune?

The second sentence is a question. Did you hear it spoken with a rising tune?

There is a pattern in our speech. The pattern in which the tone change takes place during our speech is called intonation. Intonation makes the meaning clear and tells us exactly what and how something is being said. In the two sentences, the focus is on the word ‘food’. So the change of tone is on this word. The syllable on which there is a change in pitch direction is called the nucleus. So we use stress / accent on this word. Task 1:

The teacher will read the same sentence spoken by a young villager to three different friends, Bharath, Siddhu and Renu. On each occasion the nuclear stress is on a different word. Listen carefully. (The teacher reads)

Can you say on which word the nucleus falls on each occasion? What do you think happened as a result?

To avoid any confusion, therefore, use stress and intonation carefully.

Task 2: The teacher will read the following sentences twice. Each time the nucleus will be on a different word and the meaning of the sentence will change slightly. Listen and underline the nucleus. Then say in what way the two sentences are different in meaning. One example is done for you. 80


This pen isn’t the one I like.

(Meaning: there are other pens I like, not this one)

This pen isn’t the one I like.

(Meaning: Others like this pen, I do not)


I’m sorry, but I can’t help you.


He doesn’t really like brinjals.


I thought Economics was a boring subject


I only said to the child, “You should get up earlier”.


I’ll never pass in Hindi.


Some children have broken the window.


At least you could try.

Task 3:

The teacher will read aloud a passage containing the views expressed by a young person regarding the spending of pocket money. As she reads, listen to the rising and falling tones (intonation) and mark it. (The teacher reads)

Task 4: The teacher will read the passage again. Listen and complete the gapped summary of the passage. You may use your own words, provided the meaning does not change. Parents should not .............. the spending of pocket money. Once it is given, the money .............. to the receiver. Making decisions about how to spend it, teaches young people .............. Often, when they want to spend their money on a particular item, parents ..............Young people should be permitted to make .............. That is how they .............. Task 5: The teacher will read the passage again. Listen and say what the following words mean in the context. Tick () your choice. 1.


: religious / divine



: pride / ceremony



: tempting / bright



: render into another language / convert



: use / spend wastefully

B. Speaking I. At the Railway station ‘Your attention please! Train No. 6601 Chennai - Mangalore Mail will leave platform No.2 at 7.45 p.m. Train No. 1063 Chennai - Dadar Express scheduled to 81

arrive at 8.05 p.m. is running late by 2 hours. The expected time of arrival is now 10.00 p.m. The inconvenience is regretted.’ At the Airport ‘Calling all passengers travelling by flight No.945 to Hyderabad. You are requested to proceed for security check.’ When you go to the railway station, the bus-station or the airport, the first thing that you hear are announcements like the above. However, to enter the station or airport, you first have to buy a ticket. (i) The following is a conversation between Ram and the person at the ticket counter: Ram

: Good evening! May I have a platform ticket please?

Person at the counter

: Certainly, Sir.


: How much is it?

Person at the counter

: Rs.3/- please.


: Here you are!

Person at the counter

: Thank you.

Task 1:

Practise the above dialogue in pairs.

Task 2:

Fill in the blanks in the following conversation. At the Bus Station



Has the bus from Trichy arrived?

Time-keeper :

No, ...........................



When will it ..........................?

Time-keeper :

It is expected at ......................


O dear! ........................ May I wait here?


Time-keeper : Task 3:

Certainly, ............................................

Practise the above conversation taking roles.

(ii) Read the following dialogue. A Telephone Conversation A : Eagle Airways, Good Morning. B : Good Morning! My name is Ravi Mehta and I’m calling to confirm my ticket. A : Just a moment, sir. Let me get the form….. Right, Sir, your name, please – would you spell it for me, sir? 82

B : Yes, its Ravi Mehta R – A – V – I M – E – H – T – A A : Thank you, sir. Your flight No............. and date of travel? B : Flight No.931 A : I’m sorry, Sir. Did you say Flight 913? B : No. It is flight 931, to Trivandrum, leaving 21st of September. A : Could I have your telephone number please? B : Certainly. It is 044 – 8356212. A : Are you on our Special Frequent Flier programme, sir? B : Yes, I am. Do you have my number? A : No, I’m sorry. I’m afraid, we don’t. Would you please give it to me sir? B : All right ...... it’s FF 2345678 A : Right! Thank you, sir. Your ticket is confirmed. B : Thank you. Task 1:

Take roles and practise the conversation.

Task 2:

Discuss in pairs:


Was this a polite conversation?


Which words made it polite?

Some of the words used were, ‘Please’, ‘Sorry’. Add some more polite words from the dialogue, as well as some of your own. Task 3:

Check for availability of ticket to Bangalore, by phone. Remember to use polite language at all times. Here are some phrases you could use:

‘May / Can I ...’, ‘ I would like to ...’, ‘Please permit me to say ....’, ‘ I’m sorry, but .........’, ‘I’m very disappointed ....’, ‘Would you please ......’, ‘I would be obliged if .....’, ‘I’m afraid I .......’. (iii) The following is a conversation between Reena and the reservation clerk at the enquiry counter: Reena : Could you please check the availability of four tickets to Madurai by Pandian Express, for the 12th of January, please? Here is the filled in form. Clerk

: (Checks) Sorry, madam. It is waiting list 102.

Reena : What about the Vaigai Express for the same day? Clerk

: It’s RAC 32 –35. 83

Reena : Sorry, Madam. How about Tatkal booking? Clerk

: For Tatkal you will have to come on the day of departure at 8.00 a.m. with a proof of ID. It will cost Rs.50/- extra per person. It is on a first come first served basis.

Reena : Well, if you don’t mind, could you please check the availability by Pandian Express for the next day – 13th of Jan. please? Clerk

: Yes, it is available. You can book your tickets at the reservation counter.

Reena : Thank you.

(Reena proceeds to the reservation counter)

Reena : Can I book my tickets to Madurai, please? Here is the form. I would like two lower berths please for my grand-parents. Clerk

: Would you like to avail yourself of senior citizen concession?

Reena : Yes, please. Clerk

: Rs.832/- please.

Reena : (Gives the money and takes the ticket) Thank you. Task 1:

Practise the dialogue in pairs.

Task 2:

Using the words given in italics in the above conversation, prepare a similar dialogue to book tickets for your class-mates and teacher for an excursion to Ooty. You can also use these words/phrases-‘bulk booking’, ‘side berths’, ‘confirmed tickets’.

II. At the Police Station There was a burglary in your home late last night. Some jewellery and money are missing. You lodge a complaint at the Bakkam Police Station.

Task: Complete your conversation with the inspector.



Good morning. I want to report a break-in.

Inspector :

Good morning, Sir. Please take a seat. (Calls) Ramu .... Singh! Come and note down this gentleman’s complaint. (to you) Yes.Sir. Tell me what happened.



This happened last night – around 3.00 a.m. I think.



Who was in the house?



My parents and me. My father and I were sleeping in one room.

My mother has chicken pox, so she was sleeping in the other

room. Inspector


Did you hear anything?



We didn’t hear anything. But mother did…. 84



Did she see anyone?



No, …….



What sound ......................?






What did .................................. ?



She woke us .............................. And we .............................



What is missing? Please give ...............................................

Ramu ..... Singh, please note ................................................


I think Rs. ................ and jewellery like 2 gold rings, ....................,


.............. are missing. Inspector


Right, Sir. Please sign this form. We’ll do our best. Now I’ll ..............

........................................ You Task 1:


Thank you, Inspector. ..............................................

Work in pairs and role – play the conversation.

Task 2: Prepare dialogues for the following situations. Then role – play in pairs. Complaining at the police station about: (a) The theft of your two-wheeler (b) The loss of your bag containing original certificates C. Reading Pre-reading I. Work in pairs. Fill in the bubbles with words that come to your mind when you think of a farmer.

Hard working

II. Now we will read a story about a farmer. What do you think the story will be about? Discuss briefly with your partner. 85

III. THE FARMER - Thakazhi Sivasankara Pillai That fifty-para paddy field is owned by someone in Vaikom. Kesavan Nair has been cultivating it for the last forty years. Before that, Kesavan Nair’s uncle was its cultivator. Some ten years ago, when paddy prices were as high as five to seven rupees a bushel, rich people from Changanassery and Thiruvalla, had come there for paddy cultivation. They got on lease, groups of paddy fields. They used a tractor for deepploughing and new fertilisers, to produce bumper crops. And they made huge profits. Kesavan Nair’s fifty para was in the centre of such groups of fields. Big – time farmer, Outhakkutty, met Kesavan Nair one day, on the mud-bund of the field. The crop in the “fifty” was poor when compared to those around it. Outhakkutty broke in, by way of exchanging civilities: “Why is the paddy not lush and robust enough? Didn’t you use fertilisers?” That question struck Kesavan Nair’s heart. The neighbouring farmer insinuates that the paddy he cultivates is inferior in growth! “After you big guys came, can we drain out the water at the right times? No time is convenient enough for you. We can do farm work only at your convenience”. Outhakkutty, an arch diplomat, said, “Why do you say that, Uncle Kesavan? I had specifically arranged with my people to pay heed to your convenience.” Kesavan Nair was cross. “Oh! Nice arrangement indeed! I could water the land only after my paddy seedlings had wilted in the sun. I went after your servant, begging. He said he can’t because you had instructed him not to give water to me.” Outhakkutty had to counter that accusation. “Will there be any such difficulty, if you do the sowing at the same time as in the neighbouring fields?” Kesavan Nair was piqued. “Don’t teach me all that. It’s not yesterday that I started cultivating paddy.” Kesavan Nair continued, increasingly irritated, “No one becomes a farmer by pouring in money, dumping fertilisers and raising a crop of paddy.” After a few days, Kesavan Nair and Outhakkutty’s servant quarrelled with each other, upon the mud-bund of the field. On all sides there was water. But the “fifty” was parched dry and cracked up and the shoots were wilted. Kesavan Nair, heart-broken at the sight, cut a breach in the mud-bund. The servant sealed it up. They pushed and jostled each other. It would have culminated in murder. Luckily, that did not happen. Three or four days later, the crop in Kesavan Nair’s “fifty” was submerged up to the tips of the plants in water. The top of the shoots were not at all to be seen above the water’s surface. That servant’s doing! When the time came for the sunning of Outhakkutty’s 86

paddy plants, the water was diverted to Kesavan Nair’s “fifty”. How was he to drain that water away? Where will he take it to? Can he drink it all up? Kesavan Nair’s shoots began to rot. Kuttichovan, a friend of Kesavan Nair, asked in consternation, “Why don’t we cut open breaches on the bunds at night and divert the water back to the other fields?” Kesavan Nair did not like that idea. He said, “That should not be done in punchakandam. Cut open bunds in the dead of night! Can a farmer do that, Kutty? Let me perish. I will not do what should not be done.” Then another friend, Kutty Mappila, said, “Are all the things happening now, befitting a puncha-kandam?” Kesavan Nair said he would never perpetrate that adharma. Kutty Mappila, who was listening to it all, said, half-soliloquising. “So it was good that I leased out my piece of land to Outhakkutty. Or else, my fate too would have been the same now.” Kuttichovan also said the same thing. Of the 500 acre complex, only Kesavan Nair’s five acres remained outside Outhakutty’s domain. Listening to the talk of his friends, Kesavan Nair said, “I too could have entrusted mine to him. But, what else is there for my livelihood? What work will I do? You, Kutty Mappila, get at least 500 coconuts. Kuttychovan has four sons, working. I have only this field on lease. And I can eke out a living, only by tilling it.” That night, the water in the “fifty” somehow drained away. Someone had breached the mud-bunds at night. Certainly it was not Kesavan Nair. Since that water spread evenly into the fields surrounding that field, no ill effects had occurred to the crops of those fields. It was clear that the farmer of the neighbouring fields had let in water to that “fifty” on purpose. Next morning, Kesavan Nair went out to the field and saw for himself. Who had perpetrated this adharma? The weight of that sin would fall on him alone. He had not known anything about it. He wondered how he was going to prove his innocence. Two days passed thus. On the third day, in the morning, before anyone woke up, Kesavan Nair went to the field and looked around. The weak shoots, which had been flattened to the ground, had started rising up, in the sun’s warmth. His crop wouldn’t perish. After three or four days of getting the sun, the shoots should be soaked a little by letting in water for one day, and some manure put in. Then, the crop would be excellent, first rate. Where could he raise the money from? Who would give him money? The household expenses were met by the proceeds from the four milch cows. Kesavan Nair toyed with the idea of selling one of them to raise the funds. But his wife wouldn’t agree to it.

“The shoots are properly sunned, aren’t they, Uncle Kesavan? 87

Kesavan Nair turned around. It was Outhakutty. Suddenly Kesavan Nair’s obsession about the adharma upset him. Outhakutty stood there as if he had caught the culprit. He, Kesavan Nair, should give him a proper explanation. He had to establish his innocence in the matter. With a troubled smile, Kesavan Nair said, “Upon my granduncle! Upon this ‘puncha-kandam’ which is true to its tradition, it is not I who breached the bund, Outhakutty! I am a true farmer. A farmer worth his name would never do such an adharma.” Outhakutty watched Kesavan Nair’s anxiety. “Why do you swear by your ancestors, Uncle Kesavan? It is not you who breached the bund. It’s I who did it. I did it because I saw your paddy submerged.” Kesavan Nair was relieved. His eyes shone. “Is it true? Tell me the truth! Oh, it’s such a relief! May you do well in life, my boy! I feared I would have to carry the weight of this infamy with me till my death.” Outhakutty once more said emphatically. “Yes, Uncle Kesavan. It’s I who did it. Although you hate me, can I hate you? When I saw that sight, my heart nearly stopped. I opened the breach. Let my paddy perish, if it has to, I said to myself”. Outhakutty said, glancing all over the “fifty”. “If you could sprinkle a little manure, the crop would be excellent, Uncle Kesavan.”

“I was thinking of that just now.”

“Then you have to do it.”

“One should have money for that. Money! I don’t have money”.

“If you want a good crop, you should spend money.”

“The times are such.”

Outhakutty said, as if because of his fondness for Kesavan Nair: “Uncle Kesavan! May I say something?” “Why are you taking all this trouble, Uncle Kesavan? I’ll give you the lease-rent for the landlord at Vaikom and fifty bushels of paddy extra. Hand over the field to me. Why toil so much in your old age?” Kesavan Nair suddenly became another person altogether. He was furious. Yet, controlling his anger, he said: “No, no. Keep that thought to yourself Outhakutty. We have cultivated this field right from the times of our ancestors. No one else shall cultivate it.” “That’s all right. You are the lessee of the Vaikom landlord. And I will be your lessee”. “No. That won’t do. I was born a farmer. Farming is my occupation. And I have five heads of cattle, besides. They need the hay. No. It won’t work, Outhakutty….” 88

No manure was put in the “fifty”. The crop was bad. Dismal, that is. During the harvest season, Kesavan Nair could not get hold of reapers. All around, Outhakutty’s first-rate crop was there; if they reaped that the reapers would get two bushels of paddy as percentage wage. The paddy was getting overripe. At last, the members of Kutty Mappila’s and Kuttichovan’s families, and Kesavan Nair’s family members together reaped the field. The crop was very, very bad. It was doubtful whether there would be sufficient paddy to pay the lease-rent. Kutty Mappila, Kuttichovan and Kesavan Nair conferred together. Kutty Mappila’s opinion was that the lease-rent need only be proportionate to the crop output. Till that moment, there wasn’t even a grain of paddy as outstanding payment of rent. “You can give more, if next year’s crop is better.”

Kesavan Nair couldn’t agree to that.

“This is the only piece of land the landlord has. And he has only this much of paddy to get. We have collected the crop. We should give the whole rent. The land will turn barren, if the landlord’s tears fall on it.” The entire crop was just sufficient for the payment of the lease-rent. What remained for Kesavan Nair was just a ton and a half bushels of paddy, spillage on the threshing floor and the chaff! He couldn’t make good even the seed- paddy and the labour charges! The lease-rent paddy was carried to the landlord’s house. The landlord was a Thirumulpad. Kesavan Nair had sensed that there was a slight change of expression on Thirumulpad’s face. What was unusual was that he asked whether the entire leaserent paddy had been brought. And he made this comment: “My information was that this year I would not get the entire lease-rent paddy.” Kesavan Nair gave a quick repartee. “Isn’t it at least a hundred years, since we took this “fifty” for cultivation, Thirumeni? Is there even a grain of paddy outstanding as lease-rent payment?”

Thirumulpad didn’t say a word.

The lease-rent paddy was measured out without leaving even a grain as deficit. Still, Thirumulpad’s face didn’t exhibit any trace of satisfaction.

He gave lunch to Kesavan Nair and the boatmen as usual.

When Kesavan Nair approached, after lunch, to take leave, Thirumulpad told him that he had something to say to him.

“What is it?” asked Kesavan Nair.

The reply was abrupt. “Someone has approached me with an offer to take the land on an increased rate of rent. He is a very smart person too. Kesavan, you should relinquish the land.” 89

An idea dawned upon Kesavan Nair. “What increase of rent is proposed now?”

“A hundred bushels of paddy. And the person is very sound. How will I recover any arrears you may accumulate?”

Kesavan Nair argued hotly: “So far there are no arrears.”

No one spoke for sometime. Kesavan Nair continued. “Thirumeni, I shall give you that increased rate of rent.” “I’ll tell you one thing, Thirumeni. I know who has approached you. It’s Outhakkutty. But he is not a true farmer, Thirumeni. The likes of him don’t love the soil. They’ll put in a lot of fertilisers, prodigally extract the fertility of the soil and raise good crops. After four or five years, your land will turn into useless, bran-like soil. Not even grass will sprout there”. Thirumulpad was walking back and forth the length of the verandah. He didn’t speak a word. Kesavan Nair continued to speak. The words choked his throat. His eyes brimmed with tears. “It’s this field I saw, when I was born. The sweat of my ancestors has also added to its fertility. I have loved only that field in my entire life.” Kesavan Nair broke down. “N-no! You shouldn’t evict me from there, Thirumeni”. Even Thirumulpad’s heart seemed to melt a little. He said, “I must get my rent”. Kesavan Nair sobbed. “I’ll give you that rent.” The next day, Kesavan Nair called the ploughmen and he had the field ploughed once. He didn’t even think how he was going to pay them wages. From that day, the ploughmen pestered him for payment of wages. How could he have the land ploughed again, without paying the wages for the first ploughing? Thus the field fell fallow. The neighbouring fields were regularly ploughed every month. The “fifty” was overgrown with weeds. It was time for the sowing of the next crop. The work of putting up the mudbunds was over. The water was being drained. The “fifty” was lying vacant, without being ploughed, without weeding, without the soil being prepared. Poor Kesavan Nair didn’t even have the necessary seed-paddy. His fight then turned towards his wife. One cow must be sold. She didn’t like the idea, though. Kesavan Nair sold a cow without the consent of his wife. The money the cow’s sale brought in was sufficient only for ten bushels of seed-paddy and ten rupees for the labour charges. Kesavan Nair tied up the seed-paddy and put it in water. He took out the seed the following day. Not even half of it had germinated. And he was supposed to sow that day itself. Kutty Mappila advised him to sow it as it was. It will germinate, lying in the soil! That’s the only way out, besides. He did just that. The paddy was growing robustly in the neighbouring fields. In the “fifty”, weeds had grown thickly. Not even a single shoot was to be seen. The harvest that year was over. There was no need to reap the “fifty”. The date of handing over the lease-rent 90

paddy had expired. Thirumulpad reached the spot. Kesavan Nair was in hiding. For three days, Thirumulpad went about looking for him. He was not to be found. The next day, Outhakkutty’s men got into the “fifty” and ploughed the field. Thirumulpad stood on the mud-bund, looking on. The sowing of the next crop was over. Early every morning, Kesavan Nair would go out to the fields, like a farmer who had a crop to look after. On watching him go, one would think that he really had a crop somewhere. He returned home only after the day had progressed. It was the habit of forty years. The paddy in the “fifty” was growing high, as if challenging Kesavan Nair. He’d go there everyday. When once he spotted a slight yellowing of the plants, his heart burned. He sought out Outhakkutty and reported the matter. Not only that; he stood by and had the necessary remedial measures carried out. - Translated by A.J. Thomas Thakazhi Sivasankara Pillai, (1912 - 1999) popularly referred to as ‘Thakazhi’, is the most celebrated contemporary Malayalam writer. He is, without doubt, the most wellknown Malayalam novelist and his short novel “Chemmeen” was given international reception.Thakazhi was the recipient of many awards and honours – the Bharatiya Jnanpith Award, (1984). The Soviet Land Nehru Award (1975), The Sahitya Akademi Award (1957) and Vayalar Rama Varma Award (1980).Though a ‘Vakil’ by profession, Thakazhi’s heart was not in his profession and after twenty years of working as a ‘Pleader’, he took to full-time writing. Thakazhi wrote in Malayalam, his mother tongue, and was an active writer for 65 years. He wrote over 35 novels and many short stories. Glossary Ω


/'b Sl/


a unit for measuring grain = 8 gallons




contract where land / property is rented








having lost freshness




pushed roughly




under the surface of water




reached the final stage




feeling of anxiety








speaking to oneself




did something wrong





a bad and shocking act or event




amount spilt




give up




spending money wastefully without thinking of the consequences




land where nothing is planted




(of a seed) to start growing




angry as a result of one’s pride being hurt




the first part of a plant to appear above the earth




the outer layer of seeds




a quick, amusing conversation




a measure for grain (10 kg)


/púntSE kúndEm/


a group of five fields






/tIr mElpa:d/


belonging to the royal family


/tIr meInI/


a respectful term used to address one’s boss




Malayalam words:


Synonyms Which words in the lesson mean the same as:

(a) jostle


(b) angry


(c) region


(d) enough .............................

(e) firmly



Antonyms In the sentences below fill in the gaps with words from the lesson, opposite in meaning to the words underlined. One example has been done for you. (a)

The company claimed that they had already handed over the money, but the labourers countered saying that was not true.


The showers poured down soaking the .................... earth.


They had cemented their friendship by starting a company together. However their later actions caused a serious ........................... in their relations.


Everyone, the innocent as well as the .............. was taken to task.


Whenever the work gets more difficult, Imolu shirks his work, while Jiza .................... hard as always.


Since it is not possible for most farmers to make advance payment, they always have ................... loans.

Comprehension I.

Answer the following questions briefly:


How much land did Kesavan Nair cultivate?


Who did that land belong to?


Why was the crop in Kesavan Nair’s field not as healthy as the crops in the other fields?


Who cultivated the lands around Kesavan Nair’s “50” ?


Why did Outhakutty’s servant and Kesavan Nair quarrel?


Why did Kesavan Nair hide after someone had breached the mud-banks one night?


Who had actually breached the mud banks?


“Why toil so much in your old age?” What does Outhakutty want Kesavan Nair to do?


Why did the reapers refuse to harvest Kesavan Nair’s field that season?

10. Why does Thirumulpad give the land to Outhakutty?


II. Given below are statements made by certain characters in the story. Say who said the words and what they tell you about the person. Statement 1.

Cut open bunds in the dead of night! Can a farmer do that?


So it was good I leased out my piece of land to Outhakutty.

Who speaks the words

What it reveals about the person

3. If you want a good crop, you should spend money. III. Work in pairs - A and B

A is Kesavan Nair and B is Outhakutty

Refer to the Section when they meet on the mud-bank and Outhakutty asks Kesavan Nair to hand over the field to him. Role – play the scene as if you were acting it out before the class.You could use simple props like a stick for Kesavan Nair and a turban for Outhakutty. IV. Now think of the same scene. If you had been in Kesavan Nair’s place, would you have handed over the land to Outhakutty? Answer in about 100 words giving reasons for your decision. Making Predictions Task 1:

Answer the following question.

What predictions does Kesavan Nair make about the fate of the fields in Outhakutty’s hands? Task 2 : Before you read the story, “The Farmer,” you had written down words which came to your mind when you thought about a farmer. How many of those words match farmer Kesavan Nair? Fill in the bubbles with words that describe him.


In Section II of the same part, you tried to predict what the story would be about.

We make predictions about the future based on our knowledge of past experiences and present trends. Task 3:

Which of the following people make predictions?

(i) Planners (ii) Politicians

(iii) Astrologers

(v) Weather forecasters

(vi) Fashion - designers

Task 4:

When you read newspaper headlines, do you make predictions about the content of the relevant passage? Read the following headlines and in pairs discuss what they could be about.


3 – year old mauled, by dog later shot dead by police


Rajasthan Govt. removes poll officer


34 killed as train hits bus

Task 5:

(iv) Historians

Read the given headlines. ‘Guess’ and make predictions about the content. Then match the headlines with the content.

SUSPECT ARRESTED ATTACKED BY SHARK – SURFBOARD BITTEN IN HALF INDIAN WINS TOP CHESS PRIZE HEATERS FOR CATS, BLANKETS FOR SNAKES POLL-OFFICER SUSPENDED An Indian Schoolboy from Mirzabad has won the first prize in the International Youth Chess Tournament in Rome beating 50 other contestants

With mercury dipping down to 2 degrees celsius, the birds and animals in the Anna Zoological Park are coping with the cold with special arrangements. For animals like cats, heaters are being provided, while snakes are being kept warm under blankets.

Following a directive from the chief election commissioner, an officer on duty during the recent elections has been removed. Paul Singh, was charged with tampering with the name lists and threatening people who had come to cast their votes.

Mila Gulab, who had been absconding after stealing money from the State Bank of Hyderabad, in a daring daylight attack on Monday, has been arrested. Gulab was apprehended when he was buying gold jewellery from a popular shop in a nearby town.


Holiday makers off the coast of Australia were subjected to a rude shock when they were suddenly attacked by a shark. Fortunately it was spotted as soon as it attacked a surfer, its jaws tearing the surf – board in two. Coast – guards rushed to the rescue and it was shot dead within minutes. Organising the text Task 1:

Read the given narrative. Rearrange the sentences to make ‘sense’, Underline the words which helped you to do this.

1. Mr. R.G. of Tenali, a gentleman, well-known to the police for stealing from local shops, first planned to pay his monthly visit to Tenali’s new S- Department Store after the Tamil New Year. 2. The shop was running a short training course for Tenali’s security officers that day. 3. He finally chose 2nd October to set off and do his usual shoplifting. 4. But then he decided to avoid the crowds who always go shopping during that time. 5. He had just begun his work and had taken an expensive watch, and a pair of socks, when six pairs of hands grabbed him. Task 2: Now read another piece of ‘jumbled’ writing given below. Rearrange the paragraphs to make it a sensible narrative. Look out for words, which help us to arrange / organise our writing: (1)

Linking words like


but, when


Punctuation marks


Pronouns like


he, who


Sequence markers like



(i) For another ten long minutes there was no trace of any other bus coming. As if to add to our misery, the sky became overcast and the clouds threatened rain any time now. In a few minutes it started pouring and the exasperated mob ran helterskelter. At this juncture, another bus approached at a lightning speed, as if bound for New Jerusalem. This speeding demon came to a screeching halt, coughing up fumes. Soon the crowd clambered into the bus, but the leviathan would not budge from its place. Why? It had broken down. day.

(ii) This is only one example of the manner in which we commuters suffer every

(iii) When buses do not run on time waiting for a bus is undoubtedly an exhausting experience. If a person is not rich enough to own a car, or a two- wheeler, he has to commute by bus and undergo a lot of inconvenience. As I too do not own a car, I am often a victim of the vagaries of the driver. 96

(iv) I stood one day at a shelter-less bus-stand, braving the sweltering heat of the sun, on a dreary day in the month of August. Twenty minutes had ticked away yet there was no bus in sight. Then suddenly I caught sight of a huge, green, monster turn the corner. With a faint smile on my lips, I presumed that I would be safely and shortly deposited home. But to my utter dismay, the bus was on the verge of capsizing with a capacity crowd already inside the bus. The irate conductor gave a quick, double whistle to escape from the clutches of the disappointed passengers on the pavement, and the bus sped past. (v) After a futile wait, a speeding auto-driver, broke the hot news of a flash strike by the bus-drivers. Making good the opportunity, I boarded an empty auto flying past, not minding the astronomical sum quoted by the driver, in the wake of the strike. In a narrative the paragraphs as well as the sentences in a passage are related in a meaningful way to each other. To understand it, therefore, we have to be aware of the relationships and not be content with the mere understanding of words. Task 3:

Which words show these relationships? Give examples for each from the passage you have just read, for the following:


(Linkers) -

Which show


















Reference words

(like pronouns)

: it Identifying main ideas


Chronological order in the narrative


Now give a title to the rearranged narrative: D. Vocabulary I.

Spelling words correctly

Task 1:

Read the following statements. Then work with your partner and decide which statements you agree with. 97

A good speller: (a) hears a new word and can associate the sounds with the right letters. (b) doesn’t remember how the word should look, and gets confused when he tries to write it down. (c) can break a word into its parts, and knows how to write the parts down. (d) can’t say which letter symbols represent which sound. (e) probably sees an image of the word in his mind, and “reads it off” as he spells. Task 2:

Are you a good speller? Read this passage from your little sister’s notebook, and correct the spelling mistakes. A boy and a monkey

Tim the Boy and his Monkey, Pistol, were accused of the Theft of a Ring. Well, Tim and Pistle were in a rest house and the Piple their irriated Pistle, and he landed on the person’s head, who had the ring. They were cent to court and the Juge said he had stolen lady Margeret’s ring. She had only Brought it that day and the Ring was very expensive, it cosed a lot of money. (i)

Here are a few spelling strategies to help you spell better:

1. Look at the word carefully and pronounce it clearly, so that an association is made between its appearance and its sound. 2. Cover the word, and write it from memory. Try to see the word in your head. 3. Look up spellings of words in a good dictionary. Learning to use an authentic or standard dictionary (like the Chambers Twentieth Century Dictionary or the English - English - Tamil Dictionary published by the Tamilnadu Text book Corporation), will help to develop your reference and research skills as well. 4. Syllabification

: Break the word into suitable units, usually syllables.

e.g. caravan

: ca-ra-van


: dis-ap-point-ment

carefully : care-ful-ly Syllabification shows that there are logical patterns at work in spelling. (ii) Some commonly confused words are: “they’re, there, their” The following sentences will help you understand them better. a.

Where are they? .............. on the table.


Where are you going? I am going ............... 98


Whose book is that? It’s ................. book.

(iii) Some areas that cause difficulty to ‘spellers’: a. Some vowel combinations ‘ie’ - ‘ei’ – ‘iou’ and other complex combinations: relieve, receive, pious b. Unusual words using ‘y’ as a vowel: rhythm, hymn c. Difficult words: diphtheria, diarrhoea, eczema d. Another common error is the ‘single for double,’ ‘double for single’

So, ‘shining’ becomes ‘shinning’

‘dropped’ becomes ‘droped’

‘furry’ becomes ‘fury’

‘later’ becomes ‘latter’


Use the correct word to fill in the blank spaces.

1. Look, Shantha is going to ............. (sleep/slip) from the table. 2. Let’s all .............. (leave/live) together for the party. 3. Could you lend me a ........... (pin/pen), please? I have a test now. 4. Be careful! This is where I ............. slipped/slept. 5. The ............. (debt/date) for the engagement is still to be decided 6. Deepak, please go to the shop and get me some .......... (paper / pepper). There’s none in the kitchen. 7. Several students stood in the corridor and ............ (chattered / chatted) like monkeys. II. Some commonly confused words Task 1:

Here are pairs of words, which have the same sound but are different in meaning (also called Homophones). Work in pairs. Consult a dictionary if you are not sure of any word.

1. The child ............... the toy .................. the window. (through, threw) 2. My mother received the.......which was...... from Bombay, for her birthday. (sent, scent) 3. The criminal was ................. at the ................. of the crime. (scene, seen) 4. Juju was not .................. to read the book .............. (allowed, aloud) 99

5. The workers spent the ........ day repairing the ............. in the water pipe. (whole / hole) 6. The children gave their mother no ............... till she had given them a ................. of the cake (piece / peace). Task 2:

Use the clues to fill in the words. They sound similar but are different in meaning and spelling.

1. a female horse



the chief city official

2. light-coloured



money paid for bus ticket

3. a strip of timber



tired, uninterested

4. completely


sacred h _ _ _ 5. rough c _ _ _ _ _

a place for golf


6. a story t _ _ _

the rear end


7. period of seven days



lacking strength

8. a bucket p _ _ _

whitish in colour

Task 3:


Select the correct word from the two given in brackets.

1. The elderly woman, though uninjured, was .............. (quiet, quite) shaken by her experience. 2. All ................ (accept, except) the last few bogies of the Rajadhani Express were derailed. 3. The accident happened very near the Sahara ............... (desert, dessert) 4. The engine was .............. (stationary, stationery) because it had toppled onto its side. 100

5. The driver applied the brakes in the .............. (vein, vain) hope that he might stop the engine. 6. Nothing could ............. (lessen, lesson) the impact of the hurtling engine. III. Pronunciation and Spelling (i) Read the following dialogue aloud:

A : What do you have in your basket?

B : Some papers and a ball.

In the dialogue given above, the letter, ‘a’ is pronounced in different ways.

e.g. what /ó/

have /A/

basket /å:/ a


papers /eI/



Note: (a) ‘a’ has the pronunciation /ó/ in spelling structures where it is preceded by ‘w’ or ‘u’











(b) The fundamental sound of the letter ‘o’ is also /ó / as in ‘a’











(c) The sequence ‘ou’ can also have similar vowel qualities as (a) and

(b) -








(d) Another similar sounding combination is ‘au’ which has the sound / ó /








(e) ‘ow’ in the word ‘knowledge’ is pronounced /ó /


knowledge :






(ii) Now look at the words ‘boat’ and ‘though’. How are the sounds ‘oa’ and ‘ou’ pronounced here? In both cases ‘oa’ in boat and ‘ou’ in ‘though’ have the sound realisation /EU/. Task:

Given below are some words. Refer to a dictionary and find out how they are pronounced. In each row, circle the word, which sounds different.

a. shot crochet knot b. bomb soul cod c. dough cot mould IV. Is it American or British?

Read the given dialogue:

Dee :

............. and he said he bought his new car for five grand! He’s

gonna drive it in the race next month. MA :

No kidding! What kind is it?

Dee :


MA :

Gee! Are you sure? A BMW for five grand? Sounds pretty cheap to me!

Dee :

Well, I think that’s what he said.


But they don’t make a model for less than nine or ten thousand.


Dee :

Well. Come to think of it, it does sound awful cheap!

Do you notice some unfamiliar words like: ‘grand’, ‘gonna’, ‘kidding’, ‘cheap’? These are ‘American’ English expressions. Here is how you would say them in ‘British’ English: grand :

a thousand

gonna :

going to

kidding :


Gee :

an expression of surprise

awful :

awfully / very

Some American (English) words and expressions are different from British (English) in spelling and form. Task 1:

Given below is the American spelling for some words. Write the British spelling in the opposite column. The first one is done for you. 102




















Task 2: Write the British English word which means the same as the word given in American English, choosing from the words given in brackets. The first one is done for you. (maize, holiday, lift, goods, lorry, chemist, terminus, sweets, biscuit, porridge, chips, apartment) American



















E. Study skills I. Using the Internet “In the past we had speech, then writing, and now, ‘computer mediated language’”– Netspeak. Samuel Johnson sat on a rickety chair, surrounded by a ‘chaos of borrowed books’ out of which he compiled his famous Dictionary. James Murray worked in a little shed in his garden, surrounded by mountains of paper slips that would one day become the Oxford English Dictionary. And today, there is the compilation of e-mails, games and chat logs – ‘Language and the Internet’. The Internet opens the windows to the world. Through it we can get information from any part of the world, communicate with anyone, talk to anyone, watch films, listen to music or play games. Task1:

Do you know what the following stand for?




Task 2:

Using the ‘google’ search engine (http://www/google.co.in/)

(i) search for web-sites on short stories or poems on farmers. Download, read and enjoy.

(ii) surf for information on Samuel Johnson, Webster, James Murray and see how they have contributed to the English language.

II. E-mail The e-mail (Electronic mail) has replaced the conventional letter, as a means of communication. The e-mail is different from the letter in that it is precise and short. It does away with the traditional conventions of letter writing and saves time for the writer as well as the receiver. Now read this letter which Outhakutty’s son Munna wrote to his friend Susay. Chennai 15th Sept. 03

My dear Susay,

I have some good news for you. I have secured admission in the Agricultural College at Coimbatore. All the formalities have been completed. I have paid my fees and got my clothes all packed. I have also got a room in the hostel. I will be leaving for Coimbatore on 20th September by the Nilgiris Express, with my father. I would be most grateful if you could arrange for our stay at a reasonably priced hotel, for the 21st and 22nd.

I hope you will be there at the station.

I hope I will hear from you soon.

Yours affectionately,

Munna Later, Munna decided to send the letter by e-mail. To : Susay Menon From : Munna Outhakutty email:[email protected] Subject :Coming to Coimbatore Secured admission at the Agricultural College, Coimbatore. Reaching Coimbatore on 21st Sept. 2003 by Nilgiri Express. Pl book a room at a reasonably priced hotel for 2 days. Will U meet us at the station? Munna

Essential details Abbreviations 104

Task 1:

What other changes do you notice?

