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Executive Summary


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Eleventh Malaysia Plan Executive Summary


Executive Summary


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Anchoring growth on people The Eleventh Malaysia Plan, 2016-2020, is the final leg in the journey towards realising Vision 2020. Launched in 1991, Vision 2020 envisions Malaysia as a fully developed country along all dimensions - economically, politically, socially, spiritually, psychologically, and culturally - by the year 2020. Emboldened by the great strides made in the last half decade, the Eleventh Plan reaffirms the Government’s commitment to a vision of growth that is anchored on the prosperity and wellbeing of its rakyat. The Eleventh Plan is premised on a progressive and united Bangsa Malaysia that shares a common commitment towards building a better Malaysia for all Malaysians. The development of the Eleventh Plan was guided by the Malaysian National Development Strategy (MyNDS), which focuses on rapidly delivering high impact on both the capital and people economies at low cost to the government. The capital economy is about Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth, big businesses, large investment projects, and financial markets, while the people economy is concerned with what matters most to the people, which includes jobs, small businesses, the cost of living, family wellbeing, and social inclusion. Accordingly, the Eleventh Plan is a strategic plan that paves the way for Malaysia to deliver the future that the rakyat desires and deserves. It represents the Government’s commitment to fulfilling the aspirations of the people. The Eleventh Plan, based on the theme “anchoring growth on people”, has six strategic thrusts and six game changers that will transform ideas into reality and address the goals set out in Vision 2020, Malaysia will thus be catapulted towards the end state of being an advanced economy and inclusive nation.

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Eleventh Malaysia Plan Executive Summary


This word cloud captures important concepts, themes, and terms commonly used in the Eleventh Malaysia Plan.

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In retrospect ONE OF THE


Real GDP

6.2% per annum

Malaysia has enjoyed one of the best economic growth records in Asia over the last five decades despite a multitude of challenges and economic shocks. The economy achieved a stable real GDP growth of 6.2% per annum since 1970, successfully transforming from a predominantly agriculture-based economy in the 1970s, to manufacturing in the mid1980s, and to modern services in the 1990s.

25X increase in per capita income


Malaysia rose from the ranks of a low-income economy in the 1970s to a high middle-income economy in 1992 and remains so today. Malaysia’s national per capita income expanded more than 25-fold from US$402 (1970) to US$10,796 (2014) and is well on track to surpass the US$15,000 threshold of a high-income economy by 2020.


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Eleventh Malaysia Plan Executive Summary



Between 1970 and 2014, the incidence of poverty in general was reduced from 49.3% to 0.6% while hardcore poverty has been eradicated.

incidence of poverty

Household monthly income

1970 RM264 2014


The mean household monthly income increased more than 20-fold from RM264 in 1970 to RM6,141 in 2014. Similarly, median income increased from RM166 to RM4,585 over the same period. Income inequality has also narrowed, as reflected by the Gini coefficient, from 0.513 in 1970 to 0.401 in 2014.


Today, Malaysians from all walks of life, irrespective of ethnicity, socio-economic background, and geographic location, enjoy a better quality of life. Approximately 76.1% of households are homeowners, with 75.3% of poor households owning homes as well.


Home Ownership


of the population have access to potable water

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Malaysians today live longer, with life expectancy increasing by more than 10 years to 75 years. They are also better educated with 27% of the labour force having a tertiary level qualification, a fourfold increase from 1980. Mobility has improved tremendously with better connectivity provided by extensive road, rail, and air networks.






% 97.6% have access to electricity



In 2014, Malaysia was rated the 12th most competitive country among 60 countries in the World Competitiveness Yearbook by the International Institute for Management Development;

20th out of 144 countries in the Global Competitiveness Index (GCI) 2014-2015 by the World Economic Forum; and 18th among 189 economies in the Doing Business Report 2015 by the World Bank.

Malaysia also scores highly as a top 20 investor-friendly destination for the period between 2014 and 2018, in the Economist Intelligence Unit’s 2014 Business Environment Rankings.

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All these gains were made possible by Malaysia’s development philosophy, which places the prosperity and wellbeing of the rakyat at the heart of economic growth. This commitment can be seen in each successive development policy:

New Economic Policy

National Development Policy

National Vision Policy

National Transformation Policy





The New Economic Policy, 1971-1990, focused on poverty eradication irrespective of ethnicity and eliminating identification of ethnicity by economic function.

The National Development Policy, 1991-2000, focused on ensuring the balanced development of major sectors of the economy and regions, as well as reducing socio-economic inequalities across communities.

The National Vision Policy, 2001-2010, focused on building a resilient and competitive nation.

The National Transformation Policy, 2011-2020, maintains the people-centric focus through the New Economic Model, which sets the goal of becoming a highincome economy that is both inclusive and sustainable.

