FIB Universitas Sumatera Utara Ihefuu:lin~ if

single technique, couplet technique 47 data, triplet technique 51 data, quartet technique 32 data, quintet technique 21, and sextet technique 2 data. ...

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K;ljiiw L1i~fJui.~ti~ Feb/1JaIi 2013, 41-5" COPFT{[email protected], Pm/fIe/ill Smdi LiI4,ouisfik SP-s lfSrf, 15:5iV 16"93-4660

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No 1

THE IMPACT OF TRANSLATION TECHNIQUES ON THE QUALITY OF BILINGUAL BOOK INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY INTO BAHASA INDONESIA Ganda Simatupang STMIK MikroskilMedan

Rom-ita SiJaJahi

FIB Universitas Sumatera Utara Abstract This study aims to (I) describe the translation techniques which is applied by the translator in translating the text on bilingual book leT into bahasa Indonesia, (2) review the impact of translation techniques towards the level of translation accuracy and clarity on bilingual book leT, (3) reveal the recommended translation techniques. The type o/research which is applied is qualitative research. The data sources are bilingual book leT, and some talented informants. Ihefuu:lin~ if the research show that, there are 13 translation techniques are identified, which is dominated by literal translation as many as 112 data (22.40%), pure borrowing 101 data (20.20%), amplification 62 data (12.40%), natural borrowing 58 data (J 1.60%), calque 57 data (J 1.40%), modulation 36 data (7.20%), transposition 27 data (5.40%). rechlction 22 data (4.40%), establish equivalence 18 dcda (3.60%). particularization 4 data (80%). adaptation 1 data (0.20%), description 1 data (0.20%), and so is generalization only 1 data (0.20%). From 163 of the e.x:amined data. the result of this analysis shows that, the impact of translation techniques application, produce the aspect of accuracy which is dominated by accurate translation category as many as 121 (74.23%), quite accurate translation category 36 data (22.09%j, less accurate translation category 5 data (3.07%) and 1 data (0.61%) as the obviously inaccurate translation category. From the aspect of clarity translation data, it has been identified 132 data (80.98%) which is dominated by a very clear translation category. andfollowed by 22 data (13.50%) as quite clear translation category, 8 data (4.91%) as not clear translation category, and there is also 1 data (0.61%) is found as not appropriate or incorrect translation categO/y. The inaceurateness and obscurity translation categories are injluenced by the transfen'ing message jrom the source language is not equivalent to the target language as well as the applied C!f elusive languages. The translation techniques which are recommended to prochlce good translation toward the accuracy and clarity of bilingual book leT are literal technique, pure borrowing. natural borrowing, calque, amplification, modulation, transposition, reduction. established equivalence, particularization, adaptation and description. Key Words: Translation Techniques, Accuracy and Clarity. Bilingual Book lCT

INTRODUCTION Errors in choosing word meaning would be very fatal consequences in different level. The bombing even in Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 august 1945 was one of the impacts of error in translation that caused thousand of people disabled, injured and even death (www.kingtranz.com ). Errors in translating text book especially on bilingual books which have benefit not only have two language but also have consequences in education, social. economic, and culture (Baker 2000: 12). Errors in translating foreign language text book into bahasa Indonesia is partied not rather than improving the quality of education in information and communication technology but it would mislead learners.

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As a developing country, Indonesia need much information about the latest development in science and technology through translation product of computer's language, hardware, software have been done by government especiany linguistic department centre that cooperate with Microsoft corporation to transfer more than 250.000 English words or terms into bahasa Indonesia. These efforts enrich Indonesian language to operate and access computer and information technology easily by young generation. (http://w...-w.tempo.com). The entry of foreign terms is unavoidable fact. Communication is getting unceasing and global, moreover into Bahasa Indonesia after having been catalyzed by internet revolution, so it is not only the equivalent, but also the original technological terms is fIrstly shoved aside before ever popular in society (Haryanto, 2002:4). Not so with the wordslterms newly enter to society had transferred directly into Bahasa Indonesia and introduced to society of the Indonesian language user. These words/tenns are accepted directly by people (Sugono, 2005:2). Based on the background above and the importance of computer as a branch of science as infonnation and communication technology that poured into bilingual book, as a vehicle to carry out the implementation of international communication globally, As a facilitation to advance interracial communication, especially the user of technology facilities in Indonesia, so the researcher is interested in making a research about the impact of translation techniques on the quality of translation of bilingual book "information and communication technology" into bahasa Indonesia. LITERATURE REVIEW In this Research will be emphasized some theory that related to this Research. The theoretical approaches are: translation technique theory and translation quality assessment, the meaning of bilingual and its benefit and related them on bilingual book information and communication technology, understanding about translating and translation and the translation theory and translation competence.