Why is the e-mail so popular?


because it makes communication almost instant


it is less laborious to write

When writing an e-mail, please note: (i) You can use short forms, symbols, abbreviations that are recognisable (ii) receiver’s / sender’s address, date, need not be used as they are already programmed in the computer (iii) the communication resembles a message / formal / informal letter, depending on the purpose and the receiver Task 2:

Now write an e-mail on the following:

You have visited a farm where they use only environment friendly products. Write to your father telling him about it.

(You could mention: no chemical use – organic farming – use of vegetable mulch – bio-products – healthier environment – cleaner water etc). Add some ideas of your own.

Task 3:

Outhakutty sent a message through his newly acquired computer to Subbyrami, inquiring about tractor parts. Write the reply that he received. From To E-mail Subject

F. Grammar Conditionals Read this advice which a doctor is giving to a difficult patient. Doctor


Take these tablets if you are in pain.



Can I take one every day?



No, don’t take them unless you are in pain.



But, when I have pain, will one be enough?



Take one every hour till the pain goes away. 105

To indicate a conditional clause, we can use ‘if’ or words like ‘unless’ ‘when’ ‘till’, etc., which also serve the same purpose. Task 1:

Use ‘unless’, ‘when’, ‘till’ or ‘until’ in the following sentences.

1. The recorder won’t work .............. you put some batteries in. 2. You can’t start the project ............... you have permission. 3. Let us wait ................ our parents arrive. 4. We could go by an auto ................. you want to walk. 5. I can’t enjoy the music ................... you stop talking. Task 2:

Rewrite the sentences below using one of the following.

‘Unless’, ‘otherwise’, ‘in case’, ‘though’, ‘until’, ‘till’

1. If I had seen you there, I would have said ‘hello’. 2. If I go to America, I will definitely visit your cousin. 3. If you don’t learn German, you cannot work in Frankfurt. 4. We stayed up all night but we were not tired at all. 5. You can vote only after you have completed twenty-one. 6. If the rain stops, we can go out after breakfast. 7. In spite of the damage to the aircraft, no one was injured. Task 3:

Match the two halves of the sentences.

1. I won’t wear my raincoat

1. if you take a taxi.

2. I’m sure we’ll enjoy the film

2. as soon as the guests arrive.

3. Would you like some warm milk

3. unless it rains.

4. You will probably be in time

4. before you go to bed?

5. We will have dinner

5. even if anyone comes to the door.

6. You won’t hear the dog bark

6. though we have missed the first 15 minutes.

Task 4:

Rewrite the following sentences using the words given in brackets:

1. You will go to the doctor tomorrow and I will look after Prem and Prakash.

(When) .................................................................................

2. Sona won’t go to bed. Her father will get home at 10.00 p.m.

(Until) ................................................................................... 106

3. Nana has to complete his home-work. He can’t go out.

(Until after) ..........................................................................

4. The shop-keeper will open the shop again. The damage has to be repaired.

(As soon as) .........................................................................

5. The children will be late. I will meet them at the bus-stop.


6. Aunt Susy is going to write to me. I will give you all her news.

(When) ................................................................................

7. It will be raining next week. We will be in Dehradun.

(While) .................................................................................

8. You won’t get home till midnight. Your mother will be very worried.

(If) ........................................................................................

Task 5: Work in pairs. Would your life be different if you were living in a rural/ urban area? Tell each other in what ways things would be different. Use words like ‘unless’, ‘though’, ‘otherwise’, ‘in case’, etc. e.g.

If I was living in a village, I would not worry about pollution.

Unless ............................................

If I was living in a city, I would not worry about transportation.

Task 6: You have entered a contest advertised on TV and are thinking and dreaming about the various prizes you might win. 1st prize

5th prize

A new tractor

2nd prize

3rd prize

A latest

A home




6th prize

4th prize A week’s


trip to



Sony TV

A set of encyclopa edia


Which prizes (mention atleast 3) would you like to win?

If you were offered cash instead, what would you spend it on? Write about the various possibilities. (Use conditionals like ‘unless’, ‘though’, ‘till’, ‘until’, ‘otherwise’, ‘in case’, etc.) G. Writing Writing a diary Anne Frank’s diary, written in hiding from the Nazis, is world famous. It contains the first person account of her day-to-day life and her opinions and belief. Here is a very brief extract from it. March 1945 Bergen – Belson Conc. Camp Dear Kitty, I’m not at all well today .............................................. I want to be useful or give pleasure to people around me who yet don’t really know me. I want to go on living even after my death .................................................... How wonderful it is that nobody need wait a single moment before starting to improve the world. ................. .................................................... Think of all the beauty still left around you and be happy.......................... Bye, Kitty, Goodnight Anne Anne Frank addressed her diary as “Kitty”. Anne Frank died of typhus shortly after. Task:

Refer to the story ‘The Farmer’. Kesavan Nair, the farmer, loses his land at the end of the story, yet he goes back to his “fifty” every single day and even supervises the work there. Write a page from his diary giving an account of his activities during the day.

5th Sept. Vaikom 7.00 p.m. I have just returned from the fields. I feel very tired. I have been standing in the sun all day. That Outhakutty does not know much about the plants. I told him one week back that............................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................ Kesavan 108


Why do we use punctuation marks?

What would happen if we didn’t use them, when writing?

How can we use them appropriately?

We use punctuation marks in writing. What do we use while speaking?

Task 1: Work in pairs. Read the given sentences aloud and use punctuation marks where necessary. A bank robber wrote all his instructions on a piece of paper he did this rather than shout the cashier read the piece of paper it demanded money in a paper bag when the robber was told that no paper bags were available he fled. Task 2:

Work with a partner. Read the sentences and decide which ones are punctuated correctly. Indicate with a ()

1. Its’ a nice day today, isn’t it?

It’s a nice day today, isn’t it?

2. The movie star was a tall dark handsome man

The movie star was a tall, dark handsome man.

3. If you want to meet the Manager, make an appointment

If you want to meet the Manager make an appointment.

4. My grandmother on the other hand has a sweet tooth

My grandmother, on the other hand, has a sweet tooth.

5. That’s right ! she said

“That’s right!” she said.

Task 3:

Rewrite the following passage, inserting the correct punctuation.

1. An enterprising barber once used a lack of punctuation to boost his business. Outside his shop he displayed a notice, “What do you think I’ll shave you for nothing and give you a free glass of juice”. A customer was duly tempted by it. Having had his shave he demanded his free drink. The barber explained that he was certainly offering no free juice. What punctuation did the barber give in his notice to justify himself and what punctuation had the customer given it?

2. A hundred people whispered the President. 109

3. Why mother exclaimed Dileep I don’t know.

4. The woman was joking half an hour after her husband died.

5. What do you think I work for nothing and pay for the pleasure of it.

6. What is the formula for water asked the Science teacher of a class of juniors he picked out a boy to answer H I J K L M N O spelt out the boy what’s that cried the master the boy looked at him in obvious surprise then slowly repeated the letters what on earth are you saying who gave you that funny idea asked the teacher you sir was the boys reply you said in class yesterday that the formula for water was H to O. H. Occupational competency Look at this advertisement It’s not that bad being a tortoise

They do live to a very old age. They suffer few mechanical breakdowns. They have a poor appetite. We know that they are not the swiftest. But need we remind you of the story of the tortoise and the hare?

Tizron Mobile. The car that wins! Buy yours today!

Advertisements or ‘Ads’ are generally used to sell products.

Task 1:

Name the products the following ads are selling. Are they all selling a product?

Orient Now Ever wanted to ‘get away from it all’? The magic of Himalayas, Nepal, Kashmir and Mysterious China. All the treasures of the Orient await you… Free brochure for the discerning traveller. Phone (0015) 381 for details today.

JINJA Herbs and Spices for health, medicinal and culinary purposes. Dried herbs and spices, natural shampoos, soaps and toilet preparation. Special gift sets. Telephone or write for our catalogue: JINJA 10, Chen Drive, Lower City, (0223) 5131

Use your talents to make money. Write for a living or for fun. We offer courses in journalism, writing articles, short stories, poetry. Moderate fees. Free Prospectus, from The Advanced School of Journalism, Halhahalli, Karnataka.

Wanted experienced Social Worker. Preferably full-time to work in WellWoman Association. Evening and weekened work. Salary Rs. 10,000/Apply to Well- Woman Association P O Box 1007, Cheng Town.


Task 2:

Discuss together: the language used in ads – the descriptive words – short phrases rather than sentences – the colour used – the lettering – and the catchy caption for a title. How do all these help?

Task 3:

Now work in groups of three and design an ad. After you have completed it, describe your product to your class.

I. Strategic competency

How observant are you?

Heard on the Rajdhani Express:

Task 1:


Travelling by the Rajadhani you heard the sentences given above, spoken by various people. But there are mistakes in every sentence. Can you spot the mistakes? Rewrite the sentences correctly in the space below: 1.

What! A lady is getting in!




5. 6. 7. 8. 111

Task 2:

Here are a few more sentences. Correct the wrong ones.

1. A: Have you seen the film, ‘The Titanic’?

B: Oh, yes. It’s about the big ship which drowned.

2. A: Are you doing a lot of gardening, now?

B: A little. I’ve planted some roses in front and some brinjals in my backside.

3. A: Why don’t you enter Lekha’s name for the elocution?

B: Her pronounce in English is not so good.

4. A: Do you exercise everyday?

B: Everyday now I used to go swimming.

5. A: Was you pleased to see your uncle again?

B: Yes! I was meeting him after five years!

6. A: So why don’t you learn the language?

B: Because, if I want to learn the language, I must go to German.

7. A: I’m always wanted to visit Rome.

B: Me too!

Task 3:

Look at the following hoardings. Then say what’s wrong with each. The mistake could be in the spelling or form of a word.


Dyears and Dricleaners. We die for you.

Large Office Toilet 10000 Sq. ft Rs.7500/- per month Phone: 0121 462 6613

Bill-stickers will be persecuted



resents a play “English to

Aromatherapy Massage Yoga Acupuncture

English” by Bobby Ryan on

All our therapists are strained and experienced.

SAT. 25th Sept.

Phone : 044 - 287253112 Task 4:

Work in pairs. Spot the errors in the following sentences. Decide why there are errors and correct them.


1. A Matrimonial Ad.

2. A news item

28 year male, tall, slimy and intelligent. Non-smoker, professional with own house. Seeks alliance with smart, educated, working girl.

Karate Club Praised for Community Service. Members of the Karate Club were congratulated by the Mayor for the work their movement does to help disable people in the local community.

3. Situations Vacant

4. A Health Ad


Chengelpet Clinic for


Better Health

Wanted for a five star hotel

For better health join our ANTSMOKING CLINIC. Write to

– Apply to Manager

the Director of Health Services, Chengelpet, Tamil Nadu.

Experience essential, with a good knowledge of food and beverages. The successful applicant should have a smart and peasant appearance. 5. A news item

Search Abandoned. Police at Surat yesterday called off a search for a 55 year old woman who is believed to have frowned after falling into the swollen river Brahmaputra. The woman had been receiving treatment for depression. J. Creative competency What is your opinion? People are lonely in large cities: Agree / Disagree Task 1:

Read the questionnaire given and tick the Agree/Disagree column. Agree


People in cities usually live alone.


Most people in cities go to work.


People in cities usually have some domestic help.


People find city-life expensive.


Commuting to work in cities is tiring.


Most people in cities have a very hectic social life.


A few men and women live in joint families. 113



People are generally too busy to socialise.


People only go out during weekends.


People generally do not go out alone because it is not safe.


The only form of entertainment most people have is the TV.


People living in cities do not make friends easily because they mistrust people.

Task 2:

Work in pairs and compare your opinions with your partner’s. Try to justify your opinions.

Task 3: Now write a short article expressing your views about living in the city. You should support your views with examples. Organise your ideas in the form of notes first. Arrange them in paragraphs when writing. A Talk show In this project, you will make and produce your own radio programme. Task 1: Read the following local radio programme, which will give you ideas for your own programme, and answer the questions that follow: (Sound of music fading away ................) This is Radio Ginger. Good Morning, listeners! Welcome to an exciting morning of news – interviews, jokes, music and much, much more! Your presenters today are Rachna and Rahul! Rachna


Hello, listeners – Good morning, I’m Rachna and I’m here with lots of interesting news for you. The highlight of today’s news is the sighting of an Extra Terrestrial. Here is a report. (music) A young boy, while collecting vegetables in his field saw a pair of enormous eyes staring at him. On going closer the boy saw eyes like jelly fish with faint tentacles around them. The sunken eyes stared at the boy and then put out a long finger. The boy shrieked and scrambled backward while the ‘creature’ jumped in the other direction, emitting an ultrasonic squeak. When the boy, finally pulled himself together and looked again, the creature had vanished! Now over to Rahul. But watch out for ET!




Good Morning, Listeners. This is your friend Rahul and I’m here with the riddles for the day! So, sharpen your wits and get ready to answer them. Get your paper and pencil ready and work out each letter. It’s a word that means something everybody needs. “My first letter is in RUSH and also in STOOL My second in KNACK and also in SALE My third in LEAF and also in ROOF My fourth’s in FREE and also in SEA My fifth’s in TIGHT and also in TREAT My last’s in SMELLY and also in YOUNG” Ha, Ha, Ha! Did you get that right? Good for you. Now for some music. A request from our listener in Pattabiram who wants to dedicate this song to her friend in Chalakudi. Here is your song and after that over to Rachna. (Sound of music ………… fading away)



It’s time for ‘Meet the Celebrity’, our regular feature. We have today in our midst a national awardee – Ms. Sita, who recently got the national award for Best Teacher. Let’s discover the real person ‘behind the chalk and duster and blackboard’. Good Morning Ms. Sita! Congratulations on getting the national award, ma’am.



Thank You.



I’d like to ask you some personal questions Ms. Sita, if it is all right.



Provided it isn’t too personal, I don’t mind.



Tell me, Ms. Sita, as a young girl at school, did you ever get into trouble?



(laughing) Have you ever thought about how we teachers catch students at their tricks? I was also up to similar pranks at school. My teachers weren’t always happy with me.



How do you spend your evenings, Ma’am?



I usually spend it with my family. We read, talk or go out together.



Do you have any special interests?



I love all forms of Arts – Music - dance- painting – films. 115



Tell us, Ms. Sita, if you hadn’t become a teacher, what would you have done?



I’ve always wanted to live on a farm and grow my own vegetables, and paddy and keep cows. Perhaps that’s what I would have done!



Thank you, Ms.Sita. It was wonderful talking to you. OK. Listeners! We’re running out of time. Till tomorrow this time, then ........ Good bye .......



Namaskar ..... Vanakkam (music .... fading away)

a. Why are there two presenters? b. What is the presenter’s role? c. Do you like the presenter’s style? Yes / No. Give reasons. d. Why is the content mentioned in the outline right at the beginning of the programme? e. Is there enough variety of content? Task 2:

Take turns and present the above programme to the class.

Task 3:

Now it is your turn. Your class will write and produce its own radio programme on any of the following topics.

• Jokes, short plays • Interviews • Games • Advertisements • Special reports: road safety, exams • Entertainment reviews: music, films, books Here are some tips to help you: (a) decide the length of your programme (b) select two presenters (those who have lively personalities and voices) (c) discuss and agree regarding the proposals for the programme (d) keep a record of items agreed upon, and their length (e) make sure there is enough variety (f) decide on the sequence of items 116

(g) decide who will write the script (h) decide the day when the whole programme is to be produced (1-2 periods) (i) select a programme producer who will co-ordinate the entire programme and will also be the compere of the show. All the Best! Self evaluation : I.

Write sentences to bring out the difference in meaning between the words in pairs:




at last


at least


- effect




- steal


II. Rewrite the following sentences using ‘unless’: 1. If he has time he will attend the meeting. 2. If it does not rain next month, there will be water scarcity. 3. If you heat ice, it melts. 4. If you finish your home work, you can watch T.V. 5. If you study well, you pass.


POEM THE SOLITARY REAPER Behold her, single in the field, Yon solitary Highland Lass! Reaping and singing by herself; Stop here, or gently pass! Alone she cuts and binds the grain, And sings a melancholy strain; O listen! for the vale profound Is overflowing with the sound. No nightingale did ever chaunt More welcome notes to weary bands Of travellers in some shady haunt, Among Arabian sands: A voice so thrilling ne’er was heard In spring-time from the cuckoo-bird, Breaking the silence of the seas Among the farthest Hebrides. Will no one tell me what she sings? Perhaps the plaintive numbers flow For old, unhappy, far-off things, And battles long ago: Or is it some more humble lay, Familiar matter of to-day? Some natural sorrow, loss, or pain, That has been, and may be again! What’er the theme, the maiden sang As if her song could have no ending; I saw her singing at her work, And o’er the sickle bending – I listen’d motionless and still; 118

And, as I mounted up the hill, The music in my heart I bore Long after it was heard no more. - William Wordsworth William Wordsworth, an eminent poet of nature, was born on 7th April, 1770, at Cockermouth, Cumberland, in the Lake District. Though he lost his parents at a very young age, his uncle gave him a good education. His meeting with Samuel Taylor Coleridge in 1795, proved to be a turning point in his life. They, together published, ‘The Lyrical Ballads’ in 1798, Wordsworth succeeded Robert Southey as Poet Laureate in 1843 and remained in office till his death in April 1850. Glossary



yonder, beyond




vale : valley



a group of islands









a tool used for cutting grass and crops

Comprehension I. Indicate your choice by putting a () 1. The reaper is

a. cutting the grain and binding it

b. singing a song

c. cutting and binding the grain as well as singing

2. The reaper’s song

a. was sad

b. joyous

c. neither

3. The song was about

a. some recent tragedy

b. a battle

c. the poet is not sure 119

4. The poet stopped to listen because

a. he was tired

b. the song was deeply touching

c. he had heard the song before

II. Pick out words from the poem, which describe the reaper’s song. III. Pick out the words from the poem which mean ‘solitary’. IV. Answer the following with reference to the context:

1. ‘No nightingale did ever chaunt

More welcome notes to weary bands.’

2. ‘The music in my heart I bore

Long after it was heard no more’. V. Appreciation questions 1. When we make comparisons, we say “this is like ................” (something else)

e.g. “This child is gentle as a lamb.” These are called similes. An implied simile is a metaphor.

In the poem, what does the poet say about the reaper’s song and about her voice? What does he compare them to?

2. Poets and musicians generally believe that the most thrilling / beautiful songs are the saddest ones. Do you agree? Discuss with your partner. 3. Which stanza of this poem did you like best? Learn it and recite it to your class. 4. Can you think of poems / songs in your mother-tongue that reapers sing? Share your information with your class. Think about festive occasions too. 5. Have you seen reapers harvesting grain? Are they usually alone or in groups? See if you can find any similarities in the reapers you have seen and the one mentioned in this poem. Do they sing or do they work silently?


UNIT IV COMPETENCIES A LISTENING: Listening to short talks and taking notes B SPEAKING: Conversing at the restaurant

Conversing at the bank

C READING: Understanding conceptual meaning

Understanding discourse organisation

D VOCABULARY: Forming words using different prefixes/suffixes

Using compound words

Using words formed by clipping, blending and back-formation


STUDY SKILLS: Transferring information (verbal/non-verbal texts)

F GRAMMAR: Using primary and modal auxiliaries as tense markers in question tags, short answers, etc. G WRITING: Summarising

Writing articles for school magazine


OCCUPATIONAL COMPETENCY: Filling in proforma (DD Challan)




CREATIVE COMPETENCY: Writing a letter to the editor

Writing the script for a school play

A. Listening Listen to a short talk by your teacher. (The teacher reads) The following are the main and sub-points of the ‘talk’: Dreams mirror one’s image

• • •

Dreams reveal our present worries They reflect our past anxieties Dreams reflect our innermost feelings

Different kinds of dreams

• Funny • Nightmarish • Exciting • Predicting • Those that fulfil one’s innermost desires 121

Dreams versus reality

• • •

Dreams are a perfect escape from the harsh realities of the world Dreams are unreal and momentary Dreams are only a mirage, an illusion

Conclusion: Dreams are a reflection of our image. Dreams appear to be real; but are not. Dreams are unreal. Opinion: Dreams are a part of life, for life itself is a dream. The only difference is that it is a dream in a state of being awake. Dreams may be unreal. But, they are the shadow of one’s thoughts. Without the shadow, the essence of reality will be lost. The main points are the main ideas that are focussed in a talk. It is around this, that the entire talk revolves. The sub-points are the supporting ideas, that elaborate on the main idea. The conclusion is the summing-up of the main/sub-points of the talk. While the main points, sub-points and conclusion are culled out from the talk (of the speaker), the opinion is that of the individual (listener). It is a reaction to the ideas out-lined by the speaker. It can either support or contradict the speaker’s views. Task: Now you will listen to another short talk by your teacher. Listen carefully and take down the main-points, sub-points, conclusion and opinion, as shown above. B. Speaking I. You are one of the members of the child-jury, to choose the most favourite theme of children in children’s books – adventure, fantasy, science fiction, etc. After a formal review of various books and their themes, you go to a restaurant. At the restaurant Asha


Shall we sit at that table, near the window?



Yes, we shall.



What shall we have first?



I think I’ll have some cheese-sandwiches first.



Let me have a look at the menu and then decide.



I would like to have a mushroom pizza. 122



I prefer masala dosa.



Let’s call the bearer and place the order.



Bearer, could we place the order?



Yes, Ma’m. What would you like to have?

Lekha :

Please bring us one plate of cheese-sandwiches, one mushroom pizza and one masala dosa.



What else would you two like to have?






Yes, and some potato chips too.



Yes, Ma’m.

(The dishes are served and they eat.)



Asha, please pass me that glass of water.



Eswari, would you like to have some more chips?



No, thank you.



Lekha, that samosa is for you. Please have it.



Care for some coffee?



Tea, for me.



Asha, what would you prefer?



I would rather like to have vanilla ice cream.

Eswari : Bearer! Please get us one cup of tea and one cup of vanilla ice cream.

Do you have rose milk?



Yes, Ma’m. It’s available.



Then, I would like to have a glass of rose milk, please.



(After they finish.)

Bearer! Please bring us the bill.

Asha : Eswari, Lekha and me shall wait in the lobby. You can pay the bill and join us there. Eswari


Yes, I’ll do that. 123

(Asha and Lekha leave. The bearer brings the bill and Eswari pays.)



Thank you, Sir!



Thank you, Ma’m!

(Note: I’ll have, I would like to have, and I prefer, are different ways of expressing what one wishes to eat/drink.

Place the order means to state what you want, to the bearer.

Please bring us and Please get us, are used to request the bearer to fetch you something. I would rather like to have is used to state your choice or preference over something else.

Do you have is used to ask, What is available?

Task 1:

Take turns and practise the above dialogue.

Task 2:

You have written an essay on ‘My vision for the future of my country’, for a National Essay Competition. On winning the first prize, you receive the award from the President, at New Delhi. Your parents accompany you, and after the felicitation, they take you to a restaurant. Using the words given in italics in the above dialogue, prepare a similar conversation. Take turns and practise speaking that conversation.

II. On reaching Chennai, from Delhi, you would like to open a Savings Bank account and deposit the cash prize that you have received. At the bank Arun


Excuse me, Sir. I would like to open an SB account. Could you tell me the procedure, please?

Bank Manager


First of all, fill in this form. It contains details regarding your name, age, address, etc. Then, somebody will have to introduce you - somebody who is already an account-holder in this bank.



Sir, my headmaster has an account here. He will be here shortly.

Bank Manager


Well, that’s settled then. You will also have to affix one passport size photograph on the passbook, after it is issued to you.



Yes, Sir. I will do that.


Bank Manager


Remember, your signature is very important. You must give three specimen signatures, and you must always take care to sign in the same manner.



Fine, Sir! I’ll remember that. Sir, what is the minimum deposit?

Bank Manager


You will have to deposit a minimum of Rs.500/- in your account.



Will I be given a cheque-book?

Bank Manager


For that, the minimum balance ought to be Rs.1000/-



Alright, Sir. In case, I want to have a fixed deposit, what will be the rates of interest?

Bank Manager


Our rates of interest will be 6% p.a. (Arun fills the form and hands it over to the Bank Manager.)



Sir, here is the form. I have filled it. Where should I pay the money, Sir?

Bank Manager


At the teller’s. See! It’s the counter over there. You will also have to fill the pay-in slip, and hand it over to the teller, along with the money. After depositing the money, you can collect your passbook. I will credit the entry into your account.



Thank you, Sir!

Task 1:

Practise the dialogue given above as a role-play.

Task 2: Your school is conducting an English exhibition. You have been asked to set up different booths - post-office, restaurant, bank, policestation, etc., and give model conversations, as samples of interaction in these places. You and your friend are in charge of the booth ‘At the bank’. Prepare a dialogue, using the phrases given in italics in the above conversation and present it as a role-play. (The dialogue can focus on how to open an account in a bank, how to get a demanddraft, etc.) You can use other phrases like, “Can I have a DD challan please?” “Could you help me fill this challan?” “Could you tell me in which counter I have to get my DD?” “How much surcharge do I have to pay for Rs.1000/-?”


C. Reading Pre-reading: A. Answer the following by ticking the appropriate box. often sometimes never 1. Have you indulged in malpractices in examinations? 2. Have you seen anyone copying in the exam? 3. Have you used someone’s essays to prepare your own? 4. Have you copied passages from another person’s work to prepare your assignment? 5. Have you submitted another person’s work as your own without his/her knowledge?

Discuss in groups:

1. Is it wrong to copy someone’s work and/or use his/her ideas without acknowledgement or permission? 2. Who is the loser. - The one who copies or the one whose work is copied without his/her knowledge? why?


IV. THE HELPING HAND - E.M. Forster When Lady Anstey’s book on Giovanni da Empoli was published, Mr.Henderson found in it much that needed forgiveness. His friend did not write as charmingly as she talked: a horrid slime of culture oozed over her style, her criticisms were affected, her enthusiasms abominable. This he could have forgiven; but how could he forgive the subject matter? The dear lady had appropriated, without acknowledgement, facts and theories for which he, and he alone, was responsible. He had studied Giovanni da Empoli for years, and the premature fruit of his labours now lay upon the breakfast table - a little apple-green book, four shillings net, being one of Messrs. Angerstein’s series of Pocket Painters. Mrs. Henderson, a devoted wife, was turning over the leaves with a smile upon her face, for she was pleased that the words of Lady Anstey had been printed on such heavy paper. She knew nothing of the shameful plagiarism, her interest in art being sympathetic rather than intelligent: she was always glad when her friends and her husband got on in it, just as she was glad when her son got on at school. “What a long list of books she has read to write it!” she observed. “Did you know she could read German? And when did she go to Italy? Wasn’t Empoli the place you made us go to ––– the dirty hotel where we had to hunt the chickens out of the bedroom window?” “Yes,” replied Mr. Henderson, remembering with anguish the nights at Empoli which he had spent and Lady Anstey had not.

“Why did we go there? I’ve forgotten.”

“I had things to look up in the archives.” He held up the newspaper as a screen.

“I think you look up too much. Here’s Lady Anstey who a litle time back knew no more about Italian art than I do, and yet look! I wish you’d write a little book like this. I’m sure you could do it.” “I haven’t the knack of putting things brightly.” He never said all he thought about the Pocket Painters and similar editions, believing that anything which induces people to look at pictures has its value.

“Yes: I dare say it’s all superficial and wrong.”

He answered with some animation, “What makes you think so?”

“Because I mistrust new theories ––– not that I should have known there was a theory. But she says there is one in the preface.” “Giovanni da Empoli,” said Mr. Henderson eagerly, “is one of the great puzzles of the Quattrocento. It is highly probable from internal and external evidence that many pictures attributed to other painters should be given to him.” 127


“Cut your bread and butter, dear, do not bite it,” said Mrs. Henderson to their

“If we take one of the Pieros in the National Gallery, the portrait in the Poldi Pezzoli at Milan, the so-called Baldovinetti at Naples, and the cassoni attributed to Pesellino, we notice in all a certain –––” “Empoli is a quanit old town not untinged with the modern spirit,’” interrupted their son, who was reading out of Lady Anstey’s book in the nasal twang that is considered humorous by the young. “’Here in 1409’––– then a long note saying why not in 1429 –––”

“Exactly,” said his father.

“ ––– in 1409 young Giovanni was born, here, when not on his travels, he lived, and here he died in 1473. Our painter never married. Of his six children four ––– ’”

“Don’t read at meals, dear,” said his mother, taking the book.

“This is a great surprise to me and a great pleasure. I never thought Lady Anstey had it in her.” No more she had. The book was the work of Mr. Henderson. He had no one to blame but himself. Lady Anstey had said, “I want to write a book about Giovanni da Empoli: tell me everything you know.” and he had told her, cautiously at first in barren statements, then, as he grew warm, infusing the facts with life, till at last the whole theory stood up before her delighted eyes. “Tell it me again,” she said, for she was not quick at following, and he had told it her again and she had made notes of it, and he had placed his own notes at her disposal. He reminded himself that facts are universal property, and it is no matter who gives them to the world. But ideas - should there not be some copyright in ideas? He had only meant to stimulate Lady Anstey, not to equip her. However, she had Virgil on her side, and Moliere and Shakespeare, and all the ancient Greeks who had taken everything and said nothing to anybody, and splendid fellows they were. She was perfectly open when they next met, greeting him with “And here is someone else to whom I owe more than I can say.” For her book was a success, and Messrs. Angerstein had asked her to do one on Botticelli. “I’m so glad he’s been of use,” said Mrs. Henderson, imagining herself to be engaged in conventional civilities. “I never knew he had studied the man.” For Mr. Henderson had decided to bear his burden in silence, and neither to his wife nor to anyone else did he give one hint of his mortification. He had in him something of the saint, and knew it would be wrong as well as undignified to repine. “And now tell me all about Botticelli,” said Lady Anstey. But Mr. Henderson told very little about Botticelli. He regarded Lady Anstey with frozen admiration, almost 128

with terror, as a being devoid of conscience and consciousness. They contiued great friends, but he saw her as seldom as possible. Her book, in spite of its popular form, made a considerable impression in artistic circles, and she was soon drawn into the congenial and lucrative atmosphere of controversy. In a fortunate hour Sir William Magnus disagreed with her, and a duel ensued, conducted with courtesy on his side and spirit on hers. Wisely refraining from venturing into new fields, she contented herself with repeating the statements she had made in her book. Mrs. Henderson, who always followed anything personal, was able to write her a hearty letter of congratulation on her victory. Mr. Henderson did not write. The triumph of his theory gave him no pleasure, for it had triumphed in a mangled form. Lady Anstey had wielded it fairly well, but she had missed all the subtleties, she had spoiled the purity of its outline. Yet she had not spoiled it enough to justify his publishing it anew, under his own name. He suffered a good deal, though he trained himself to laugh at the irony of the situation. He would like to have found some one to laugh with, but all his friends were embroiled on one side or the other, and he could not trust them to keep silent. As for his wife, she did not believe in irony. Meanwhile the book ran through several editions, and there was a rumour that the powers that be in the National Gallery were troubled, and meditated changing the label on the Piero della Francesca. By the time Professor Rinaldi came to England, Mr.Henderson was tired of laughing and needed sympathy. Rinaldi, whom Mrs.Henderson called the Italian, was a man of great learning and artistic insight, who had become so disgusted with controversies over beauty that he had left Rome and retired to the curatorship of a small provincial gallery. There he lived, or as others said rotted, studying continually because he could not help it, but avowing his intention of never publishing again. Here was a man to whom Mr.Henderson could speak freely. They were old friends, and he determined to pay him a visit in London.

“Do, “said Mrs. Henderson ,”and I will finish off the spring cleaning.”

Mr. Henderson left on the Thursday, and Mrs. Henderson turned out the dining room. On Friday she did the drawing room. On Saturday she began at her husband’s study, and came across a pasteboard box labelled Giovanni da Empoli. Recognizing the name, she opened it and read on the top sheet inside: “Reasons for believing G. to be born in 1409.” A strange impulse moved her, and she went for Lady Anstey’s book. It gave identical reasons. Then in one moment the loving wife became a student of art. All Saturday she sat with the book and the papers before her, and discovered that they coincided, not here and there but everywhere. The last paper in the box was a letter from Lady Anstey saying “Many thanks for loan of notes, which have been most acceptable.” 129

All Sunday she thought over the revelation, all Monday and all Tuesday she acted on it. Mr. Henderson returned on the Wednesday. He was looking more cheerful than she had seen him for weeks. “The world is ruled by irony,” he observed, and smiled, as if he found the rule easy to bear.

“And how is the Italian?” she asked, rather ill at ease.

“As fine as ever. ‘A little less imagination in archaeology and a little more in art’ was his advice to Sir William yesterday.” The word “art” gave her an opening, and she exclaimed, “Yes indeed! Yes indeed! Yes indeed!”

“Why this enthusiasm?”

“You dear thing!” she cried, embracing him: “you’re too good to be alive!”

“What have I done?” he asked, looking grave.

“I’ve found you out –– that you wrote Lady Anstey’s book –– that she took all your facts and ideas and never said a word. And all these months you’ve let her talk and become famous and make money. I do admire and love you for it - but do be glad I’m different!”

“What have you been doing?” he said sternly.

“Nothing rude- don’t be cross. I only let it out in the course of conversation, or put it in a letter if I was writing one.”

“And to whom have you written?”

“Oh, not to Lady Anstey: to Lady Magnus about thevaccum cleaner, and one or two more. And yesterday. I met the editor of the Dudley and he was horrified. Don’t be angry - no, I don’t mind if you are angry; it’s simple justice I want; she shall not pick your brains and no one know; you shall have the credit for your own theory.” “Unfortunate,” said Mr. Henderson. “Professor Rinaldi has just proved to me that the theory in question is wrong, that the facts are wrong, that the book is wrong, that I am wrong. Unfortunate.” Pronunciation of Names :


: /'Ansti/


: /'dZi:Euva:ni/


: /'AndZEsti:n/


: /'hendEsn/


: /'empoli/


: /'kAtrE'tSentEu/ 130


: /'piErEuz/


: /'pezEli:nEu/


: /'vE:dZIl/


: /'molieE/


: /'SeIkspIE/


: /'bótI'tSeli/

William Magnus

: /'wIljem mAgnEs/

Piero della Francesca

: /'pIErEu delE frAn'tSeskE/


: /'rI 'nAldi/


: /'poldI'pezØ:li/


: /'bØ:ldóvIneti/


: /'neIplz/


: /'mI'lAn/


: /'kE'sEuni/

Idioms :

at one’s disposal

- for one’s use

pick someone’s brains

- use someone’s ideas

in barren statements

- state without value, interest or result.

to bear one’s burden in silence - to regret or suffer quietly

to get on at/in something

- to make progress

Glossary slime


/ slaIm/


sticky liquid. In this context, hypocrisy



/ u:zd /


flowed out slowly



/E'fektid /


pretentious or artificial



/E'bómInEbl /


causing disgust, detestible



/E'prEuprieItId /


taken for one’s own use without permission



/'pleIdZrIzm /


act of taking someone else’s ideas, words and using them as if they were one’s own.



/'ANgwIS /


severe mental or physical pain.



/ a:kaIvz /


place where historical documents, records or research writings are kept.




/ nAk /


skill or ability



/ In'dju:sIz /


persuades or influences



/su:pE'fISI /


having no depth of character feeling etc., trivial

Giovanni da Empoli



a fictional painter




town in central Italy




the fifteenth century




regard something as belonging to somebody.




paintings by Italian painter Piero della Francesca (1410 or 1420 - 1492)




painting by Florentine painter Allessio Baldovinetti (1425 - 1499)




name of a painting by Francesco Pesellino, an Italian Renaissance painter



/' kweInt /


attractively odd or old fashioned, strange



/ ún'tIndZd /


unaffected. In this context, ‘not untinged’ means slightly affected

nasal twang


/ 'neIzltwAN /


nasal quality or tone in speech.



/' kØ:SEsli /


carefully to avoid danger



/' stImjEleIt /


arouse the interest of somebody



/ kEn'ventSnl /


based on customary practice



/ 'sI'vIlEtiz /





/ 'mØ:tIfI'keISn /


shame or embarrassment



/ 'kEn'dZi:niEI/


agreeable or pleasant



/ 'lu:krEtIv) /


monetarily profitable



/ 'sútlItIz/


deep ingenious, refined or sensitive presentations



/ 'kontrEv¨:si/


public discussion or argument



/ kjuE' reItESIp/


post held by the person in charge of a museum, art gallery etc.

/ E'trIbjut /


provincial gallery




a building or room in a province (adminstrative division) showing works of art



/' Impúls/


urge, inclination, wish




Classical Roman Poet (70-19 B.C.)