This transformation agenda is supported by the Economic Transformation Programme, which focuses on the 12 economic areas that are most critical to the nation’s continued growth, and the Government Transformation Programme, which focuses on transforming areas of public service that are of greatest concern to the rakyat. The Government has also introduced MyNDS to strengthen implementation approach.

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Eleventh Malaysia Plan Executive Summary


The next five years The Eleventh Plan is formulated with the rakyat as the centrepiece of all development efforts. The people economy will be given priority, reinforcing the Government’s commitment to bring further development to the people by enriching their lives, providing people with dignity, and uplifting their potential to partake in the country’s prosperity that is generated. All segments of society must benefit from the country’s economic prosperity in order to create an advanced economy and inclusive nation by 2020. In line with this, for the first time in Malaysia’s history, national growth targets will include not only GDP growth and per capita income, but also household income and the Malaysian Wellbeing Index to assess the impact of economic growth on people’s wellbeing.

Average national income

The Government aspires for Malaysia to achieve an advanced economy status by 2020, with a national per capita income of

Every household will have access to efficient infrastructure and public amenities, quality healthcare and education, quality and affordable housing, and comprehensive support services.



The goal is nothing less than a better quality of life for all Malaysians.

While there will still be people who earn less than this threshold, all segments of society, irrespective of geography, ethnicity, or income level, are expected to experience an increase in their income and wellbeing.

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Challenges and opportunities The next five years are expected to be challenging with continued uncertainties in the global economy, particularly given the prospect of low prices for crude oil and other major commodities, and the risk of a slowdown in the economies of major trading partners. On the domestic front, there needs to be greater resolve to boost productivity to drive economic growth; strengthen the fiscal position while ensuring adequate public funding to support continued economic expansion; and raise the average income and share of total income of the bottom 40% household income group (B40 households) to become truly inclusive. The Eleventh Plan also opens up new opportunities, particularly with the establishment of the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) of more than 600 million people in a single market, which will be a boost to trade and investment. Domestically, Malaysia will exploit its demographic dividend of a young and growing population with a median age of around 30 and a working age population of close to 70% to accelerate growth. Malaysia’s multiracial and multicultural society is another unique asset, which has yet to be exploited to its fullest in terms of its natural affiliation with Islamic nations, the People’s Republic of China, India, and as a rich tourist attraction.

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Six strategic thrusts Moving forward, the Eleventh Plan provides a critical platform for the country to make vital policy shifts and invent new approaches to address new and existing challenges. It cannot be “business-as-usual” if Malaysia is to make the transition to an advanced economy and inclusive nation in the space of the next five years.

Strategic thrusts The Government has defined six strategic thrusts to help Malaysia stay ahead of the challenges and opportunities of the fast-changing global and political landscape. These thrusts aim to comprehensively address the end-to-end needs of the rakyat and the nation.

Game changers The Government has also identified six game changers, which are innovative approaches to accelerate Malaysia’s development, that once successfully applied, will fundamentally change the trajectory of the country’s growth.

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Eleventh Malaysia Plan Executive Summary

and six game changers Four of these game changers are critical to the development of an advanced economy – they aim to unlock productivity for accelerated sectoral growth; unleash innovation to generate new sources of revenue; harness TVET for the transition to a higher-skilled workforce; and develop cities as a source of competitiveness. To ensure that all Malaysians are able to participate in and benefit from this growth, the Government will raise the income and wellbeing of the B40 households. Finally, the Government will embark on green growth to shift the paradigm of sustainability from a narrow focus on natural assets, to include consumption and production processes in all sectors and households.

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Macroeconomic outlook During the Eleventh Plan, real GDP is targeted to expand between 5%-6% per annum. The Gross National Income (GNI) per capita is expected to reach US$15,690 (RM54,100) and therefore exceed the estimated US$15,000 minimum threshold of a high-income economy. The Plan is expected to create 1.5 million jobs by 2020, with targeted improvements in labour productivity through the continuous shift from labour-intensive to knowledge- and innovation-based economic activities. Growth will be driven by the private sector with private investment expanding at 9.4% per annum. All economic sectors will witness strong growth with the manufacturing and services sectors contributing more than 75% of GDP. The external sector is also expected to contribute positively with recovery in exports, and the current account of the balance of payments is projected to remain in surplus at 2.6% of GNI. The Federal Government fiscal position is expected to consolidate further to achieve a balanced budget by 2020. Inflation is expected to remain benign, below 3%, and the economy is anticipated to maintain full employment. Malaysia’s economic fundamentals will be strengthened to achieve sustainable growth by ensuring stable prices and exchange rates, and an adequate level of savings as a source of investible resources. The Government will also promote private consumption, as well as private investment in agriculture, manufacturing, and services to spearhead economic growth, and increase exports by improving product competitiveness, promoting services exports, and diversifying markets. More prudent fiscal management will be introduced to enhance fiscal flexibility, and measures will be undertaken to unlock the potential of productivity to ensure sustainable and inclusive growth.