Techniques in Translation This research adopts 18 translation techniques which is recommended by Molina & Albir, (2002:509). The translation techniques are adaptation, amplification, borrowing, calque, compensation, description, creation discursive, established equivalent, generalization, linguistic amplification, linguistic compression, literal, modulation, particularization, reduction, substitution, transposition, and variation. Translation QUality Assessment This research the researcher use translation assessment quality mode that related to translation quality assessment with accuracy and clarity aspects based on Larson and syihabuddin. Bilingual Book and the Benefit Penabur (2007:3) said that in two language it would be able to get wider cultural experience and much possible to produce bigger tolerance between different culture and would decrease the sense of racialist. Monolingual is also able to know different culture, but to know different culture, need language of the culture. Having bilingual ability it can give biger chance to know culture actively, because by knowing language ofthe culture. Translator and Translation Competence There is a close relation between translation competence that owned by someone, that he can translate a source text to target language. For that reason it can be said that competence that owned by translator and the translation technique application has impact toward translation quality.

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RESEARCH METHOD In this research, the researcher use qualitative research method that research procedure that produces descriptive data of written words or spoken from people and observable behavior (Bogdan dan Taylor, 1975:5). Data source is bilingual book "Information and communication technology (lCT) I For Senior High School Year X, and some infonnants who field in translation and computer. The data is lingual unit (word, phrase, clause and sentence) ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS Here is the systematic discussion in question include: translation techniques are applied in translating text and its range, then followed by discussion on the impact of translation techniques on the level of accuracy and cJarity of the translation and interpretation techniques are suggested toward the translation accuracy and clarity. The Application of Translation Techniques From 163 source data were analyzed, be identified as many as 10 data is translated by applying single technique, couplet technique 47 data, triplet technique 51 data, quartet technique 32 data, quintet technique 21, and sextet technique 2 data. Single Translation Technique Single translation technique is the application of single translation techniques which used in translating the data in lingual unit. In this research has been identified three variants of single translation technique, they are literal translation, calque, and pure borrowing. Literal technique Literal translation is the translation techniques of word or phrase into word for word. Structurally adjustment of target language is an important part of this technique in accordance with linguistic of target language. There are 3 data were analyzed using this technique as which is translated literally from English to Indonesian. Look at the following example: Data 071

source language Graphic suite

Target Language Pengolah gambar

Calque technique A calque translation technique is the technique by transferring word or phrase literally from source language to target language both lexical and structural. There are 2 data were analyzed using calque technique which is translated from English into Indonesian. Look at the following example:

Data 040

Source language Reset Button Functions

Target language Kegunaan Tombol Reset

Pure borrowing is a translation technique where the translator translating the word or phrase by borrowing them from source language. The borrowing could be pure borrowing. There are 5 data were analyzed by applying pure borrowing technique which is translated from English to Indonesian. Look at the following example: Data

062 076

Source language Web Browser Web Browser

Target language Web Browser Web Browser

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Couplet Translation Technique The applications of the two techniques identified 12 variants translation couplet techniques are applied. Here's an example of the data that were analyzed using a variant couplet technique with variants literal and amplification techniques. Data Source language Target langnage 028 Close al1 active application Tutup semua program aplikasi programs. yang masih aktif Triplet Translation Technique The application of three translation techniques in this research has been identified 29 variants of triplet techniques which are applied. Here's an example of the data, were analyzed by llsing variation of triplet techniques which is a blend of literal techniques, amplification and calque. Data 002

Source language Target language Before using the compnter Sebelum memanfaatkan berbagai facilities, you have to understand fasilitas yang terdapat daIam the computer basic operation komputer, Anda hams memahami operasi dasar komputer

Quartet Translatiou Technique There are 27 variants quartet techniques have been identified in this research as the application of the four translation techniques. Here's an example of data that is analyzed on applying quartet variant. The combinations of quartet techniques are IlteraI, adaptation, pure borrowing and natural borrowing. Data 135

Source language Target language Nowadays, he empowers us to Sekarang lll1, belian memberi develop software without kekuatan kita untuk kepada understanding even a single code. mengembangkan software tanpa perIu tabu satu baris kode pun

Quintet Translation Technique There are 21 quintet variants translation techniques are applied in this research as the application of the five techniques. Here's an example of data was analyzed using a quintet variant they are amplification, modulation, natural borrowing, particularization and pure borrowing. Data

]58

Source language To turn on a computer: Connect the power cord to the network, then press power button on the casing and on the monitor.