French dramatist (1622-1673)




Italian Renaissance painter (1445?1510)




got oneself involved (in a quarell or difficult situation)

/ Im'brØIld/

A. Match the italicized word in the context of the sentence to the appropriate synonym in the given responses: 1. Her criticisms were affected. a) The Bhopal gas leakage caused severe breathing problems to the residents. b) She tried to pass herself off as a foreigner but failed as her accent was so pretentious. c) The news of the accident disturbed him. d) The water in this pond has been defiled by the leather factory near by. 2. I haven’t the knack of putting things brightly. a) She needs a suitable bag to keep her cosmetics. b) I don’t know whether I left the car keys in the room or at the reception counter. c) The sculptor has the ability of giving a glossy finish to his carving. d) My kid sister has a habit of practising her violin lessons just when I need to sleep. 3. I dare say its all superficial and wrong. a) Don’t waste your money on unneccessary purchases. b) It is a false belief that a black cat is a bad omen. c) He has done a detailed study on insect behaviour d) Her poetry portrays indepth the pangs of poverty. 4. Empoli is a quaint old town. a) My brother bought an old-fashioned clock at an auction sale. b) There are books of many unknown authors in this library. 133

c) The farmhouse is an isolated building far from the high road. d) I am looking for a quiet picnic spot to spend the week-end. 5. She was soon drawn into a congenial----------controversy. a) The weather in the hills is agreeable to those recovering from illness. b) Lung related diseases are in most cases hereditary. c) Cornflour is used as a thickening agent in chinese recipes. d) All public transport vehicles are over crowded during peak hours. B. Choose the appropriate antonyms of the italicised words from the options given. 1. Her criticisms were affected, her enthusiasms abominable.

a) contemptible

b) desirable

c) preferable

d) attractive

2. He had only meant to stimulate Lady Anstey

a) discourage

b) perplex

c) implicate

d) provoke.

3. ........... who had become so disgusted with controversies........

a) comparisons

b) agreements

c) expansions

d) distortions

4. He regarded Lady Anstey with frozen admiration.

a) denial

b) abuse

c) contempt

d) dislike

5. I met the editor of the Dudley and he was horrified.

a) startled

b) appreciative

c) calm

d) delighted

C. Fill each blank with a suitable word from the block given below. 1. The old man was in _______ when he lost his grandchild at the fair. 2. The salesman ________ the sales data of his rival company and misused the information to better his sales. 3. The manager _______ his company’s success to the hard work of his employees. 134

4. Even though he has been living in the U.S for so long, he has retained his Indian culture ______ by western influences. 5. You need to be _______ about the friends you make during your adolescent days. attributed; untinged; cautious; anguish; appropriated Comprehension A. Answer briefly : 1.

How did Mr. Henderson feel when Lady Anstey’s book appeared?


Why did he feel so?


How did Mrs. Henderson react to Lady Anstey’s book?


What was her opinion about the book and its author?


Why had Mr. Henderson taken his wife to Empoli?


What did the publisher want Lady Anstey to do after the success of her book?


Why did Mr. Henderson decide to “bear his burden in silence” after the plagiarism of his work?


What was the effect of Lady Anstey’s book in artistic circles?


Who was Professor Rinaldi?

10. Why did Mr. Henderson meet him? 11. What did Mrs. Henderson come across during her cleaning? 12. What did she do as the result of her discovery? 13. What was Mr. Henderson’s response to her actions? 14. What does Mrs. Henderson’s behaviour at the breakfast table reveal about her? 15. How is the title suitable to the story? B.

Write a paragraph on :


Lady Anstey’s book on Giovanni da Empoli


Mr. Henderson’s theory and its outcome.


Mrs. Henderson’s discovery and its outcome.


Write an essay in 250 words.


Mr. Henderson and his theory


E.M. Forster’s characterisation of Mr. Henderson, his wife and Lady Anstey.


“Neither a borrower not a lender be”-- comment with reference to ‘The Helping Hand’ 135


Identify the character and his/her traits or personality as revealed through these lines.


He held up the newspaper as a screen.


I haven’t the knack of putting things brightly.


He had told her, cautiously at first ______ then, as he grew warm, infusing the facts with life.


Wisely refraining from venturing into new fields, she contented herself with repeating the statements she had made.


I only let it out in the course of a conversation or put it in a letter.


Don’t be angry-- no, I don’t mind if you are angry! it’s simple justice I want.


Unfortunate ______ Professor Rinaldi has just proved to me that the theory in question is wrong.

Understanding Conceptual Meaning : In order to understand the concept outlined in a text, it is necessary to understand the ‘purpose’, ‘means’ and ‘comparisons’ if any. Read the passage “No more she had. The book was the work of Mr. Henderson .............. Greeks who had taken everything and said nothing to anybody, and splendid fellows they were” from the lesson.

What is the ‘purpose’ of this text?

Henderson explains why he had given lady Anstey his notes and justifies her plagiarism.

What is the ‘means’ of this explanation and justification?

A situational and illustrative mode is employed to explain and justify the actions.

What is the “comparison” between Lady Anstey and the classical writers mentioned in the passage? The phrases “ on her side” and “ who had taken everything and said nothing to anybody” show that the classical writers had done acts of plagiarism just like Lady Anstey had done. The phrase “splendid fellows they were”shows that Henderson seeks to overlook the crime of plagiarism by justifying its association with those considered respectable. Task : Read the passage, “Mr Henderson did not write ....Piero della Francesca” from the lesson. Using the model given above, explain the ‘purpose’,’means’ and‘comparison’. 136

Understanding discourse Organisation The following is a diagrammatic representation of the main characters in the story “The Helping Hand” and their roles in the organisation of the text.

Task 1 : Pick out the phrases in the bubbles and arrange them in sequence of presentation in the text. Task 2 : Read the lesson in Unit I and give a diagrammatic representation of the discourse organisation. Remember to look out for the main and supporting ideas. D. Vocabulary I. Using the dictionary independently: (a) Refer to the dictionary to find the meanings and parts of speech of the following words: Part of speech


exciting fantasy fairy recurring (b) Refer to a Thesaurus to find the Synonyms of the following words:

(c) Refer to a Thesaurus to find the Antonyms of the following words:












(d) Refer to the dictionary to find the derivatives of the following words:

e.g. magic

- magical, magician, magically





II. You have read the following words in the lesson. They are words formed with prefixes and suffixes premature acknowledge mistrust attribute anew


embroiled unfortunate discovered induces impression

forgiveness sympathetic abominable humourous plagiarism


admiration cautiously curatorship provincial different

The words given in column A are formed using prefixes and the ones in column B using suffixes. The bold part in each word is the prefix/suffix. Here are some more examples: Suffixes

Prefixes a-

atheist, aglow


scornful, doubtful


misuse, misspell




immortal, immobile

hopefully, sadly



-ly -hood





childish, reddish


religious, furious


enable, entrust


uniform, unilateral






unwind, unaware


rocky, muddy


decode, defame









cooperate, coexist


cordless, hopeless



















































microTask 1:


Read the following passage. Fill in the blanks with suitable prefixes and suffixes. Tim’s boy...... days

Tim was a play....... little boy. His behaviour was clown...... His room was ....... tidy. He had books and toys all ......round. His grandfather’s photo...... hung on the wall. The hands on his clock moved in the .........clockwise direction. He watched ........ serials and gang....... movies. He was very rebell....... He ......behaved and .......obeyed his elders. His father had ..........tension. The doctor said it was cur........ He studied in a ....education school. In school he was known by his .......name. He wrote poetry under the ............nym, ‘Notty’. He was ........enthusiastic at times. He was desper....... to win every poetry competition. He liked classic..... music. He wanted to study archaeo........ His dream was to become a mountain...... His uncle gave him a .........scope on his sixteenth birthday. After he grew up, Tim .....called that it was this gift that changed his life. He had become a scient...... specialising in cell structure.


Task 2:Form new words combining the following prefixes and the words given in the box. imlegal endo unitake ildisciplinary detheism malmature exclose semidirectional polycipher underway interwife pronourished sublong outcolon

Task 3:Form new words combining the following suffixes and the words given in the box. joy in child hard penny magnet happy busy entertain luck auto obtain

-ly -ness -ment -ism -y -less -cracy -ship -like -ward -able -ous

III. Lady Anstey’s book on Giovanni da Empoli was a little apple - green book The italicised word is a compound word  It is formed by combining one base form and another. Examples


Other examples








Noun + Noun

cork-screw sun-dial wonderland knee-deep

Noun + Adjective (participle)

homesick henpecked


Noun in Possessive case + Noun

sportsman childsplay


Adverb + Noun

out-patient postscript


Verbal noun in ‘-ing’ + Noun

washing machine


Adjective + ‘-ing’ participle






Adjective + ‘-ed’ participle



Adverbial + deverbal Noun


Examples of other combinations: Examples


push-button, treadmill

Verb + Object

safeguard, whitewash

Adjective + Verb

overthrow, upset

Adverb + Verb

telephone operator, science teacher

Object + Agential Noun with ‘er’/ ‘or’

air-conditioning, sightseeing

Object + verbal Noun with ‘-ing’

blackboard, blue print

Adjective + Noun

lifelong, jet black

Noun + Adjective

popcorn, crybaby

Verb + Noun

Task 1:

Combine the words given in Box A with those in Box B to form compound words and fill in the blanks appropriately.

A day, after, flash, dining, sun, sweet, bed, earth, rain, hair, paper, police, hand, mad, fire, sea, look, crime, blood

B back, green, light, smelling, man, reporter, side, break, proof, fall, quake, cut, stains, shake, out, dream, officer, room, rays, noon

My dream was to become a ........................ That ................ I was reading the ...................... edition of the ‘Adventures of Sherlock Homes’. ................. Suddenly I felt a tremor. I thought it was an .................... It was dark. I searched for the ........................ by my ................ It was gone. I slowly got up from the bed. I heard the sound of ..................... on the roof. I saw ........................ on the floor. It led to the ...................... I found a candle lit and a man with a strange .................... seated at the table. He had .............. eyes. He wore a ..................... jacket. He greeted me with a ................. He gave me a ......................... rose. I heard a knock. I went to the door and opened it. A ........................... said he was on the .............. for a ................ He had escaped from the mental asylum. Suddenly there was a bright fire from the dining room. ................. 141

I saw the ................ streaming in through the windows. It was ..................... I realised it was all a .................... Task 2:

Fill in the blanks choosing the words given in brackets to form compound words: (god, grand, tooth, beauty, gold, fancy, born, sleep, telling)

1. The art of story ............... is slowly dying. 2. Tom Sawyer told Aunty Polly that he had a ...........ache. 3. Little Red Riding Hood went to visit her ..........mother. 4. The early explorers of America dreamt of finding ..........mines. 5. I dressed up as a fairy .........mother for the .............dress competition. 6. Sleeping............. was woken up by the kiss of a handsome prince. 7. ...........walking is a condition, not a disease. 8. Joseph and Mary were warned in a dream to avoid King Herod who had planned to kill new........... babies. IV. (a) Read the following sentences: 1. I We will have brunch at eleven o’clock so that we can use the lunch time to finish the project. 2. The planes could not take off at the scheduled time on Saturday because of heavy smog in the city. Here ‘brunch’ is formed by combining ‘breakfast’ and ‘lunch’. Similarly ‘smog’ is formed by combining ‘smoke’ and ‘fog’. They are formed by a process of blending or combining two words. Task: Combine the words given below and form new words by blending.

motorway + hotel =

motor + bike =

television + broadcast =

travel + catalogue =

international + police =

teleprinter + exchange =

electro + execute =

binary + digit =

motor + pedal cycle =

news + broadcast =

(Clue: One portion of the word to be formed is highlighted.)


(b) Look at the following sentences :

Alisha’s grandpa was searching for his specs.

He found it near the phone.

Be it the day before my exam, or even when I was down with flu, ....

Look at the words in bold. How are they formed? They are formed by the process of ‘clipping’, that is, a portion of the original word is removed and the remaining part is considered to be a word by itself.

specs is from spectacles (back clipping)

phone is from telephone (front clipping)

exam is from examination (back clipping)

flu is from influenza (front and back clipping)

Task 1:

The following words have been formed by ‘clipping’. Find the original words.


plane –

demo –

mike –


fridge –

Task 2:

The words formed by clipping are given in Box A and the portion clipped is given in Box B. Match them to find the original word. A auto bus memo

B graph omni mobile

(C) Look at the following sentences: 1. Our suitcases were X-rayed to see if we were carrying arms or weapons. The noun “x-ray” is the original word. From it the verb “x-rayed” has been formed. The process involved here is back-formation. Here are some more sentences:

My cousin used to baby-sit us when our parents went out.

Grandpa had been diagnosed with lung cancer.

baby-sit is a back-formation of baby-sitter

diagnose is from diagnosis 143

Task 1:

Look at the words in bold in the following sentences. Fill in the blanks given below with the appropriate back-formation of these words.

Mr. Angerstein was the editor of the Pocket Painters series.

He was a great orator too.

My voice filled with emotion.

The burglar entered stealthily.

They watched a television programme. 1. He was asked to.............. at the elocution competition. 2. ‘The Helping Hand’ was .................... yesterday on Channel V. 3. The actor was asked to .............. 4. The thief .............. the house. 5. She ........ the newspaper.

Task 2:

In the sentences given below, the words formed by back- formation are given. Find their original noun forms.

1. They lazed around idly.

2. I wanted to dry-clean my clothes.

3. Do not chain smoke. It is bad for health.

E. Study skills We spend about 8 hours/day, 56 hours/week, 224 hours/month and 2,688 hours/ year doing it...that’s right...SLEEPING. We apparently spend one third of our lives doing nothing. But is sleep really doing nothing? It looks like it...our eyes are closed, our muscles are relaxed, our breathing is regular, and we do not respond to sound or light. If you take a look at what is happening inside your brain, however, you will find quite a different situation - the brain is very active. You are doing something! you are dreaming! Look at the graph given below:


Sleep follows a regular cycle each night. There are two basic forms of sleep: slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. EEG (electroencephalogram) shows a record of brain activity; the EMG (electromyogram) shows muscle activity; the EOG (electroculogram) shows eye movements. Look at the differences in the EEG, EMG and EOG during waking, REM sleep (Rapid Eye Movement Sleep) and SWS sleep. Most dreaming occurs during REM sleep. During REM sleep, a person’s eyes move back and forth rapidly. The EEG pattern during REM sleep is similar to the EEG pattern when people are awake. However, the muscle activity is very quiet during REM sleep. Muscles are inactive to prevent us from acting out our dreams. Task:

Using the above example, describe the graphs given below.

F. Grammar Look at the following sentences : This was followed by the hunt for his most treasured copy ..... I don’t know what you mean. I had taken a trip down memory lane. The words in bold are primary auxiliaries. ‘Be’, ‘do’ and ‘have’ are called auxiliaries because they help the main verb. (auxiliary – helping)

‘Be’, ‘do’ and ‘have’ act as both main verbs and auxiliaries.

e.g. (a) I am a good boy. (b) I am going to school.

(a) I did my homework. (b) I didn’t go to school.

(a) I have a tie. (b) I have done my homework.

In the above sentences, (a) denotes the use of ‘be’, ‘do’ and ‘have’ as a main verb and (b) denotes that of an auxiliary as it helps another main verb – ‘going’, ‘go’, ‘done’.


Here are some more examples of primary auxiliaries and their uses: ‘be’:

Mrs. Henderson was turning over the leaves. (used to form continuous tenses)

‘be’ + ‘to’ infinitive

“Mr. Henderson was going to pay Professor Rinaldi a visit”. (planned activity)

You are to recite the poem. (command)


Do you dream of a fantasy world? (interrogative)

“Don’t read at meals” dear, said his mother.(negative)

When he did speak again, it was in a deep growl. (emphasis)

Do say the poem. We want to hear it. (request or persuasive invitation)

Do you know the poem? Yes, I do. (to avoid repetition of a previous ordinary verb)

You know the poem, don’t you? (in question tags)


The dear lady had appropriated it without acknowledgement (to form the perfect tense) You have to recite the poem. (with the infinitive to indicate obligation) I had to recite the poem. (to express obligation in the past)

You don’t have to recite the poem. (‘have to/had to’ used with ‘do’ in negatives)

Do you have to recite the poem? (‘have to/had to’ used with ‘do’ in questions)

(You can use ‘have to’ or ‘had to’ instead of ‘must’.)

The following table gives the various forms of the primary auxiliaries: Primary Auxiliary




is, are, am, was, were

be, being, been


has, have, had

have, having


do, does, did

to do, doing, done


Look at the following sentences: What would you buy? It might have been written a hundred times, .........

Adjectives you can do anything with, .........

The words in bold, ‘would’, ‘might’ and ‘can’ are modal auxiliaries. They are used before ordinary verbs and express meanings such as possibility, certainty etc. Let us see how each of these is used with examples:

‘Can’ and ‘could’

Used to express ability:

I can manage the whole lot of them. You can make words mean so many different things. We cannot do it, Sir, because .......

“...... and he couldn’t trust them to keep silent”

Used to express permission:

You can go.

Can I leave?

Used to express likelihood or possibility in interrogative and negative


Could it be lady Anstey’s original work?

It can’t be her work.

‘Will’ and ‘would’:

Used to express volition/willingness:

I will try and tell you.... They would like to negotiate.

Used to talk about a characteristic habit:

She will sit with a book for hours.

‘Will you’ indicates an invitation or a request:

Will you recite a poem?

‘Shall’ and ‘should’:

Used to express the future:

I shall read................ 147

Used to express ‘duty’ or ‘obligation’:

You should put the children to bed.

Used to express probability:

It should be The Postman. I’m expecting a letter

Used to ask after the will of the person addressed:

Shall I close the window?

‘May’ and ‘might’:

Used to express possibility in affirmative sentences:

You may want to come back. You might be any shape. It might rain tomorrow.

Used to express permission:

May I go? You may go.

Used to express a wish:

May God bless you! ‘Must’:

Used to express necessity or obligation:

‘Must a name mean something?’ Of course it must. I must report at once.

Used to express logical certainty:

She had asked many question and had borrowed his notes.

She must have decided to appropriate his theories.

‘Ought to’:

Used to express moral obligation:

Mrs. Henderson felt that her husband ought to have the credit.

She ought to be going.

‘Used to’:


Used to express a discontinued habit:

We used to climb this tree when we were in the primary classes. ‘Need’: Denotes necessity or obligation: You needn’t go on making remarks like that. She need only to ask.

Used in negatives and questions:

I don’t need to go now.

Do you need to talk to him?


Used generally in negative and interrogative sentences:

How dare you talk back to me?

She did not dare to speak to him.

Alice had also taught me to dare to dream.

Note: The modals ‘used to’, ‘need’ and ‘dare to’ are quasi or semi-modals. Task1:

Fill in the blanks with suitable forms of ‘do’:

A: .............. you want to go shopping this afternoon? B: I ..........., but I can’t because I’m going for a walk with Dolly. A: But .........n’t you take a walk with Dolly yesterday? B: I .......... A: I’ve never met Dolly.......... you think she might like to go shopping? B: I ........n’t think so. She .........n’t do much shopping. A: That’s strange. Why not? B: Dolly’s my dog! Dogs .........n’t go shopping very often, ....... they? Task 2:

Fill in the blanks with suitable auxiliaries choosing from the ones given in brackets: (could, can, may, don’t, will)

A lion nearly trod on a little mouse. “I ........... crush you with my paw,” said the lion. “............ do that, please,” said the poor mouse. The kind lion said, “I ........... not crush you.” “Thank you,” said the mouse. “Some day I .......... do you a good turn.” “You!” said the lion. “How ........... a poor little mouse help a big lion?” “I ........... know,” said the mouse, “but I ....... help you if I ..........” 149

Task 3: Fill in the blanks with suitable auxiliaries choosing from the ones given in brackets: 1. The medicine ............ be kept in the refrigerator. 2. Every afternoon they ............ watch television serials. 3. The fire-fighters ............ brave the raging fire. 4. You .............. not buy me a new dress. I already have one. 5. You ............. see the boss immediately. It is very urgent. 6. He ................ lift heavy weights. 7. My father said, “You ........... go and play”. 8. You .............. obey your elders. 9. He looks familiar. I ........... have seen him somewhere. 10. ............. I take leave of you? 11. His father was very doubtful about the possibility of his passing the exam. So, he said, “He ................ pass.” 12. “They ................... rather die than surrender.” 13. When my grandfather was young, he .................. go for long walks. 14. You ................... do it, if you tried hard. 15. Don’t disturb her. She ............... reading. 16. India ................ won the match. (dare to, need, can, might, used to, ought to, must, could, should, ‘be’ verb, may, will, would, ‘have’ verb) G. Writing I. Read the following passage: A cute little female about six inches high, with wings and a pretty dress is the usual description people give if you ask them what a fairy looks like. This image of the fairy as a tiny, lovable, angel-like creature dressed in white, goes back to about the seventeenth century. But before that time, fairies were very different. They were cruel and dangerous creatures which lived in the remote hills and forests of Britain. They were feared so much that people rarely spoke out loud of ‘fairies’, preferring to use more respectful names such as ‘the little people’ or ‘the hidden people’. There were many different names for the hidden people: fairies, elves, pixies, goblins, to name a few. There were also a number of explanations of their origin. Some said they were spirits of wood and water. Some thought they were restless ghosts of unbaptised babies. Still others believed them to be a separate creation, as real as humans and animals. 150

They were much smaller than ordinary people. Most accounts describe them as being the size of children, about four feet or so. Their clothing seems almost always to have been green or brown, although they occasionally went naked. Many early stories indicate that they were nocturnal. They had their homes in lonely and out of the way places. Generally the fairies hated humans and could be very cruel to them. They would steal human babies, especially those with fair hair and blue eyes, and replace them with one of their own or just a piece of wood. Babies were not the only things that the fairies would steal. Tools, plates, saucepans, practically anything small that they could easily carry. Food and clothing were not spared. Fruit trees were raided in the night and cows milked dry. Sometimes relationship with humans was more friendly. They would do household jobs and mend things around the farm in exchange for old clothes and food. The first thing we notice about these people is that their needs were not at all supernatural. They wanted food and were ready to work or steal in order to get it. Surely these were not ghosts or spirits.

Who are they then? We will never know the truth about the fairies.


'The little people' Before the 17th century, fairies also known as elves, goblins, pixies, ‘the little people’ or ‘the hidden people’, were feared and thought to be cruel and dangerous. But after that they were thought of as tiny, cute, lovable, angel-like creatures, with wings and a pretty white dress. Some thought they were spirits of wood and water, others that they were restless ghosts of unbaptised babies, yet others thought they were a separate creation like humans and animals. They were smaller than ordinary people – the size of children, about four feet. Their dress was green or brown. Occasionally they were naked. They lived in lonely places and were nocturnal by nature. They generally hated humans and stole their babies, tools, plates, saucepans, food and clothing. At night they raided the fruit trees and milked the cows. Sometimes they were friendly. They did household jobs and mended things on the farm in return for food and old clothes. They were not supernatural. They were not ghosts or spirits. Who were they then? We will never know the truth about them.

The above is an example of summarising.

Why do we summarise?

In order to reduce a larger text to its bare essentials – the gist or key ideas.

In order to save time and trouble in reading the entire original text again.

How do we summarise?


Skim the text to be summarised


Read the text carefully


Note down/underline the main ideas


Draw a diagram or an outline of the main ideas


Note down the supporting ideas


Leave out examples and details


Don’t include your own ideas


Use your own words


Develop the outline/diagram into a summary and give a title


Edit the summary for spelling, grammatical errors, etc. 152


Read the lesson ‘The Helping Hand’ and summarise it based on the model given above.

II. Your English Literary Club is bringing out a magazine. Write an article on “How to discourage plagiarism”. Before writing Think about the topic at length. Discuss with others. Refer to a few books, magazines, newspaper clippings, the Internet, etc. Jot down your ideas as and when they occur. While writing The length of the article should not exceed 500 words. Divide your article into introduction, body and conclusion. Begin with a catchy introduction. Use anecdotes, quotes, etc. Use simple, concise language. Watch your spelling and grammar. H. Occupational Competency Task:

You see an advertisement in the newspaper. A publishing house in New Delhi has brought out a paperback edition of the complete works of Lewis Carroll. You want to buy it. You are asked to send a Demand Draft for Rs.500/- Fill in the following DD challan in favour of ‘ X publishing house, New Delhi’, payable at New Delhi. The surcharge for Rs.500/- is Rs.10/-


I. Strategic Competency Every other day new words are being coined. But not all words that are coined find their way to the dictionary. Some fall by the way-side, some thrive at the birth-place alone, some manage to thrive without lexical acceptance, but only a few survive and manage to make their grand entry into the internationally accepted lexis. Word coinage can be fun. Neither does it need to follow any strict linguistic rules nor does it need to be accepted into the dictionary. All that is required is acceptance by a group of people. Even if the members in the group are few it doesn’t matter. An example of a word that has been thus coined is ‘co-brother’. This word is used to refer to the person who has married one’s wife’s sister. Though this word has not yet found its way into the dictionary, it has been in use for quite a long time, especially in South India. Another example is, ‘burning a CD’. It means to copy a CD. Task 1:

Make a list of words that you have been using or heard other people using. (The words must have been coined and used for specific purposes.)

Task 2:

Coin a few words using the prefix ‘co-’, and suggest how they could be used. (e.g. ‘co-study’ could mean combined or group study.)

All said and done, always try to use Standard English. But be aware of the above eccentricities of the English language. J. Creative Competency I. Read the following letter to the editor of a newspaper: Sir, - I visited the theme park, ‘Kids Dreamland’ on East Coast Road, last month. In spite of the variety entertainment, it is a pity that there are puddles of stagnant sewage water in a corner of the campus. This attracts flies and mosquitoes. With the eatery nearby it proves a serious health hazard. My friend, who visited the theme park last week, also noticed this problem. Besides, the water used for the games doesn’t seem to be clean. We ended up with itching and rashes immediately after our visit. My friend too has experienced this. If these problems are not set right, the ‘Dreamland’ will soon become a ‘Diseaseland’. S. Vijayakani Chennai Remember, a letter to the editor has to be precise and to the point. The language should be simple and free from grammatical/spelling errors. Task: A local library in your neighbourhood is in a dilapidated condition. Though it boasts of very rare books, the books are not well maintained. The walls are cracked and water seeps in through the ceiling when it 154

rains. Though the library is open till 8.00 p.m., the lighting is very poor. During the night it serves as a den for a few gamblers. Write a letter to the editor of a newspaper voicing your grievance. Use the above letter as a model. II. Your class is in charge of putting up a play for Annual Day. You decide to enact ‘The Helping Hand.’ Task: Complete the following script for the play based on the lesson.

The Helping Hand Characters :-

Stage props :-

Mrs. Henderson

dining table

Son chairs side table Mr. Henderson

Room Scene

Duration 45 minutes (Mr. Henderson is at the table eating his breakfast. His son is beside him reading a book while he eats. Mrs. Henderson is serving them.) Mrs. Henderson:

Oh! This is indeed surprising, I didn’t know Mrs. Anstey could write so well !. Its a fount of information!

Mr Henderson:

(glumly) Hm .........good.................yes.............

Mrs Henderson:

And just imagine! she knows German! But when did she go to Italy dear? I don’t remember her going. Surely I would remember? Ah she mentioned Empoli in her book. Isn’t that where we went darling?

Mr Henderson:

(still glum) yes dear.

Mrs Henderson:


Remember when writing a script use short, crisp sentences. Leave out unnecessary details. You can include any descriptions or extra information, which might be important in parentheses/italics. Self-evaluation: I.

1. What is the difference between a principal verb and an auxiliary? Give an example. 2. How do modal auxiliaries differ from primary auxiliaries? 3. Give one or more examples of primary auxiliaries being used as principal verbs. 155

4. Which modal auxiliaries are used for probability and possibility? 5. What are quasi-modals? II.


Give examples of clipping, blending and back-formation.

2. Give examples of compound words:

Noun + Noun : .................

Adjective + Noun : .................

Verb + Noun : .................

Noun + Adjective : .................

Adverb + Noun : .................


POEM IS LIFE BUT A DREAM? A Boat, beneath a sunny sky Lingering onward dreamily In an evening of July – Children three that nestle near, Eager eye and willing ear, Pleased a simple tale to hear – Long has paled that sunny sky: Echoes fade and memories die: Autumn frosts have slain July. Still she haunts me, phantomwise Alice moving under skies Never seen by waking eyes. Children yet, the tale to hear, Eager eye and willing ear, Lovingly shall nestle near. In a Wonderland they lie, Dreaming as the days go by, Dreaming as the summers die: Ever drifting down the stream – Lingering in the golden gleam – Life, what is it but a dream? Is all our Life, then, but a dream Seen faintly in the golden gleam Athwart Time’s dark resistless stream? Bowed to the earth with bitter woe, Or laughing at some raree-show, We flutter idly to and fro. Man’s little Day in haste we spend, And, from its merry noontide, send No glance to meet the silent end. - Lewis Carroll 157

(This poem talks about the boat-ride of Dodgson and the Liddells. The poet recollects after a number of years how they set out to picnic on the bank and how the tale was spun.) Glossary and notes: lingering onward dreamily


going forward slowly, in a dreamy state, reluctant to leave

nestle near


settle down comfortably

long has paled that sunny sky


long after the sun has lost its glow; late in the evening (this could also mean that many years have gone by since the story was told to the little girls)

echoes fade and memories die


this denotes the passage of time, how it has become very silent and memories have been forgotten

Autumn frosts have slain July


though it is July when the weather is generally pleasant, Autumn has set in early bringing with it the cold and frosts

she haunts me phantomwise


being disturbingly present in the mind like a ghost (though the fairy tale was spun years ago, the character of Alice still haunts the author)

athwart Time’s dark resistless stream


across ‘Time’ which is compared to a powerful stream (Life, here, is compared to a boat-ride across ‘Time’)

bowed to the earth with bitter woe


bent with troubles or worries; burdened by great sorrow or distress



a form of street entertainment, especially one carried in a box, such as a peep show

flutter idly to and fro


to go about lazily, without any aim or purpose

Comprehension questions 1. Are the children eager to listen to the fairy tale? If yes, which line tells us that? 2. What kind of world do the children find themselves in, when they listen to the story? 158

3. What are the various seasons mentioned in the poem? 4. As the children listen to the story, are they aware of the passage of time? 5. What does the poet compare life to? 6. What are the different parts of the day mentioned in the poem? 7. What does it mean to ‘drift down the stream’? 8. Which lines in the poem tell you that life offers both sad and happy moments? Appreciation questions 1. Why is the boat lingering onward dreamily, reluctant to leave? 2. ‘Echoes fade and memories die’ – Can memories really die? 3. Why does the poet use the word ‘slain’ to refer to the Autumn frosts in July? 4. What does ‘Wonderland’ refer to? 5. What is meant by ‘golden gleam’? 6. The poet compares life to a dream and time to a stream. Why do you think, he makes these comparisons? 7. ‘Man’s little Day’ – does this refer to one day in man’s life or an entire lifetime? 8. What does the poet mean by ‘silent end’? 9. ‘Life, what is it but a dream?’ – This is a rhetoric question. Why does the poet use such a question here? 10. Why is the ‘B’ in ‘Boat’ capitalised? Is it because the poet wants to compare life to a boat-ride? Explain the following passages with reference to the context: 1. Eager eye and willing ear,

Pleased a simple tale to hear –

2. Long has paled that sunny sky:

Echoes fade and memories die:

3. Still she haunts me, phantomwise. 4. Is all our Life, then, but a dream

Seen faintly in the golden gleam

Athwart Time’s dark resistless stream? 159

5. Man’s little Day in haste we spend, ….

No glance to meet the silent end.

Activity 1. The full name of the original Alice – Alice Pleasance Liddell, is hidden in the poem. Can you find it? 2. There is one word in the poem which does not rhyme with the other two rhyming words in the stanza. It is more of an eye-rhyme. Can you find it? 3. List out the characteristics of life and that of dream. Compare both. Similarly list out the characteristics of time and that of a stream. Compare both. Is the poet justified in making these comparisons? 4. When you listened to a tale, read a story or watched a film, have you ever had a character in that tale/story/film haunt you afterwards? What were your feelings then? 5. Have you ever had an interesting dream? Attempt writing a poem on your dream. 6. Can life be compared to a paper-boat? Jot down your ideas on this. Parallel Reading In both, ‘Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland’ and ‘Through the Looking Glass’, the most important and powerful character is not a person but the English language. In fact, Alice discovers that words have a life and will of their own. Read the following poem: WORDS

Some words are happy and some words are sad.

Some words are scented and others smell bad.

Some words are open and some words are sly.

Some words are slimy and others are dry.

Some words are cold and some words are hot.

Some words are tender and others are not.

Some words are honest but other words cheat.

Some words are bitter and others are sweet.

Some words move quickly, some words are slow. 160

Some words are shrinking, while some others grow.

Some words are remembered, some words forgot.

Some words we use little and some quite a lot. - Carl Sandburg

‘Echoes fade and memories die’ and ‘Some words are remembered, some words forgot’ – compare both the lines.


UNIT V COMPETENCIES A LISTENING: Listening to panel discussion

Listening to programmes on TV

B SPEAKING: Conversing at the cinema C READING: Reading and understanding a questionnaire

Linking ideas scattered in a text

Appreciating literature

D VOCABULARY: Using foreign words/phrases used in English

Using words/phrases appropriately in relevant spoken/written contexts


STUDY SKILLS: Note making

F GRAMMAR: Differentiating Defining and Non-defining Relative Clauses Differentiating Simple, Compound and Complex sentences G WRITING: Presenting data in tabular form H

OCCUPATIONAL COMPETENCY: Preparing a curriculum vitae and a covering letter


STRATEGIC COMPETENCY: Guessing meaning of unfamiliar words from the context


CREATIVE COMPETENCY: Writing a slogan for advertising a brand/a movement, etc.

Interviewing a famous personality for TV

A. Listening Task 1: The teacher will read aloud a panel discussion, broadcast on All Bharat India. Listen to the panel discussion and take notes, using the format given below. (The teacher reads)

Date and time of the programme


Topic of discussion :

Name of the panelists


Their views, with supporting details





1 2 3 4

Your impression about their presentation


Your views on the topic


The foreign words/phrases used


Task 2:

The teacher will read aloud TV news headlines. Listen carefully and answer the questions below.

1. Who has resigned his post? 2. Why has the C.M. gone to Delhi? 3. What is the news about world cup? 4. Who is Ms. World? 5. What is the weather report? B. Speaking The following is a dialogue between two friends: A : Are you doing anything tomorrow evening? B : Yes. I am planning to go to a film. Would you like to join me? A : That’s a good idea. Which film shall we go to-‘To Sir, with love’ or ‘My Fair Lady’? B : The film ‘My Fair Lady’ is showing at ‘Sangam’. Do you know that it is based on Shaw’s play ‘Pygmalion’? I think you would like it. ‘Pygmalion’ is Shaw’s magnum opus. Come on. Let’s go and book the tickets. (At the theatre) B : Excuse me. Could you reserve two tickets for the first show, tomorrow? C : Oh, sure! Which class do you prefer? B : First class. C : I’m afraid all the seats are booked up for the first class. 163

B : What about the second show? C : Of course, tickets are available. B : O.K. then give me two first class tickets. Here’s the money. C : Here are the tickets. B : Thanks. Can you tell me when the show starts? C : At ten o’clock. B : Thanks a lot. C : You’re welcome. Task 1:

Sit in pairs and practise the dialogue with proper accent, in a natural way. Change roles and practise again.

Task 2:

In the above dialogue, you might have noticed that the speakers used different forms for different functions. There are also other ways of expressing the same functions. Write down some more forms for each function listed below. Functions


1. Fixing an appointment 2. Inviting 3. Accepting 4. Declining 5. Making suggestions 6. Polite request

Are you doing anything this evening? Would you like to join me? That would be fine. I’m sorry, I can’t. Shall we…? How about …..? Could you…..please ?

Task 3: Work in pairs. Write a dialogue between two friends Mini and Meenu coming out of a cinema, discussing the film they have just seen. Roleplay it. C. Reading Pre-reading questions 1. Give the name of a successful person you know.

Which of his qualities do you think contributed to his success?