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Strengthening macroeconomic resilience for sustained growth Unlocking productivity potential to ensure sustainable and inclusive growth

Nation-wide productivity agenda and implementation plan Enhancing public sector productivity and accelerating regulatory reforms

Multidimensional goals, 2016-2020

Greater collaboration in re-skilling and research Ensuring productivity is championed across industries Enterprise-level productivity assessments and targets

GDP growth at

5-6% per annum

Reducing the cost of doing business

Promoting investment to spearhead economic growth

Providing performance-based incentives for high-income and knowledge-intensive economic activities Addressing the talent gap and mismatch

Labour productivity at

RM 92,300 by 2020 from RM77,100 in 2015

Improving access to financing for knowledge-intensive industries Providing tipping point financing through the Facilitation Fund

GNI per capita at

RM 54,100 by 2020

Increasing exports to improve trade balance

Improving the export ecosystem Moving up the value chain Maximising opportunities with strategic partners Increasing external industry expert support

Average monthly household income at

RM 10,540 by 2020 from

RM6,141 in 2014


Compensation of employees to GDP by 2020 from

Enhancing fiscal flexibility to ensure sustainable fiscal position

34.9% in 2015 Enhancing revenue and implementing more prudent spending measures

Malaysian Wellbeing Index (MWI) to increase

1.7% per annum

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Eleventh Malaysia Plan Executive Summary


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average growth of real private consumption

average growth of gross exports






unemployment rate by 2020 and full employment throughout Plan period

average public investment in current prices

average growth of real public investment


Fiscal position

International trade

average private investment in current prices




average growth of real private investment



Macroeconomic prospects, 2016-2020



trade balance by 2020




average growth of real public consumption



current account of balance of payments at 2.6% of GNI by 2020


45% ratio of Federal Government debt to GDP by 2020

Fiscal position to be balanced by 2020

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Game Changer

Unlocking the potential of productivity Why is productivity important for Malaysia?

How will this be achieved?

In the past, Malaysia’s economic growth has been predominantly inputdriven, supported by private investments in industry and public investments in infrastructure, utilities, as well as in schools and hospitals. Despite efforts to improve productivity, Malaysia continues to lag behind many high-income economies. For example, Malaysia’s labour productivity level was 32% that of the United States’ and 56% that of South Korea’s in 2013. While Malaysia will continue to boost private investment and undertake public investment during the Eleventh Plan, it will place greater emphasis on increasing productivity to achieve a more sustainable, inclusive, and high rate of economic growth.

Malaysia’s approach to productivity will shift from primarily Governmentdriven initiatives at the national level to targeted actions across the public sector, industry players, and individual enterprises, with champions identified to role model change and ensure buy-in across stakeholders. Broad-based initiatives will be developed and tailored for each sector with targets set and monitored. At the national level, productivity-linked incentives will be introduced and regulatory reforms will be accelerated. At the industry level, industry champions will spearhead industry-specific productivity initiatives, while at the enterprise level, incentives and up-skilling programmes will be provided. Collectively, these strategies will produce a set of major shifts as laid out below.

What will success look like? During the Eleventh Plan, labour productivity will reach RM92,300 in 2020 from RM77,100 in 2015. In addition, sectoral growth will accelerate due to improvements in productivity.




Fragmented productivity initiatives, typically at national level

Focused and comprehensive strategies at all levels – national, industry, and enterprise

Led by Government

Spearheaded by industry champions and industry associations, and supported by Government via the National Productivity Council

Focused on manufacturing sector and selected services subsectors

Covers all sectors, including agriculture, construction and the public sectors

Generic programmes without clear targets

Programmes closely aligned with industry needs as per relevant industry master plan


Industry focus Program design Regulation revamp Oversight

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Incentives not linked to performance

Programme incentives linked to outcomes Little to no linkages between regulations or policies with productivity

Linkages established between government regulations or policies with productivity

Oversight only at the national level

Increased oversight across enterprise, industry, and national level

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Eleventh Malaysia Plan Executive Summary


Game Changer

Uplifting B40 households towards a middle-class society Why is uplifting the B40 households important for Malaysia?

middle-class society will grow to 45% by 2020. The mean income of the B40 households will double to RM5,270 in 2020 from RM2,537 in 2014. More B40 households will have family members with tertiary education, from 9% in 2014 to 20% in 2020. The income share of the B40 to national household income will also increase from 16.5% in 2014 to 20% in 2020.

Today, there are 2.7 million B40 households with a mean monthly household income of RM2,537. As Malaysia continues to grow, the B40 households should not miss out on the opportunities that come with national prosperity. Allowing the B40 households to remain in their current socio-economic status will create social costs for all Malaysians, as it reduces the number of skilled workers needed to grow national output, perpetuates urban inequality, and limits the growth potential of rural and suburban areas.

How will this be achieved?