Target language komputer Cara mengaktifkan adalah dengan menghubungkan kabeJ power kom puter dengan jaringan Jistrik, kemudian menekan tomboI on atau power pada casing dan monitor

Sextet Translation Technique There are 2 variant has been identified as the application of six translation techniques. Here's an example of data was analyzed using sextet variant, they are transposition, amplification, natural borrowing, modulation, pure borrowing and reduction. Data Source language Target language 104 Just press AIt+F4 to exit the Untuk keluar dari aplikasi ini bisa application or click the cross dengan menekan AIt+F4 atau button on the upper right corner mengklik tanda silang di pojok of the calculator box. kanan at35.

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The Frequency of Translation Techniques The explanation of the frequency of translation techniques which were applied to each variant can be seen on this following table:

NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

n

Technigue Literal Pure borrowing - Amplification Natural borrowing Calque Modulation Transposition Reduction Established equivalent Particularization Adaptation Description Generalization Total Technigues Total Data

'J"'

5

2

10 10

HI 40 31 ]6 21 20 5 12 4 4

33 18 13 6 8 7 6 1 2

94 47

153 5]

IV ')'"'

""oJ

25 17 17 13 11 4 5 8 2 1 1 127 32

V 13 20 14 13 13

11 ~

.J

IO 4

VI

2 2 1 1 2 2 2

Total 112 101 62 58 57 36 27 22

18 4 1

'} "--

]

I 104 21

]

]2 2

500 163

% 22,40% 20,20% 12,40% 11,60% 11,40% 7,20% 5,40% 4,40% 3,60% 0,80% 0,20% 0,20% 0,20% 100,00010

Based on the table above, from 163 data has identified 13 translation techniques were applied to overcome the translation phenomena. However, the translator not only appJied one translation technique in each data. The application of single technique consists of 3 variants of 10 data, couplets 12 variants of 47 data, triplet 29 variants of 51 data, quartet 27 variants of32 data, quintet 21 variants of21 data and sextet 2 variants of2 data. The Trend Level of TransJation Techniques The explanation about the trend level of translation techniques can be seen on this following table: The Trend Level of Translation Techni ues Target Language uency T echni ue Techni ue Literal 112 Amplification Pure borrowing 101 Modulation 36 Natural borrowing 58 Transposition 27 Calque 57 Reduction 22 Established equivalent 18 Particularization 4 Adaptation 1 Description 1 Generalization 1 Number 328 Number 172 Total 500 Total 500 ---------------Percentage 65,60% Percentage 34,40% Based on the analysis and explanation above, .it can be said that the translation techniques are applied on translating bilingual book "Information and Communication Technology" is more dominated by source language than target language. The general explanation can be seen in this following diagram: The Impact of Translation Techniques on the Level of TnmsJation Accuracy and Clarity

45

Canda Sim
The presentation of the impact of translation techniques on the level of translation accuracy and clarity in lingual unit is analyzed based on categories of each variant of translation techniques. Translation Accuracy Level The accurate translation means the message from the source language is the same as the message contained in the translation. Based on the finding data identification as weU as the obtained information from informants who are experts in the field of translation, there are 121 data from a total of 163 sources data has identified as a accurate translation category, 35 data as quite accurate translation category, 5 data as less accurate translation category and also be found 1 data as obviously inaccurate translation category that identified as translation that do not fit at all with the content, messages and meaning to the target language. The data analyzed based on translation accuracy is as follows: Accurate translation category Accurate translation means the transferring content, message and meaning of lingual units contained in the source language is accordance with the content, message and meaning in the target language text. At the level of accuracy in this research were found 121 data from 163 source data was included as accurate translation category and the explanation about accuracy of transferring content, message, and meaning of lingual unit by applying variolls variant of translation techniques, including single variant produce 10 accurate translation data, couplet 41 data, triplet 42 data, quartet 18 data, quintet 9 data and sextet 1 data that found in source language is accurate to the content, message, meaning to the target language. There is no addition, reduction or distortion. These are some examples of accurate translation category as follows: source language Target Language Graphic suite Pengolah gambar Reset Button Functions Kegunaan Tombol Reset The application of accurate translation is materialized with pure borrowing technique, literal and calque that produce translation's accuracy, they are on noun phrase of Graphic suit be translated become Pengolah gambar on data 071, it was translated literally and the applied of proper diction so its impact to the nnderstandable translation based on the transferred message from source language, and so is on data 062 of the phrases of web browser, Multimedia 074 and the word of ilvJAC on data 142, be translated without giving any equivalent because at those noun phrases and word are the names of application program and the name of computer technology product that have no equivalency at all to target language. But in data 126 Bill Atkinson that is the name of man who field in computer so by applying pure borrowing, the translator let the nuance in source language to target language to avoid misunderstanding or distortion of meaning toward the target reader. The application of calque technique is getting strengthened the accurate message transferring to the meaning of target language on data 040 Reset Button FWlctions by transferring word or phrase from source language to target language as the form of the application of calque technique. Data 071 040