2. What are your goals in life? 3. What do you think, this lesson would be about? Guess its theme from the title.


v. THE ROAD TO SUCCESS Success does not mean the absence of failures. It means the attainment of ultimate objectives. It means winning the war, not every battle. - Edwin C Bliss The road to success is not a bed of roses. It is full of thorns, pitfalls and gins. Only those who wade through the hazards and hurdles with grit and determination could smell success. That is how Gandhi became a leader par excellence; that made Churchill the greatest and the most successful war time leader. These traits and qualities have paid rich dividends to Sachin and made him persona grata. After all, winners don’t do different things. They do things differently. Have you the determination to succeed? Are you willing to devote the time and energy necessary to achieve success? Here are some proven techniques that will help you to achieve success and happiness in life. The first step is to set yourself clear goals, to define precisely what you want to achieve. Goals provide direction to your behaviour and guide your thoughts and actions to the desired outcomes. Goal plans enable you to go beyond momentary influences and organise your behaviour over extended periods of time. Goals should be an extension of your values, your most important fundamental beliefs. Specific goals are better than general ones. Self-chosen goals are better than assigned ones. Choose goals that are challenging but reachable. Write down your short term and long term goals. This will help you in establishing priorities and in deciding on the actions that you must engage in. Form a very intense, extremely vivid mental picture of what you want. Verbalise your mental picture with a brief, concise, forceful ‘GOAL COMMAND’. Repeat it everyday to make it easier for your sub-conscious mind to embrace them. As Swami Vivekananda says, “Take up one idea. Make that one idea your life - think of it, dream of it, live on that idea. Let the brain, muscles, every part of your body, be full of that idea, and just leave every other idea alone. This is the way to success”. Prepare an ‘Action plan’, outlining the specific steps needed to accomplish the result you want. You must get timely feed-back on your progress and be able to modify your strategies when changes occur. Sometimes, even if the goals are not attained the resultant consequences, feed-back or reinforcement can be beneficial. There are literally millions of things in this world which are right and which need to be done - but to which you must mentally, if not vocally say “No!” 165

No person has the time and the ability to do any but a few things which need to be done.

The proven success method is this:

(1) Say “ No” generally.

(2) Say “yes” very, very selectively

You simply concentrate your thought, time and effort on your one main goal. You cannot possibly do all of the things you will be asked to do. So you are going to have to say ‘No’ to a lot of desirable and worthwhile things, simply because they are “incompatible” with the necessary work you must do to reach your main goal. Don’t be afraid of failure. Failure is an accepted procedure in experimenting, research, testing and all scientific forms of “finding out”. Failure is simply the means of finding out what will not work so that it can be eliminated in the search for what will work. So there is no need to think of failure as something to be feared and avoided. Edison and his staff conducted 17,000 experiments which failed before they succeeded in the one experiment which enabled them to extract latex in substantial quantities from just one variety of plant, which was worth the 17,000 failures! Besides, failure is good for your character and personality. It is a challenging experience. The next step is to develop proper self-concept. What you think about yourself is very important. Persons with high self-esteem feel unique, competent, secure, empowered and connected to the people around them. Whereas people who have poor self-concept feel insecure, lack self- confidence and become withdrawn. To improve your self-esteem, become aware of your hidden potentialities and activate them. Take note of your shortcomings and drawbacks and try to overcome them. You can prepare a ‘Weed list’ and a ‘Seed list’. Believe firmly that you can improve. As the Bhagavad Gita says, “One should lift oneself by one’s own efforts and should not degrade oneself; for one’s own self is one’s friend, and one’s own self is one’s enemy”. Another aspect of self-development is ‘Time Management’. Time is your most valuable resource. Successful people are those who manage their time efficiently. They find time for everything; reading newspapers, jogging and even occasional visits to the cinema. Since they have planned everything, they feel relaxed and do their work efficiently. What about you? Do you make optimum use of your time? To know this, write down all you did yesterday with the amount of time spent on each activity. Then you will realise how much time is being wasted on useless activities and why you are not able to achieve your targets in time. Draw a time-table for your daily activities and try to stick to it. Keeping a diary is another useful habit which you must cultivate. This will help you review and monitor your progress. Many people make themselves miserable by trying to imitate others. Mrs. Edith Allred was one such person. She remained unhappy even after she married into a 166

poised and self-confident family. A chance remark by her mother-in-law transformed her life. While talking about how she brought her children up, her mother-in-law said, “No matter what happened, I always insisted on their being themselves”. In a flash Mrs. Allred realised that she had brought misery on herself by trying to fit herself into a pattern to which she did not conform. She changed overnight. She started being herself. She tried to make a study of her own personality. Now she is the happiest person. The renowned psychologist, William James was speaking of people who had never found themselves when he declared that the average person develops only ten percent of his or her latent abilities. You and I have such abilities. So, do not waste a second worrying because you are not like other people. Remember you are unique. There never was and never will be anybody exactly like you. Make the most of what nature gave you. For better or for worse, you must play your own instrument in the orchestra of life. As Emerson says, “Envy is ignorance and imitation is suicide”. No real benefit will come to you except through your own toil. Nature has given you the power. You only know what you can and cannot do. So, find yourself and be yourself. There are people who keep on grumbling and complaining. For them here is the story of Harold Abbott who used to worry a lot. One day, he happened to see a man who had no legs but looked cheerful and happy. He greeted him with a grand smile. At that moment, Harold Abbott felt ashamed of his self-pity. He realised how rich he was. He had two legs and he could walk. This realisation changed his mind. That was a turning point in his life. If we want to be happy, all we have to do is to concentrate on the ninety percent things that are right in our lives and ignore the ten percent that are wrong. Think of all we have to be grateful for and thank God for all our boons and bounties. Would you sell your eyes for a billion dollars? What would you take for your legs? Your hands? Your hearing? Your family? Add up your assets and you will find that you won’t sell what you have for all the gold amassed by the Rockfellers, the Fords and the Morgans combined. So, “Count your blessings, not your troubles”. Make the best of your time. Be optimistic. Plan your work and work your plan. Success will knock at your door. Adieu! Glossary: gin




par excellence



by way of special eminence

persona grata

/pEsE nE 'grå:tE/


one who is held in special favour




the effect or result of an action






give as their share of work or responsibility




brief, in a few words




the information got back








(of a person) not wanting to communicate with others




a fault in somebody’s character, plan or system




watch and check something over a period of time




in a state of balance


/rI'na n/



toil (n)



hard work




a benefit, an advantage


/ba ntI/


money, etc., given as reward




a word of farewell



Choose the synonyms of the italicised words from the options given: 1. Even if the goals are not attained, the resultant consequences, feed- back or reinforcement can be beneficial.

(a) strengthening

(b) weakening

(c) forcing

(d) rejection

2. Failure is simply the means of finding out what will not work so that it can be eliminated in the search for what will work.

(a) included

(b) considered

(c) excluded

(d) destroyed

3. So, you are going to have to say ‘No’ to a lot of desirable and worthwhile things, simply because they are incompatible with the necessary work you must do to reach your main goal.

(a) suitable

(b) unsuited

(c) incomplete

(d) harmonious

4. Goals guide your thoughts and actions to the desired outcomes.

(a) aims

(b) actions

(c) results

(d) beliefs

(c) experiences

(d) amounts

5. Thank God for all our boons and bounties.

(a) help

(b) rewards 168

Choose the antonyms of the italicised words from the options given: 1. The first step is to set yourself clear goals, to define precisely what you want to achieve.

(a) elaborately

(b) simply

(c) vaguely

(d) exactly

(c) unnerved

(d) common

2. Persons with high self-esteem feel unique.

(a) lonely

(b) better

3. She remained unhappy even after she married into a poised and self- confident family.

(a) poor

(b) balanced

(c) unbalanced

(d) arrogant

4. The average person develops only ten percent of his or her latent abilities.

(a) acquired

(b) apparent

(c) early

(d) inborn

5. One should lift oneself by one’s own efforts and should not degrade oneself.

(a) accuse

(b) elevate

(c) lower

(d) deliver

Comprehension I.

Level I

1. Is the road to success smooth? What is unique about winners? 2. What is the first step to success? 3. What is a ‘GOAL COMMAND’? 4. Why should we say ‘No’ generally? 5. How should we treat failure? 6. How can we improve our self-concept? 7. How do successful people manage their time? 8. Why was Mrs. Allred miserable? 9. What is the message of Emerson? 10. Which incident brought a turning-point in the life of Harold Abbott? 11. Why should we be grateful to God? 12. What are our assets? 13. How should we tackle our work?


II. Level II 1. Mention briefly the steps that we must take to achieve success in our lives. 2. How can we increase our happiness according to the author? 3. Which authors and books have been quoted in this essay? 4. What are the three biographical anecdotes mentioned in the essay? 5. What two practical suggestions are made, regarding goals and time management? III. Answer in a paragraph: 1. Successful people are those who manage their time efficiently – Explain. 2. Count your blessings, not your troubles – Elaborate. IV. Write an essay on:

The proven techniques that will help one achieve success and happiness in life.

Reading and understanding a questionnaire SELF ESTEEM – A Quality check: Task: Try to understand the following questions and answer them honestly. Answer yes/no to the following questions. You may seek your companion’s help to understand the statements better. 1. You often imitate someone else (e.g. a film actor, politician) in your manners and dress. Yes/No 2. You feel very jealous because you are not like so many others in the class. Yes/No 3. You often boast about the wealth, property, caste, achievements of your ancestors. Yes/No 4. You feel nervous when a group of people are walking towards you along the road. Yes/No 5. Often you dream about falling from a height, being chased by a monster or not being able to do what you are asked to do. Yes/No 6. You raise your voice during arguments.


7. You show off and pretend to be what you are not and own what you don’t have. Yes/No 8. When you make mistakes you have always excuses to offer.


9. Even while resting or lying in bed, you are not really relaxed.



10. You cannot laugh at your own mistakes and failures.


11. During conversations you think of what you have to say and you do not listen to the other person. Yes/No 12. When the teacher asks a question you are scared to answer because the answer may be wrong but when the correct answer was given you know you had the right answer. Yes/No 13. When your classmates get new clothes or special things, you feel miserable till you too get similar things. Yes/No 14. You enjoy jokes made at the expense of others.


15. You may have plans, and begin some of them but are not able to complete many of them. Yes/No 16. You normally are shy to ask others to help you.


17. You often think about your past hurts and deprivations and find yourself getting very angry and frustrated. Yes/No 18. You find it difficult to genuinely appreciate others for their achievements. Yes/No 19. If your work is criticised or if you are not chosen for a job, you sulk and avoid it completely. Yes/No 20. You like to have many friends but you don’t like to make friends. You expect others to come to you. Yes/No The number of questions you have answered in the negative is the index of your self-esteem. The more questions you answer in the negative the more self-esteem you are supposed to have. But, even five negative answers would be enough to build on your sense of self-esteem. You need not show the score to anyone, if you don’t wish to. Courtesy - Dr. Fr. Peter Francis Linking ideas scattered in a text Task: Read the following passage and answer the questions given below. In order to answer the questions you will have to link the ideas scattered in the paragraphs. Therefore answer the questions carefully after reading and understanding the ideas presented in the passage. Things become better when you expect the best instead of the worst. The reason is that, being freed from self-doubt, you can put your whole self into your endeavour. Nothing can stand in the way of the man who focusses his entire self on a problem. 171

Expecting the best means that you put your whole heart into what you want to accomplish. People are defeated in life not because of lack of ability, but for lack of wholeheartedness. A major key to success in life, to attaining that which you deeply desire, is to be completely released and throw all there is of yourself into your studies or any project in which you are engaged. But most people, unfortunately, don’t do that and this is a tragic cause of failure. (Courtesy: Norman Vincent Peale) Answer briefly: 1.

How can we attain our goals?


What is the cause of failure with most people?

Appreciating literature Read the following poem and answer the questions given below: Teach me to listen, Lord Teach me to listen, Lord To those nearest me My family, my friends, my co-workers Help me to be aware that No matter what words I hear The message is, “ Accept the person I am, Listen to me.” Teach me to listen, Lord To those far from me The whisper of the hopeless The plea of the forgotten The cry of the anguished. Teach me to listen, Lord To myself Help me to be less afraid To trust the voice inside In the deepest part of me. 172

Teach me to listen, Lord For your voice In busyness and in boredom In certainty and in doubt In noise and in silence Teach me, Lord, to listen. - Anonymous Answer the following questions: 1.

Which line is repeated in all the four stanzas? Why?


Which is the prevailing sentiment of the second stanza?


What is the message of the third stanza?


How is alliteration handled in the fourth stanza?


What is the over-all mood of the poem?

D. Vocabulary I. English has borrowed liberally from languages like Latin, French, Spanish and German. Look at the following words/phrases taken from the lesson:

Gandhiji became a leader par excellence.

............ have paid rich dividends to Sachin and made him persona grata.

Success will knock at your door. Adieu!

The underlined words/phrases are foreign words/phrases. They are known as loan words too. Here are some foreign words/phrases used in English, with their meanings: 1. Ravi has finished his written examination. Now he is preparing for the viva voce. (a spoken examination) 2. All bonafide (genuine) cases of hardship will receive help. 3. The parliament has been adjourned sine die. (without a date being fixed) 4. You must send a resume (a summary) of your academic and professional achievements along with the application. 5. The speaker reviewed the status quo (the situation or state of affairs as it is now) of our relations with Pakistan. 173

6. The plan is wrong in toto. (totally) 7. The students joined the movement en masse. (as a whole group) 8. You must establish a good rapport (a close relationship in which people understand each other very well) with your family. 9. Liaison (coordination of activities) between different departments is essential for the successful functioning of any company. 10. I said to my friend who was leaving for the U.S.A., “ Have a nice trip! Bon voyage.” (saying good bye and wishing good luck) Task1: Use the above underlined words/phrases in sentences of your own. Task 2: Practise the pronunciation of the foreign words/phrases. Ω

1. viva voce

/vaIvE 'vE sI/

2. bonafide

/bE nE'faIdI/

3. sine die


4. resume


5. status quo

/steItEs 'kwE /

6. in toto

/In'tE tE /

7. en masse


8. rapport


9. liaison


10. bon voyage

/bón 'vØIjå:Z/

Task 3:




Refer to the dictionary and find out the meanings of the following foreign words/phrases. Use them in sentences of your own.

ex gratia, ad hoc, prima facie, in camera, via media

Task 4: Can you think of other such words and phrases that you have heard or used? Make a list. II. Look at the following words taken from the lesson.

momentary, conscious, conform

Are they not often misused, as you are confused and unsure about the spelling and meaning?

They are often confused with momentous, conscience and confirm respectively. 174

Here are some words which are often confused or misused. Learn to use them appropriately. 1. ascent: climbing a way sloping up assent: agreement, to agree e.g. The ascent of Mt. Everest was an arduous affair.

Finally the parliament has given assent to the bill.

2. alternate: one of every two, follow one after the other alternative: choice between two or more things e.g. I visit the library on alternate Sundays.

Because of the transport workers strike, we had to find an alternative transport.


beside: at the side of, close to

besides: in addition to

e.g. My friend sits beside me in the class.

Besides playing tennis, she also excels in chess. 4.

complement (v): to add new or contrasting features to improve something

compliment: express praise or approval

e.g. His communication skills complement his excellent academic record.

I complimented him on his excellent presentation. 5.

continuous: going on without stopping

continual: occurring repeatedly

e.g. Education is a continuous process.

There was continual rain last week.

6. childish: behaving like a child, not mature childlike: like or typical of a child

e.g. Many grown-ups still possess a childish attitude.

His childlike innocence endears him to all.



disinterested: not influenced by personal feelings or interest

uninterested: having no interest or feelings

e.g. Scientists approach problems with disinterested curiosity.

My friend is completely uninterested in sports.


historic: important in history or likely to be considered important at some time in the future

historical: based on history

e.g. Man’s landing on the moon was an historic occasion.

We must place these events in their historical perspective.

9. insidious: sly, cunning invidious: a job or task that is unpleasant to do, because it is likely to make you unpleasant

e.g. His writings are an insidious form of propaganda.

The role of the critic is an invidious one.

10. personal: pertaining to a person

personnel: body of employees

e.g. We must not interfere in the personal matters of others.

My brother works as a personnel officer.

Task: Fill in the blanks choosing the correct word from those given in brackets. 1. We will have to find ............sources of energy in the future.

(alternate, alternative)

2. ................. salary, the company also provides free accommodation.

(beside, besides)

3. The ................. in the army are expected to maintain a high standard of discipline.

(personal, personnel)

4. Our government is taking steps to counter the .............. attempts of the enemy to create unrest in our country.

(insidious, invidious)

5. The signing of the peace treaty was an ................. occasion.

(historic, historical) 176

6. A judge must examine the case in a/an ................. manner.

(disinterested, uninterested)

7. The ................. journey for 6 hours made him exhausted.

(continuous, continual)

8. He has not yet got over his ................. habits.

(childlike, childish)

9. Their ................. to the peak was beset with many hurdles.

(ascent, assent)

10. We usually ................. a person on his success.

(compliment, complement)

E. Study skills: Note making We make notes to record the important points of a text for future reference. In note-making, we identify the main points, condense the information and organise it in a systematic way. When making notes: •

Read the passage once quickly.

Underline the key items (not necessarily words) during the second reading.

Condense the information by using numbers instead of figures, reduced forms of verbs, abbreviations and acronyms and by omitting examples.

Organise the condensed information in a suitable form.

Read the following paragraph and see how notes have been made on it. Most people are afraid of snakes – but this fear is as irrational as the fear of ghosts. The fear of snakes, according to some biologists, may be an instinct passed on to us by our ancestors. There may be some truth in this theory, because monkeys have a deep, instinctive fear of pythons and other tree snakes. Or, it might be that we learn the fear of snakes as children, from grown-ups. Anyway snakes have been feared and hated for thousands of years, and in the literature of many countries the snake is regarded as a symbol of evil. Whatever the truth, there is no reason for the terror which the sight of a snake causes in most people. Many more people are killed, much more frequently, by motorcycles and cigarettes than by snakes. The majority of snakes are harmless, and are 177

only too anxious to avoid human beings. Of the poisonous snakes, only those found in the sea are always dangerous; being aggressive by nature, they can attack human beings for no reason at all taking a fisherman or swimmer by surprise in the water, where the man is somewhat helpless. 1. fear of snakes irrational 2. (a) biologist’s theory – fear, instinct transmitted by ancestors

e.g. monkeys’ instinctive fear of pythons, tree snakes

(b) fear, learnt as children from grown-ups

3. (a) snakes feared and hated for many years

(b) regarded symbol of evil in literature of many countries

4. fear unreasonable- more people killed by motor-cycles & cigarettes 5. majority snakes harmless, anxious to avoid humans 6. (a) sea snakes poisonous, dangerous

(b) aggressive - attack fishermen, swimmer without reason, by surprise

Read the following passage and the notes given below: We must seek out problems and convert them to challenges! We need to welcome problems with arms open. Embrace them because this can well be some of the finest parts of living. Many older people look back on the years they spent wondering how they would meet the expenses of raising a family, coping with the problems, the illness - in some instances, the vexations of their children. They look back now and think, ‘those were the most developmental, the most rewarding, the most wonderful years of my life. If I could have only recognised it then.’ What they’re saying, in effect, is that they should have welcomed problems. Encountering a stream of problems day after day made their lives warm and meaningful. It gave them confidence. Welcome problems, reach out for them, charge into them and convert them in your mind immediately to challenges. The negative way to look at a problem is to think of it as a problem. Search it out, isolate it as a problem, then in your mind convert it to a challenge, determine the steps that you will need to surmount it just as the pole-vaulter needs to first determine steps and then work at it. Only in this way do you develop the skill, the co-ordination, the mind, the muscle and the confidence to really get it done. - Joe. D. Batten and Leonard C.Hudson

What should be our attitude towards problems?

- should welcome and embrace them, and convert them to challenges 178

What has been the experience of many older people? - they look back now, on the years they spent worrying about their problems and think those were the most developmental and rewarding years of their lives. They wish they had recognised it then

What is the negative way of looking at a problem?

- to think of it as a problem

How do problems affect us?

- they make our life meaningful and give us confidence

How should we tackle a problem?

- search it out, isolate it as a problem, convert it to a challenge, determine the steps that you need to surmount it

Remember: Notes can also be in the form of such questions and answers. Task 1:

Make notes on the following passage. The value of Games in Education

The aim of education is to enable the human personality to grow to its full stature. Man has a body, a mind and a spirit. Accordingly, education aims at the physical, the intellectual, the spiritual and moral development of man. Games are a means of keeping the body healthy and fit. Physical fitness and freedom from all kinds of ailments are the desire and ambition of every human being. Indeed, good health is the first condition of happiness in life. Those who play games generally maintain good health. Games are an excellent means of bodily exercise. Whether it is sophisticated games like hockey, football and tennis or simple games like kabaddi, they all provide the much needed exercise to the body and thus keep the body healthy and strong. Players always have a better appetite and a better digestion than those who play no games or take no exercise. Games not only make the body healthy and strong, they also make it muscular. Apart from building the body, games are an excellent recreation or pastime. Education teaches people the need and value of recreational activities. Education does not approve of the book-worm, who is lost in books all the time. Recreation is necessary. And games are among the most interesting recreations in the world. The essence of recreation is that it refreshes both body and mind and provides a means of escape from one’s professional or scholarly pursuits. Thus games are very useful as a diversion for the mind.


Task 2:

Underline the key points in the following passage.

There are other uses of language which are not concerned with the communication of thoughts. The conversations which English people hold about the weather, for example, do not as a rule leave the participants any wiser; only on rare occasions can information be said to have been exchanged. As far as communicating thought is concerned, they get nowhere; are they then quite pointless? No; a little reflection will show that this kind of use of language also has great social value. Most people have a feeling that a silent man is a dangerous man. Even if there is nothing to say, one must talk, and conversation puts people at their ease and in harmony with one another. This sociable use of language has been given the name ‘phatic communion’. The anthropologist Bronis Law Malinowski invented the term. Malinowski defined it as ‘a type of speech in which ties of union are created by mere exchange of words’. It enters the everyday experience of everybody from the most highly civilised to the most primitive and, far from being useless, this small-talk is essential to human beings getting along together at all. - David Abercrombie F. Grammar: I. Relative Clauses Look at the following sentence taken from the lesson.

People who have poor self-concept feel insecure.

The same sentence can be written with a comma after the noun and at the end of the clause following it.

People, who have poor self-concept, feel insecure.

You can see that both the sentences have the same words in the same order, the only difference being that the second sentence has commas separating the items. They have different meanings. Can you guess them? Now, study the following two sentences: 1.

Children who are intelligent by nature should be sent to school early.


Children, who are intelligent by nature, should be sent to school early.

The first sentence means that only those children who are intelligent should be sent to the school early. Whereas the second one states that all children are intelligent by nature and they should be sent to school early. The first sentence is a defining relative clause and the second one with commas is a non-defining relative clause.


Task 1:

Explain how the following two sentences differ in their meaning:


My wife who is in Mumbai is coming tomorrow.


My wife, who is in Mumbai, is coming tomorrow.

Read the following dialogue. Ravi : Have you brought the book? Rahim : Which book? Ravi : The book that I borrowed from the library. 1 Rahim : I’m sorry, I have lent it to Peter, who is my neighbour. 2 In 1, ‘that I borrowed from the library’ specifies which book is being talked about. It is a defining relative clause. In ‘2’, ‘who is my neighbour,’ only adds additional information about Peter. It is called a non-defining relative clause. A clause can be subordinate by modifying a noun phrase in the other clause. Such clauses are called relative clauses. There are three kinds of relative clauses: defining, non-defining and connective. Defining relative clauses: These describe the preceding noun in such a way as to distinguish it from other nouns of the same class. A clause of this kind is essential to the clear understanding of the noun in the sentence.

The woman who gave me this refused to reveal her name.

‘Who gave me this,’ is the relative clause. If we omit this, it is not clear what woman we are talking about. Notice that there is no comma between a noun and a defining relative clause. The relative pronouns used in the defining relative clause are, ‘who, that, which, whose,’ etc. Non-defining relative clauses: Non-defining relative clauses are placed after nouns which are definite already. They merely give some more information about the noun. They are not essential in the sentence and can be omitted without causing confusion. Unlike defining relatives, they are separated from their noun by commas. The construction is fairly formal and more common in written than in spoken English. e.g. My neighbour, who is very pessimistic, says that there will be no rains this year. 181

In addition to relative pronouns, there are relative adverbs like ‘where,’ ‘when,’ ‘that,’ which also introduce relative clauses. e.g. The house where I spent my childhood was very big. The year when I was born was full of interesting events. Task 2:

Pick out from the lesson those sentences which have relative clauses and find out whether they are defining or non-defining.

Task 3: Identify the relative clauses in the following sentences and say whether they are defining or non-defining. 1. The principle of non-violence, which Gandhiji preached, can alone save the world from annihilation. 2. Men who possess an optimistic outlook take problems in their stride. 3. Bertrand Russell, who was a great philosopher, wanted people to develop scientific temper. 4. People who do not manage their time efficiently will fail in life. 5. We must learn from those who have achieved their goals inspite of hurdles and hardships. Task 4:

a) Combine the following sentences using a relative clause.

1. Those people feel miserable. They try to imitate others. 2. Such goals are better. They are chosen by yourself. 3. Time is the most valuable resource. It must be utilised properly. 4. William James was a famous psychologist. He advised people to find themselves. 5. One day Harold Abbott saw a man. That man had no legs. 6. A chance remark transformed Mrs. Edith Allred. It was made by her mother-in-law. b) 1. The boys will be given scholarships. Their parents are poor.

2. You sent me a present. Thank you very much for it.

3. The car crashed into a queue of people. Four of them were killed.

4. Gandhiji led India’s freedom struggle. He did not like violence.

5. Ravi had been driving all day. He was tired and wanted to stop.

Task 5:

Combine the following using relative clauses into a single sentence.

1. I' missed the train. I usually catch this train. And I had to travel on the next. This was a slow train. 182

2. Do you know the person? He took away the books. I had placed them on the table. 3. Tom came to the party in patched jeans. This surprised the other guests. Most of the other guests were wearing evening dress. 4. The firm is sending me to Surat. I work for this firm. Surat is famous for textile goods. 5. There were a lot of strangers. Some of them were speaking a language. I could not understand it. 6. The boys are selected for the scholarship. They pass the examination. It is conducted every year. 7. Which is the house? You were talking about it. We were bathing at that time. 8. Tagore was given the Nobel Prize. He wrote the ‘Gitanjali’. The Nobel Prize is the most prestigious award in the world. 9. The car had bad brakes. We were in this car. And the man didn’t know the way. This man was driving the car. 10. Mahesh is the son of Mrs. & Mr. Murthy. Mahesh was born in New Delhi. New Delhi is the capital of India. Task 6:

a) Refer to a dictionary and match the following and frame sentences using them.

e.g. An ornithologist is a scientist who studies birds.


(a) one who studies diseases


(b) one who studies insects


(c) one who studies China


(d) one who studies the fossils


(e) one who studies music


(f) one who studies ancient cultures by analysing the

physical remains b) Refer to the dictionary and write the definition for the following terms.

e.g. optimist - An optimist is a person who is always hopeful.

1. pessimist : 2. teetotaller :



: 183




5. sadist : 6. octogenarian : 7. polyglot : 8. hedonist :




10. pugilist : II. Simple, Compound and Complex sentences A simple sentence consists of a single independent clause.

e.g. John plays the guitar.

A compound sentence has two or more clauses which are linked by coordinating conjunctions ‘and’, ‘or’ and ‘but’.

e.g. John plays the guitar, and his sister plays the piano.

They are my neighbours, but I don’t know them well.

They are students or they are tourists.

A complex sentence has two or more clauses, at least one of which is subordinate to a main clause.

e.g. Though they are my neighbours, I don’t know them well.

Some subordinating conjunctions are ‘after, though, as, because, before, if, since, that, when, where, how,’ etc. There are also compound subordinates like ‘in that, so that, in order that, so far as, as soon as’ etc. There are different types of subordinate clauses. Noun clause (that clause, wh clause), Relative clause and Adverbial clause. A Compound or Complex sentence can be changed into a simple sentence by reducing one of the finite clauses into a non-finite clause or a phrase.

e.g. 1. Choose goals that are challenging and reachable.

(Complex sentence) is re-written as

Choose challenging and reachable goals. (Simple sentence)

Since they have planned everything, they feel relaxed. (Complex


sentence) is changed to

Having planned everything, they feel relaxed. (Simple sentence) 184


Goals provide direction to your behaviour and guide your thoughts and


(Compound sentence) is re-written as

Providing direction to your behaviour, goals guide your thoughts and action. (Simple sentence) Task 1:

a) Change the following as directed:

1. Here are some proven techniques that will help you to achieve success and happiness in life.

(Change into a Simple sentence)

2. Persons with high self-esteem feel unique and competent.

(Change into a Complex sentence)

3. To improve your self-esteem, become aware of your potentialities.

(Change into a Complex sentence)

4. Successful people are those who manage their time efficiently.

(Change into a Simple sentence)

5. Many people make themselves miserable by trying to imitate others.

(Change into a Compound sentence)

6. She remained unhappy even after she married into a poised and self-confident family.

(Change into a Compound and a Simple sentence)

7. If we want to be happy, we have to concentrate on the things that are right.

(Change into a Compound sentence)

8. Once he happened to see a man who had no legs.

(Change into a Simple sentence)

9. He had two legs and he could walk.

(Change into a Complex sentence)

10. William James, who was a renowned psychologist says that the average person uses only 10% of his abilities.

(Change into a Simple sentence)

b) Do as directed: 1. Being asked the reason for absence, I told him what had happened. (Change the phrase into a clause) 2. Though he was disabled, he was very cheerful (Use ‘inspite of’) 3. If you meet with failure in your attempts, change your strategy. (Use ‘in case of’) 185

4. Time is too precious to be wasted in frivolous pursuits. (Use ‘so that not’) 5. He plans his work in order to finish his target in time. (use ‘so that’) 6. Many people fail in life because they lack confidence. (‘because of’) 7. The bus was full of passengers and so I decided to take the next one. (Use ‘as’) 8. He finished the work. Then he left the office. (Use ‘after’) 9. I am delighted to know that you have won the match. (Change the underlined words into a phrase) 10. I do not know how I should tackle this problem. (Change the underlined words into a phrase) Read the simplified passage on the left. Then read the original, authentic passage on the right and see how ideas have been linked, by using complex and compound sentences resulting in syntactic compression. Simplified passage

Original passage The great experiment has just begun and it may yet be defeated by the high birth rate of unwilling or indoctrinated ignorance. But what would be the full fruitage of instruction if every child should be schooled till at least the twentieth year, and should find free access to the universities, libraries and museums that harbour and offer the intellectual and artistic, treasures of the race? Consider education not as the painful accumulation of facts and dates and reigns, nor merely the necessary preparation of the individual to earn his keep in the world, but as the transmission of our mental, moral, technical and aesthetic heritage as fully as possible to as many as possible for the enlightenment of man’s understanding, c o n t r o l embellishment, and enjoyment of life – Will Durant.

The great experiment has just begun. It may be defeated. There is high birth rate among some people. They are full of indoctrinated ignorance. Let us imagine the full fruitage of instruction. Every child should be schooled till at least he is twenty. Every child should find free access to the universities, libraries and museums. These places harbour and offer the intellectual and artistic, treasures of the race. We should not consider education as the painful accumulation of facts and dates and reigns. It is not even the necessary preparation of the individual to earn his upkeep in the world. It is the transmission of our mental, moral and aesthetic heritage as fully as possible to as many as possible. The purpose is to enlighten man’s understanding, control embellishment and enjoyment of life.



Split the original passage on the left into simple sentences and rewrite it on the right. Original passage

Simplified passage

Science affects the average man and woman in two ways already. He or she benefits by its applications, driving in a motorcar or an omnibus instead of a horse- drawn vehicle, being treated for a disease by a doctor or a surgeon rather than a priest or a witch and being killed with an automatic pistol or shell in place of a dagger or a battle-axe.- J B S Haldane G. Writing: Presenting data in tabular form: Task 1: Write down your short term and long term goals and your action plan to achieve the goal. You can use the format given below. Sit in pairs and discuss them with your partner. Make helpful suggestions to each other. Remember, when writing data in a tabular form it should be in the form of points and not complete sentences. I. Short term goals

Action plan to achieve the goal

II. Long Term Goals

Action plan to achieve the goal

1. 2. 3.

1. 2. 3. Task 2: This task will help you discover yourself. Answer the following questions by filling in the table given below.


What do you think of yourself?

(in terms of qualities, skills, characteristics, strengths, weaknesses)

How do your friends describe you?



My opinion

My friends’ opinion

Qualities Skills Characteristics Strengths Weaknesses Task 3:

Becoming aware of your drawbacks is the first step towards success. Think of all your bad habits and drawbacks and list them under the ‘WEED LIST’. Put down the positive qualities you would like to cultivate under the ‘SEED LIST’. Try to implement the ‘SEED LIST.’ WEED


1 2 3 4 5 H. Occupational Competency: On several occasions we are required to fill in forms for different purposes. We need to fill in an application form for a job, an examination, passport, driving licence, etc. There are also forms to be filled in for sending a telegram, opening a bank account, etc. Application forms should be filled in with great care, giving all the details asked for, because incomplete application forms may be rejected. For permanent and longer placements, it is desirable to enclose a C.V or Curriculum vitae, written in a suitable format along with a covering letter. The C.V or Resume is a fact sheet that summarises one’s experience, education, position, awards and achievements for prospective employees. C.V’s are often made in a tabular form. Name, address and other vital statistics (bio-data) appear first. Then follow educational qualification and experience in reverse chronological order. Achievements though remotely relevant to the position applied for, may be highlighted because the employer often appreciates those who have achieved more than their peers regardless of the nature of the accomplishments. Task: During the summer holidays, a two-week exhibition on Tamilnadu’s rich cultural heritage and history is being conducted in Madurai. The organisers – ‘Tamilnadu Tourism Development Board’ – have advertised 188

in a leading newspaper, asking for student-guides to show the tourists around the various stalls and explain the displays to them. It is a 10.00 a.m. to 8.00 p.m. job. The applicants are expected to be well- versed in a few languages besides having a sound knowledge of India’s history. You need money as you are saving to buy an encyclopaedia. Therefore you decide to apply. You are asked to apply along with your curriculum vitae. Fill in the following letter applying for the job. Also fill in the curriculum vitae that follows. From ...........05............ ................................................................. ................................................................. ................................................................. To ‘Tamilnadu Tourism Development Board’ 169, Anna Salai Chennai 600 002. Sir/Madam,

Sub: Application for post of .................. at the ‘Tamilnadu Cultural Heritage

and History Exhibition’

Ref: Your advertisement in .................. dt. ..................

In response to your ...................... in ................. dt. ..........., I am sending my ................... for the post of ................. at the ........................................................... .... I have completed my .......... standard. History being my ........... subject, I’ve always been a topper in my class. I’m very much interested in the cultural ................. and history of ................... I am willing to work from 10.00 a.m. to ................ I enclose my ......................... for further details. If selected, I assure you that I will work to the best of my ability. Hoping to hear from you. Yours ................, Curriculum vitae 1.

Name :


Father’s name :


Postal Address :

Pincode :


Nationality : 189



Date of birth :


Sex :


Educational Qualification :


Languages known :



(a) Sports and games :

(b) Hobbies :

(c) Other extra-curricular activities :


Prizes and Awards :


Names and addresses of two references :

Station: Date: Signature of the Applicant I. Strategic competency: Guessing the meaning of unfamiliar words from the context. When you come across a new word, it is not always necessary to refer to a dictionary, you can easily guess its meaning from the context. You can employ a number of tactics to infer the meaning.

• • •

Think of another word that makes sense in the context. Break down complex sentences into simple components. Apply your knowledge of parts of speech, collocation, discourse markers and grammatical structure.

Task: Choose the word which gives the meaning of the underlined word. 1. We must do our best to mitigate the suffering of others.

(a) increase

(b) reduce

(c) ignore

(d) accelerate

2. Paucity of funds has led to the abandonment of the project.

(a) plenty

(b) surplus

(c)small amount

(d) meagreness

3. To the people’s dismay the law and order situation is deteriorating day by day.

(a) improving (b) lessening

(c) worsening

(d) stabilising

4. The apathy of the public towards the downtrodden is to be condemned.

(a) enthusiasm (b) views

(c) majority 190

(d) lack of concern

5. We must be pragmatic in our outlook.

(a) idealistic

(b) realistic

(c) impartial

(d) opinionated

6. The emancipation of women is an item of top priority in the modern world.

(a) slavery

(b) setting free

(c) subjugation

(d) empowerment

7. A Commission of enquiry exonerated him from all responsibility for the accident.

(a) faulted

(b) declared free

(c) criticised

(d) appreciated

8. Atomic energy, if misused will annihilate the whole of the human race.

(a) destroy

(b) control

(c) separate

(d) save

9. The campus doesn’t have a congenial climate for higher studies.

(a) healthy

(b) suitable

(c) adverse

(d) unhealthy

10. Religious fanaticism is inimical to national integration.

(a) suitable

(b) alien

(c) harmful

(d) acceptable

J. Creative Competency: I.

Look at the sentence taken from the lesson. ‘Count your blessings, not your troubles’ – this is a kind of a catchy slogan for being optimistic in life.

Writing slogans for advertising a brand or a movement is a creative activity requiring imagination and literary talent. Slogans should be short, catchy and should highlight the merits of the item or movement, evoking a desirable response in the readers. Here are some popular slogans:

‘Owner’s pride and neighbour’s envy’ - Television

‘Why be in line, when you can be on-line’ – Internet Banking

‘Stronger than the strongest’ – my teeth

‘Speed thrills but kills.’

‘Be Indian, Buy Indian.’

‘One family, One child.’

‘You reach before you start.’