What would success look like? All B40 households regardless of ethnicity will be given greater focus, especially the urban and rural poor, low-income households, as well as the vulnerable1 and aspirational2 households. The size and composition of




The Government will implement strategies to raise the income and wealth ownership of the B40 households, address the increasing cost of living, and strengthen delivery mechanisms for supporting B40 households. The Government will also introduce the Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) to ensure that vulnerability and quality of life is measured in addition to income. The major shifts that will occur are set out below:



Lifting B40 households above the poverty line through improved income levels and assistance with living costs

Uplifting B40 households to middle-class society by further improving income levels and wealth creation, as well as increasing education and skill levels

Assisting B40 households with individual micro-enterprises

Fostering community and social-based enterprises in the B40 community, in addition to individual enterprises

Focus on developing microentrepreneurship and economic activities in low-value, traditional industries

Building capacity to participate in high-productivity, innovative, and creative economic activities

B40 households have low wealth and non-financial asset ownership, and are easily affected by economic shocks

B40 households are able to save and build wealth including through non-financial asset ownership, making them more resilient to economic shocks

B40 households are highly reliant on government assistance

B40 households are independent and rely less on government assistance programmes


Vulnerable households refer to households with income between Poverty Line Income (PLI) and 2.5 times PLI.


Aspirational households refer to households with income between 2.5 times PLI and national mean income.

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Game Changer

Enabling industry-led Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) From

ƒƒ Supply matches demand, and there are robust quality control mechanisms which ensure that all public and private institutions meet quality standards; ƒƒ Industry and TVET providers collaborate across the entire value chain from student recruitment, through to curriculum design, delivery, and job placement; and ƒƒ Students are well-informed of the opportunities that TVET can offer and view TVET as an attractive pathway. Students also have access to a variety of innovative, industry-led programmes that better prepares them for the workplace.

How will this be achieved? Achieving these aspirations will require harmonising and streamlining how the system currently operates to reduce fragmentation across the various public and private stakeholders. Furthermore, efforts will be made to encourage industry-led interventions and programmes as they are the stakeholders best placed to ensure that the supply of graduates meet their requirements. A summary of the major shifts that will be undertaken are set out as follows:

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Programme delivery

An effective and efficient TVET sector is one where:


What would success look like?


Under the Eleventh Plan, 60% of the 1.5 million jobs that will be created will require TVET-related skills. Meeting this demand will require Malaysia to increase its annual intake gradually from 164,000 in 2013 to 225,000 in 2020. Yet, the challenge is not merely about numbers. Industry feedback consistently reveals a disconnect between the knowledge, skills, and attitudes these graduates possess, and what is required in the workplace.


Why is TVET important for Malaysia?


2 Accreditation Agencies (MQA and DSD) with different sets of qualifications

Single qualification system adopted by both MQA and DSD

Different quality rating systems for public and private TVET institutions, depending on which Ministry the institution is registered with

Single rating system for both public and private TVET institutions

Design and delivery of curriculum led by individual TVET institutions or Government

Design and delivery of curriculum led by industry, in partnership with TVET institutions and Government

No specialisation among TVET institutions

Institutions to specialise in and create Centres of Excellence in niche areas of expertise

164,000 intake in 2013

225,000 intake per annum in 2020, by maximising use of existing institutions

Limited recognition and low premium

Career of choice for students

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Eleventh Malaysia Plan Executive Summary


Game Changer

Embarking on green growth Why is green growth important for Malaysia? Malaysia, like many countries across the world, is grappling with the challenge of balancing a growing population and demand, with a natural environment that is increasingly under stress. In the global context of increasing intensity and frequency of extreme weather events, adopting green growth has now become an imperative for Malaysia. It represents Malaysia’s commitment to renew and, indeed, increase its commitment to the environment and long-term sustainability.

What will success look like? A successful green growth trajectory will ensure: ƒƒ Detrimental impact of socio-economic activity on environmental systems is reduced;

ƒƒ Development gains are protected, thus ensuring wellbeing of people across generations; and ƒƒ Energy use is efficient and renewable energy is widely used.

How will this be achieved? Achieving these aspirations requires a fundamental shift away from a ‘grow first, clean up later’ development model towards one that views resilient, low-carbon, resource-efficient, and socially inclusive development as an upfront investment that will yield future gains over multiple generations to come. This requires fundamental changes across every major dimension including how policy is determined, how institutions are regulated, how responsibilities are shared, and how people value their environment.