Data 011

source language Software is divided into three groups, which are the operating system software, the application software and the utility software

Target Language Perangkat luuak terdiri dari tiga kelompok, yaitu perangkat lunak sistem operasi, perangkat lunak aplikasi dan peraugkat Innak lItility,

The transferring content, message and meaning including on source text at the ilustration above i.s Sllitable to the content, message and meaning i.n target text. There is no distortion of meaning or change of message as in data source 011 operating system software, application

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Febmari 2013

soft)-jJare and utility sofovare, has been translated by applying calque technique that commonly used and so accurate to the target text language. Quite accurate translation category The explanation of quite accurate translation category is the transferring content, message and meaning in lingual unit of source text is quite accurate to the content, message and meaning in target text Based on the finding data from 163 source data has identified, 35 data as quite accurate translation, by applying 5 variants of translation technique, they are couplet varian that produce 6 quite accurate data, triplet 7 data, quartet 1] data, kuintet 1] data and sekstet 1 data. This is one of the sampel data as quite accurate translation catagor,Y bellow: Data 023

source language Target Language Figure 1.2 shows the desktop Gambar 1.2 menunjukkan tampilan appearance of Windows Vista desktop sistem operasi Windows operating system. Vista

The translating of single sentence by applying calque technique of the noun phrase of tampi/an desktop sistem operasi Windows Vista on 023 target text data, has a bit distorted meaning, it caused by the implied meaning, so it is necessary be paraphrased by applying amplification techniques. Translators should be added particle pada before the phrase of sistem operasi windows vista. Thus the translation becomes lampi/an desktop pada sistem operasi windows vista. It is caused by the segment has implied meaning that the, so it needs to be explained or be paraphrased to be more dear. Inaccurate translation category The transferring content, message and meaning on lingual unit contained in source text, not suitable to the content, message and meaning in target text. There is much change in meaning. Based on the fmding data from ] 63 source data were identified as many as 5 data as not accurate translation by applying 2 variant of translation technique, they are triplet variant as many as 2 data and quartet 3 data. This is an example of not accurate translation category bellow: Data 151

source language Several months later, Apple released the next version (revision B or revision 2) of iMac G3 233 MHz machine.

Target Language Beberapa bulan kemudian Apple merilis revisi selaftiutnya (rev. B atau rev. 2) dari mesin iMac G3233 MHz.

Shifting on word level of source data 151 of preposition phrase of iMac G3 233 MHz machine, be translated become dari mesin iMac G3 233 104Hz. The shifting word level of the noun phrase is not suited to the message which is transferred from the source language to the target language. It is caused by the inability of the translator to understand technical terms including code and number between the noun of iMac and klachine. The recommended translation is ilvIac tipe G3 bemlesin 233 A/Hz. Obviously inaccurate translation category The transferring content., message and meaning in lingual unit, including in source language not suited at all to the c.ontent, message and meaning in target language. Based on the finding data, from 163 source data by applying 1 variant translation technique, they are quintet technique. This is an example of data as obviously inaccurate translation category bellow: Data

source language

Target Language

075

Microsoft Windows Vista Microsoft Windows Vista provides Windows Media menyediakan Windows Media Player 11 as an application to Player 11 sebagai aplikasi file-file play multimedia files pemutar multimedia. Aplikasi ini dapat memutar musik MP3, film CD dan DVD.

The translating is obviously inaccurate translation, that caused of the inaccurate of transferred message on noun phrase on multimedia files by the adjustment of unsuited language to target language and the lack of mastering object that analyzed which caused distortion of meaning. Translator should consider to the target reader, in this case senior high school who is identically influence by the shape and content of sentences in learning vocabulary of computer terms on bilingual book. The recommended translation is A1icrosoft Windows Vista merryediakan Windows Media Player 11 sebagai ap/ikasi pemutar file-file multimedia, and so is reduction on the word of files that was not translated to target language caused distortion of message because the word has very important part to clarify the word of multimedia. In general the accurate level including accurate translation category (A), quite accurate (QA), inaccurate (IA) and obviously inaccurate (Ol) on the translating bilingual book "information and communication technology" can be seen on the table and graphic bel1ow:

NO

Technique Literal 2 Pure borro\ving 3 Amplification 4 Natural borrowing 5 Calque 6 Modulation 7 Transposition 8 Reduction Established equivalent 9 10 Particularization 11 Adaptation ]2 Description 13 Generalization Total technigues Total Data Percentage of accurate level 1