‘Arise, Awake and stop not till the goal is reached.’

‘Workers of all nations, unite; you have nothing to lose but your chains. You

have a world of freedom to win…’ 191

Task 1:

Write a catchy advertisement slogan for a new brand of hair- oil/ tooth paste/soap.

Task 2:

Write a slogan for:


Creating awareness of environmental pollution


Abolishing child labour


Rain water harvesting

II. Interviewing a famous personality for TV Task: You are to interview for TV, a person who has achieved success in some field, for instance, a state rank holder. Discuss in groups the questions that you would like to ask him/her. Remember, the questions should highlight the qualities which helped him/ her on the road to success. Write them down. Self evaluation: Task 1:

Fill in the blanks, choosing the appropriate expressions from the box.

reinforce, sinedie, resume, bonafide, rapport

1. The headmaster has an excellent ...........with his staff. 2. Giving appreciation is the way to............ desirable behaviour. 3. For getting a scholarship, you must submit a certificate that you are a ............ student. 4. In view of the acute water scarcity, colleges have been closed.................. 5. While applying for a job, you must prepare an impressive .............. Task 2:

Rewrite the following as directed.

1. The common people know very little but they possess a certain common sense.

(Change into a complex sentence)

2. It is an essential characteristic of democracy that the decision of the majority shall be accepted.

(Change into a simple sentence)

3. If the minority has no share in ruling, such a system cannot properly be considered a democratic one.

(Change into a simple sentence)


4. Before I start the serious business of writing a story, I like to sketch it out in a rough sort of way.

(Change into a simple sentence)

5. Those people must develop good working habits. They want to achieve great things.

(Combine using ‘who’)


If you can’t be a pine on the top of the hill,

Be a scrub in the valley – but be

The best little scrub by the side of the rill;

Be a bush, if you can’t be a tree.

If you can’t be a bush, be a bit of the grass,

And some highway happier make;

If you can’t be a muskie, then just be a bass-

But the liveliest bass in the lake!

We can’t all be captains, we’ve got to be crew,

There’s something for all of us here.

There’s big work to do and there’s lesser to do

And the task we must do is the near.

If you can’t be a highway, then just be a trail,

If you can’t be the sun, be a star;

It isn’t by size that you win or you fail-

Be the best of whatever you are! - Douglas Malloch

Glossary scrub

: bushes and small trees


: an edible fish


: a small stream


: a type of rose that smells like musk 193

Comprehension questions: 1. Some lofty and lowly things are compared in this poem What are they? 2. We can’t all be captains, we’ve got to be crew – Explain. 3. Is size important in life? 4. What should be our attitude towards work? 5. What is the message of the poem? Appreciation questions: 1. Write down the rhyming words in the poem. 2. Which line do you like most? 3. If you can’t be ........... then be ................. Complete the sentence with suitable ideas. 4. Could you add two more lines to the poem – If you can’t be ............. then just be .................. 5. Which structure gets repeated in the poem? 6. How is ‘repetition’ effectively made use of in this poem? 7. Some expressions in the poem bring vivid pictures to our minds. Can you identify some of them? Parallel Reading Here is a piece from Shakespeare’s ‘Hamlet’. Go through it and summarise its message. Polonius’ advice to his son And these few precepts in thy memory Look thou character. Give thy thoughts no tongue, Nor any unproportion’d thought his act. Be thou familiar, but by no means vulgar. Those friends thou hast, and their adoption tried, Grapple them to thy soul with hoops of steel; But do not dull thy palm with entertainment Of each new – hatch’d, unfledg’d courage.


Beware Of entrance to a quarrel; but, being in, Bear’t that th’ opposed may beware of thee. Give every man thy ear, but few thy voice Take each man’s censure, but reserve thy judgment. Costly thy habit as thy purse can buy, But not express’d in fancy; rich, not gaudy; For the apparel oft proclaims the man; .…..………………………………. Neither a borrower nor a lender be; For loan oft loses both itself and friend, And borrowing dulls the edge of husbandry. This above all – to thine own self be true, And it must follow, as the night the day, Thou canst not then be false to any man.


UNIT - VI A LISTENING: Listening to a television interview B SPEAKING: Making enquiries at the post office C READING: Understanding tables, instructions, etc.

Understanding different registers

D VOCABULARY: Using abbreviations and acronyms

Building words with particular suffixes (-cide, -mania, -phobia)

Using terms referring to character

Using phrasal verbs and idioms

E STUDY SKILLS: Note taking F GRAMMAR: Using reported speech

Using reported connectives

G WRITING : Writing Business letters H OCCUPATIONAL COMPETENCY: Writing a story based on a picture I

STRATEGIC COMPETENCY: Expressing beliefs on language learning


CREATIVE COMPETENCY: Writing an article for the sports column of a newspaper

Writing drafts for compering TV/Radio programmes

A. Listening “An officer in Andhra Pradesh who was in charge of tribal development found that the tribals put certain gums and wood materials in turbid water to make the water clear. Apparently some chemical or physical action takes place which absorbs the materials that make the water turbid. Being curious this officer approached a few scientists, who, on experimentation, found that materials used by the tribals even had the property of absorbing heavy minerals, such as nuclear metals.” - India 2020 Let us imagine that the officer is interviewed on television. Task: Your teacher will read the interview. Listen carefully and answer the following questions. (The teacher reads) Answer the following questions in a sentence or two: 1. Who was interviewing Mr.Reddy? 2. What was the nature of Mr.Reddy’s work? 196

3. What did Mr.Reddy learn from the tribal people? 4. How did the bark of wood purify the turbid water? 5. Was Mr.Reddy successful in identifying the tree? 6. If Mr.Reddy succeeds in his attempt, how do you think it will be beneficial to our country? B. Speaking

At the Post Office

The following is a dialogue between a youngster and an official at the post office: Youngster


Good morning, Sir.

Post office official


Good morning. What can I do for you?



I need a clarification, Sir.

Post office official


What is it?



I want to send an application to Bangalore. Which is better, by speed post or by registered post?

Post office official


By speed post the letter will reach within twentyfour hours. If you send by registered post with acknowledgement due, you will get confirmation of receipt.



If I send by registered post with acknowledgement due will it take more time?

Post office official


Generally not. Sometimes it might get delayed.



Okay sir. I will send it by speed post.

Post office official

Please pay Rs.30/- and here is the receipt. You better preserve the receipt.


Thank you, Sir.

Task 1:

Practise the above conversation taking roles.

Task 2: Imagining yourself to be a layman ask a few questions to another student who takes the role of a clerk in a post office regarding the sending of money order. C. Reading Pre-reading questions 1. Do you think India enjoys a developed nation status among the countries of the world? 2. Who do you think can lead a country to prosperity? 197

VI. VISION FOR THE NATION India is a nation of a billion people. A nation’s progress depends upon how its people think. It is thoughts which are transformed into actions. India has to think as a nation of a billion people. Let the young minds blossom – full of thoughts, the thoughts of prosperity. Nations are built by the imagination and untiring enthusiastic efforts of generations. One generation transfers the fruits of its toil to another which then takes forward the mission. As the coming generation also has its dreams and aspirations for the nation’s future, it therefore adds something from its side to the national vision; which the next generation strives hard to achieve. This process goes on and the nation climbs steps of glory and gains higher strength. The first vision: Freedom of India Any organisation, society or even a nation without a vision is like a ship cruising on the high seas without any aim or direction. It is clarity of national vision which constantly drives the people towards the goal. Our last generation, the glorious generation of freedom fighters, led by Mahatma Gandhi, and many others set for the nation a vision of free India. This was the first vision, set by the people for the nation. It therefore went deep into the minds and the hearts of the masses and soon became the great inspiring and driving force for the people to collectively plunge into the struggle for freedom movement. The unified dedicated efforts of the people from every walk of life won freedom for the country. The Second vision: Developed India The next generation (to which I also belong ) has put India strongly on the path of economic, agricultural and technological development. But India has stood too long in the line of developing nations. Let us, collectively, set the second national vision of Developed India. I am confident that it is very much possible and can materialise in 15 – 20 years’ time. Developed status What does the developed nation status mean in terms of the common man? It means the major transformation of our national economy to make it one of the largest economies in the world, where the countrymen live well above the poverty line, their education and health is of high standard, national security reasonably assured, and the core competence in certain major areas gets enhanced significantly so that the production of quality goods, including exports, is rising and thereby bringing all-round prosperity for the countrymen. What is the common link needed to realise these sub198

goals? It is the technological strength of the nation, which is the key to reach this developed status. Build around our strength The next question that comes to the mind is, how can it be made possible? We have to build and strengthen our national infrastructure in an all-round manner, in a big way. Therefore, we should build around our existing strengths including the vast pool of talented scientists and technologists and our abundant natural resources. The manpower resource should be optimally utilised to harness health care, services sectors and engineering goods sectors. We should concentrate on development of key areas, namely agriculture production, food processing, materials and also on the emerging niche areas like computer software, biotechnologies and so on. The common link required to bring this transformation is the human resources. Therefore, adequate attention needs to be paid to development of special human resource cadre in the country to meet these objectives. Beyond 2020 The attainment of a developed status by 2020 does not mean that we can then rest on our laurels. It is an endless pursuit of well-being for all our people. Our vision of a developed nation integrates this element of time within it as well. Only people with many embodied skills and knowledge, and with ignited minds can be ready for such a long-term vision. We believe that it is possible to develop our people to reach such a state, provided we can follow a steady path and make available to the people the benefits of change all through their lives. They should see their lives and those of others improving in actual terms, and not merely in statistical tables. Actions This means the vision should become a part of the nation, transcending governments – the present and the future. To make this happen, several actions are required. An important element of these efforts is to develop various endogenous technological strengths. After all, technologies are primarily manifestations of human experience and knowledge and thus are capable of further creative development, under enabling environments. We have often asked ourselves and others why India in its several thousand years of history has rarely tried to expand its territories or to assume a dominating role. Many of the experts and others with whom we had a dialogue referred to some special features of the Indian psyche which could partly explain this: greater tolerance, less discipline, the lack of a sense of retaliation, more flexibility in accepting outsiders, great adherence to hierarchy, and emphasis on personal safety over adventure. Some felt that a combination of many of these features has affected our ability to pursue a vision tenaciously. 199

We believe that as a nation and as a people we need to shed our cynicism and initiate concrete action to realise the second vision for the nation. The first vision, seeded around 1857, was for India to become politically independent; the second one is to become a fully developed nation. Our successful action will lead to further action, bringing the vision much closer to reality. Perhaps in a decade from now we may even be judged as having been cautious and conservative! We will be happy if the action taken proves that they could have been still bolder in advocating a faster march towards a developed India! We had written this chapter before the nuclear tests on 11 May 1998. The details of the numbers projected in the tables and figures may change but our belief in what we say there remains unchanged. In any case, they are meant to be indicative of directions for change. We have seen the reactions to the tests within the country in the Indian and foreign media. We have also had the benefit of private conversations with many Indians. In all these, I observed one striking feature: a number of persons in the fifty-plus bracket and especially those who are in powerful positions in government, industry, business and academia, seem to lack the will to face problems. They would like to be supported by other countries in every action we have to take in the country. This is not a good sign after fifty years of an independent India which has all along emphasised ‘self reliance’. We are not advocating xenophobia nor isolation. But all of us have to be clear that nobody is going to hold our hands to lead us into the ‘developed country club’. Nuclear tests are the culmination of efforts to apply nuclear technology for national security. When we carried out the tests in May 1998, India witnessed issuing of sanctions by a few developed countries. In the process, the same countries have purposely collapsed their own doctrine of global marketing, global finance systems and global village. Hence India has to evolve its own original economic policy, as well as development, business and marketing strategies. It is not just that the Indian nuclear tests are resented. If tomorrow Indian software export achieves a sizable share in the global market, becoming third or fourth or fifth in size, we should expect different types of reactions. Today, we are a small percentage of the total trade in software or information technology. Similarly, if India becomes a large enough exporter of wheat or rice or agro-food products to take it into an exclusive club of four or five top food grain-exporting nations, various new issues would be raised couched in scientific and technical terms ranging from phyto-sanitary specifications to our contribution to global warming. Multilateral regimes to these effects exist in terms of General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATT) and other environment-related multilateral treaties. India cannot afford not to sign these treaties, though we could have done our homework a little better during the negotiations. We have to face what we have with us. We need to play the multilateral game, attract foreign investments, have joint ventures and be an active international player. Still, we have to remember that those who aim high, have to learn to walk alone too, when required. 200

There are economic and social problems in South-East Asia and Japan. Each country is trying to tackle them in its own way. There is a variety in the approaches. Some may overcome the difficulties and some may not. We believe India can still emerge a major developed country and all its people can contribute to and share in the prosperity. Our hope lies in the fact that even in the older generation, there are a number of persons who are ready to face the challenges. Most of the people are proud to see an India that is bold. In addition, the younger generation is ready to take action in such a complex environment. Many of them have to contend with difficult hierarchial structures in the Indian systems, whether in the private or public sector, in government or in academia. They are ready to rough it out. That is where our hopes lie for the realisation of the Second Vision. Glossary enhanced







to use a natural source of energy to produce power




most favourably




comfortable and suitable area




to go farther experience




produced from within




mind or soul




order of importance or power




determined, firm




to do something unpleasant or harmful in return




an attitude that makes one think people are not good




academic world




to cause (something) to start to happen




supporting traditional ways


/zEnE 'fE bIE/


an abnormal fear of strangers




end of something usually happening after a long time




intelligent means to achieve success


/'faItE 'sAnItErI/:


concerned with hygienic provisions








Choose the correct synonyms of the underlined words from the options given: 1. One generation transfers the fruit of its toil to another which then takes forward the mission.

a) sufferings

b) hard work

c) efforts

d) achievement

2. Let the young minds blossom – full of thoughts of prosperity.

a) progress

b) achievement

c) affluence

d) novelty

3. The attainment of a developed status by 2020 does not mean that we can then rest on our laurels.

a) failures

b) rewards

c) wealth

d) appreciation

4. We believe that as a nation and as a people we need to shed our cynicism and initiate concrete action to realise the second vision.

a) stop

b) begin

c) instruct

d) install

5. Hence India has to evolve its own economic policy.

a) design

b) develop

c) follow

d) fear

Choose the correct antonyms of the underlined words from the options given: 1. … and the core competence of certain areas gets enhanced significantly and the production of quality goods, including exports is rising and thereby all-round prosperity for the countrymen.

a) increased

b) reduced

c) expanded

d) highlighted

2. Therefore we should build around our existing strengths including the vast pool of talented scientists and technologists; and our abundant natural resources.

a) scarce

b) sufficient

c) not needed

d) boundless

3. ….. greater tolerance, less discipline, the lack of a sense of retaliation, more flexibility in accepting outsiders, great adherence to hierarchy….

a) refusal

b) defeat

c) submission

d) attack

4. It is not just that the Indian nuclear tests are resented.

a) criticised

b) refused

c) hailed

d) accepted

5. Only people with many embodied skills and knowledge and with ignited minds can be ready for such a long term vision.

a) encouraged b) extinguished

c) subdued


d) ignored

Comprehension: I . Level I 1. Why are visions necessary for a nation? 2. What does a developed nation mean? 3. ‘This is not a good sign…..’

Why does the author make such a remark?

4. What is a nation without vision compared to? 5. What is the key to reaching the status of a developed nation? 6. What type of people can achieve a long term vision? 7. What is ‘xenophobia’? 8. What does the author mean by ‘multilateral game’? II. Level II 1. What was our ‘first vision’? 2. What was the second vision conceived for? 3. What should a nation do to achieve the status of a developed nation? 4. What were the special features of our nation that affected our ability to pursue a vision tenaciously? 5. Why should India evolve its own original economic policy and adopt original strategies? 6. “Those who aim high, have to learn to walk alone too”. Explain 7. Where, according to the author do our hopes lie for the realisation of the second vision? III. Answer in a paragraph: 1. What, according to the author, are the two visions for the development of our nation? 2. What are the steps suggested by the author to achieve the status of a developed nation in the year 2020? IV. Write an essay on: 1. What are the problems that have affected our pursuit to become a developed nation? What are the remedies suggested? 2. Explain the term ‘Vision – 2020’. How can we achieve this vision? 203

Understanding graphs: Look at the graph below and answer the questions: India in the Big League 1996-2020 (Ranks) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Assumed growth rates


7% during 1997-01 7.5% during 2002-06 8.0% during 2007-11 9.0% during 2012-20


10 11


12 13 14 15

Average Annual GDP Growth (%)


For Fourth Position required growth rates would be


7.5% during 1997-2001 8% during 2002-06 10% during 2007-11 13% during 2012-20





Courtesy:'I'.K.Bhaumik Senior Adviser CII

GDP – Gross Domestic Product 1. What is the position of India in the year 2000? 2. What would be our position in the year 2020 as per the assumed growth rate? 3. In order to get the fourth position in 2020 what should be our growth rate in the last eight years? 4. What should be the increase in growth rate from the assumed growth rate in the last eight years? 5. What was the change in our position from 1996 to 2000? Understanding different registers Read the following passages: 1. The two main therapeutic goals for persons with paralysis caused by neuropathology is to gain as much neuromuscular function as possible and to increase their functionality with the neuromuscular control they have. - New Indian Express 204

2. The bulls have won round one on the bourses. Barring the technology sector, which is still down in the dumps due to uncertain business climate, stocks all round have seen aggressive buying in the past few months. - Outlook 3. None bigger in terms of occasion than his patient century as Test opener in Nottingham earlier in the summer; Sehwag was another in a long line of make-shift openers but has no time for the anxieties of the job: he would rather fuss over his batting, he says, not his batting position. - India Today

The above three passages have been selected from different journals.

The first passage is on a subject in Medical Sciences.

The second passage deals with activities in Stock Market.

The third passage is about a sports personality.

The underlined words are generally used in that particular field only. One who is not familiar with the field has to refer to the dictionary to know the meaning.

Such words belonging to different fields are known as register.

‘A Register’ means the level and style of a piece of writing or speech, that is usually appropriate to the situation of field that it is used in’. Task: Read the given passages and identify the field they have been chosen from: 1. A further cause for repetition and wastage in the system is the mass teaching methods that are being followed and the learning techniques centred on memorising bits and pieces of information that are forced on the student. 2. Article 51A

Fundamental Duties – It shall be the duty of every citizen of India –

a) to abide by the constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and the National Anthem

D. Vocabulary I. Read the following sentences: 1. The participating nations, apart from the USA, are Japan, the UK, France, Germany and the South Asian countries. 2. Multilateral regimes to these effects exist in terms of General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATT) and other environment-related multilateral treaties. 205

3. The Scientists of ISRO were hailed by the Prime Minister on the successful launch of Agni.

We are aware that:

USA means the United States of America

UK means the United Kingdom

ISRO means the Indian Space Research Organisation

USA, UK, ISRO are short forms of long phrases or words. These short forms are called abbreviations. We use abbreviations instead of full phrases or words.

They are formed by the first letter of each word as in example 2.

General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs – GATT

Here are a few abbreviations: 1. ATM

- Automatic Teller Machines


- Combat Vehicle Research and Development Establishments


- Central Leather Research Institute

4. IIT

- Indian Institute of Technology

Task 1: Find the expansion of the following abbreviations associated with computers.


Task 2:

Find out a few abbreviations and their expansions associated with UN (United Nations ).

When the following abbreviations are used as words they are called ‘acronyms’.

AVADI - Armed Vehicles and Ammunition Depot of India

LASER - Light Amplification by Stimulated Emissions of Radiation

RADAR - Radio Detection And Ranging

Task : Find out a few more acronyms. You could refer to a dictionary. II. Read the following sentences: 1.

The police arrested a young man in a local college for attempting suicide.


Ravi is suspected to have kleptomania.


People who have fear of water are said to be suffering from hydrophobia.

The suffixes ‘ – cide’ in suicide, ‘ – mania’ in kleptomania and ‘- phobia’ in 206

hydrophobia are used to refer to the nature of an act or a person.

‘-cide’ means killing

Suicide is killing of self.

Homicide is killing of another person.

Genocide is killing of people.

Patricide is killing of father

(Patre – father)

Matricide is killing of mother

(Matre – mother)

Task 1:

Can you guess the meaning of the underlined words in the sentences given below?

1. Female infanticide has increased in the recent past.


The court convicted the accused of fratricide.

‘-mania’ refers to mental illness of a particular type

Kleptomania means a strong desire to steal.

Bibliomania means a craze for books.

Megalomania means mental illness in which one has exaggerated belief in one’s importance. Task 2:

Can you guess the meaning of the underlined words in the sentences given below?


He sets fire to things as he is suffering from pyromania.


Please don’t give him too much money. He has squandermania.

‘- phobia’ refers to an unknown fear of something.

hydrophobia - fear of water

claustrophobia - fear of enclosed space

acrophobia - fear of heights

Task 3:

Can you guess the meaning of the underlined words in the sentences given below?


We are not advocating ‘xenophobia’ nor isolation.


He is suffering from agarophobia.

III. Read the advertisement given below:

‘Wanted a hard working, reliable, impressive young graduate with at least two 207

years experience in salesmanship for a company in Chennai …………’ The words hard working, reliable, impressive are terms referring to the character of an individual. Here are a few sentences that describe an individual’s character:

Mr. Mitra is an optimistic, pleasant and humorous man.

A pessimist is one who always expects bad things to happen.

We should be sensitive to what happens around us.

Be bold and challenge the world.

You can be ambitious but never greedy.

Choose the appropriate word for the following from the words in brackets:

(an introvert, mean, reserved, emotional, a conservative)

One who is not willing to give or share with others is …………….

One who has strong feelings such as love or anger is ……………..

One who is more interested in his own thought and does not mix with others is


One who is slow and unwilling to express opinions is..……………..

One who prefers traditional values to a sudden social change is……………

IV. Phrasal Verbs and Idioms Read the given sentences:

The police cordoned off the area until the bomb was defused.

The sound of loud music emanated from the building.

It is time to fight back against drug trafficking.

In the above sentences the groups of words underlined are called phrasal verbs. Phrasal verbs are verbs that consist of two or three words. The first word is a verb and it is followed by an adverb or a prepositions or both. These adverbs or prepositions are sometimes called particles. In some cases it is easy to guess the meaning of the phrasal verb. e.g.

I cannot put up with his behaviour any more. - 208


Nobody could quarrel with your conclusion.



Do not hang around here.


move with no aim

They left Iraq before the war broke out.


started suddenly

Generally when the verbs are transitive (they take an object) the phrasal verb is separable and the object can be between the verb and particle or after the particle. e.g. He tore up the letter. He tore the letter up.

She had to push forward.

She had to push herself forward.

When the verbs are intransitive (they have no object) the verb and particle cannot be separated. I ran into my old friend today.

We shall eat out tonight.

I cannot cope with the new syllabus.

Sometimes Phrasal verbs can be used with Phrases and Clauses.


I cannot figure out how to do this.

I am counting on you to help me.

Task: Here are a few phrasal verbs. Use them in your own sentences.

1. argue into

6. hunt down

2. bag off

7. melt away

3. cave in

8. nose around

4. engage in

9. pile on

5. hand down

10. revert to

Idioms Read the given sentences: She told him flat that she had no intention of lending him any money.

If the agreement still holds good we will go ahead with the work. 209

Ravi did not do well in his business as he did not know the tricks of the trade.

In the above underlined groups of words the words taken together as a group mean something more or different from the individual meanings of each word.

told him flat


expressed opinion directly

holds good


valid at the time of discussion

tricks of the trade


the expertise of doing business

These are called idioms. An idiom can be defined as a group of words having a meaning different from the individual meanings of each word in the group. Idoms are nothing but the special use of language in different situations and they encompass the whole gamut of language use with combinations of different parts of speech.

Idioms are generally of three types.


From irregular structure; meaning clear

- give someone to understand (give to understand - irregular structure)

- do someone proud (do proud - irregular structure)


From regular structure; meaning clear

- cut no ice

- bring the house down


From irregular structure; meaning unclear

- be at large (at large - irregular structure)

- play it by ear (by ear - irregular structure)

Most of the idioms belong to the second group.

Here are a few sentences to illustrate their types: Adjectives and adverbs

Business is going from bad to worse. (deteriorate further)

They always do things in a big way. (on a large scale)

The government has taken a very hard line (not giving in) against illegal quarrying.

Orders for the new product are coming in thick and fast. (in large numbers) 210

Nouns How can any one make ends meet (manage with the money) with just Rs.2000/a month?

Your son’s behaviour is a matter of concern. (something to worry about)

The name sounds familiar but I can’t call her face to mind. (recall something from memory; recognise) Nouns and adjectives My uncle loves to tell us how to play cricket. He is an armchair expert. (one who gives advice in an area in which he was not actively involved) Ravi is our sincere employee. He has had a clean slate (a past record without discredit) for over twenty years. Idioms and Prepositions The policeman went near the damaged car to have a look at close quarters. (very near)

Dr. Jacob is at the helm (in charge) of affairs in this hospital.

Verbal Idioms No one can make a break even (make no profit or loss) in the first year of business. Because of the steep rice in prices, people living on pension feel the pinch. (feeling unpleasant change in one’s standard of living) Idiomatic Pairs

Let us settle the bill for the damage fair and square. (in a fair way)

I can hear you over phone loud and clear. (very clearly)

By and by (as time goes by) he will realise that my going to Delhi was the right decision. Task: Find the meanings of the following idioms from the dictionary and use them in sentences of your own.

1. in short supply


the burning question

2. one thing leads to another


the whys and wherefores

3. once and for all


in deep waters

4. a drop in the ocean


draw a blank

5. a stone’s throw


a wild goose chase


E. Study Skills Note taking It is very essential that everyone should learn how to take notes while listening. This is a skill involving listening and writing. Task 1:

Your teacher will read a passage. As you listen, keep in mind the following and complete the notes given below:

1. Write the topic. 2. Listen carefully to what is talked about. 3. One need not write everything that is said. 4. Articles, prepositions, connectives could be left out. 5. It is better to write new words and proper nouns, in full. 6. Words in the active vocabulary could be abbreviated. 7. Examples and anecdotes could be remembered after making a reference in the appropriate place. 8. Extract the main points and sub points. Electric Power

- most imp. part of infra structure

- domestic comfort,……… , …………,

………….. , smooth operation of transport

……………. ………………..

- vital to…………….

- requirement – multiply because……….. ………….

- Imm. action needed to step up generation of elect. From……….

……….. …………… and …………….


Ask a friend of yours to read the passage given below and take notes:

In 326 B.C. the troops of Alexander the Great were nibbling at the fringes of the Indian sub-continent, subduing the fragmented kingdoms along the valley of the Indus river in present day Pakistan. Alexander’s spies had told him of the empire of Magadha that lay beyond. They brought figures for its fighting forces that spoke for themselves: 200,000 men under arms, 20,000 cavalry, 2000 chariots, and 3000 elephants. This was a gigantic force, and only an enormously wealthy and well-organised state could have afforded it. 212

Alexander was ready to risk the invasion, But his war-weary, home- sick men refused to go on, and he was obliged to turn back towards the west without giving battle. After he died in 323 BC his far-flung empire broke apart as his generals set themselves up as rival rulers in different provinces. - Courtesy Reader’s Digest – Vanished civilisations F. Grammar Read the following dialogue: Press Reporter


Sir, could you please tell us the purpose of the meeting?

Corporation Official


We have organised this meeting with the shop keepers. We want to find a solution to the problem of ‘sundal’ boys. They are deprived of basic education. Moreover it is essential to convince the employers to let the children go off for a while to study.

The reporter came back to his office and presented a report to his editor.

“A special meeting of the shopkeepers around Marina was organised by the corporation officials this morning. When asked, the corporation official told the reporter that they had organised that meeting with the shopkeepers in order to find out a solution to the problem of Sundal boys. He added that they were deprived of basic education and that it was essential to convince the employers to let the children go off for a while to study.” Whenever a report is presented, the conversation which is in direct speech is presented in indirect speech. Hence it is called ‘ Reported Speech’. If you go through the passages again you will notice that the following changes have taken in reported speech: -

A suitable reporting verb like said, asked, told is used.


Comma and quotation marks are omitted and a conjunction is used.


All first person pronouns ( I,we,my,our) are changed according to the speaker and second person pronouns (you, your) are changed according to the listener.


If the reporting verb is in the past tense the tenses are changed except in a few cases like reporting universal truth or habitual action.


Modal Auxiliary Verbs are changed to their corresponding past forms.


When the reporting verb is in the past tense the tense of the verb is in direct speech becomes past perfect.



Words expressing nearness of time and place are changed into words of distance, when time and place of reporting are different. They remain the same when reported during the same time from same place.

Let us look at some examples:




She said, “How tall the building is!”

She exclaimed that the building was very tall. He requested me to switch off the fan.

He said to me, “Please, switch off the fan.”

(Reporting verbs are ‘said, told, asked, requested, exclaimed,’ etc.) 2.




I said, “ Can you repeat it again?”

I asked if he could repeat that again.

She asked me, “Do you have the address?”

She asked me whether I had the address.

You said to her, “I studied in Chennai.”

You told her that you had studied in Chennai.

The doctor asked me, “When did you meet me last?”

The doctor asked me when I had met him last.

He says, “I am paying the bill now.” (Reporting verb is in present tense)

He says that he is paying the bill now.

He said, “The sun sets in the west.” (universal truth)

He said that the sun sets in the west.

I said, “I will definitely write to him.”

I said that I would definitely write to him.

My father said to me, “You must have some rest.”

My father told me that I must have some rest.

(Generally modals like ‘would, should, might,’ etc., do not change.) 6.


I said to my teacher, “I left the note book at home”

I told my teacher that I had left my notebook at home.

We said, “We are attending a meeting.”

We said that we were attending a meeting.

Sheela said to us, “I visited Shimla four years ago.”

Sheela told us that she had visited Shimla four years earlier.

Ravi said, “This is the book I lost.”

Ravi told that that was the book he had lost. 214

A few more examples: I said, “Where are the boys?”

I asked where the boys were.

She asked me, “Why are you late?”

She asked me why I was late.

(In the case of ‘Wh’ questions there is no need to have a conjunction like ‘that’.)

The teacher said, “Do not bring the book.”

The teacher asked me not to bring the

book Read the following passage: The teacher instructed us to write our names on the top left hand side of the answer paper. She advised us not to write anything on the question paper and also forbade us from talking in the examination hall. The above passage is in reported speech. This can be re-written in direct speech. Teacher: Write your name on the top left hand side of the answer sheet. Do not write anything on the question paper. Do not talk in the Examination Hall. The underlined words ‘instructed’, ‘advised’ and ‘forbade’ are called reporting verbs. Read another passage: The doctor asked what the problem was and enquired what food I ate last. I complained that I had severe stomach ache and added that I had taken pizza the previous night.The doctor suspected food poisoning and prescribed some medicine. He advised me to take rest for a day and warned me against taking food late in the night. The reporting verbs in the passage need not appear in the re-written form of dialogue. Doctor :

What is your problem?

What did you eat last?

Patient :

I have severe stomach ache.

I took pizza last night.

Doctor :

I think you had food poisoning I will prescribe some medicine.

Take rest for a day and don’t take food late in the night.



Read the given passages and rewrite them in direct speech.

1. The scientist was invited to occupy the seat on the stage and was introduced to the audience as the greatest scientist of the year. He was requested to deliver a speech. The speaker expressed his pleasure in presenting a bouquet to him. 2. The cyclist warned the driver not to move his car till the police arrived. The driver pleaded that it was not his fault; however he agreed to pay hundred rupees for the repair. The cyclist refused the money and insisted that the police be called. 3. The striking workers demanded an increase in salary and asked for the withdrawal of all cases. They threatened to continue the strike if the demands were not met. The manager insisted on them calling off the strike and invited them to a discussion. He agreed to listen to their demands. Here are a few passages in Indirect speech. In reported speech the connective, ‘that’ is used in the case of Statements and Exclamatory sentences. 1. The speaker said, “I am confident that it is very much possible to achieve the status of a developed nation in the next twenty years.’

The speaker said that he was confident that it was very much possible to achieve the status of a developed nation in the following twenty years.

2. The tourist said, “What a lovely piece of art it is!”

The tourist exclaimed that it was a very lovely piece of art.

The connectives ‘if’ and ‘whether’ are used in the case of Yes-No questions.

1. The policeman asked the driver, “Do you have a licence?”

The policeman asked the driver whether he had a licence.

2. The boy said, “Can I take my book?”

The boy asked if he could take his book.

In ‘Wh’ questions the question word itself is used as a connective. 1. My father said, “Where is your bicycle?”

My father asked where my bicycle was.

2. The teacher said, “Why are you late, Ravi?”

The teacher asked Ravi why he was late.

Task: Rewrite into reported speech using appropriate connectives: 1. The student said, “The book is very cheap.” 2. The shop keeper said, “I don’t have the soap you want.” 3. Ravi said, “What an easy paper it is!” 216

4. We all said, “How hot the day is!” 5. I asked Kala, “Did you bring my book?” 6. The boy asked, “Will it rain today?” 7. My brother said, “How did you arrive at the answer?” 8. The tourist said, “When will the museum open?” Connectives Mr. Rehman, a delegate from Pakistan and I got down from the train at ‘Theydon Bois,’ a suburban station near London. Though it was late evening, darkness had not set in. It was the end of summer. However the cool breeze made the evening enjoyable. We were returning after a meeting that was part of our week long training programme. The next day we were leaving for our respective countries. Rehman was much alike any Indian in his thought and action. Moreover he was able to converse in Hindi. Naturally it brought us closer to each other. We walked through the streets in silence feeling sorry that to meet once again was next to impossible. Suddenly we saw an Indian Restaurant and we decided to eat some Indian food. Surprisingly the restaurant was empty and we could easily get a table in a corner. We ordered traditional North Indian food and continued our conversation. The proprietor of the restaurant heard us talking in Hindi and joined us in our conversation. Even though he was born and brought up in London, he spoke Hindi well. He told us that his father had migrated from Dacca before India became independent. The food was excellent and the conversation was interesting. Finally it was time for settling the bill and there was no indication of the bearer coming with it. In my estimate the cost should be around £ 8. I took out a £ 10 currency and demanded the bill. The proprietor calmly put his hand around our shoulder and said, “We all belong to the then Hindustan and you are my brother. I don’t accept money from my brothers.” (Based on the true experience of the author.) Note the words in italics. They are used to bring in coherence of ideas and to get rid of the monotony in the paragraph. They are called connectives. The passage being a narration, chronological order of incidents makes the passage impressive, the use of connectives brings in coherence of ideas. The connectives often used are: Furthermore, in addition, moreover, but, so, next, likewise, similarly, subsequently, consequently, however, though, not only….but also, finally, on the contrary, for instance, for example, whereas, on the other hand, still, as soon as, unless, as if, as though, even though, even if, etc. 217


Underline the connectives in the given passage:

The raft drew beyond the middle of the river. After pointing her head right, the boys lay on their oars. The river was not high and there was more than a two or three mile current. Consequently the boat went slow. Suddenly the boys saw two or three glimmering lights beyond water to their left. Probably they were passing by a distant town. Though they wanted to turn towards the bank, they did not do so as they were short of time. At last by 2 o’ clock in the morning they reached the island. G. Writing A business letter always differs from a personal letter. The format and language are formal, direct and courteous. In a business letter: 1. Sender’s address is written at the top of the letter. Often official letter- heads are used. 2. Ensure that correct address is furnished with telephone numbers and fax number if available. It facilitates easy communication. 3. The data is typed on the right handside below the sender’s address. 4. If it is directed to an official ‘Dear Sir / Madam’ is used for salutation. If the letter is addressed to the company use ‘Dear Sirs’. 5. The subject is mentioned as a short note. 6. In some letters, the reference number of an earlier communication is given for easy reference. 7. Normally a business letter consists of three paragraphs The first paragraph gives a brief introduction of the sender and the reason or purpose of writing the letter. The second paragraph conveys the actual requirement or message in brief but without mincing words. It should be clear and provide all details. The third paragraph should be precise and effective so that it makes the reader act upon it. 8. Subscription: If the letter is addressed to an individual by name ‘Yours sincerely’, is the appropriate form. Otherwise ‘Yours truly’ or ‘Yours faithfully’ is used. 9. In formal business letters, the sender affixes full signature and states his designation below it. 10. If the requirement is more in number and the space in the body of the letter is inadequate, a reference could be made and a separate list of items could be enclosed.


Look at the following letter. MERCURY SPORTS CLUB 45 M.G. Road, Adayar, Chennai – 20 PH : 27462816 7th March 2003 To, M / S Radiant Sports Suppliers, 216, Anna Salai Chennai – 600002 Dear Sirs,

Sub: Supply of sports materials – quotation called for.

We are a leading sports club in Chennai and we need the following items for immediate purchase. We request you to send your quotation of prices for the items within a week of receipt of this letter. Also mention the brand and ensure that they are of ISI standard. 1. Volley ball (practice)

- 12

2. Volley ball (Tournament)


3. Volley ball net (practice)


4. Volley ball net (Nylon)


5. Basket ball

- 10

We look forward to your immediate reply. Yours faithfully, K.VARADHAN Secretary – Mercury Sports Club Task1:

Send a suitable reply to the above letter.