ƒƒ Natural capital, including forested areas, biodiversity, and water resources as well as its ecosystems, is valued and sustainably managed;

Quantity of growth


Climate change mitigation and adaptation as a


Resource and energy



Climate change mitigation and adaptation as an

Shared responsibility

Resource and energy


Quality of growth


Waste to

that takes into consideration the cost to the climate, environment, and the nation’s natural resources

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Waste as


that can be reused through recycling and recovery, for power generation, and other waste to wealth initiatives


that is accounted for during the upfront planning and investment stages

between the government, private sector, and individual citizens


in balancing both supply-side and demand-side considerations and constraints

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Game Changer

Translating innovation to wealth Why is innovation important for Malaysia? Innovation is a key driver for economic growth as it raises productivity through new or improved processes, technologies, and business models. In addition, innovation can create additional sources of revenue through differentiated products and services that serve unmet customer needs. As Malaysia continues to move towards a high-value, knowledge-based economy with a strong focus on the services and manufacturing sectors, innovation will be crucial to raise the overall efficiency and thus productivity of each sector.

What will success look like? In the enhanced innovation ecosystem, there will be greater collaboration and integration across industry, academia, and communities. Research will be closely aligned with industry demand, and the private sector will be active partners in the research, development, commercialisation, and innovation (R&D&C&I) process by contributing funds, expertise, and other resources. Communities

Enterprise innovation

Social innovation

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will be actively engaged in addressing social issues through a wholesociety approach in the provision of social services. There will be a greater return on investment from innovation.

How will this be achieved? The Eleventh Plan will focus on strengthening relational capital by improving collaboration among all stakeholders. Innovation will be targeted at both the enterprise and societal level, instead of previous efforts which focused primarily on national-level initiatives. At the enterprise level, initiatives will enhance demand-driven research, improve collaboration between researchers and industries, and encourage private investment in R&D&C&I. At the societal level, communities will be encouraged to provide input into social service delivery mechanisms, while a social financing model will be developed to assist communities to fund new initiatives. Collectively, these strategies will produce a set of major shifts as set out in the table below:



Collaboration between industry and research institutes is limited, resulting in R&D output that is not linked to industry demand

Better partnerships between industry and researchers, with industry helping to shape research to ensure relevance to business, and contribute ideas, infrastructure, tools, and expertise

Investments in R&D have low returns and do not drive competitiveness and productivity for industry

Integrated R&D&C&I initiatives generate high return on investment over time and stimulate productivity growth

High investments in social services but delivery is ineffective

Focus on streamlining social services delivery by incorporating feedback from the community in line with the “whole-society approach”

Communities remain dependent on the government

Delivery supported by a Social Financing Model and outcomebased funding to provide communities with avenues to invest in innovative initiatives

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Eleventh Malaysia Plan Executive Summary



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reduction in Gini coefficient from 0.401 in 2014


5,270 RM

5,701 Improving overall income inequality


median monthly household from RM2,629 in 2014

Uplifting B40 households towards a middle-class society

Empowering communities for a productive and prosperous society

8 10

mean monthly household income from RM2,537 in 2014

average score in the Family Wellbeing Index

3,000 km

paved roads will be constructed


additional houses will be supplied with clean and treated water


additional houses will be supplied with electricity

Transforming rural areas to uplift wellbeing of rural communities

Accelerating regional growth for better geographic balance




realised investment

Enhancing Bumiputera Economic Community (BEC) opportunities to increase wealth ownership AT LEAST




participation of women in the workforce from 53.6% in 2014



job opportunities created



participation of Bumiputera in skilled occupation category

Bumiputera households own a residential unit

Bumiputera corporate equity ownership with effective control

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Strategic thrust 2:

Improving wellbeing for all

Achieving universal access to quality healthcare Enhancing targeted support, particularly for underserved communities Improving system delivery for better health outcomes Expanding capacity to increase accessibility Intensifying collaboration with private sector and NGOs to increase health awareness

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Providing adequate and quality affordable housing to poor, low- and middle-income households Increasing access to affordable housing for targeted groups Strengthening planning and implementation for better management of public housing Encouraging environment-friendly facilities for enhanced liveability

Creating safer living environments for thriving communities Enhancing crime prevention by enforcement agencies, private players, and the public to elevate perception of feeling safe Tightening regulations and strengthening enforcement to stem crime Promoting crime awareness for effective prevention

Improving road safety and emergency services to reduce fatalities Improving road safety to reduce accidents Improving emergency services to save lives

Enculturating the spirit of 1Malaysia to foster social cohesion and national unity Promoting social integration and ethics to foster a united and moral society Intensifying stakeholder engagement to build a shared sense of responsibility

Promoting sports for healthy living and unity Promoting mass sports participation at all levels of society to instil a sports culture Developing youth leadership in sports Developing high performance athletes for global prominence

Enhancing rehabilitation, treatment, and aftercare to reduce recidivism among ex-inmates and relapse among drug addicts

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Achieving universal access to quality healthcare

2.3 1:400




Increase per annum, compared to 1.1% during the Tenth Plan

Houses to be constructed/ repaired for the poor

Houses to be developed for low- and middle-income households

Promoting sports for healthy living and unity

Number of schools with Kelab Rukun Negara



Minimum percentage of Malaysians who embrace a sports culture

Improving road safety and emergency services to reduce fatalities

Doctor to population ratio

Providing adequate and quality affordable housing to poor, low- and middle-income households


Malaysian Wellbeing Index

Enculturating the spirit of 1Malaysia to foster social cohesion and national unity

Hospital beds per 1,000 population1


Creating safer living environments for thriving communities

60% 5


Percent of population feeling safe

Annual reduction in crime index


Optimised emergency response time


Road fatalities index per 10,000 registered vehicles



Optimised police response time


Includes public and private hospitals, maternity and nursing homes, hospices and ambulatory care centres.