A 86 68 40 37 46 21 16 13

QA 22 27 18 18 11 14 8 8

IA 4 4 2 2

12 1 1

5 3

1

01 ]

I 1

J 3 I

TOTAL 113 100 61 57 57 37 27 23

% 22,60% 20,00% 12,20% 11,40% 11,40% 7,40% 5,40% 4,60%

18 4

3,60% 0,80% 0,20% 0,20% 0,20% 100,00%

]

341 121

1 1 136 36

18 5

5 1

1 1 500 163

74,23%

22,09%

3,07%

0,61%

100,00%

From 163 data analyzed, 121 data or (74,23%) is dominated by accurate translation categol)', 36 data or (22,O()o/o) as quite accurate, 5 data or ((3,07%) as inaccurate and also be found I data or (0,61 %) as obviously inaccurate translation categol)'. Clarity LewIs of Translation Based on the finding of data identification and information which is obtained from informant who field in computer, be identified as many as 132 data from total ) 63 data source in this research expressed as a vel)' clear translation categories, 22 data as quite clear translation categol)'. 8 data as not clear translation and also found 1 data is identified as incorrect translation \vith the content, messages and meaning to target language.

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Febmari 2013

Very dear translation category There are 132 data from total 163 data source that included in very clear translation category that refer to the target language,commonly used and understood easily by user of target language. Explanation of clarity in transferring content, message and meaning of the lingual unit by applying various variant of translation techniques are identified as many as 5 variants translation technique, they are single variant that produce very clear translation as many as 9 data, c.ouplet 40 data, triplet 44 data, quartet, 25 data and quintet variant as many as 14 data Look at the following examples: Data 040 062

Source language Reset Button Functions Web Browser

Target language Kegunaan Tombol Reset Web Browser

The translating of technical terms in noun phrases found in data source of Reset Button Functions 040, Web Browser 062, Multimedia 074,076 Web Browser, iMac 142 based on the results of the research and additional information from informant who field in computer is the translation that easily to understand. Based on the information has identified that the application of pure borrowing that dominated by technical terms translation and followed by the application of calque, that similar with literal translation but in this case there are words transferring of reset from data source 041 as the specific character of calque technique that strengthened the clear message transferring to target language. Besides that on data source ] 57 Summary is the common terms which translated literally and well known by target text reader.

Quite clear translation category At the level of translation clarity in this research identified as many as 22 data from total 163 data source that are included in quite clear translation category that refers to the target text language can be transferred quite clearly, the language used is simple and a little bit common be used, but still be able to understand by target text user, and the description of quite clear translation with the application of various variant of translation techniques has been identified as 6 variant of translation technique they are single variant that produce quite clear translation as many as ] data, couplet 6 data, triplet 3 data, quartet 5 data, quintet 5 data and sekstet as many as 2 data. Here is a sample of the data as the part of quite clear translation category below: Data 071

Source language Graphic Suite

Target language Pengolah Gambar

Based on data analysis and information from expert informants about clarity in quite clear translation category that materialized from appJying language on noun phrase of Graphic .Suite is translated become pengolah gambar that a little bit common and precisely cause ambiguity meaning. The recomended technique which is recomended should keep on borrowing purely tobe Graphic Suite into target language.

Less clear translation category At the translation clarity level in this research, 8 data from total 163 source data that included in less clear translation technique that refers to target language be transfered less clear, the using of language is not simple and not commonly used so that difficult to understand by target text reader, and the explanation about less clear translation by applying various variant of translation technique, 5 variant of translation techniques are couplet varian that produce less clear translation I data, triplet 4 data, quartet 2 data and quinted variant 1 data. This is an example of data as the part of less clear translation category below: Data OJ 6

Source language Here are the steps to turn on a

Target language Berikut ini beberapa prosedur

G..mda Simatup<'wg

computer

pemakaian komputer secara benar Based on data analysis and additional infonnation from the informant who field in computer that translating of single sentence above is come under less clear that shown clearly on noun phrase of target language prosedur pemakaian komputer that deviate at all from the message which is transfered from source language. It is caused by plural noun steps in source language was transfered using modulation technique tobe prosedur, phrase turn on was translated become pemakaian so that the translating of the sentence less clear from the word or phrase which are unusual so they are difficult to understand by the reader of target language in this case the user of computer. The recomended translation is by translating plural noun Steps become beberapa cara or langkah-Iangkah and the phrase of turn on be translated become menghidupkan into target language. Incorrect translation category There is 1 data from total 163 source data that included in incorrect translation category that refers to the target. language be transfered inaccurate and not appropriate, and the explanation about incorrect translation by applying various variant of translation techniques, 1 varian quintet of translation technique. This is an example of incorrect translation technique categOlY bellow:

Bahasa Sumber Microsoft Windows Vista provides Windows Media Player I 1 as an application to play multimedia files

Bahasa Sasaran Microsoft Windows Vista menyediakan Windows Media Player 11 sebagai aplikasi filefile pemutar multimedia. Aplikasi ini dapat memutar musik MP3, film CD dan DVD. The sentence above is appertained as inaccurate, that appeared of the noun clause in source data an application to play multimedia files be translated literally become aplikasi filefile pemutar multimedia into target language, that caused distortion of meaning, because the clause is towards the function of Windows Media Player 11 as the most important message from source language to target language. The recomended translation to overcome the incorrect translation especially in the clause of an application to play multimediafiles, become sebuah aplikasi pemutar file-file multimedia. That is caused of windows media player is the default application on windows that can play or read various file type they are audio, video and even pictures. So it is wTOng to be translated as aplikasi file-file pemutar multimedia. Based on the result of data analysis on the clarity level that included very clear translation category (VC), quite clear (QC), less clear (LC), and incorrect (IC) on the translation of bilingual book "iriformation and communication Technology, in general can be seen on the table and graphic bellow: Data 075

No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

8

Technique Literal Pure borrowing Amplification Natural borrow-jng Calque Modulation Transposition Reduction

VC 94 81 42 47 47 24

]8 17

QC 12 13 12 6 9 11 6 5

50

LC 6 5 4 4 2 3

1

Ie 1 I ]

Total 113 100 59 57 56 38 27 24

% 22,60% 20,00% 11,80% 11,40% 11,20% 7,60% 5,40% 4,80%

9 10 1 12 13

Established equivalent Particularization Adaptation Description Generalization Total Technigue Total Data Percentage

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4

3,60% 1,00% 0,20% 0,20% 0,20% ]00,00%

18

5

I 1

1 I 389 132 80,98%

1 80 22 13,50%

26

5

8

4,9]%

0,61%

I 500 163 100,00%

From 163 data examined, 132 data or (80.98%) is dominated by very clear translation category, followed by 22 data or (13.50%) is quite clear translation category, 8 data or (4.91%) less c1ear category and also found 1 data or (0.61 %) as an incorrect translation category. Based on the example of table and graphic about accuracy and clarity level of translation data in this Research, it can be said tl1atfrom 163 data that analyze on accuracy level in this Research has identified as many as 121 data or (74,23%) that dominated by accurate translation category that refers to equivalency between message from the source language to the message in target language. And so is data be analized at the clarity level of translation were identified as many as 132 data or (80,98%) is dominated by very c1ear translation category that refers to the translation which is the meaning easyly understand by target reader. The Recommended Translation Techniques toward Translation Accuracy and Clarity on Bilingual Book ICT Various ways are used by translator in conveying message content from source language to target language, either using source-language oriented or target-language oriented in wider scale. Through translation technique, researcher able to describe in detail the tendency level of translation technique that is applied in translation Products on lingual unit, either word, phrase, clause and sentence. The explanation of some good techniques toward accuracy and clarity, either source language orientation or target language orientation can be seen on the table bellow: Table of Translation Technique Analysis on the Level of Accuracy and very Clear Translation Category Accuracy Very Clear Technique Total Orientation 1. Literal 112 (22,4%) 86 (25,22%) 94 (24,16%) Source Language

Target Language

2. Pure borrowing

101 (20,20%)

3. Natural borrowing

58 (11,60%)

68 (19,94%) 37 (10,85%)

4. Calque

57 (11,40%)

46 (13,49%)

47 (12,08%)

5. Amplification

62 (12,40%)

40 (11,73%)

42 (10,80%)

6. Modulation 7. Transposition

36 (7,20%) 27 (5,40%)

21 (6.16%) 16 (4,69%)

24 (6,17%) 18 (4,63%)

8. Reduction 9. Established equivalent

22 (4,40%) ]8 (3,60%)

13 (3,81%) ]2 (3,52%)

17 (4,37%)

10. Particularization ] ] . Adaptation

4 (0,80%) 1 (0,20%)

1 (0,2~1o) 1 (0,29%)

4 (1,03%) 1 (0,26%)

12. Description

1 (0,20%)

13. Generalization

1 (0,20%)

Total Technique

500 ]63

Total Data

51

81 (20,82%) 47 (12,08%)

13 (3,34%)

1 (0,26%) 34]

389

12]

132

Based on the spread of frequency, literal technique is dominated as translation technique at the level of accuracy as many as 86 times or (25,22%) in the level of accurate translation category that amount 121 data from 163 data that analyized in this Research. At the level of translation clarity, literal technique is also dominated by persentage of 94 times or (24,16%), at very clear translation category as many as 132 data of total 163 data which is analyzed in this reasearch. Besides that foHowed by pure borrowing, natural borrowing, calque, amplification, modulation, transposition, reduction and some other translation technique in different number of presentation that can be seen on the table above.