Task2: You are the PRO of a big company. You had already received the catalogue and brochures of solar heaters and solar lamps. Write a letter to the company placing a bulk order at a discounted price. Task3:

Write a letter to the authorities of the Metro Transport System asking them to provide two buses for taking your students on a visit to the museum. You will sign as the Adminstrative Officer of the school.


H. Occupational Competency: (i) CROSS BORDER TERRORISM


(i) terrorism - across borders - violence bomb blasts - blood shed - the evil that man does to man - need for peace, nonviolence, tolerance (ii) Noor Fatima - 2½ year old - Pakistani girl - came to India with parents - on the first trip - Lahore- Delhi bus service - relaunched on July 11th - after a suspension of 18 months - underwent successful open heart surgery - private hospital - Bangalore, South India Task :

Look at the given pictures carefully. Read the captions and hints, and write a composition based on it.

I. Strategic Competency Proficiency in English is an added advantage to anyone who wants to prosper in life. With a fair proficiency in English one can go places in life. Can we afford the luxury of ignoring English? A : A visiting professor A :

B : Sriram, a business man

Hello, Sriram. How was your visit to the States?

B : Well, it was a rewarding experience . I was rather stunned by the regard we command there. I think we Indians make a mark wherever we go. A : You’re right. Our communication skill is in fact a great asset. The foreigners are able to follow our accent easily. This helps in improving our relationship with them. 220

B : I was of the opinion that we Indians give undue importance to English. But my visit abroad has changed my opinion. A : Yes, Sriram. English as you realise now is playing a vital role in linking not only the different states of India but also making the world a global village. It is a very powerful tool of communication. B : I do understand. But my question is how do countries like Japan and China manage without English? Yet they are developing faster than us. A : No doubt, they are nations that have drawn our attention. I now travel to many countries as a visiting professor in English. You will be overjoyed and proud to know the respect they have for me - I mean for my English. I feel satisfied that I’ve done my country proud in a small way. B : I am indeed happy to hear that. Would you then say that we hereafter cannot manage without English? A : It’s not the question of managing. If you want your hard work and dedication to be recognised then you shouldn’t shun this universal language. All the countries now have fully realised the value of this important language and they look upto us for inspiration and guidance. B : I see. That’s interesting! A : Not only that. You know that English enjoys the status of being the second official language in India. You need English to keep pace with the rapid advancements and research in science and technology. Our software engineers outsmart their counter parts wherever they go, only because of their excellent communication skills. We are in great demand everywhere. B : I have come to understand the value of English now. Thank you for enlightening me. Task:

Form groups and discuss the importance of learning English.

J. Creative Competency The following is an article in the sports column of a newspaper: St. Xavier’s wins TIRUNELVELI, Nov. 6. The throw ball match between St.Xavier’s and BSN proved to be an exciting one. St.Xavier’s created terror in the minds of their opponents right at the start. BSN struggled, unable to cope with their strong opponents But it looked that things changed for both the teams when they changed sides, with St.Xavier’s winning the first match. Lady luck smiled upon BSN now. They accumulated points quickly only to prove that they were no weak opponents. The crucial third match was started after a short break. It gave enough time for both the teams to work out their winning strategies. 221

The captains of both the teams did prove their worth as leaders. The match became fierce and highly competitive when both too thrilling and kept everyone on tenterhooks. But it was St. Xavier’s which won the match. And of course the trophy was theirs! Task: Complete the following articles to be published in the sports column of a newspaper choosing the words given in brackets: (i) Kanetkar wins title NEW DELHI, July 14. India’s Nikhil Kanetkar won his ................... international title when he ............... Andreas Wolk of Germany to ............... the Toulose Open badminton ............... in Southern France. Kanetkar ............... the German 15-9, 15-11 in just 29 minutes to lift the Grade ‘A’ title on Sunday. (lift, tournament, maiden, defeated, thrashed) (ii)

Pon N Krithika wins in style

KOZHIKODE, Mar. 17. Twelve-year-old Pon N Kirithika won the 31st National women’s ‘A’ chess ................. in great style. She did it with a ................. to spare, and with an astonishing 15.5 ................. from 16 rounds. She defeated the ................. champion Rajashree in the ................. round. “This has been an amazing .................,” said a delighted Krithika. (defending, championship, points, streak, round, penultimate) Self-evaluation I. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. II.

Change the following sentences into Indirect Speech: The teacher said to the student, “You have done well in the examination.” The librarian said to the student, “When will you return the book?” The policeman said to the driver, “Do you have a license?” The tourist said, “What a beautiful monument it is!” The clerk said to the manager, “Please permit me to use the computer.” The master said to the servant, “Clean the front room.” The stranger said to me, “Could you please show me the way to the bus stop?” Coin suitable words for the given meanings using suitable suffxes like ‘- phobia,’ ‘-cide,’ and ‘-mania.’ Something used to kill insects Killing a member of a royal family Fear of using English A strong desire for alcoholic drinks -



O Captain! My Captain! Our fearful trip is done,

The ship has weather’d every rack, the prize we sought is won,

The port is near, the bells I hear, the people all exulting,

While follow eyes the steady keel, the vessel grim and daring;

But O heart! heart! heart!

O the bleeding drops o red!

Where on the deck my Captain lies,

Fallen cold and dead.

O Captain! My Captain! Rise up and hear the bells;

Rise up - for you the flag is flung - for you the bugle trills,

For you bouquets and ribbon’d wreaths - for you the shores crowding,

For you they call, the swaying mass, their eager faces turning;

Here, Captain! dear father!

This arm beneath your head!

It is some dream that on the deck

You’ve fallen cold and dead.

My Captain does not answer, his lips are pale and still,

My father does not feel my arm, he has no pulse nor will;

The ship is anchor’d safe and sound, its voyage closed and done,

From fearful trip the victor ship comes in with object won;

Exult, O shores! and ring, O bells! But I, with mournful tread,

Walk the deck my Captain lies, Fallen cold and dead. - Walt Whitman

Walt Whitman was born in Long Island, in the United States of America in 1819. He started his career as an office boy in a law office in Brooklyn at the age of eleven and then became a typesetter’s apprentice in a number of print shops. He took to teaching for some time and started his own newspaper, ‘the Long Islands’. During 1850-1855 he focussed on his own work, ‘ Leaves of Grass’ and continued to write. He died at the age of 72. 223

The poem, ‘O Captain! My Captain’ was published in 1865 and widely anthologised during his life time. This poem is a rare example of his use of rhymed, rhythmically regular verse, which serves to create a sombre yet exalted effect. Whitman had envisioned Abraham Lincoln as an archangel Captain and he wrote this poem as a dirge for the death of Abraham Lincoln. The first line of the poem serves to begin the controlling metaphor upon which the rest of the poem is built. In this poem, ‘Captain’ is a substitute of Abraham Lincoln, and the ship is the United States of America. ‘The fearful trip’ is the Civil War. The Speaker celebrates the end of the civil war but continues to mourn the fallen hero. Glossary and notes bleeding drops of red


captain’s bleeding wound and the speaker’s wounded heart



bells rung in celebration of victory (they also symbolise funeral bells)



came safely through

dear father


Lincoln is exalted to the position of father of the post-slavery nation



show jubilation (over victory)



walk softly



produce a quavering or warbling sound

Comprehension questions: 1. Why is the vessel grim and daring? 2. What has happened to the Captain? 3. How is the dead Captain received? 4. What do the following phrases mean?

a) ‘Ship is anchored safe and sound’

b) ‘Voyage closed and done’

c) ‘Prize we sought is won’

5. How are the last eight lines different from the previous lines? 6. Explain the metaphors in the poem.


Appreciation questions: 1. State symbolically the arrangement of syllables, stressed and unstressed in each line. 2. Bring out the significance of the first four long lines and the next four lines short in each stanza. 3. How are emotions expressed in the shorter lines of each stanza? 4. What does a leader leave for his followers? Parallel reading Read the given poem that advocates patriotic fervour. THE SOLDIER

If I should die, think only this of me:

That is for ever England. There shall be

Gave, once her flowers to love, her ways to roam,

A body of England’s, breathing English air,

In that rich earth a richer dust concealed;

A dust whom England bore, shaped, made aware,

That there’s some corner of a foreign field

Washed by the rivers, blost by suns of home.

And think, this heart, all evil shed away,

A pulse in the eternal mind, no less

Gives somewhere back the thoughts by England given;

Her sights and sounds; dreams happy as her day;

And laughter, learnt of friends; and gentleness,

In hearts at peace, under an English heaven. - Rupert Brooke


APPENDIX UNIT - I A. Listening I. & II.

'Twinkle, 'twinkle, 'little 'star

'How I 'wonder 'what you 'are!

'Tiger! 'Tiger! 'burning 'bright

'In the 'forests 'of the 'night


'Tum ti 'tum ti 'tum ti 'tum

'Twinkle, 'twinkle, 'little 'star

'Tum ti 'tum ti 'tum ti 'tum

'Tiger! 'Tiger! 'burning 'bright



The 'moon ro'tates 'round the 'earth.


'Man 'back from 'space.


The 'spaceship is 'now in 'orbit.


They 'left 'footprints on the 'moon.


'Space is 'all a'round us.

Task: 1. The 'sun 'rises in the 'east. 2. 'Man’s 'footprints on the 'moon. 3. 'Everest 'conquered. 4. He 'promised to 'come. 5. 'Spaceship 'launched. 6. 'Countdown be'gins. 7. The 'capsule 'burnt. 8. 'When the 'blazing 'sun is 'gone. 9. 'Comet’s 'course 'tracked. 10. He’s a 'cosmonaut.


UNIT - II A. Listening I. Rani

: Hi, Radha! Have you submitted your appli'cation form?

Radha : Not yet. I’ll do it tomorrow. Rani

: Why?

Radha : I couldn’t make photocopies of my certificates because there was no elec'tricity in that area. Rani

: Okay, what group are you planning to choose?

Radha : I’ll be choosing mathematics and bi'ology. Rani

: Why both?

Radha : I want to keep my 'options open. I want to become either an e'lectrical or elec'tronic engineer or a doctor. Rani

: That’s a ter'rific idea! I’ve decided to choose the second group.

Radha : Why the second group? I thought you would choose the first group! Rani

: I’m terribly scared of mathematics and also zo'ology.

Radha : Strange! Your grandfather was a famous mathema'tician. Rani

: What about Amudha? She was interested in history and ge'ography.

Radha : I heard that she is planning to join the vocational group. Rani

: Why?

Radha : She told me that she wants to par'ticipate in many basketball tournaments. Hence that choice. Rani

: Okay, we’ll meet tomorrow.

Radha : Yes, tomorrow is the last day to sub'mit the appli'cation form. Task 2:














Task 3:













II. Functional Stress Task 1: 'absent noun ab'sent verb con'trast verb 'contrast noun di'gest verb 'digest noun





'import noun im'port verb con'tent verb 'content noun per'mit verb 'permit noun 'produce noun pro'duce verb Task 2: 1. The headmaster is not satisfied with the 'conduct of some of the hostelers. If they don’t con'duct themselves properly, they will be dismissed from the hostel. 2. The youth should ob'ject to the practice of showing the woman as an 'object of pleasure in films. 3. Show me your 'record. I want to re'cord it.

UNIT - III A. Listening I. This is a radio announcement: Farmers caught in a vicious circle Barnataka, Sept. 7

While some farmers in the Kalveri Bajun districts are committing suicide,

unable to repay loans, sops extended by banks at the behest of the RBI with regard to settlement of loans have evoked little response. 228

The RBI scheme, sources said, was in addition to the programmes implemented

by banks. They pointed out that the banks were implementing schemes to help those who were not wilful defaulters. One of the reasons cited for farmers remaining cool to the schemes was that they were unable to pay even the interest part of their loan. Besides the large institutional credit, farmers have also borrowed from moneylenders. Drought for two years in a row has reduced income from farmlands while the outstanding amount has been increasing sharply. II. Task 1:

Young Villager (to Bharath) : My mother wants to buy two red tractors.

Young Villager (to Siddu) : My mother wants to buy two red tractors.

Young Villager (to Renu) : My mother wants to buy two red tractors.

Task 2: 1. a) I’m sorry, but I can’t help you.

b) I’m sorry, but I can’t help you.

2. a) He doesn’t really like brinjals.

b) He doesn’t really like brinjals.

3. a) I thought Economics was a boring subject.

b) I thought Economics was a boring subject.

4. a) I only said to the child, “You should get up earlier”.

b) I only said to the child, “You should get up earlier”.

5. a) I’ll never pass in Hindi.

b) I’ll never pass in Hindi.

6. a) Some children have broken the window.

b) Some children have broken the window.

7. a) At least you could try.

b) At least you could try.


Task 3:

“Shame on the parents who would supervise the spending of pocket money! It

is ours by sacred right. It is our first clear step towards the dignity of adulthood. With it we gain the right not only to stand in front of the enticing shop window but also to enter and translate our judgement into action. Anxious mothers say, “I shouldn’t buy that if I were you”, or, “You’ve already got one of these at home”, or, “What! More sweets! You’ll be sick.” No more interference! Let us face our own responsibilities. If we are ever to learn how to spend Rs. 50/- we must learn by ourselves to squander a rupee in all the riotous splendour of inexperience. We learn by making mistakes. So, our parents owe this much to our dawning manhood and womanhood.”

UNIT IV A. Listening “Mirror, mirror, on the wall; tell me who’s the fairest of all?” The vain and wicked Queen asked the mirror. “Snow-white!” answered the mirror. The mirror is that which reflects our own image. Dreams too mirror our image, for, they reveal what worries us in the present or our deep personal anxieties from the past. Dreams reflect our innermost feelings. Dreams can be fun. Dreams can be nightmarish. Sometimes dreams are exciting. Dreams predict the future too. There are occasions when dreams are a fulfilment of one’s innermost desires.

At times dreams prove a perfect escape from the harsh realities of the world.

But, are dreams real?

A little boy once tried in vain to collect the beautiful colours of the rainbow in his water-colour box, from the reflection of the rainbow on a puddle of rain water. His father smiled and said, “The colours of the rainbow cannot be collected in any bucket or box. The raindrops shine in the splendour of the rainbow only for a few moments. This, my son, happens with all the things of this world; we imagine that they are important, but in truth they are only a vague appearance.” Yes, like the reflection of the rainbow, dreams too are unreal and momentary. A dream world passes away fleetingly. Dreams are only a mirage, an illusion, appearing to be what they really aren’t. Task: “Was it a vision or a waking dream? ...... do I wake or sleep?” asked Keats in his ‘Ode to a Nightingale’. 230

Do you have dreams or visions? Can you make your dreams come true? Is it possible to crystallise your dreams? Is it possible to turn your dreams into reality? Can you turn the abstract into concrete? If you have visions for the future, you can. Didn’t Martin Luther King make it possible? What about Churchill, who said, “We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender”? And how could we forget Nehru who made his tryst with destiny? What about Gandhi’s vision of a free India? The great achievers like Tenzing Norgay and Neil Armstrong had their own dreams. Their dreams were their aspirations. With single-minded dedication and zeal they were able to fulfil their dreams. Alexander the Great dreamt of an empire. But, would he have achieved it, if he had built mere castles in the air? Vasco da Gama and Christopher Columbus dreamt of exploring hitherto untrodden territory. Would they have made their great discoveries, if they had sat brooding on the shores? Mother Teresa had a vision of working among the destitute in Calcutta. Would she have fulfilled it, if she had led a cloistered life in far-off Yugoslavia? Bill Gates dreamt of a Microsoft empire, P. T. Usha dreamt of sprinting to victory and Kalpana Chawla dreamt of reaching the stars. How were they all able to achieve it? Dreams are what you hope for; reality is what you plan for. Unless you plan and forge ahead, your dreams will remain dreams. They will never become realities. The American Civil Rights leader, Jesse Jackson, said, “We’ve removed the ceiling above our dreams. There are no more impossible dreams”. Yes, the sky alone could be the limit for those who strive towards making their dreams come true.

UNIT - V A. Listening: Task 1 : Presenter


This is All Bharat Radio. Good morning to you listeners! And greetings on this 56th independence day. We now present to you a panel discussion on “Freedom”. Our panelists are the Honourable Minister Thamizhselvan, our respected Vice Chancellor Thiru. Ram Kumar and the famous newspaper editor Ms.Sangeetha. I invite the Honourable Minister to express his views first.



Friends, a very Good morning to all of you. Freedom for me is freedom from foreign rule. We achieved it 56 years ago. I am proud to be a free Indian. Jai Hind! 231

Vice Chancellor :

Dear listeners, in my opinion, freedom means freedom to learn what you like. I am sad to say that India has not achieved this freedom. Let us all work towards it.



My dear fellow Indians I’m sure you will agree with me when I say that freedom of the press is the real freedom. I am happy to say that we Indians have a free press.



I feel that our top priority should be economic freedom. Unless rural poverty is wiped out and the majority of people are assured of minimum standards of living, freedom will not mean anything.

Vice Chancellor :

I agree with the Honourable Minister in toto. But I would like to add that complete freedom is something not practicable. One man’s freedom is restrained by the need to grant freedom to others. A certain amount of control by the government is unavoidable.



I am afraid, I can’t agree with my esteemed friend. Freedom is our birthright. Any effort by established governments to encroach upon our freedom should be resisted by the people. Freedom is essential if democracy is understood as government by discussion in which everyone participates.



I am with you in defending freedom. We are happy that the architects of our constitution have taken great care to guarantee the fundamental rights to every citizen of India.



Thank you very much for being with us and au revoir!

Task 2:

Good evening. This is CTV giving you the news. Here are the headlines.

The Railway minister resigns. The C.M. has gone to Delhi to attend the Planning Commission meeting. The Indian Cricket team has qualified for the semifinals in World cup. Ms. Sahara Sudhir from India crowned Ms. World. And the weather- Heavy rains and strong winds lash coastal Tamilnadu.

UNIT - VI A. Listening Reporter


Good morning Mr.Reddy! Nice to have you with us.


Good morning Joe.


We heard that you are the officer in charge of tribal development. Could you tell us something about what you do? 232


Well! I am in charge of tribal development in a certain remote area of Andhra Pradesh, a fast developing state in India. I act as a liaison between the state government and the tribals. I educate them and help them join the main stream.


Are they very much backward?


Of course! At the same time I learnt a few things from them which a civilised man doesn’t know.


Interesting! Could you tell us something about this experience?


With pleasure. During summer, in certain areas we experience water scarcity. The water in ponds or open wells becomes turbid. It is rather unfit for drinking. The tribal people collect the gums and small pieces of wood from a particular tree and drop them in the turbid water. Within an hour the water becomes clear and potable.


Have you identified the tree?


Not yet. They are still reluctant to reveal the secret!


What did you do then?


I collected the few pieces of wood that were used and consulted the scientists in the Institute for Botanical Research. They experimented on them and found that the particular piece of wood can absorb any metal or mineral in water.


Don’t you think it is a great discovery?


Indeed it is! I am proud to say that the tribals of our country have great knowledge of herbal medicines and plants.


How do you think it will help your country?


If we could identify the tree and market the gum and pieces of wood in large scale, the scarcity of drinking water will get reduced. Secondly we could even export it to other countries.


Wish you good luck Mr.Reddy! Thank You.

E. Study skills Electric Power: This is the most important part of the infrastructure. Besides assuring people of domestic comfort, it is imperative for increasing food production and to support a whole host of manufacturing operations, in the engineering, chemical and material processing industries as well as in smooth operations of the entire transport, communication and information sector, all of which are vital to economic growth and employment. The requirement of electric power will only multiply because of the growth in the demand from various sectors. Immediate action is needed to greatly step up the generation of electricity from coal, gas, hydro and nuclear sources. 233

HOLIDAY Rabindranath Tagore Phatik Chakrabarti, leader of the gang, suddenly had a bright idea. Lying by the river was a huge säl–tree log, just waiting to be made into a mast. Everyone must help to roll it along! Without giving a thought to the surprise, annoyance and inconvenience that would be caused to the person who needed the log for timber, all the boys fell in with this suggestion. They got down to the task with a will; but just then Phatik’s younger brother Makhanlal came and solemnly sat on the log. The boys were rather non-plussed by his haughty, dismissive attitude. One of them went up to him and nervously tried to push him off, but he refused to budge. Wise beyond his years, he continued to ponder the vanity of all childish games.

‘You’ll pay for this ’, said Phatik, brandishing his fist. ‘Clear off.’

But Makhanlal merely adjusted his perch and settled down even more immovably on the log. In this kind of situation, Phatik ought to have preserved his supremacy over the other boys by delivering immediately a hearty slap on his wayward brother’s cheek– but he didn’t dare. Instead he assumed a manner implying that he could, had he so wished, have meted out this customary punishment, but he wasn’t going to, because a more amusing idea had occurred to him. Why not, he proposed, roll the log over with Makhanlal on it? Makhan at first saw glory in this; he did not think (nor did anyone else) that like other worldly glories it might carry dangers. The boys rolled up their sleeves and began to push – ‘Heave ho! Heave ho! Over we go! ’With one spin of the log, Makhan’s solemnity, glory and wisdom crashed to the ground. The other boys were delighted at such an unexpectedly quick outcome, but Phatik was rather embarrassed. Makhan immediately jumped up and threw himself on to him, hitting him with blind rage and scratching his nose and cheeks. Then he made his way home tearfully. The game having been spoilt, Phatik pulled up a few reeds, and climbing on to the prow of a half–sunk boat sat quietly chewing them. A boat–not a local one–came up to the mooring–place. A middle–aged gentleman with a black moustache but grey hair stepped ashore. ‘Where is the Chakravartis ’house? he asked the boy. ‘Over there,’ replied Phatik, still chewing the reed–stalks. But no one would have been able to understand which direction to take.

‘Where?’ asked the gentleman again. 234

‘Don’t know,’said Phatik, and he carried on as before, sucking juice from the stalks. The gentleman had to ask others to help him find the house.

Suddenly Bagha Bagdi (a servant) appeared and said, ‘ Phatik – dädä,

Mother’s calling you.’

‘Shan’t go,’ said Phatik.

He struggled and kicked helplessly as Bagha picked him up bodily and carried him home. His mother shouted furiously when she saw him: ‘You’ve beaten up Makhan again!’

‘I didn’t beat him up.’

‘How dare you lie to me?’

‘I did not beat him up. Ask him.’

When Makhan was questioned he stuck to his earlier accusation, saying, ‘He did beat me up.’ Phatik could not stand this any more. He charged at Makhan and thumped him hard, shouting, ‘So who’s lying now?’ His mother, taking Makhan’s part, rushed and slapped Phatik’s back several times heavily. He pushed her away. ‘So you’d lay hands on your own mother?’ she screamed. At that moment the black–grey gentleman entered the house and said, ‘What’s going on here?’ ‘Dädä!’ said Phatik’s mother, overwhelmed with surprise and joy. ‘When did you come?’ She bent down and took the dust of his feet. Many years previously her elder brother had gone to the west of India to work, and in the meantime she had had two children; they had grown, her husband had died–but all this time she had never seen her brother. At long last Bishvambhar Babu had returned home, and had now come to see his sister. There were celebrations for several days. At length, a couple of days before his departure, Bishvambhar questioned his sister about the schooling and progress of her two sons. In reply, he was given a description of Phatik’s uncontrollable wildness and inattention to study; while Makhan, by contrast, was perfectly behaved and a model student. ‘Phatik drives me mad,’ she said. Bishvambhar then proposed that he take Phatik to Calcutta, keep him with him and supervise his education. The widow easily agreed to this. ‘Well, Phatik,’ he asked the boy, ‘how would you like to go to Calcutta with your uncle?’ ‘I’d love to,’ said Phatik, jumping up and down. His mother did not object to seeing her son off, because she always lived in dread that Makhan might be pushed into the river by him or might split his head open 235

in some terrible accident; but she was a little cast down by the eagerness with which Phatik seized the idea of going. He pestered his uncle with ‘When are we going? When are we going?’ – and couldn’t sleep at night for excitement. When at last the day to leave came, he was moved to a joyous display of generosity. He bestowed on Makhan his fishing–rod, kite and reel, with permanent right of inheritance. When he arrived at his uncle’s house in Calcutta, he first had to be introduced to his aunt. I cannot say she was over–pleased at this unnecessary addition to her family. She was used to looking after her house and three children as they were, and suddenly to loose into their midst an unknown, uneducated country boy would probably be most disruptive. If only Bishvambhar had insight commensurate with his years! Moreover, there is no greater nuisance in the world than a boy of thirteen or fourteen. There is no beauty in him, and he does nothing useful either. He arouses no affection; nor is his company welcome. If he speaks modestly he sounds false; if he speaks sense he sounds arrogant; if he speaks at all he is felt to be intrusive. He suddenly shoots up in height so that his clothes no longer fit him–which is an ugly affront to other people. His childish grace and sweetness of voice suddenly disappear, and people find it impossible not to blame him for this. Many faults can be forgiven in a child or a young man, but at this age even natural and unavoidable faults are felt to be unbearable. He himself is fully aware that he does not fit properly into the world; so he is perpetually ashamed of his existence and seeks forgiveness for it. Yet this is the age at which a rather greater longing for affection develops in him. If he gets at this time love and companionship from some sympathetic person, he will do anything in return. But no one dares show affection, in case others condemn this as pampering. So he looks and behaves like a stray street-dog. To leave home and mother and go to a strange place is hell for a boy of this age. To live with loveless indifference all around is like walking on thorns. This is the age when normally a conception forms of women as wonderful, heavenly creatures; to be cold– shouldered by them is terribly hard to bear. It was therefore especially painful to Phatik that his aunt saw him as an evil star. If she happened to ask him to do a job for her and– meaning well–he did more than was strictly necessary, his aunt would stamp on his enthusiasm, saying, ‘That’s quite enough, quite enough. I don’t want you meddling any more. Go and get on with your own work. Do some studying.’ His aunt’s excessive concern for his mental improvement would then seem terribly cruel and unjust. He so lacked love in this household, and it seemed he could breathe freely nowhere. Stuck behind its walls, he thought constantly of his home village. The fields where he would let his ‘monster–kite’ fly and flap in the wind; the river–bank where he wandered aimlessly, singing a rägä of his own invention at the top of his voice; the small stream in which he would jump and swim now and then in the heat of the day; his 236

gang of followers; the mischief they would get up to; the freedom; above all his harsh, impetuous mother; all this tugged continually at his helpless heart. A kind of instinctive love, like an animal’s; a blind longing to be near; an unspoken distress at being far; a heartfelt, anguished cry of ‘Mä, Mä’ like a motherless calf at dusk; such feelings perpetually afflicted this gawky, nervous, thin, lanky, ungainly boy. At school there was no one more stupid and inattentive than he. If asked a question he would just stare back vacantly. If the teacher cuffed him, he would silently bear it like a laden, exhausted ass. At break–time, he would stand at the window staring at the roofs of distant houses, while his classmates played outside. If a child or two appeared for a moment on one of the roofs, in the midday sunshine, playing some game, his misery intensified. One day he plucked up courage to ask his uncle, ‘Uncle, when will I be going home to see Mother?’ ‘When the school holiday comes,’ said his uncle. The pûjä holiday in the month of Kartik–that was a long way off! One day Phatik lost his school–books. He never found it easy to prepare his lessons, and now, with his books lost, he was completely helpless. The teacher started to beat and humiliate him everyday. His standing in school sank so low that his cousins were ashamed to admit their connection with him. Whenever he was punished, they showed even greater glee than the other boys. It became too much to bear, and one day he went to his aunt and confessed like a criminal that he had lost his school– books. ‘Well, well,’ said his aunt, lines of annoyance curling round her lips, ‘and do you suppose I can buy you new books five times a month?’ He said no more. That he should have wasted someone else’s money made him feel even more hurt and rejected by his mother. His misery and sense of inferiority dragged him down to the very earth. That night, when he returned from school, he had a pain in his head and was shivering. He could tell he was getting a fever. He also knew that his aunt would not take kindly to his being ill. He had a clear sense of what an unnecessary, unjustifiable nuisance it would be to her. He felt he had no right to expect that an odd, useless, stupid boy such as he should be nursed by anyone other than his mother. The next morning Phatik was nowhere to be seen. He was searched for in all the neighbours’ houses round about, but there was no trace of him. In the evening torrential rain began, so in searching for him many people got soaked to the skin–to no avail. In the end, finding him nowhere, Bishvambhar Babu informed the police. A whole day later, in the evening, a carriage drew up outside Bishvambhar’s house. Rain was still thudding down relentlessly, and the street was flooded to a knee’s depth. Two policemen bundled Phatik out of the carriage and put him down in front 237

of Bishvambhar. He was soaked from head to foot, covered with mud, his eyes and cheeks were flushed, he was trembling violently. Bishvambhar virtually had to carry him into the house. ‘You see what happens,’ snapped his wife, ‘when you take in someone else’s child. You must send him home.’ But in fact the whole of that day she had hardly been able to eat for worry, and had been unreasonably tetchy with her own children. ‘I was going to go to my mother,’said Phatik, weeping, ‘but they brought me back.’ The boy’s fever climbed alarmingly. He was delirious all night. Bishvambhar fetched the doctor. Opening his bloodshot eyes for a moment and staring blankly at the ceiling joists, Phatik said, ‘Uncle, has my holiday– time come?’Bishvambhar, dabbing his own eyes with a handkerchief, tenderly took Phatik’s thin, hot hand in his and sat down beside him. He spoke again, mumbling incoherently: ‘Mother, don’t beat me, Mother. I didn’t do anything wrong, honest!’ The next day, during the short time when he was conscious, Phatik kept looking bewilderedly round the room, as if expecting someone. When no one came, he turned and lay mutely with his face towards the wall. Understanding what was on his mind, Bishvambhar bent down and said softly in his ear, ‘Phatik, I’ve sent for your mother.’ Another day passed. The doctor, looking solemn and gloomy, pronounced the boy’s condition to be critical. Bishvambhar sat at the bedside in the dim lamplight, waiting minute by minute for Phatik’s mother’s arrival. Phatik started to shout out, like a boatman, ‘More than one fathom deep, more than two fathoms deep!’ To come to Calcutta they had had to travel some of the way by steamer. The boatman had lowered the hawser into the stream and bellowed out its depth. In his delirium, Phatik was imitating them, calling out the depth in pathetic tones; except that the endless sea he was about to cross had no bottom that his measuring–rope could touch. It was then that his mother stormed into the room, bursting into loud wails of grief. When, with difficulty, Bishvambhar managed to calm her down, she threw herself on to the bed and sobbed, ‘Phatik, my darling, my treasure.’

‘Yes?’said Phatik, seemingly quite relaxed.

‘Phatik, darling boy,’cried his mother again.

Turning slowly on to his side, and looking at no one, Phatik said softly, ‘Mother, my holiday has come now. I’m going home.’



Answer the following questions:

1. How did Phatik tease his brother? 2. Why was Phatik’s mother unhappy? 3. Who was the new visitor? 4. What was the suggestion made by the visitor? 5. Why did Phatik’s mother agree to send him to Calcutta? 6. Why was Phatik reluctant to go to Calcutta? 7. What kind of reception did Phatik receive in Calcutta? 8. Why did Phatik dislike his school? 9. What were the incidents that increased Phatik’s misery in Calcutta. 10. Why did Phatik run away from his uncle’s house? 11. In what condition was Phatik brought back? 12. What was the doctor’s advice? 13. What do you think happened to Phatik in the end? 14. List out three things Phatik enjoyed in his village, which he missed in Calcutta. 15. What was the attitude of Phatik’s aunt towards Phatik? II. Read the passage given below and answer the questions:

There were celebrations for several days. At length, a couple of days before his departure, Bhishvambar questioned his sister about the schooling and progress of her two sons. In reply, he was given a description of Phatik’s uncontrollable wildness and inattention to study; while Makhan, by contrast, was perfectly behaved and a model student. ‘Phatik drives me mad,’ she said. Bhishvambar then proposed that he take Phatik to Calcutta, keep him with him and supervise his education. The widow easily agreed to this. ‘Well, Phatik,’ he asked the boy, ‘how would you like to go to Calcutta with your uncle?’ ‘I’d love to’, said Phatik, jumping up and down.

1. What were the celebrations for? 2. What was the complaint of Phatik’s mother? 3. How was Makhan different from Phatik? 4. Why did Bishvambar suggest that he would take Phatik to Calcutta? 5. What did Bishvambar promise to do? 6. How did Phatik react to the suggestion? 239


Rearrange the following sentences in the correct sequence:

1. Phatik’s uncle offered to take him to Calcutta. 2. One day Phatik lost his school bag. 3. Phatik’s mother could not control Phatik in the village. 4. Phatik found that he was an unwelcome guest in Calcutta. 5. Phatik agreed to go to Calcutta. 6. Phatik gave away all his collections to his brother. 7. Phatik’s aunt was annoyed by his carelessness. 8. Phatik’s aunt was not pleased at his arrival. 9. Phatik reached his uncle’s house. 10. Phatik ran away from his uncle’s house. II.1. Write an essay on how the life of Phatik in Calcutta differed from his life in village by developing the hints given below:

Phatik – village boy – father died – lived in village with mother and brother – gang leader of village – established his authority over his brother – indifferent to others – made his mother unhappy – wild in behaviour – inattentive in studies – flying kites – aimless wandering in village – was like a monarch – Calcutta – affection was missing – confined to four walls – no company in school – inattentiveness conspicuous – cousins enjoyed when he was punished – aunt scolded for losing books – His vanity gone – he longed for love.

2. Under what circumstances did Phatik agree to go to Calcutta?

Phatik – fatherless boy – wild in behaviour – inattentive in studies – brother behaved well – log on the river bank – wanted to roll – Makhan disobeyed – quarrel – visitor arrives – Phatik indifferent – At home mother furious – complains to her brother, the visitor – uncle offers to educate Phatik in Calcutta – Reasons for the mother’s approval – Phatik’s agreeing – Phatik has no idea of future.


THE NECKLACE Guy de Maupassant She was one of those pretty, charming young ladies, born as if through an error of destiny, into a family of clerks. She had no dowry, no hopes, no means of becoming known, appreciated, loved, and married by a man either rich or distinguished; and she allowed herself to marry a petty clerk in the office of the Board of Education. She was simple, not being able to adorn herself; but she was unhappy, as one out of her class; for women belong to no caste, no race; their grace, their beauty, and their charm serving them in the place of birth and family. Their inborn fineness, their instinctive elegance, their suppleness of wit are their only aristocracy, making some daughters of the people the equal of great ladies. She suffered incessantly, feeling herself born for all delicacies and luxuries. She suffered from the poverty of her apartment, the shabby walls, the worn chairs, and the faded stuffs. All these things, which another woman of her station would not have noticed, tortured and angered her. The sight of the little Breton, who made this humble home, awoke in her sad regrets and desperate dreams. She thought of quiet antechambers, with their Oriental hangings, lighted by high, bronze torches, and of the two great footmen in short trousers who sleep in the large armchairs, made sleepy by the heavy air from the heating apparatus. She thought of large drawing–rooms, hung in old silks, of graceful pieces of furniture carrying bric–a–brac of inestimable value, and of the little perfumed coquettish apartments, made for five o’ clock chats with most intimate friends, men known and sought after, whose attention all women envied and desired. When she seated herself for dinner, before the round table where the table cloth had been used three days, opposite her husband who uncovered the tureen with a delighted air, saying: ‘Oh! the good potpie! I know nothing better than that-’ she would think of the elegant dinners, of the shining silver, of the tapestries peopling the walls with ancient personages and rare birds in the midst of fairy forests; she thought of the exquisite food served on marvellous dishes, of the whispered gallantries, listened to with the smile of the sphinx, while eating the rose–coloured flesh of the trout or a chicken’s wing. She had neither frocks nor jewels , nothing. And she loved only those things. She felt that she was made for them. She had such a desire to please, to be sought after, to be clever, and courted. She had a rich friend, a school mate at the convent, whom she did not like to visit, she suffered so much when she returned. And she wept for whole days from chagrin, from regret, from despair, and disappointment.

One evening her husband returned elated bearing in his hand a large envelope. 241

‘Here,’ he said, ‘ here is something for you.’

She quickly tore open the wrapper and drew out a printed card on which were inscribed these words:

The Minister of Public Instruction

and Madame George Ramponneau

ask the honor of M. and Mme. Loisel’s Company

Monday evening, January 18, at the Minister’s residence.

Instead of being delighted, as her husband had hoped, she threw the invitation spitefully upon the table murmuring:

‘What do you suppose I want with that?’

‘But, my dearie, I thought it would make you happy. You never go out, and this is an occasion, and a fine one! I had a great deal of trouble to get it. Everybody wishes one, and it is very select; not many are given to employees. You will see the whole official world there.’

She looked at him with an irritated eye and declared impatiently;

‘What do you suppose I have to wear to such a thing as that?’