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Strategic thrust 3:

Accelerating human capital development for an advanced nation Improving labour market efficiency to accelerate economic growth Improving labour productivity and wages through the shift to high skilled jobs Enhancing labour market operations to maximise efficiency and effectiveness Improving management of foreign workers

Improving the quality of education for better student outcomes and institutional excellence Enhancing access and quality to improve student outcomes Enhancing governance and stakeholder partnerships for better school support Raising the quality of graduates and programmes, and strengthening research for innovation Strengthening IHE governance and financial sustainability towards institutional excellence

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Transforming TVET to meet industry demand Strengthening the governance of TVET for better management Enhancing quality and delivery of TVET programmes to improve graduate employability Rebranding TVET to increase its attractiveness

Strengthening lifelong learning for skills enhancement Improving effectiveness of programmes to meet learning needs Improving regulatory and funding support to broaden access

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Improving labour market efficiency to accelerate economic growth

3.7% Per annum labour productivity target in the Eleventh Plan, compared with 2.6% in the Tenth Plan

Transforming TVET to meet industry demand

225,000 Intake of SPM leavers to TVET programmes; an increase from 164,000 in 2013

Strengthening lifelong learning for skills enhancement

Improving the quality of education for better student outcomes and institutional excellence

58% Increase in number of employees that will benefit from expansion of the HRDF Act; from 1.77 million employees in 2014 to 2.8 million in 2020

Malaysia aims to be at least on par with the international average in PISA and TIMSS assessments


100 40% Compensation of employees to GDP in 2020; an increase from 33.6% in 2013



Monthly median wage in 2020; an increase from RM1,575 in 2014


2 universities in the top 100 of the QS World University Rankings

100% Student enrolment from preschool to upper secondary

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Strategic thrust 4:

Pursuing green growth for sustainability and resilience Strengthening the enabling environment for green growth Strengthening governance to drive transformation

Strengthening resilience against climate change and natural disasters Strengthening disaster risk management (DRM)

Enhancing awareness to create shared responsibility Establishing sustainable financing mechanisms

Improving flood mitigation Enhancing climate change adaptation

Adopting the sustainable consumption and production concept Creating green markets Increasing share of renewables in energy mix

Conserving natural resources for present and future generations Ensuring natural resources security Enhancing alternative livelihood for indigenous and local communities

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Enhancing demand side management (DSM) Promoting low carbon mobility Managing waste holistically

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Eleventh Malaysia Plan Executive Summary




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2,080 MW

Fomulation of a comprehensive demand side management master plan

In renewable energy installed capacity


Reduction in GHGs emission intensity of GDP compared to 2005 level

At least



Government procurement to be green

Recycling rate of household waste

Adopting the sustainable consumption and production concept

Strengthening resilience against climate change and natural disasters




Conserving natural resources for present and future generations

National crisis and disaster management centre to enhance capacity for disaster preparedness and response


Terrestrial and inland water areas gazetted as protected areas

People protected through flood mitigation projects


Coastal and marine areas gazetted as protected areas


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Strategic thrust 5:

Strengthening infrastructure to support economic expansion Encouraging sustainable energy use to support growth

Strengthening stakeholder coordination and collaboration in the energy sector Ensuring the security of supply and reliability for the oil and gas subsector within a market-based approach

Building an integrated need-based transport system

Enabling growth in the oil and gas subsector

Enhancing connectivity across transport modes and regions Improving safety, efficiency and service levels of transport operations Expanding port capacity, access and operations

Managing supply diversity for security of the electricity subsector Improving the sustainability, efficiency and reliability of the electricity subsector

Strengthening regulatory and institutional framework for the transport industry

Continuing the transition to a new water services industry framework

Raising the financial sustainability of the water services industry

Unleashing growth of logistics and enhancing trade facilitation

Strengthening institutional and regulatory framework

Enhancing trade facilitation mechanism

Deploying technology in the logistics chain

Building freight infrastructure efficiency and capacity

Strengthening capabilities of logistics service providers

Expanding network and treatment plant capacity through infrastructure investment and use of efficient technology Increasing efficiency and productivity of water and sewerage services Strengthening the regulatory framework of the water services industry

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Improving coverage, quality and affordability of digital infrastructure

Expanding and upgrading broadband infrastructure

Migrating to Digital Terrestrial Television (DTT)

Increasing affordability and protection for consumers

Strengthening infrastructure for smart cities

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Eleventh Malaysia Plan Executive Summary