Translation techniqnes which are oriented to sonrce language The intended techniques are literal technique, followed by pure borrowing, natural borrowing and calque. The explanation from each translation technique which are applied in order to create trans1ation quality that refers to accurate and clarity is explained on the example of applying translation techniques which oriented to source language, they are literal technique, calque, pure borrowing and natural borrowing beHow: Literal and Calque The application of literal translation on adjusting the structure of target language is the most important thing of this technique, that can be seen on the example of data number 001 below: Data 001

Source language A computer can help you to do various tasks, such as typing, drawing, calculating, and making a presentation.

Target Language Komputer dapat membantu Anda dalam menyelesaikan berbagai pekeIjaan, seperti mengetik. menggambar, menghitung, dan membuat presentasi

The application of literal technique on the example above is formed of compatibility of shape and structure of the sentence in the source language. But anyhow, the application of literal technique would be bad impact to translation quality if not suited to language in target text. The tendency of applying literal technique, as far as researcher's concern it is caused of bilingual book besides educating book about computer, it is also train student's ability to learn English so it is a proper way if the application of Jiteral technique is dominating bilingual text book oflCT so it can add their vocabulary about computer terms from English to bahasa lndonesia.

Pure borrowing and natural borrowing From the finding research shows that ]01 data or 20,20% from tota1163 data be anaJyzed were borrowed purely and 58 data or 11,60% borrowed naturally accordance in target language. It was done in order to overcome misunderstanding if they are translated into target language. As the word of mouse in source data 029, sleep 035, Microsoft Office 2007 056, shortcllt 083, computer 002, click 029 and brochure of data 058 would cause distortion of meaning if translated without paying attention to the situational context. The application of pure borrowing toward computer's terms is not aJlways effective as the way to overcome the inexpediency of meaning to target language, espec.iaUy to word terms or phrase. The addition of meaning or information is strongly recomended to avoid the ambiguity of meaning. Example: Data 041

Source langnage If the computer crashes or bangs or can not be shut down through the standard procedure, use the 'reset' button to restart the computer

Target language Jika komputer men gal ami crash atau hang sehingga tidak bisa menjalankan prosedur stan dar uotuk mematikan komputer, maka dapat digunakan tombol reset untuk merestart komputer

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Based on the example of the sentence above especiaUy to the verb of crash or hang in data source 041, be translated become mengalami crash a/au hang, the addition of word mengalami is strongly needed its present to clarify the words of crash and hang in target language. Translation techniques which are oriented to Target Language The application of translation techniques which are oriented to target language are also potentiaUy produce the accurate and clear translation, but .in reality the translation techniques which are oriented to target language are always cause distortion of meaning as the result of dereliction in translating or too force them must be translated to target language. The explanation of each translation techniques which are applied in order to create translation quality based on the accuracy and clarity will be presented on the examples of translation techniques application which are oriented to target language, they are amplification, reduction, modulation, and established equivalent, bellow: Amplification and reduction The application of amplification and reduction are functionally opposite each other. On bilingual book leT, these techniques can't be avoid, it depends on how far is the affectivity of both techniques can not caused distortion of meaning partially or overall of the message be translated into target language. But if those both techniques exactly cause positive effect in creating the accuracy and clarity of translation so their presence are strongly recommended in translation. The reduction technique that caused distortion of meaning in data source 052 An aplication system software is intended for a specffic task, be translated become Perangkat lzmak aplikasi digunakan untuk mefakukan pekerjaan tertentu. The reduction of system which was not translated means the reduction of meaning paartialy, because it is the most important thing in the noun phrase of aplication 5ystem software, it is better not translated become perangkat lunak sistem aplikasi. The word of sistem refers to the various kind of software in this case windows. On the other hand, it is different to the application of reduction technique on data source 043 and 041, based on an example bellow: Data 043

Source language A computer crashes or hangs usually due to the instability of operating system or the instability of application

Target language Umumnya crash atau hang dapat disebabkan oleh sistem operasi atau apJikasi yang tidak stabil