He had not thought of that; he stammered:

‘Why, the dress you wear when we go to the theatre. It seems very pretty to me-’

He was silent, stupefied, in dismay, at the sight of his wife weeping. Two great tears fell slowly from the corners of her eyes toward the corners of her mouth; he stammered:

‘What is the matter? What is the matter?’

By a violent effort, she had controlled her vexation and responded in a calm voice, wiping her moist cheeks: ‘Nothing. Only I have no dress and consequently I cannot go to this affair. Give your card to some colleague whose wife is better fitted out than I.’

He was grieved, but answered:

‘Let us see, Matilda. How much would a suitable costume cost, something that would serve for other occasions, something very simple?’ She reflected for some seconds, making estimates and thinking of a sum that she could ask for without bringing with it an immediate refusal and a frightened exclamation from the economical clerk.

Finally she said, in a hesitating voice: 242


‘I cannot tell exactly, but it seems to me that four hundred francs ought to cover

He turned a little pale, for he had saved just this sum to buy a gun that he might be able to join some hunting parties the next summer, on the plains at Nanterre, with some friends who went to shoot larks up there on Sunday. Nevertheless, he answered:

‘Very well. I will give you four hundred francs. But try to have a pretty dress.’

The day of the ball approached and Mme. Loisel seemed sad, disturbed, anxious. Nevertheless, her dress was nearly ready. Her husband said to her one evening:

‘What is the matter with you? You have acted strangely for two or three days.’

And she responded: ‘I am vexed not to have a jewel, not one stone, nothing to adorn myself with. I shall have such a poverty–laiden look. I would prefer not to go to this party.’ He replied: ‘You can wear some natural flowers. At this season they look very chic. For ten francs you can have two or three magnificent roses.’ She was not convinced. ‘No,’ she replied, ‘ there is nothing more humiliating than to have a shabby air in the midst of rich women.’ Then her husband cried out: ‘How stupid we are! Go and find your friend Mme. Forestier and ask her to lend you her jewels. You are well enough acquainted with her to do this.’

She uttered a cry of joy: ‘It is true!’ she said. ‘I had not thought of that.’

The next day she took herself to her friend’s house and related her story of distress. Mme.Forestier went to her closet with the glass doors, took out a large jewel – case, brought it, opened it, and said: ‘Choose my dear.’ She saw at first some bracelets, then a collar of pearls, then a Venetian cross of gold and jewels of admirable workmanship. She tried the jewels before the glass, hesitated, but could neither decide to take them nor leave them. Then she asked:

‘Have you nothing more?’

‘Why, yes. Look for yourself. I do not know what will please you. ’ Suddenly she discovered, in a black satin box, a superb necklace of diamonds, and her heart beat fast with an immoderate desire. Her hands trembled as she took them up. She placed them about her throat against her dress, and remained in ecstasy before them. Then she asked, in a hesitating voice, full of anxiety:

‘Could you lend me this? Only this?’

‘Why, yes, certainly.’ 243

She fell upon the neck of her friend, embraced her with passion, then went away with her treasure. The day of the ball arrived. Mme. Loisel was a great success. She was the prettiest of all, elegant, gracious, smiling, and full of joy. All the men noticed her, asked her name, and wanted to be presented. All the members of the Cabinet wished to waltz with her. The Minister of Education paid her some attention. She danced with enthusiasm, with passion, intoxicated with pleasure, thinking of nothing, in the triumph of her beauty, in the glory of her success, in a kind of cloud of happiness that came of all this homage, and all this admiration, of all these awakened desires, and this victory so complete and sweet to the heart of a woman. She went home toward four o’ clock in the morning. Her husband had been half asleep in one of the little salons since midnight, with three other gentlemen whose wives were enjoying themselves very much. He threw around her shoulders the wraps they had carried for the coming home, modest garments of everyday wear, whose poverty clashed with the elegance of the ball costume. She felt this and wished to hurry away in order not to be noticed by the other women who were wrapping themselves in rich furs. Loisel detained her: ‘wait,’ said he. ‘You will catch cold out there. I am going to call a cab.’ But she would not listen and descended the steps rapidly. when they were in the street, they found no carriage; and they began to seek for one, hailing the coachmen whom they saw at a distance. They walked along toward the Seine, hopeless and shivering. Finally they found on the dock one of those old, nocturnal coupes that one sees in Paris after nightfall, as if they were ashamed of their misery by day. It took them as far as their door in Martyr street, and they went wearily up to their apartment. It was all over for her. And on his part, he remembered that he would have to be at the office by ten o’ clock. She removed the wraps from her shoulders before the glass, for a final view of herself in her glory. Suddenly she uttered a cry. Her necklace was not around her neck.

Her husband, already half undressed, asked: ‘What is the matter?’

She turned towards him excitedly:

‘I have–I have–I no longer have Mme. Forestier’s necklace.’

He arose in dismay: ‘What! How is that? It is not possible.’

And they looked in the folds of the dress, in the folds of the mantle, in the pockets, everywhere. They could not find it. 244

He asked: ‘you are sure you still had it when we left the house?’

‘Yes, I felt it in the vestibule as we came out.’

‘But if you had lost it in the street, we should have heard it fall. It must be in the cab.’

‘Yes. It is probable. Did you take the number?’

‘No. And you, did you notice what it was?’


They looked at each other utterly cast down. Finally Loisel dressed himself again. it.’

‘I am going,’ said he, ‘over the track where we went on foot, to see if I can find

And he went. She remained in her evening gown, not having the force to go to bed, stretched upon a chair, without ambition or thoughts.

Toward seven o’clock her husband returned. He had found nothing.

He went to the police and to the cab offices, and put an advertisement in the newspapers, offering a reward; he did everything that afforded them a suspicion of hope. She waited all day in a state of bewilderment before this frightful disaster. Loisel returned at evening with his face harrowed and pale; and had discovered nothing. ‘It will be necessary,’ said he, ‘to write to your friend that you have broken the clasp of the necklace and that you will have it repaired. That will give us time to turn around.’

She wrote as he dictated.

At the end of a week, they had lost all hope. And Loisel, older by five years, declared:

‘We must take measures to replace this jewel.’

The next day they took the box which had enclosed it, to the jeweler whose name was on the inside. He consulted his books: ‘It is not I, Madame,’ said he, ‘ who sold this necklace; I only furnished the casket.’ Then they went from jeweler to jeweler seeking a necklace like the other one, consulting their memories, and fill, both of them, with chagrin and anxiety. In a shop of the Palais–Royal, they found a chaplet of diamonds which seemed to them exactly like the one they had lost. It was valued at forty thousand francs. They could get it for thirty–six thousand. 245

They begged the jeweler not to sell it for three days. And they made an arrangement by which they might return it for thirty–four thousand francs if they found the other one before the end of February. Loisel possessed eighteen thousand francs which his father had left him. He borrowed the rest. He borrowed it, asking for a thousand francs of one, five hundred of another, five louis of this one, and three louis of that one. He gave notes, made ruinous promises, took money of usurers and the whole race of lenders. He compromised his whole existence, in fact risked his signature, without even knowing whether he could make it good or not, and , harassed by anxiety for the future, by the black misery which surrounded him, and by the prospect of all physical privations and moral torture, he went to get the new necklace, depositing on the merchant’s counter thirty–six thousand francs. When Mme. Loisel took back the jewels to Mme. Forestier, the latter said to her in a frigid tone:

‘You should have returned them to me sooner, for I might have needed them.’

She did open the jewel–box as her friend feared she would. If she should perceive the substitution, what would she think? What should she say? Would she take her for a robber? Mme. Loisel now knew the horrible life of necessity. She did her part, however, completely, heroically. It was necessary to pay this frightful debt. She would pay it. they sent away the maid; they changed their lodgings; they rented some rooms under a mansard roof. She learned the heavy cares of a household, the odious work of a kitchen. She washed the dishes, using her rosy nails upon the greasy pots and the bottoms of the stewpans. She washed the soiled linen, the chemises and dishcloths, which she hung on the line to dry; she took down the refuse to the street each morning and brought up the water, stopping at each landing to breathe. And, clothed like a woman of the people, she went to the grocer’s, the butcher’s and the fruiterer’s, with her basket on her arm, shopping, haggling to the last sou of her miserable money. Every month it was necessary to renew some notes, thus obtaining time, and to pay others. The husband worked evenings, putting the books of some merchants in order, and nights he often did copying at five sous a page.

And this life lasted for ten years.

At the end of ten years, they had restored all, all, with interest of the usurer, and accumulated interest besides. 246

Mme. Loisel seemed old now. She had become a strong, hard woman, the crude woman of the poor household. Her hair badly dressed, her skirts awry, her hands red, she spoke in a loud tone, and washed the floors with large pails of water. But sometimes, when her husband was at the office, she would seat herself before the window and think of that evening party of former times, of that ball where she was so beautiful and so flattered. How would it have been if she had not lost the necklace? Who knows? Who knows? How singular is life, and how full of changes! How small a thing will ruin or save one! One Sunday as she was taking a walk in the Champs–Elysees to rid herself of the cares of the week, she suddenly perceived a woman walking with a child. It was Mme. Forestier, still young, still pretty, still attractive. Mme. Loisel was affected. Should she speak to her? Yes, certainly. And now that she had paid, she would tell her all. Why not?

She approached her. ‘Good morning, Jeanne.’

‘Her friend did not recognize her and was astonished to be so familiarly addressed by this common personage, she stammered:

‘But, Madame – I do not know – You must be mistaken-’

‘No, I am Matilda Loisel.

Her friend uttered a cry of astonishment: ‘Oh! my poor Matilda!

How you have changed -’

‘Yes, I have had some hard days since I saw you; and some miserable ones – and all because of you-’

‘Because of me? How is that?’

‘You recall the diamond necklace that you loaned me to wear to the Commissioner’s ball?’

‘Yes, very well.’

‘Well, I lost it.’

‘How is that, since you returned it to me?’

‘I returned another to you exactly like it. And it has taken us ten years to pay for it. You can understand that it was not easy for us who have nothing. But it is finished and I am decently content.’

Madame Forestier stopped short. She said:

‘You say that you bought a diamond necklace to replace mine?’

‘Yes. You did not perceive it then? They were just alike.’


And she smiled with a proud and simple joy. Madame Forestier was touched and took both her hands as she replied: ‘Oh! my poor Matilda! Mine were false. They were not worth over five hundred francs!’ FOR READERS’ PRACTICE I.

Answer the following questions:


Write in five sentences the type of life Matilda Loisel wanted to lead.


Why did Matilda often weep?


Why was Matilda unhappy when her husband brought her the invitation?


How did Mr.Loisel get his wife a new dress.


Why was Matilda sorry on the day of the party?


How did Mme. Forestier help Matilda?


What was Matilda’s experience in the party?


What gave Matilda a rude shock when she went home?


What excuse did Matilda give Mme. Forestier for not returning the necklace?

10. How did Mr.and Mme Loisel manage to return the necklace? 11. How did the life of Mr and Mme. Loisel change after returning the necklace? 12. How did she meet Mme. Forestier? 13. What did Mrs. Forestier say about the necklace? 14. Why was Matilda shocked? 15. What is the moral of the story? II.

Read the passage given below and answer the questions:

She was simple, not being able to adorn herself; but she was unhappy, as one out of her class; for women belong to no caste, no race; their grace, their beauty, and their charm serving them in the place of birth and family. Their inborn fineness, their instinctive elegance, their suppleness of wit are their only aristocracy, making some daughters of the people the equal of great ladies.

She suffered incessantly, feeling herself born for all delicacies and luxuries. She suffered from the poverty of her apartment, the shabby walls, the worn chairs, and the faded stuff. All these things, which another woman of her station would not have noticed, tortured and angered her. 248


Why was the woman referred to in the story unhappy?


What qualities of a woman make her equal in status to great ladies?


Why did the woman suffer?


What were the things she was unhappy about?


How did she differ from any other woman of her status?


Rearrange the following sentences in the correct sequence:


Mr.Loisel suggested borrowing jewellery from Mrs. Forestier.


They bought the new necklace for thirty-six thousand francs.


Matilda borrowed a diamond necklace from Mrs. Forestier.


Mr.Loisel gave the invitation to his wife.


Matilda was a great success in the party.


Matilda asked for a new dress for the party.


When she returned home, Matilda found the necklace missing.


Matilda was unhappy over her not having any jewel.


They could not find the necklace anywhere.

10. They decided to replace the necklace. II.1. Write an essay on how the ‘Necklace’ changed the life of the Matilda by developing the hints given below:

Matilda married to a petty clerk–They were poor–she longed for a luxurious life – Her husband brought invitation – Desire for a new dress and jewellery – borrowed a necklace – Party goes off well – Necklace lost – they get time – buy a new necklace – return it – to pay the debt lead a simple life – Many years pass by – Mme.Forestier is met – Listens to the story – says that necklace is imitation – a small thing has ruined their life.


Present a character sketch of Matilda.

Matilda – wife of petty clerk – poor condition of her home – Her longing for a luxurious life – Invitation for ball – Loisel wants to make her happy – she desires a new dress – jewellery – happy at last – happiness short lived – necklace – shocked – had to replace necklace – now accepts a lesser standard of living – life is miserable – no complaints – shocked by the revelation that the necklace was imitation 249

THE GIFT OF THE MAGI O.Henry One dollar and eighty–seven cents. That was all. And sixty cents of it was in pennies. Pennies saved one and two at a time by bulldozing the grocer and the vegetable man and the butcher until one’s cheeks burned with the silent imputation of parsimony that such close dealing implied Three times Della counted it. One dollar and eighty seven cents. And the next day would be Christmas. There was clearly nothing left to do but flop down on the shabby little couch and howl. So Della did it. Which instigates the moral reflection that life is made up of sobs, sniffles, and smiles, with sniffles predominating. While the mistress of the home is gradually subsiding from the first stage to the second, take a look at the home. A furnished flat at $8 per week. It did not exactly beggar description, but it certainly had that word on the lookout for the mendicancy squad. In the vestibule below was a letter–box into which no letter would go, and an electric button from which no mortal finger could coax a ring. Also appertaining thereunto was a card bearing the name ‘Mr James Dillingham Young’. The ‘Dillingham’ had been flung to the breeze during a former period of prosperity when its possessor was being paid $30 per week. Now when the income was shrunk to $20, the letters of Dillingham looked blurred, as though they were thinking seriously of contracting to a modest and unassuming D. But whenever Mr.James Dillingham Young came home and reached his flat above he was called ‘Jim’ and greatly hugged by Mrs James Dillingham Young, already introduced to you as Della. Which is all very good. Della finished her cry and attended to her cheeks with a powder rag. She stood by the window and looked out dully at a grey cat walking a grey fence in a grey backyard. Tomorrow would be Christmas Day, and she had only $1.87 with which to buy Jim a present. She had been saving every penny she could for months, with this result. Twenty dollars a week doesn’t go far. Expenses had been greater than she had calculated. They always are. Only $1.87 to buy a present for Jim. Her Jim. Many a happy hour she had spent planning for something nice for him. Something fine and rare and sterling – some thing just a little bit near to being worthy of the honour of being owned by Jim. There was a pier–glass between the windows of the room. Perhaps you have seen a pier–glass in a $8 flat. A very thin and very agile person may, by observing his reflection in a rapid sequence of longitudinal strips, obtain a fairly accurate conception of his looks. Della, being slender, had mastered the art.


Suddenly she whirled from the window and stood before the glass. Her eyes were shining brilliantly, but her face had lost its colour within twenty seconds. Rapidly she pulled down her hair and let it fall to its full length. Now, there were two possessions of the James Dillingham Youngs in which they both took a mighty pride. One was Jim’s gold watch that had been his father’s and his grandfather’s, the other was Della’s hair. Had the Queen of Sheeba lived in the flat across the airshaft, Della would have let her hair hang out of the window some day to dry just to depreciate Her Majesty’s jewels and gifts. Had king Solomon been the janitor, with all his treasures piled up in the basement, Jim would have pulled out his watch every time he passed, just to see him pluck at his beard from envy. So now Della’s beautiful hair fell about her, rippling and shining like a cascade of brown waters. It reached below her knees and made itself almost a garment for her. And then she did it up again nervously and quickly. Once she faltered for a minute and stood still while a tear or two splashed on the worn red carpet. On went her old brown jacket; on went her old brown hat. With a whirl of skirts and with the brilliant sparkle still in her eyes, she fluttered out of the door and down the stairs to the street. Where she stopped the sign read: Mme Sofronie, Hair Goods of All Kinds. One flight up Della ran, and collected herself, panting. Mademe, large, too white, chilly, hardly looked the ‘ Sofronie’.

‘Will you buy my hair?’asked Della. ‘I buy hair,’said Madame.

‘Take yer hat off and let’s have a sight at the looks of it.’

Down rippled the brown cascade.

‘Twenty dollars,’ said Madame, lifting the mass with a practised hand.

‘Give it to me quick,’ said Della.

Oh, and the next two hours tripped by on rosy wings. Forget the hashed metaphor. She was ransacking the stores for Jim’s present.

She found it at last. It surely had been made for Jim and no one else.

There was no other like it in any of the stores, and she had turned all of them inside out. It was a platinum fob chain, simple and chaste in design, properly proclaiming its value by substance alone and not by meretricious ornamentation – as all good things should do. It was even worthy of the Watch. As soon as she saw it she knew that it must be Jim’s. It was like him. Quietness and value–the description applied to both. Twenty-one dollars they took from her for it, and she hurried home with the 87 cents. With that chain on his watch Jim might be properly anxious about the time in any company. Grand as the watch was, he sometimes looked at it on the sly on account of the old leather strap that he used in place of a chain. 251

When Della reached home her intoxication gave way a little to prudence and reason. She got out her curling irons and lighted the gas and went to work repairing the ravages made by generosity added to love. Which is always a tremendous task, dear friend –a mammoth task. Within forty minutes her head was covered with tiny, close-lying curls that made her look wonderfully like a truant schoolboy. She looked at her reflection in the mirror long, carefully, and critically. ‘If Jim doesn’t kill me,’ she said to herself, ‘ before he takes a second look at me, he’ll say I look like a Coney Island chorus girl. But what could I do–oh, what could I do with a dollar and eighty seven cents?’ At 7o’ clock the coffee was made and the frying-pan was on the back of the stove, hot and ready to cook the chops. Jim was never late. Della doubled the fob chain in her hand and sat on the corner of the table near the door that he always entered. Then she heard his step on the stairway down on the first flight, and she turned white for just a moment. She had a habit of saying little silent prayers about the simplest everyday things, and now she whispered: ‘Please, God, make him think I am still pretty.’ The door opened and Jim stepped in and closed it. He looked thin and very serious. Poor fellow, he was only twenty-two – and to be burdened with a family! He needed a new overcoat and he was without gloves. Jim stepped inside the door, as immovable as a setter at the scent of quail. His eyes were fixed on Della, and there was an expression in them that she could not read, and it terrified her. It was not anger, nor surprise, nor disapproval, nor horror, not any of the sentiments that she had been prepared for. He simply stared at her fixedly with that peculiar expression on his face.

Della wriggled off the table and went for him.

‘Jim, darling,’ she cried, ‘ don’t look at me that way. I had my hair cut off and sold it because I couldn’t have lived through Christmas without giving you a present. It’ll grow out again – you won’t mind, will you? I just had to do it. My hair grows awfully fast. Say “Merry Christmas!” Jim, and let’s be happy. You don’t know what a nice–what a beautiful, nice gift I’ve got for you.’ ‘You’ve cut off your hair?’ asked Jim, laboriously, as if he had not arrived at that patent fact yet, even after the hardest mental labour. ‘Cut it off and sold it,’ said Della. ‘Don’t you like me just as well, anyhow? I’m me without my hair, ain’t I?

Jim looked about the room curiously. 252

‘You say your hair is gone?’he said, with an air almost of idiocy.

‘You needn’t look for it,’ said Della. It’s sold. I tell you–sold and gone, too. It’s Christmas Eve, boy. Be good to me, for it went for you. Maybe the hairs of my head were numbered,’ she went on with a sudden serious sweetness, ‘but nobody could ever count my love for you. Shall I put the chops on, Jim?’ Out of his trance Jim seemed quickly to wake. He enfolded his Della. For ten seconds let us regard with discreet scrutiny some inconsequential object in the other direction. Eight dollars a week or a million a year–what is the difference? A mathematician or a wit would give you the wrong answer. The Magi brought valuable gifts, but that was not among them. This dark assertion will be illuminated later on.

Jim drew a package from his overcoat pocket and threw it upon the table.

‘Don’t make any mistake, Dell,’he said, ‘about me. I don’t think there’s anything in the way of a haircut or a shave or a shampoo that could make me like my girl any less. But if you’ll unwrap that package you may see why you had me going awhile at first.’ White fingers and nimble tore at the string and paper. And then an ecstatic scream of joy; and then, alas! A quick feminine change to hysterical tears and wails, necessitating the immediate employment of all the comforting powers of the lord of the flat. For there lay The Combs–the set of combs, side and back, that Della had worshipped for long in a Broadway window. Beautiful combs, pure tortoise–shell, with jewelled rims–just the shade to wear in the beautiful vanished hair. They were expensive combs, she knew, and her heart had simply craved and yearned over them without the least hope of possession. And now, they were hers, but the tresses that should have adorned the coveted adornments were gone. But she hugged them to her bosom, and at length she was able to look up with dim eyes and a smile and say: ‘ My hair grows so fast, Jim!’

And then Della leaped up like a little singed cat and cried, ‘Oh, Oh!’

Jim had not yet seen his beautiful present. She held it out to him eagerly upon her open palm. The dull precious metal seemed to flash with a reflection of her bright and ardent spirit. ‘Isn’t it a dandy, Jim? I hunted all over town to find it. You’ll have to look at the time a hundred times a day now. Give me your watch. I want to see how it looks on it.’ Instead of obeying, Jim tumbled down on the couch and put his hands under the back of his head and smiled.


‘Dell,’ said he, ‘let’s put our Christmas presents away and keep’em awhile. They’re too nice to use just at present. I sold the watch to get the money to buy your combs. And now suppose you put the chops on.’ The Magi, as you know, were wise men–wonderfully wise men–who brought gifts to the Babe in the manger. They invented the art of giving Christmas presents. Being wise, their gifts were no doubt wise ones, possibly bearing the privilege of exchange in case of duplication. And here I have lamely related to you the uneventful chronicle of two foolish children in a flat who most unwisely sacrificed for each other the greatest treasures of their house. But in a last word to the wise of these days let it be said that of all who give gifts these two were the wisest. Of all who give and receive gifts, such as they are wisest. Everywhere they are wisest. They are the Magi. FOR READERS’ PRACTICE I.

Answer the following questions:


How did Della save the money she needed for buying the Christmas gift?


How did Della make full use of the Pier-glass?


What kind of present had Della planned to buy for Jim?


What were the proud possessions of the Dillinghams?


What did Della decide to present Jim? Why?


How did Jim react on entering the house?


How did Della convince Jim who was visibly upset?


Were the couple leading a happy life?


Why was Jim unable to digest the fact that Della had sold her hair?

10. ‘True love builds its edifice on sacrifice’-Explain. 11. Who were the Magi? 12. What is the irony in the story? II.

Read the following passage and answer the questionso given below:

One dollar and eighty–seven cents. That was all. And sixty cents of it was in pennies. Pennies saved one and two at a time by bulldozing the grocer and the vegetable man and the butcher until one’s cheeks burned with the silent imputation of parsimony that such close dealing implied. Three times Della counted it. One dollar and eighty-seven cents. And the next day would be Christmas. There was clearly nothing left to do but flop down on the shabby little couch and howl. So Della did it. Which instigates the moral reflection that life is made up of sobs, sniffles, and smiles, with sniffles predominating. While the mistress of the home is gradually subsiding from the first stage to the second, take a look at the home. A furnished flat at $8 per week. It did not exactly 254

beggar description, but it certainly had that word on the lookout for the mendicancy squad. In the vestibule below was a letter–box into which no letter would go, and an electric button from which no mortal finger could coax a ring. Also appertaining thereunto was a card bearing the name ‘Mr James DillinghamYoung’. The ‘Dillingham’ had been flung to the breeze during a former period of prosperity when its possessor was being paid $30 per week. Now when the income was shrunk to $20, the letters of Dillingham looked blurred, as though they were thinking seriously of contracting to a modest and unassuming D. But whenever Mr.James Dillingham Young came home and reached his flat above he was called ‘Jim’ and greatly hugged by Mrs James Dillingham Young, already introduced to you as Della. Which is all very good. 1. How were the precious pennies saved? 2. Why did Della count the money thrice? 3. Were the Dillinghams leading a life of comfort? 4. Did the decrease in income upset the couple? 5. What is the author’s reflection on life? SELF EVALUATION I.

Rearrange the following sentences in the correct sequence:

1. The gift was a set of combs. 2. Jim reached home late. 3. Della held out to Jim the platinum fob chain. 4. Jim was shocked when he looked at Della. 5. Della found that she did not have enough money to buy her husband a Christmas gift. 6. Jim suggested to keep away the gifts for a while. 7. Jim said that he had sold his watch to buy the gift. 8. Della sold her hair and bought a platinum fob chain. 9. Della said that her hair would grow fast. 10. Jim gave Della his gift. II. Write an essay on ‘True love and sacrifice’ by developing the hints given below: Jim and Della – ideal couple – humble living – life – a combination of sobs and smiles – two proud possessions – Jim’s gold watch – Della’s hair – Della’s Christmas gift – wishes – most valuable gift – sells her hair – buys – Platinum chain – Jim sells his watch –buys combs for Della – both the gifts meaningless now – but remain a symbol of true love – sacrifice being – the edifice – Jim and Della – wisest Magi. 255

REFLOWERING Sundara Ramaswamy Amma was lying on the cot and I was curled up on the floor right next to it. Amma and I were free to get up as late as we pleased. We had made it our habit over the years. We had to put up a battle of sorts to win it. Ours is a family that takes pride in the fact that we safeguard the dharma of the early-riser. For generations now, we’ve all bathed before sunrise. But then, Amma and I were invalids. Amma had asthma and I suffered from joint pains. Both could create problems early in the morning. Outside, there was sounds of the horse shaking its mane, of its bells jangling. The horse buggy was ready. This meant that Appa had picked up the bunch of keys for his shop. It also meant that the clock was inching towards eight–thirty. He would now put on his slippers. Kweech. Kweech. Then, once downstairs, the abrupt impatient sound of the umbrella opening, closing. The daily umbrella–health–test, that. The door opened slightly. A thin streak of sunlight pranced into the room, a shifting glass–pipe of light, dust swirling inside it. Appa! I see him in profile–one eye, spectacles, half a forehead streaked with vibhuti and a dot of chandanam paste, golden–yellow, topped by a vivid spot of red kumkumam.

‘Boy! Ambi! Get up!’Appa said.

I closed my eyes. I did not move a limb. As if I were held captive by deep sleep.

‘Ai! Get up. You good-for-nothing,’Amma said. ‘Appa’s calling.’

On the sly I looked at Appa. He looked affectionate, even gentle.As if I were being roused from heavy slumber, I opened my eyes with pretended difficulty.

‘Get ready, Ambi. Eat and then go to Aanaipaalam,’ said Appa.

‘Go and bring Rowther to the shop straightaway. I’ll send the buggy back for you.’ I looked at Appa, then at Amma. I had told her about the squabble between Appa and Rowther in the shop the previous day.

‘Can you or can you not manage without him?’asked Amma.

‘This farce has gone on far too long,’ she said. ‘Making up one day and parting the next!’ Appa’s face reddened. It seemed as if, if it grew any redder, blood might start dribbling from the tip of his nose. ‘Onam is round the corner. You can come to the shop and make the bills,’ he screamed. Anger twisted his lips, slurred and flattened out the words. 256

‘Is Rowther the only person in this whole world who knows how to make bills?’ askedAmma. ‘Shut your mouth!’ yelled Appa. Abruptly he turned to me. ‘Get up, you!’ he ordered.

I sprang up from my bed and stood taut as a strung bow.

‘Go. Do what I told you to,’ he growled.As if someone unseen had tugged at the wheels attached to my feet, I moved swiftly out of the room. I heard the horse buggy leave the house. I got ready in double quick time. What briskness! I wore–as I usually didn’t–a dhoti over my half pants, and a full-sleeved shirt, all in the hope that it would make me speak up with some confidence. I didn’t feel my usual anger with Appa. I didn’t feel sad either. It seemed as if even some little fondness seeped through. Poor thing! He had got himself into a fix. On an impulse, he’d spoken harshly to Rowther. He could have been more calm. Now, if a person is merely short tempered, one can talk of calmness. But if he is anger personified? Excited by this paradox, I went and stood before Amma. I looked her straight in the face and I said, ‘If he is anger personified where is the question of calmness?’Amma laughed; almost at once, she made her face stern and, ‘Smart, aren’t you?’ she asked. ‘ Now, if you are a clever boy, you’ll go take Rowther to the shop.’ Placing her right hand over her heart she said, ‘Tell him whatever he may have said, I apologise for it.’

I went and climbed into the buggy.

I too thought that we could not manage the Onam festival sales without Rowther. Who could do sums like him? He was lightning quick in mental arithmetic. Five people sitting in a row, with paper and pencils, would not be equal to one Rowther and his brain. Remarkable. Even regular buyers who flocked round him to have their bills tallied were amazed. ‘Is this a mere human brain?’ many wondered aloud. ‘If the man can be this fast just by listening to the figures, what would he not do if he’d been granted sight?’ And to think that Rowther has only studied up to the third class. That’s two grades less than Gomathi who works in the shop, fetching and cleaning. The dispute between Appa and Rowther had started mildly enough the previous evening. ‘Look here, Rowther, what are you going to do if you let your debts keep mounting like this?’ Appa asked. Rowther had chosen all the clothes he wanted, piled them up by his side, before thinking of asking Appa for credit. It was quite clear that Appa did not like this. ‘What can I do, Ayyah? My house is full of women. My sons are useless. My sons-in-law are useless. Four sons, four daughters-in-law, eight granddaughters, eight grandsons. How many is that? Just one piece of cloth each, and the cost goes up.’ Appa was staring at Rowther, as if thinking. The man is getting out of hand. I must cut him to size. Right away.

‘Kolappa, wrap up the clothes and give me the bill,’said Rowther. 257

How dare he take the things before permission had been granted? Appa’s face reddened. ‘It is not possible for me to give you credit this time,’ he said. ‘So, you’re saying you don’t want our relationship to continue, no, Ayyah?All right. Girl, take me home.’ Rowther stood up. Gomathi took his right arm placed it on her left shoulder. They went down the steps. When the shop closed in the evening, he would usually look in the direction of my father and take permission to leave. That particular evening he did not take permission. That is, he had taken leave. I thought I would first pick up Gomathi and take her with me to Rowther’s house. That would perhaps lessen his hurt. But Gomathi was not at home. ‘Rowther had sent word that he was not coming. She’s just left for the shop,’ her mother said. I took a shortcut through the grove, and reached Rowther’s house through a narrow lane. A tiled house, the roof low. In the front yard there was a well on the right hand side, its parapet wall, stark, unpainted, broken. Velvet moss sprang around it in bright patches. Stone steps led to the house. A strip of gunny bag hung from the main door.

‘It’s me, Ambi!’I announced my arrival loudly.

A little girl came out followed by another who was obviously her twin.

‘Who is it, child?’came Rowther’s voice from inside the house.

‘It’s me. Ambi,’ I said.

‘Come! Come! Said Rowther. His voice bubbled with happiness.

I pushed aside the sack curtain and went inside. The floor had been swabbed smooth with cowdung. Rowther was sitting cross-legged, like a lord. His arms reached out for me. ‘Come, come,’ his mouth kept saying. I went and knelt in front of him. He put his arms around me. His eyes stared and stared, as if trying to recapture the vision they had lost long ago. He pressed me down by my shoulders, dragged me towards him and sat me down beside him. His emotions seemed to overwhelm him.

‘Ah! You seem to be wearing a dhoti today!’ he said.

‘Just felt like it.’

‘What’s the border like?’


‘Just like Ayyah, uhn? The boys in the shop tell me that you look just like your father, too. It is my misfortune that I can’t see you.’ He ran his fingers over my face, my nose, my mouth, my neck, my eyes, my ears, my forehead. ‘Everything in place, thank the Lord.’ He laughed. 258

I thought that this was the right moment to tell him why I had come. But words stuck in my throat, as if held there by an unseen hand.

‘Amma….’I started to say, making a tentative start.

Rowther interrupted me. ‘ How is madam’s health now?’

‘As usual.’

‘I have Thuthuvalai, Khandankattri leghiyam. No better medicine for asthma. Only, Ayyah likes to see English labels on his medicine bottles. I don’t have English here. Only medicines,’ he said, enjoying his own joke hugely.

This was the right moment to tackle him.

‘Amma wants me to take you to the shop. She wants me to tell you that she is very sorry if Appa has said anything to hurt you. You are not to misunderstand him. She says please don’t turn down her request.’

Rowther’s face visibly brightened. He raised his hands in salute.

‘Mother, you are a great woman,’ he called out, ‘Get up, let’s go to the shop at once,’ he said. That year the sales during Onam were very good. Rowther was in his element. With great elan he supervised the shop boys who constantly jostled around him. He looked like Abhimanyu in the Mahabharata fighting a whole battalion, single–handedly. He would state the price as soon as the cost and quantity of the material were mentioned to him. Only the good Lord knew what spark it was in his brain, what genius that did not need even a minute to calculate? A brain that could multiply and total up the cost of sixteen different items in a trice to announce, ‘Item sixteen. Grand total – 1414 rupees 25 paise,’ how could that be called an average brain? Even if the whole thing were written down on the blackboard, I would have easily taken half an hour to work it out. But for him, answers slipped forth like lightning. He had never till now made a single mistake. Amma has told me that in the early years of their association, Appa used to sit up half the night, checking Rowther’s calculations. It seems he’d say, ‘That man is getting beside himself. I must find at least an error or two.’ But he never could. He just lost a good night’s sleep. One day, a cart drawn by a single bullock, heavily curtained on both sides, stopped in front of the shop. From inside came the wailing of women and children.

‘Sounds like the females from my household,’ Rowther said.

Rowther’s house had come up for public auction! Apparently amina was taking all the household things and flinging them on to the street. Rowther started crying like a child and called on God to help him out. Even as he was emoting, Kolappan came with a bill saying, ‘45 metres and 70 centimetres at 259

13 rupees and 45 paise.’ Rowther stopped his keening for a moment and said to him, ‘Write this down, 614 rupees and 66 paise.’ He turned to my father who sat at the cash counter and sobbed. ‘Ayyah. I have to pay the court the loan and the interest on it, more than five thousand rupees. Where will I go for the money?’

Appa took Rowther in the horse buggy to see a lawyer.

Rowther did not show up for work the next day. Kolappan said he had with his own eyes seen Rowther, reciting the bills in Chettiar’s shop. ‘What injustice! I have just come back after paying the court the entire amount for his debts. He’s let me down, the ungrateful wretch!’ Appa shouted.

The shop assistant Kolappan also whipped himself into a fury.

‘He knows how to calculate, but he’s a senseless idiot. Wait, I’ll go this minute and drag him here by his hair,’ he said as he jumped onto his bicycle.

Appa sat down on the floor, devastated. He started to mumble.

‘This is a wicked world,’ he said. ‘These days you can’t even trust your own mother.’ In a little while, Kolappan returned. Rowther was sitting behind him, on the carrier. He marched stone like Rowther to the cash-counter. ‘I lost my head, Ayyah,’ said Rowther as he stood before Appa, his hands folded in supplication.

‘A time will come when you will be cut down to size,’ said Appa.

‘Please don’t say such things, Ayyah,’ pleaded Rowther. ‘Come work for me and I’ll pay your debts, the Chettiar said. And I lost my head.’

Appa only repeated, ‘The time will come when you will be cut down to size.’

And, surprise of surprises, things soon happened that made it look as if Appa was going to be right after all. When Appa returned from Bombay that year after seeing his wholesalers, he brought back a small machine and showed it to Amma. ‘This can do calculations,’ he said

‘A machine?’

‘It can.’

Amma made up a sum. Appa pressed a few keys. The machine gave the answer.

I quickly worked it out on a piece of paper. ‘The answer is correct, Amma!’ I shouted.

‘Have they transformed Rowther’s brain into a machine?’ asked my mother. 260

That whole day I kept trying out the calculator. That night, I kept it by my side when I slept. I gave it the most difficult sums I could think of. Its every was right. I remembered something Gomathi had once told me. ‘Thatha! How can you do sums in a nimit?’ she had asked Rowther, mixing up as she always did, the Tamil and the common English word. It seems Rowther had said, ‘Child, I have three extra nerves in my brain. ‘Now, how did those extra nerves get inside this machine? I couldn’t control my excitement.

I showed the calculator to Gomathi. She also worked out many many sums.

‘Even I am getting it all right,’ she said, ‘ this machine is more cunning than Thatha!’ One evening Rowther was totalling up for the day. Gomathi was sitting there, the calculator balanced on her lap, checking out his calculations. At one point, very impulsively she said, ‘You are correct, Thatha.’