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Public transport modal share in GKL/KV


Paved rural roads constructed


Malaysian Aviation Commission as newly established regulator

Building an integrated need-based transport system

95% 1%

46 areas



Of GNI per capita for fixed broadband cost


Sewerage connected services coverage, especially in main cities, by 2020

Nationwide with Digital Terrestrial Television roll-out in 2016-2017 with all services available after ASO completion


Non-revenue water by 2020


Continuing the transition to a new water services industry framework

Encouraging sustainable energy use to support growth

EURO 4M, EURO 5 standards for clean fuel and B15 (15% biodiesel blending) roll-out by 2020

Annual growth of transport and storage subsector

In the World Bank Logistics Performance Index


Population served by clean and treated water by 2020

Improving coverage, quality, and affordability of digital infrastructure

Unleashing growth of logistics and enhancing trade facilitation


Populated areas covered by broadband infrastructure




Additional LNG import capacity through RGT-2 in Pengerang, Johor

7,626 MW

300,000 BPD

New generation capacity installed in Peninsular Malaysia by 2020

Additional refining capacity by 2019

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Strategic thrust 6:

Re-engineering economic growth for greater prosperity

Investing in competitive cities and regional economic corridors development Developing city competitiveness master plans for four major cities Strengthening corridors to fuel regional development

Transforming services Fostering a dynamic environment for knowledge-intensive services Implementing comprehensive and integrated governance reforms Stepping up internationalisation of services firms Enhancing management of investment incentives

Energising manufacturing

Modernising agriculture

Moving towards complex and diverse products Enhancing productivity through automation Stimulating innovation-led growth Strengthening growth enablers Ramping up internationalisation

Growing dynamic SMEs

Strengthening human capital development Enhancing ease of doing business Increasing demand for SME Products and Services

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Improving productivity and income of farmers, fishermen and smallholders

Enhancing knowledge content

Promoting training and youth agropreneur development

Driving productivity

Strengthening institutional support and extension services Building capacity of agricultural cooperatives and associations along the supply chain

Fostering sustainable practices Increasing the internationalisation of construction firms

Improving market access and logistics support Scaling up access to agricultural financing Intensifying performance-based incentive and certification programmes

Expanding modern services

Enhancing productivity through automation and innovation

Transforming construction

Enterprise innovation

Creating home-grown champions Developing SMEs in Sabah and Sarawak

Strengthening the governance mechanism

Translating innovation to wealth

Enhancing demanddriven research Strengthening industryacademia collaboration through intermediaries Promoting private financing of research, development, commercialisation, and innovation

Social innovation Strengthening collaboration through a whole-society approach Developing a social financing model Promoting higher order thinking skills to develop a dynamic society

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Eleventh Malaysia Plan Executive Summary

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Contribution of RM519 billion or 8.2% to GDP with 1.6 million jobs

Contribution of RM2,421 billion or 38.4% to GDP with 9.5 million jobs across all sectors

Growth of

Growth of

Growth of




Contribution of RM3,488 billion or 56.5% to GDP with 9.6 million jobs


per annum




Transforming services

Energising manufacturing




per annum




Modernising agriculture

Transforming construction



Growth of

Growth of

per annum

Contribution of RM1,417 billion or 22.5% to GDP with 2.8 million jobs





10.3% per annum

Contribution of RM327 billion or 5.5% to GDP with 1.2 million jobs


of GDP

per annum








Growing dynamic SMEs


Gross expenditure on R&D of GDP

70% of total R&D expenditure by Business Enterprises

Translating innovation to wealth

Investing in competitive cities and regional economic corridors

4 236



Cities with City Competitiveness Masterplans developed

Realised investment with 470,000 job opportunities created across five regional economic corridors

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Transforming public service for productivity Enhancing project management for better and faster outcomes

Capitalising on local authorities for quality services at the local level

Strengthening project planning Enhancing implementation efficiency Improving monitoring and evaluation focused on outcomes

Strengthening talent management for the public service of the future Appointment on a contractual basis to secure top talent Providing flexible work arrangements to maximise productivity

Empowering and improving accountability of local authorities Strengthening service delivery by local authorities

Empowering Ministries to customise talent management

Strengthening collaboration for stimulating local economic development

Upgrading public sector training to improve relevance and impact

Intensifying public engagement and data sharing by local authorities

Enhancing service delivery with citizens at the centre Reducing public service bureaucracy and non-core services

Rationalising public sector institutions for greater productivity and performance

Realigning public sector institutions and reducing overlapping roles Rightsizing the public service for better productivity and capabilities Introducing exit policy for underperformers

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Improving delivery process to increase responsiveness Leveraging data to enhance outcomes and lower costs Expanding outreach of services with greater public engagement Increasing accountability with greater focus on transparency and outcomes

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Top 10 in the Government Efficiency sub-index of the World Competitiveness Yearbook