Based on an exampJe above, there is a reduction of word dengan in noun phrase of Instability of application in applying the reduction technique in source language on 043 that translated only once in target language. The reduction of word from the example of a sentence above is not affected to the distortion of message, but reduce the prolix words or phrase that had already be presented the meaning. So it can be said that the application of reduction technique on some examples of sentences are accurate to the principle of target language. So is the example on data source 072, the applying of amplification technique or addition is really affected to the word aplikasi on data source 072 from the sentence of Microsoft Windows Vista provides Paint as a graphic suite. It was translated literally become Microsoft Windows Vista menyediakan Paint sebagai aplikasi pengolah gambar. The addition of word aplikasi is getting more and more clarified the word of pengolah gambar as the part of application. From some example above, it can be said that, the transferring message or meaning from source language must be keep on defender to target language. Modulation

and

established

equivalent

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The applying of modulation technique on data source 098 Here are the wcrys 10 operate it. It is translated become berikut cara penggunaannya. In this case the translator had change the point of view especiaHy to the word operate as principle has no meaning equivalent to target language. Meanwhile the established equivalent refers to the translation which is suited to dictionary, for example the word software, on data source 162 was translated become perangkat lunak that really formal terms that set in dictionary. Based on analysis and description of translation techniques which are recomended toward the quality of translation on bilingual book '"'information and commlmication Teclmology" CONCLUSION There are 13 translation techniques which are applied of total 163 data which are analyzed in various combination of singlet translation technique as many as 10 data, couplet 47 data, triplet 51 data, quartet 32 data, quiuted 21 data and sekstet only 2 data with the total frequency applied as many 500 times. The total frequency which is intended are literal technique which is dominated in translation techniques application with the emergence frequency as many as I 12 time or 22,40% and then foUowed by pure brrowing 101 times or (20,20%), amplification 62 times (12,40%), natural borrowing 58 times or (11,60%), calque 57 times or (11,40%), modulation 36 times (7,20%), transposition 27 times or (5,40010), reduction 22 times or (4,40%), established equivalent 18 times (3,60%), partiCUlarization 4 times or (0,80%), adaptation I times or (0,20%), description I time or as many as 0,20% The impact of translation techniques towards the quality of translation technique on the level of translation accuracy and clarity on bilingual book ICT, produce good translation. On the accuracy level, has identified as many as 121 data or 74,23% be dominated by accurate translation category, followed then 36 data or 22,90% as quite accurate translation category, 5 data or 3,07% as inaccurate translation category and I data or 0,61% as obvious inaccurate translation category. The factors of causing the obvious inacurate translation category is caused by the lack on mastering target language and the inaccurateness of applying translation techniques which are materialized on choosing word or diction. On the clarity level, has identified as many as 132 data or 80,98% is dominated by very clear translation category, 22 data or 13,50% as quite clear translation category, 8 data or 4,91% as not clear translation category and 1 data or 0,61% as inaccurate translation category. The choosing of informal words or the inaccurate of diction application and complicated sentences so they are difficult to understand as the impact of applying translation techniques, that innuence the inaccurate translation. The recomended translation techniques toward translation accuracy and clarity on bilingual book leT are the translation techniques which are oriented to source language and the translation techniques which are oriented to target language. Some techniques which are oriented to source language are literal, pure borrowing, calque and natural borrowing. Meanwhile the translation tec.hniques which are oriented to target language areamplification, modulation, transposition, reduction, established equivalent, description, particularization and adaptation. The applying of those translation technique are solutions in order to overcome translation trouble which are recomended because they are potential in creating translation quality that refer to accuracy and clarity which is suitable to the principle of target language. REFERENCES Baker, M. 1992. In other Word: a Course Book on Trmlslation. London: Routledge. Baker, C. (2000). A Parents' and teachers' guide to bilingualism. second edition. Clevedon. Boston. Toronto. Sydney: Multilingual matters Ltd Hoed, Benny H.. 1992. Kala dalam Novel, Fungsi dan Penerjemahannya. Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press

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Molina, L. and Albir, A.H..2002. TrmlSlation Tedmiques Revisited: A Dynamic lmd Functionalist Approach dalam Meta: Journal des TrailucteurslMeta: Translators' JoumaL XLVIL No.4 hal. 498-512 Sjjalahi, R. Teks Medis dalam bahasa Indonesia. 2012. Medan : Bartong laya Shuttleworth, Mark & Moira Cowie. 1998. Dictionary of Translation Studies. Manchester UK: S1. Jerome Publishing. Internet: Artikel PeneIjemah (Tentang Penerjemah) oleh:_Benny H Hoed Tersedia: http://penerjemah.setneg.go.id lurnalPendidikan Penabur - No.09/Tahun ke-6lDesember 2007. Tersedia: www.bpkpenabur.or.idi.. JHaL 1-12%20Kemampu... Molina, L. and Albir, A.H..2002. "Translation Tedmiques Revisited: A Dynamic and Functionalist Approach" dalam Meta: Journal des Trailuctew'sIMeta: Translators' Joumal XLVIL No.4 hal. 498-512. tersedia: http://id.erudit.orgfideruditJ008033ar.pdf pada tanggal17 Maret 2013.

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