‘Are you telling me I am right?’asked Rowther.

‘I have worked it out,’ said Gomathi.

‘Hmm,’said Rowther. ‘I’ll give you a sum. Answer.’

Rowther gave her a sum. Gomathi gave the right answer. He tried sum after sum on her. She had the correct answer each time. Rowther turned pale. ‘Dear God. I am so dumb I cannot understand anything,’ he muttered.

‘I’m not doing the sums, Thatha,’said Gomathi. ‘It’s the machine.’

She stuffed the calculator into his hands.

Rowther’s hands shook as he took the calculator. His fingers trembled. He touched the whole front portion of the calculator, the whole back. ‘Is this doing the sums?’ he asked again.

‘Yes,’said Gomathi.

‘You keep it yourself,’ he said as he thrust it back at her.

After this, Rowther was a very quiet man indeed. Words failed him. He remained in a state of stupor, leaning against the wall. That day, Goamthi and I took care of all the billing. After a long time, Gomathi dug her finger into his thigh and asked, ‘ Thatha, why don’t you say something, Thatha?’ But he said nothing even to that. He kept coming to the shop regularly but he looked and acted like a walking corpse. It seemed as if all the laughter, happiness, backchat, teasing, sarcasm, had dropped off him. His voice was slow, hesitant. Even his body looked thinner.

Appa had stopped asking him to do the bills. 261

One afternoon, it was a busy time in the shop. Murugan had a pile of cut pieces with him. I was working out the cost. Suddenly, Rowther interrupted him, ‘What did you say was the price of poplin?’ Murugan stopped calling out and looked at Rowther’s face, ‘15 rupees and 10 paise per metre.’

‘Wrong. Get the material out and look–it is 16 rupees and 10 paise per metre.’

Appa got up. He came and stood next to Rowther.

Murugan’s face fell as he checked the price. ‘You are right,’ he mumbled.

‘You have sold ten metres. You could have lost ten rupees. Are you here to give away Ayyah’s money to everyone who comes in from the street?’

‘So, you know the price?’Appa asked Rowther.

‘Only a memory,Ayyah.’

‘Do you remember all the prices?’

‘It is God’s will,’said Rowther.

‘What is the price of the smallest towel then?’asked Appa.

‘Four rupees and 10 paise.’

‘And the biggest one?’

‘Thirty-six rupees and 40 paise.’

Appa kept on asking. The answers kept coming.

Appa looked amazed. He could not believe his ears. He took a deep breath. He could not help doing so. ‘If that’s so, you do one thing When bills are being made, please check the prices.’ ‘I will do my best, Ayyah,’ said Rowther. Then he looked up and said,’ Oh, by the way, have you paid your electricity bill, Ayyah? Today is the last date for the payment.’

‘Oh, no!’said Appa, calling out to Kolappan.

Rowther said, ‘ He hasn’t come today, Ayyah.’

‘How do you know?’ asked Appa.

‘Everybody has a voice, a smell. Today I missed Kolappan’s voice, his smell,’said Rowther, and then he called out to Murugan.

‘Yesterday he told a customer that we had no double dhotis. Please reprimand 262

him,’ Rowther said.

‘I don’t understand,’said Appa.

‘Ayyah. You put out ten double dhotis for sale. Weren’t only seven sold? There should be three remaining, shouldn’t there?’

Appa asked for the dhotis to be brought.

Sure enough there were three unsold.

Rowther let a sardonic smile play on his face. He said to Murugan, ‘Oh Lord Muruga, you merrily send customers away by telling them we don’t have what we do actually have. Are we here for business or for charity?’ That evening Rowther moved away from the bill-making section and went and sat closer to Appa. ‘If I am by your side I will be more helpful, Ayyah,’ he said and without missing a beat,’ and if you increase the speed of the fan a little, yours truly will also get some breeze.’

Appa gave the appropriate order.

‘It is the time to pay your advance income tax, sir. Shouldn’t you see your auditor?’asked Rowther.

‘Yes, I must go see him,’said Appa.

It was time to close the shop.

‘Ayyah, you had wanted to get some medicine for madam. Have you bought it, yet?’

‘I’ll buy it.’

Appa was tugging at the locks to check if they had been locked properly.

‘Ayyah, you were saying that your mother’s tithi was due soon. Why not ask Murugan to notify the priest on his way home?’

‘Good idea,’ said Appa.

The employees left one by one.

Gomathi took Rowther’s hand, placed it on her shoulder and started moving.

‘Won’t you be doing the bills any more, Thatha?’

‘Ibrahim Hassan Rowther is no longer a mere adding machine.

He is now the manager. It is God’s will,’Rowther replied. 263


Answer the following questions:

1. Why couldn’t Amma and Ambi wake up early? 2. What was the errand on which Ambi was sent? (OR) Why was Ambi sent to Aanaipaalam? 3. What was Rowther’s special skill? 4. Why was Appa angry with Rowther? 5. Is there any evidence to prove the bond Rowther had established with his employer? 6. Was blindness a handicap for Rowther? 7. What was Amma’s request for Rowther? 8. “He’s let me down, the ungrateful wretch!” Why did Appa say so? 9. Did the presence of the calculator upset Rowther? 10. When did the Appa fully realise the extraordinary memory power of Rowther? 11. ‘Rowther was an asset to Appa’. Explain 12. What, according to Ambi, was Appa’s weakness? 13. Why did Rowther’s hand tremble when he took the calculator? 14. What changes overcame Rowther when he was told about the calculator? Why was Rowther upset on knowing about the calculator? 15. When did Appa realise that a calculator is only a cheap substitute for a person like Rowther? 16. ‘Rowther was a loyal employer in Appa’s service.’ Narrate an incident to prove this. 17. To whom did Rowther attribute his extraordinary memory power? II. Read the given passage and answer the questions: After this Rowther was a very quiet man indeed. Words failed him. He remained in a state of stupor, leaning against the wall. That day, Gomathi and I took care of all the billing. After a long time, Gomathi dug her finger into his thigh and asked, ‘Thatha, why don’t you say somethingThatha.’ But he said nothing even to that. He kept coming to the shop regularly but he looked and acted like a corpse. It seemed as if all the laughter, happiness, backchat, teasing, sarcasm, had dropped off him, His voice was slow, hesitant. Even his body looked thinner. 264

Appa had stopped asking him to do the bills.

1. Why was Rowther asked not to do the billing? 2. What made Rowther a very quiet man? 3. How did Rowther behave after the calculator was introduced? 4. Why did the narrator and Gomathi do the billing? 5. How did Rowther behave before calculator was put into use? SELF EVALUATION I.

Rearrange the following sentences in the correct sequence:

1. One day Murugan made a wrong calculation. 2. Rowther was promoted as Manager. 3. Rowther was working in a Textile shop. 4. Rowther corrected Murugan. 5. Rowther was a human calculator. 6. Rowther was upset when he was no more needed. 7. Machines can never be a substitute to human beings. 8. The owner of the textile shop brought a calculator. 9. On being questioned Rowther gave the correct details of stock. 10. The owner realized that Rowther was indispensable. II. Attempt a character sketch of Rowther. Rowther – a human calculator – in Appa’s service – commitment and sincerity – coupled with extraordinary memory power – made him invaluable – Appa’s textile business – as well as family – Rowther – had to support – large family – ran into debts – compelled to work – several places – his blindness – never a handicap – he –loved by – Appa and his family – arrival of calculator – upset Rowther – but – his loyalty and involvement in Appa’s business and family – prove him – a super machine – but with a human heart.


EVERY LIVING THING James Herriot Sometimes, when our dog and cat patients died the owners brought them in for us to dispose of them. It was always a sad occasion and I had a sense of foreboding when I saw old Dick Fawcett’s fact. He put the improvised cat box on the surgery table and looked at me with unhappy eyes.

“It’s Frisk,” he said. His lips trembled as though he was unable to say more.

I didn’t ask any questions, but began to undo the strings on the cardboard container. Dick couldn’t afford a proper cat box, but he had used this one before, a home-made affair with holes punched in the sides. I untied the last know and looked inside at the motionless body. Frisk. The glossy black, playful little creature I knew so well, always purring and affectionate and Dick’s companion and friend.

“When did he die, Dick?” I asked.

He passed a hand over his haggard face and through the straggling grey hairs.

“Well, I just found ‘im stretched out by my bed this morning. But …… I don’t rightly know if he’s dead yet, Mr. Herriot.” I looked again inside the box. There was no sign of breathing. I lifted the limp form onto the table and touched the cornea of the unseeing eye. No reflex. I reached for my stethoscope and placed it over the chest.

“The heart’s still going, Dick, but it’s a very faint beat.”

“Might stop any time, you mean ?”

I hesitated. “Well, that’s the way it sounds, I’m afraid.”

As I spoke, the little cat’s rib-cage lifted slightly, then subsided.

“He’s still breathing, “I said. “But only just.” I examined the cat thoroughly and found nothing unusual. The conjunctiva of the eye was a good colour. In fact there was no abnormality. I passed a hand over the sleek little body. “This is a puzzler, Dick. He’s always been so lively-lived up to his name, in fact, yet here he is, flat out, and I can’t find any reason for it.”

“Could he have ‘ad a stroke or summat?”


“I suppose it’s just possible, but I wouldn’t expect him to be totally unconscious. I’m wondering if he might have had a blow on the head.” ‘I don’t think so. He was as right as rain when I went to bed, and he was never out during t’night.” The old man shrugged his shoulders. “Any road, it’s a poor look-out for ‘im?” “Afraid so, Dick. He’s only just alive. But I’ll give him a stimulant injection and then you must take him home and keep him warm. If he’s still around tomorrow morning bring him in and I’ll see how he’s going on.” I was trying to strike and optimistic note, but I was pretty sure that I would never see Frisk again and I knew the old man felt the same. His hands shook as he tied up the box and he didn’t’ speak until we reached the front door. He turned briefly to me and nodded. “Thank ye, Mr. Herriot.” I watched him as he walked with shuffling steps down the street. He was going back to an empty little house with his dying pet. He had lost his wife many years ago-I has never known a Mrs. Fawcett–and he lived alone on his old-age pension. It wasn’t much of a life. He was a quiet, kindly man who didn’t go out much and seemed to have few friends, but he had Frisk. The little cat had walked in on him six years ago and had transformed his life, bringing a boisterous, happy presence into the silent house, making the old man laugh with his tricks and playfulness, following him around, rubbing against his legs. Dick wasn’t lonely any more, and I had watched a warm bond of friendship growing stronger over the years. In fact, it was something more-the old man seemed to depend on Frisk. And now this. Well, I thought as I walked back down the passage, it was the sort of thing that happened in veterinary practice. Pets didn’t live long enough.But I felt worse this time because I had no idea what ailed my patient. I was in a total fog. On the following morning I was surprised to see Dick Fawcett sitting in the waiting room, the cardboard box on his knee.

I stared at him. “What’s happened?”

He didn’t answer and his face was inscrutable as we went through to the consulting room and he undid the knots. When he opened the box I prepared for the worst, but to my astonishment the little cat leaped out onto the table and rubbed his face against my hand, purring like a motorcycle.

The old man laughed, his thin face transfigured. “Well, what d’ye think of that?”

“I don’t know what to think, Dick!” I examined the little animal carefully. He was completely normal. “All I know is that I’m delighted. It’s like a miracle.” 267

“No, it isn’t, “he said. “It was that injection you gave ‘im. It’s worked wonders. I’m right grateful.” Well, it was kind of him, but it wasn’t as simple as that. There was something here I didn’t understand, but never mind. Thank heaven it had ended happily. The incident had receded into a comfortable memory when, three days later, Dick Fawcett reappeared at the surgery with his box. Inside was Frisk, motionless, unconscious, just as before. Totally bewildered. I repeated the injection and on the following day the cat was normal. From then on, I was in the situation that every veterinary surgeon knows so well-being involved in a baffling case and waiting with a feeling of impending doom for something tragic to happen. Nothing did happen for nearly a week, then Mrs. Duggan, Dick’s neighbour, telephoned.

“I’m ringin’on behalf of Mr. Fawcett. His cat’s ill.”

“In what way?”

“Oh, just lyin’ stretched out, unconscious, like,”

I suppressed a scream. “When did this happen?”

“Just found ‘im this morning. And Mr. Fawcett cant’t bring him to you-he’s poorly himself. He’s in bed.”

“I’m sorry to hear that I’ll come round straight away.”

And it was just the same as before. An almost lifeless little creature lying prone on Dick’s bed. Dick himself looked terrible-ghastly white and thinner than ever-but he still managed a smile.

“Looks like’e needs another of your magic injections, Mr. Herriot.”

As I filled my syringe, my mind seethed with the thought that there was indeed some kind of magic at work here, but it wasn’t my injection.

“I’ll drop in tomorrow. Dick, “I said. “And I hope you’ll be feeling better yourself.”

“Oh, I’ll be awright as long as t’little feller’s better.” The old man stretched out a hand and stroked the cat’s shinning fur. The arm was emaciated and the eyes in the skull-like face were desperately worried.

I looked around the comfortless little room and hoped for another miracle.

I wasn’t really surprised when I came back next morning and saw Frisk darting about on the bed, pawing at a piece of string the old man was holding up for him. The relief was great but I felt enveloped more suffocatingly than ever in my fog of 268

ignorance. What the hell was it? The whole thing just didn’t make sense. There was no known disease with symptoms like these. I had a strong conviction that reading a whole library of veterinary books wouldn’t help me. Anyway, the sight of the little cat arching and purring round my hand was reward enough, and for Dick it was everything. He was relaxed and smiling. “You keep gettin’ him right, Mr. Herriot. I can’t thank you enough.” Then the worry flickered again in his eyes. “But is he goin’ to keep doing it? I’m frightened he won’t come round one of these times.” Well, that was the question. I was frightened, too, but I had to try to be cheerful. “Maybe it’s just a passing phase, Dick. I hope we’ll have no more trouble now.” But I couldn’t promise anything and the frail man in the bed knew it. Mrs. Duggan was showing me out when I saw the district nurse getting out of her car at the front door. ill.”

“Hello, Nurse,” I said. “You’ve come to have a look at Mr. Fawcett? I’m sorry he’s

She nodded. “Yes, poor old chap. It’s a great shame.”

“What do you mean? Is it something serious?”

“Afraid so,” Her mouth tightened and she looked away from me. “He’s dying. It’s cancer. Getting rapidly worse.” “My God! Poor Dick. And a few days ago he was bringing his cat to my surgery. He never said a word. Does he know?” “Oh, yes, he knows, but that’s him all over, Mr. Herriot. He’s as game as pebble. He shouldn’t have been out, really.”

“Is he ….. is he ….. suffering?”

She shrugged. “Getting a bit of pain now, but we’re keeping him as comfortable as we can with medication. I give him a shot when necessary and he has some stuff he can take himself if I’m not around. He’s very shaky and can’t pour from the bottle into the spoon. Mrs. Duggan would gladly do it for him, but he’s so independent.” She smiled for a moment. “He pours the mixture into a saucer and spoons it up that way.” “A saucer ….. ?” somewhere in the fog a little light glimmered. “What’s in the mixture?”

“Oh, heroin and pethidine. It’s the usual thing Dr. Allinson prescribes.”

I seized her arm. “I’m coming back in with you, Nurse.”


The old man was surprised when I reappeared. “What’s the matter, Mr.Herriot? have you left summat?”

“No, Dick, I want to ask you something. Is your medicine pleasant- tasting?”

“Aye, it’s nice and sweet. It isn’t bad to take at all.”

“And you put it in a saucer?”

“That’s right. Me hand’s a bit dothery.”

“And when you take it last thing at night there’s sometimes a bit left in the saucer?”

“Aye, there is. Why?”

“Because you leave that saucer by your bedside, don’t you, and Frisk sleeps on your bed ….” The old man lay very still as he stared at me. “you mean the little beggar licks it out?”

“I’ll bet my boots he does.”

Dick threw back his head and laughed. A long, joyous laugh. “And that sends ‘im to sleep! No wonder! It makes me right dozy, too!” I laughed with him. “Anyway, we know now, Dick. You’ll put the saucer in the cupboard when you’ve taken your dose, won’t you?”

“I will that, Mr. Herriot. And Frisk will never pass out like that again?”

“No, never again.”

“Eee, that’s grand!” He sat up in the bed, lifted the little cat and held him against his face. He gave a sigh of utter content and smiled at me.

“Mr. Herriot,” he said. “I’ve got nowt to worry about now.”

Out in the street, as I bade Mrs. Duggan goodbye for the second time, I looked back at the little house. “ ‘Nowt to worry about,’ eh? That’s rather wonderful, coming from him.”

“Oh aye, and he means it, too. He’s not bothered about himself.”

I didn’t see Dick again for two weeks. I was visiting a friend in Darrowby’s little cottage hospital when I saw the old man in a bed in a corner of the ward.

I went over and sat down by his side. His face was desperately thin, but serene.

“Hello, Dick,” I said.


He looked at me sleepily and spoke in a whisper. “Now then, Mr. Herriot.” He closed his eyes for a few moments, then he looked up again with the ghost of a smile. “I’m glad we found out what was wrong with t’little cat.”

“So am I, Dick.”

Again a pause. “Mrs. Duggan’s got ‘im.”

“Yes. I know. He has a good home there.”

“Aye …. Aye …..” The voice was fainter. “But oftens I wish I had ‘im here.” The bony hand stroked the counter pane and his lips moved again. I bent closer to hear. “Frisk….” he was saying, “Frisk …..” Then his eyes closed and I saw that he was sleeping. I heard next day that Dick Fawcett had died, and it was possible that I was the last person to hear him speak. And it was strange, yet fitting, that those last words were about his cat.

“Frisk …. Frisk …..”


Answer the following questions:

1. Why did Dick bring Frisk in a box to the veterinarian? 2. What was the problem with Frisk? 3. How did the cat react to the treatment? 4. Why did Dick’s neighbour ring up the doctor? 5. Whom did the veterinarian meet outside Dick’s house? 6. What information about Dick did he get from the district nurse? 7. What was the real reason for Cat’s illness? 8. Who was taking care of Frisk when old Dick was in the hospital? 9. What was Mr. Dick happy about? 10. What happened to Mr.Dick in the end? II. Read the given passage and answer the questions: She shrugged. “Getting a bit of pain now, but we’re keeping him as comfortable as we can with medication. I give him a shot when necessary and he has some stuff he can take himself if I’m not around. He’s very shaky and can’t pour from the bottle into the spoon. Mrs. Duggan would gladly do it for him, but he’s so independent.” She smiled for a moment. “He pours the mixture into a saucer and spoons it up that way.” 271

“A saucer…….?,” Some where in the fog a little light glimmered. “ What is in the mixture?”

“On heroin and pethidine. It is the usual thing Dr. Allinson prescribes.”

I seized her arm. “ I’m coming back with you, Nurse.”

1. Who is the person talking to the veterinarian? 2. What was her purpose of visit? 3. What medicine did she prescribe for Dick? 4. Why did Dick take the medicine from a Saucer? 5. How did the information help the veterinarian? SELF EVALUATION I.

Rearrange the following sentences in the correct sequence:

1. Frisk always slept on his bed. 2. Dick was suffering from cancer. 3. Dick thought that Frisk was sick. 4. Dick was asked to take a mixture of medicines before going to bed. 5. Dick had a cat called Frisk. 6. When Dick knew the reason for Frisk’s illness he was relieved of his worry. 7. Frisk licked the left over medicine. 8. Dick’s hands were shaky. 9. The medicine made Frisk sleepy the next day 10. Dick poured the mixture in a saucer and spooned it up. II. Write an essay on how the mystery of Frisk’s illness get solved by developing the hints given below: Veterinarian – Dick with the dog – dog unconscious – hopeless condition – injection – next day Frisk alright – Three days later Frisk ill again – next week – neighbour’s phone call - Dick and Frisk ill – Veterinarian meets the district nurse – learns about the treatment – know that the cat licks the left over medicine – cat is cured – Dick dies later


KAANCHANAI Pudumaippittan I just couldn’t sleep that night, for no apparent reason. My mind was neither troubled, nor was it overflowing with happiness to keep me awake thus. I am just like everyone else. Yet my job is not like that of anyone else. I write fiction. That is to say, I spin yarns, and make a living out of the journalistic establishments that are prepared to accept them. My lies are accepted. Or in other words, they are recognized by the majority of the world as God, Dharma, et cetera, in various names and forms. This is what is called Creation, living in the land of the imagination et cetera. In fact liars like me are called other Brahmas, Second Creators. And I am the youngest in this lineage of duplicate Brahmas. When I think of all this, I feel some pride, certainly. Is the handiwork of Brahma false, too, like ours? Am I false? If such philosophic queries occur around twelve o’ clock at night, who won’t begin to doubt his digestive system? “Ada, chut ! I muttered impatiently, and sat up. This house had been built in such a way that one could sit up in bed and switch on the electric lights just by reaching out an arm. I did so. The sudden light troubled my eyes. My wife was fast asleep in the adjacent bed. What was she dreaming about? A smile played hide and seek at the corner of her lips. She was perhaps exulting in her culinary skills which could drag a man into philosophical inquiry right in the middle of the night. Stirring in her sleep, she moaned slightly and turned over. She was three months pregnant. Why should I wake her and make her sit up with me just because I couldn’t sleep? I put out the light immediately. I always feel a profound sense of peace, sitting in the dark. Isn’t it true that at such a time, you become one with the darkness, united with the night, invisible to others? You can then drive that wooden cart-your own mindwherever you please. People usually describe imagination as a chariot that can reach the place you wish to go to, the very moment you choose. But in reality, it is a wooden cart that follows along the thoughts of generations of human beings, from the earliest times to the present day-a path so frequently trodden upon that it has been turned into a beaten track. There are only the grooves made by wheels constantly grinding into the dust, and between them, a raised ground, less frequently walked upon. Occasionally the wheels have stumbled off the rut and on to the raised ground, giving those inside the cart a sudden jolt, otherwise it is always a gentle path, without peril, the track of well bred bullocks. Lost in the comfort of thoughts, it seemed that in the dark I had smeared rather too much lime on the betel leaf. My tongue felt the sharp sting. Normally I don’t bother about such things. If you choose to chew betel leaves in the dark, if you let go of the harness leaving your mind to roam at will, then you should not mind such minor disasters. With due respect, I tossed the tobacco, ready in the palm of my hand, into my mouth. 273

Chi! What a foul smell! Stinking like a putrefying corpse! Feeling nauseous, and wondering whether the tobacco I was chewing had been tainted, I went to the window, spat it out, and rinsed my mouth before returning to sit on the bed. I couldn’t stand the stink. It was as if a body had rotted and the stench was somewhere near. I couldn’t stand it, couldn’t understand it. Was it coming from the window? But there wasn’t even the faintest breeze blowing. I felt my bed and walked again to the window. I hadn’t moved two paces before the stench completely disappeared. How extraordinary! I returned to the bed. There it was, again that foul smell. Was some dead creature lying under the bed? I switched on the light. Under the bed, there was only a cloud of dust that made me sneeze. I stood up and slapped myself free of dust. My sneeze woke up my wife. “What is it, aren’t you asleep yet? What’s the time?” she asked, yawning.

It was exactly one minute after twelve.

And wonder of wonders! The stench had changed into a kind of scent. The smell of incense sticks-in fact low grade incense sticks, the kind lit by the side of corpses.

“Can you smell something here?” I asked her.

“No, nothing at all,’ she said. After sniffing a while, she said, “There’s a faint smell of incense. Someone must have lit them somewhere. I’m sleepy. Put out the lights and lie down.” I switched off the light. Traces of the smell still lingered. Going to the window I peeped out. Only starlight The shutters of the windows and the front door of the house trembled and banged softly. For just a second. Then silence. An earthquake, perhaps? In the starlight, a fruitbat spread its wide leathery wings, flew towards the groves opposite, and disappeared beyond. Both the stench and the scent had disappeared without a trace. I came back and lay down. Next day, when I woke up at last from my pre dawn sleep, it was already late morning. I picked up the newspaper that had been flung through the window, and came out to sit on a cane chair in the front veranda. After creaking its objection, the chair bore my weight. My life’s partner came out, stood beside me and started complaining, “First of all of you stay awake all night and then sleep late into the morning, and now if you come and sit here like this, what is to happen to the coffee?”


I had an unshakable belief in Democracy and World Peace, and I was worried that both were being jeopardized by “The Advance of the Allied Forces, undeterred by any Resistance.” “All thanks to your elaborate cooking,” I said, in a feeble counter attack, rising to my feet. “You have nothing better to do, what else can you think of except to find fault with me? Well, it’s no worse than the stories you write!” With this parting shot, she went towards the kitchen. Bound by household rules, I went and cleaned my teeth, and then, holding the tumbler of scalding coffee with a towel, scanned the columns of the newspaper. Just then a beggar woman, and a young one at that, came along, singing an unknown song. She stopped at our doorstep, calling out, “Amma, thaayë.” I glanced up sharply, then deciding that it was impossible to battle with beggars, put up my newspaper and built a fence around myself. My wife came out to the front corridor, scolding the woman. “Aren’t you able bodied? Why can’t you earn a living by working in a few houses?” “If I am given work, wouldn’t I do it? My belly burns, thaayë. So far, I haven’t got even a handful of rice from this street. Give me a piece of cloth to cover myself, amma.” She started employing a beggar’s usual arsenal. “I’ll give you work, but will you stay on? I’ll give you food to fill your belly, clothes to cover yourself, what do you say?” “Will that not be enough, amma? These days who is ready to give even that?” Saying so, she stood there, smiling at my wife.

“Shall I let her stay on and try her out for a couple of days?

You know how easily I tire these days,” My wife asked me.

“Chi, are you crazy? You want to engage a donkey of a beggar, who comes from heaven knows where? Can’t you find anyone else in this entire world?” The beggar woman, who was standing outside, chuckled. There was a fatal charm in that laughter. My wife kept gazing at her, without once turning her eyes away. It seemed as if her entire will had become one with that nameless creature. “Can’t you tell a person from her face? You come in, amma,” countermanding my orders, my wife took her inside. And the deceitful beggar followed her, rejoicing within. What! I rubbed my eyes and stared at her feet. They walked in the air, a minuscule distance- the height of a kunrimani seed–above the ground. I felt a shiver go through me. Was it an illusion? 275

When I looked again, the beggar woman glanced at me with a smile. Ayyo, was that a smile! As if a spear of ice had struck through my bones to the marrow, it nearly killed me with terror. I called by wife to my side. I told her that it wasn’t good to have this woman in our home. But she, for her part, insisted most obstinately that she must have this stranger for her servant. Is there no end to the odd desires of early pregnancy? My heart beat fast in certain anticipation of disaster. I peeped at her feet again. They touched the ground like everyone else. What was this strange illusion? Tenali Raman proved that it was impossible to turn a black dog into a white one. My wife, on the other hand, established that we can turn even beggars into the same kind of human beings we ourselves are. It was clear that once the beggar woman had bathed, washed her hair and put on clean, though old, clothes, she was fit to sit next to anyone and talk to them as an equal. It seemed that this woman was adept at amusing conversation. I heard frequent chuckles and giggles. I was surprised at the way she waited on my wife, hand and foot. My own fears of a while ago seemed to mock at me. It was dusk, the darkening hour. My wife and that maid were sitting together, laughing, telling stories. I had turned the lights on in the front room and was observing her under the pretext of reading a book. Between the hall where I sat, and the room where they were, there was a central area. I had hung a mirror there. Their reflections were clearly visible in it. My wife told her, ‘You’ve roamed about everywhere, haven’t you? Tell me a story,” “Yes, it’s true I’ve been to all sorts of places like Kasi and Haridwar. I was told a story once, in Kasi. Shall I tell it to you?”

“Yes, tell me. Tell me the story.”

“They say it was five hundred years ago. The Raja of Kasi had an only daughter. It was said that you could not find another to match her beauty. The Raja also wanted her to be learned in all fields. The guru chosen for her was a great sorcerer, he knew everything there was to know about magic, devices, strategies. And he had an eye on the princess. She, however, wanted to marry the prime minister’s son.

“Somehow he found out about this. Who found out? That guru.”

This was a miracle! Was I listening to the story she was telling my wife, or was I reading its account in the book I held in my hands? The book was an English one, called Historical Documents. The story of the King of Varanasi’s daughter was staring at me, in print. The last line of the page that was open in front of me was an English translation of the words, “He found out about this.” My head began to spin. I broke into a sweat. Was I going mad? I kept my eyes fixed on the open page. The print began to dim. 276

Suddenly, devilish laughter! With the sharpness of an explosion, it seized my entire mind. I looked up with shock. My gaze fell on the mirror. Reflected there, I could see a loathsome figure, its teeth bared, laughing in frenzied intoxication. I had seen many repulsive figures–those that appeared in my own dreams, and those imagined by the sculptor’s chisel. But I had never seen anything as horrifying as this. The horror was apparent only in the teeth and the eyes. In the rest of her features there was a wonderful serenity, mesmerizing the onlooker. In the eyes, a blood thirstiness. In the teeth, a greed to tear at the flesh and gorge upon it. Behind this faint image, tongues of flame from the fire of the kitchen hearth. I gazed at it, lost to everything. In a minute the image disappeared. The next minute it was the beggar woman’s face reflected there.

“I simply forgot to ask your name.” My wife’s question reached my ears.

“Why not call me Kaanchanai? Like the Kaanchanai in the story. It doesn’t matter what you call me. It’s just a name, after all.” My heart would not consent to leave my wife alone with her. Heaven knew what might happen. Once the mind is overtaken by fear, can there be a limit to the trembling within?

I went inside. They were merrily chatting.

When I entered, having summoned a forced smile, I was greeted with barbed words. “What business do you have amongst us womenfolk?” The woman who called herself Kaanchanai was bent low, chopping something. A smile brimming with mischief played at the corner of her mouth. Unable to say anything further, I became the sentry once more, standing guard behind my book fence. My wife, after all, was pregnant. Could I frighten her? How, else could I protect her? We ate and then went to bed. The two of us slept upstairs. The woman called Kaanchanai slept in the front room.

I was merely lying on the bed. Did not close my eyelids.

How could I? Heaven knows how long I lay like that. My heart was beating fast, wondering whether last night’s smell would return.

Somewhere a clock began its process of striking the midnight hour.

The echo of the eleventh stroke had not yet died away.

Somewhere a door creaked.

Suddenly, sharp nails fell upon my hand, scratched across and slid away.

Shaking all over, I sat up. Thank goodness, I did not babble.

It was my wife’s hand that had fallen thus. 277

Was it really hers?

I got up, bent over and observed her closely. She was fast asleep and breathing steadily.

I was eager to go down and investigate, but afraid!

I went. I climbed down softly, my footsteps making no noise.

It felt as if a whole yuga passed by.

Quietly I peeped into the front room. The outside door was closed. Moonlight streaming in through the open window nearby, pointed to the empty mat and pillow.

My legs wouldn’t hold up. They trembled violently.

Without turning around, walking backwards, I reached the stairs. Had she gone upstairs perhaps?

I hurried upstairs.

It was quiet there.

As peaceful as before.

My mind would not clear.

I stood by the window and watched the moonlight.

There was no human movement to be seen.

Only a dog howled somewhere, raising a lament which faded away.

From the opposite corner of the sky a giant bat flew towards our house.

As I stood watching, my fear began to ebb. I became calm, assuring myself that it was an illusion.

But downstairs?

I was eager to see once more.

I went downstairs.

I didn’t have the courage to go in.

But there! Kaanchanai was indeed sitting on her mat. She smiled at me.A poisonous smile. My heart froze. Pretending to be calm, I went up the stairs, muttering, “What is it, can’t you sleep?”

Was there a smell of frankincense then? I seem to remember it being there.

When I woke up, it was very late. 278

My wife woke me up saying, “What’s happening to you, as time goes on, you seem to be sleeping the days away. The coffee is getting cold.” At daytime, when darkness or fear do not have a place to hide, everything certainly looks different. But deep within the mind, fear had taken root. How was I to get rid of this danger? Can you seek comfort by sharing with someone else the mental torment you experience because of your wife’s adultery? This situation was like that. Suppose someone like me, someone who boasted that he was doing a literary service to society at large, and who fooled himself into believing it, were to go about saying, “Saar, a pei, a she-devil, has come to live in our house. I am terrified that she might harm my wife. Can you advise me how to get rid of this peril?” People would surely wonder whether I was making fun of them, or whether I had gone mad. To whom could I explain it all and ask for help? How long could I stand guard? How was this all going to end? What disaster was there in store? I was in a quandary, neither able to speak about it nor to swallow it all quietly. Heaven knew what magic potion this new servant had given my wife. They spent their time together without the slightest burden on their hearts. That day, morning and night seem to chase each other. And I had never known time to pass by so quickly. At night, as we were about to go to bed, my wife announced, “Kaanchanai is going to sleep upstairs, in the room next to ours.” I felt as if a lighted fire had been placed in my lap.

What plot was afoot?

I will not sleep at all. I will spend all night sitting up, I decided.

“What is it, aren’t you going to lie down?” asked my wife.

“I’m not sleepy” I answered. Terror, like a sharp spear, pierced me.

“As you wish,” she said, lying down on her side. And that was it. She was fast asleep. Was it an ordinary sleep?

I too wearied of sitting up so long, lay down, thinking I’ll rest my body.

It began to strike twelve.

What is this smell!

My wife, lying next to me, screamed in an inhuman voice. Among those meaningless sounds which gushed out in the guise of words, I could make out the single name, “Kaanchanai.” 279


I switched on the light immediately and shook her, again and again, to awaken

She came to herself and sat up, shuddering. Rubbing her eyes, she said, “I felt as it something bit my throat and sucked my blood.”

I peered at her throat closely.

At the hollow of her throat, there was a tiny spot of blood, like a pinhead. Her entire body was shaking. “Don’t be afraid, I lied deliberately.” You must have thought of something strange as you feel asleep.”

Her body was trembling. She slid back on the bed in a faint.

At that very moment there was the sound of a temple gong.

Some strange song in a cacophonous voice.

Avoice, calling out with authority, “Kaanchanai! Kaanchanai!

A wild scream which seemed to shake my entire house. All the doors banged repeatedly.

Then a silence. The deep silence of the cremation ground.

I got up and peeped towards the entrance of the house.

A man stood in the middle of the street. What a countenance!

“Come here,” he signalled. Like a puppet on a string, I climbed down the stairs and went out. As I passed the room where Kaanchanai slept, I could not help looking inside. As expected, she wasn’t there.

I went into the street.

He said, “Rub this on amma’s forehead. Kaanchanai won’t trouble you hereafter. Go and do it immediately. Don’t wake her up”.

The vibhuti felt hot.

I brought it inside and rubbed it on my wife’s forehead. Was it ordinary vibhuti? I couldn’t be sure. I certainly remembered he did not hold a bell in his hand.

Three days passed.

As she gave my coffee in the morning, my wife said, “These men are all like that,” What could I say?



Answer the following questions:


What is the problem with the narrator?


What is the significance of stench in the story?


Describe the beggar woman.


Why did the narrator object to the suggestion of employing the beggar woman?


Narrate the story the beggar woman was telling.


Why does the narrator call it a miracle?


What was the narrator afraid of?


What is the role played by stench again?


What did he observe on the last night?

10. What brought relief to her author? 11. Pick out at least two occasions in the story that is horrifying? 12. What do you think Kanchana was? II.

Read the passage and answer the questions:

My heart would not consent to leave my wife alone with her. Heaven knew what might happen. Once the mind is overtaken by fear, can there be a limit to the trembling with in? I went inside. They were merrily chatting, when I entered, having summoned a forced smile. I was greeted with barbed words. “ what business do you have amongst us women folk?” The woman who called herself Kanchanai was bent low chopping something. A smile brimming with mischief played at the corner of her mouth. Unable to say anything further, I became the sentry once more, standing guard behind my book fence. My wife, after all, was pregnant. Could I frighten her? 1.

What made the narrator get a disturbed mind?


Why did he force a smile?


What did he want to tell his wife?


Why did he not tell his wife, what he wanted to say?


How did Kanchanai react to narrator’s entry?



Rearrange the following sentences in the correct sequence:

1. Narrator’s wife takes the beggar woman as a servant. 2. The beggar woman said her name was Kanchanai 3. Narrator has a premonition that something bad will happen. 4. Narrator’s wife takes the Kanchanai into confidence. 5. The narrator was awake all through the night. 6. That night narrator’s wife complained that something bit her throat. 7. Next morning a beggar woman comes. 8. The man gave Vibhuti to apply on his wife’s forehead. 9. A man stood in the middle of the street. 10. There was a tiny spot of blood on his wife’s throat. II. Answer in an essay developing the hints: Why did the narrator get antagonised to the beggar woman and how did he get relieved from horror? Narrator – writer – previous night disturbed – stench – uneasiness – next day – beggar woman – uneasy about her – his wife employs her – sleepless night eerie sensation – Kanchanai story – next night Kanchanai not in bed – wife screams – a man gives vibhuthi – feels relieved. ______________________