Top 15 in the Online Service sub-index of the UN e-Government Development Index




Capitalising on local authorities for quality services at the local level Embedding community expectations into local authority KPIs



Rationalising public sector institutions for greater productivity and performance

Conducting a comprehensive audit across institutions and agencies

Top 30 in the Corruption Perception Index by Transparency International


Enhancing service delivery with citizens at the centre

Establishing cloud computing for consolidation and data sharing

U-Customs providing a national single window for trade facilitation

Enhancing project management for better and faster outcomes Establishing a public sector comparator (PSC)

Strengthening talent management for the public service of the future Providing flexible working arrangement schemes


The Government is committed to transforming the public service by becoming more citizen-centric and enhancing the productivity and efficiency of service delivery. The aspiration is to deliver more accessible public services with multi-skilled talent, as well as less bureaucracy, hierarchy, and centralisation. Key initiatives include: Citizens at the centre: Public services will increasingly be co-created by the rakyat through crowdsourcing and greater engagement to understand preferences and needs. Urban, Rural and Mobile Community Transformation Centres (CTCs) will be maximised to consolidate services closer to the rakyat. Frontline services will be integrated from the perspective of the rakyat (rather than traditional agency and ministry perspectives), with back-end processes consolidated to deliver faster response times. Productivity and efficiency: Institutions, commissions, and agencies will be rationalised to reduce overlaps and redundancies to create a leaner, more agile, and more responsive public sector. This will include rightsizing the public service, introducing exit policy for underperformers, and integrating productivity indicators into KPIs of ministries and local authorities. Digital government: 77% of government services are now online with more services available via the single signon. Mobile platform will be given focus to increase usage and outreach. The National Open Data initiative will allow interactive feedback, transparency, data analyses, and open innovation by businesses and individuals.

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Malaysia beyond 2020 The Eleventh Plan not only marks the culmination of a 30-year journey towards Vision 2020; it also sets the stage for the next horizon of growth. Post-2020, the challenge will be to raise the bar even higher on the country’s growth prospects along three dimensions, namely economy, people, and environment. The vision is for all Malaysians to have an unshakeable national identity and clear moral compass. The country will be governed by trusted and independent executive, legislative, and judicial institutions that protect all Malaysians equally. Malaysians will have a government that delivers, led by leaders with integrity and conviction who embrace the concept of amanah. Malaysia will punch above its weight in the international arena, both as a strong independent nation and through prominent Malaysian thought leaders in various fields. The economy will be progressive, inclusive, and adaptable for the future, with highly productive worldclass cities and thriving rural areas. All Malaysians will be able to participate in and benefit from the country’s growth, and enjoy an elevated state of wellbeing. Malaysians will be passionate stewards of the environment and no longer see environmental protection as a trade-off to a strong economy, making Malaysia a truly beautiful place to live for all.

One nation, one people, and one aspiration We come from different backgrounds and ethnicities, and speak many languages. But we speak with one voice – that of wanting a better future for our next generation. It is the voice of hope, of solidarity. It is the voice that says we are one.

The aspirations described above are neither exhaustive nor conclusive, but are intended to set in motion the prospect for further engagement and serious deliberation. Essentially, Malaysians envision a strong sovereign nation that is progressive and inclusive, and where people treasure unity and celebrate diversity.

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Eleventh Malaysia Plan Executive Executive Summary


Conclusion The Eleventh Plan is significant as it will be the last five-year plan before Vision 2020 is achieved. It provides a crucial platform to ensure that Malaysia transitions to an advanced economy and inclusive nation. Towards this end, the Eleventh Plan has been formulated with the rakyat as the focal point of all development efforts – to enrich their lives, raise their dignity, and enable them to partake in the country’s economic prosperity. Six strategic thrusts and six game changers have been defined to break the country out of “business as usual” practices and set Malaysia on an accelerated growth trajectory. The Eleventh Plan strives for a future that is built on sound macroeconomic policy, inclusiveness so that no Malaysian is left behind, improved wellbeing for all, human capital development that is future-proof, green and sustainable growth, infrastructure that supports economic expansion, and a citizen-centric public service with high productivity. Collectively, these improvements will ensure that everyone, regardless of gender, ethnicity, socio-economic status and geographic location, can live in a truly harmonious and progressive society that bears the mark of an advanced economy and inclusive nation.

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For further information please contact: Director General Economic Planning Unit Prime Minister’s Department Block B5 & B6 Federal Government Administrative Centre 62502 Putrajaya MALAYSIA Publisher’s Copyright©

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, copied, stored in any retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means– electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise; without prior permission of the Economic Planning Unit, Prime Minister’s Department, Malaysia.

Printed by Percetakan Nasional Malaysia Berhad, Kuala Lumpur, 2015 www.printnasional.com.my Email: [email protected] Tel: 03-9236 6895 Fax: 03-9222 4773

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