GIS Activities in Problem Solving Environment Empowering Human Activities
Take to Action Complex Data Modeling
. . . Application of this science is multi-disciplinary
Major Components of GIS and Role of open source s/w Data Creations Vector, Raster & attribute
Data organizations & Management
Complete GIS Solutions
Data query, processing, analysis and modeling
Data presentations and visualizations
Data sharing and disseminations
Tools and technologies • OpenLayer API • Mapfish, • Geoeditor, • Geexplorer
• Quantum GIS • Open Jump • SAGA, MapWindow GIS
• GRASS • OSIM • SAGA
• Geonetwork Catalogue Server
• Gpsbabel • Gpsdrive
GIS Servers • Osgeo MapServer • Geoserver
GIS s/w developme nt
• GDAL/OGR • Geotool • OpenLayer API
• POSTGIS+ POSTGRESQL • TerrLib
What is open source? Open source software is software where the source code is made available under a license that allows the modification, and re re--distribution of the software at will will.. The distribution terms of open open--source software must comply with the following criteria:: criteria
Free redistribution redistribution;; Source code code;; Derived works works;; Integrity of the author's source code code;; No discrimination against persons or groups groups;; No discrimination against fields of endeavor endeavor;; Distribution of license license;; License must not be specific to a product product;; License must not restrict other software software;; License must be technology technology--neutral neutral..
What is open source? 1. Free Redistribution The license shall not restrict any party from selling or giving away the software as a component of an aggregate software distribution containing programs from several different sources. The license shall not require a royalty or other fee for such sale. 2. Source Code The program must include source code, and must allow distribution in source code as well as compiled form. Where some form of a product is not distributed with source code, there must be a well-publicized means of obtaining the source code for no more than a reasonable reproduction cost preferably, downloading via the Internet without charge. 3. Derived Works The license must allow modifications and derived works, and must allow them to be distributed under the same terms as the license of the original software. 4. Integrity of The Author's Source Code The license may restrict source-code from being distributed in modified form only if the license allows the distribution of "patch files" with the source code for the purpose of modifying the program at build time. The license must explicitly permit distribution of software built from modified source code. The license may require derived works to carry a different name or version number from the original software. 5. No Discrimination Against Persons or Groups The license must not discriminate against any person or group of persons.
What is open source? 6. No Discrimination Against Fields of Endeavor The license must not restrict anyone from making use of the program in a specific field of endeavor. For example, it may not restrict the program from being used in a business, or from being used for genetic research. 7. Distribution of License The rights attached to the program must apply to all to whom the program is redistributed without the need for execution of an additional license by those parties. 8. License Must Not Be Specific to a Product The rights attached to the program must not depend on the program's being part of a particular software distribution. If the program is extracted from that distribution and used or distributed within the terms of the program's license, all parties to whom the program is redistributed should have the same rights as those that are granted in conjunction with the original software distribution. 9. License Must Not Restrict Other Software The license must not place restrictions on other software that is distributed along with the licensed software. For example, the license must not insist that all other programs distributed on the same medium must be open-source software.
10. License Must Be Technology-Neutral No provision of the license may be predicated on any individual technology or style of interface.
OGC – Open Geospatial Consortium • International Standards organisation working towards the development of publicly available interface standards. • Founded in 1994 • Four Operational Programs • • • •
Standards Programs Interoperability Programs Communication and Outreach Program Compliance Program
OGC – Open Geospatial Consortium • Standards Programs
• Rules and guidelines, aimed at the optimum interoperability • 46 OGC standards at present including WMS, KML, City GML, Open LS etc.
WFS, WCS, GML,
• Interoperability Programs
• Capability – common set of business procedure, read and write same file format, using same protocols • 85 initiatives to speed up the development and usage of interoperability concepts
• Communication and Outreach Program
• Adoption, Implementation of OGC standards, Development and supporting regional and sectoral programmes.
• Compliance Program
• Free web testing facility to certificate and lively harmonisation of a lively group of developers.
What is web service? A 'Web service' (also Web Service) is defined by the W3C as "a software system designed to support interoperable machine-to-machine interaction over a network". Web services allows us to build a highly distributed infrastructure. Each web services can be dedicated to a specific task. The web service concept defines the relationships between the three major actions in geo-spatial data access: Service providers who publish services; Service requestor who search and use services; The service registry that matches the request with the existing services.
The Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a general-purpose specification for creating custom markup languages. It is classified as an extensible language because it allows its users to define their own elements. Its primary purpose is to facilitate the sharing of structured data across different information systems, particularly via the Internet, and it is used both to encode documents and to serialize data. It started as a simplified subset of the Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML), and is designed to be relatively human-legible. By adding semantic constraints, application languages can be implemented in XML. These include XHTML, MathML, GraphML, Scalable Vector Graphics, MusicXML, and thousands of others. Moreover, XML is sometimes used as the specification language for such application languages. XML is recommended by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). It is a fee-free open standard. The recommendation specifies both the lexical grammar and the requirements for parsing.
OGC Web Services (OWS) Initiatives • OGC has started a series of interoperability initiatives since 1999.
• The purpose of those initiatives is to develop a set of draft interoperability specifications for considering as official OGC specifications. – Web feature services specification (WFS)
– Web coverage services specification (WCS) – Web map services specification (WMS) – Web registries services specification (WRS)
Web Coverage Services (WCS) Specification • OGC Web Coverage Services Specification defines the interfaces between web-based clients and servers for accessing on-line multidimensional geospatial data in an interoperable way.
– For raster(grid) data and multi-dimensional remote sensing imagery (e.g., multiple bands, time-series, etc)
Get Capabilities Describe Coverage Get Coverage
Web Feature Services (WFS) Specifications •
OGC Web Feature Services Specification defines the interfaces between web-based clients and servers for accessing feature-based geosptial data (basic,Xlink,Transaction)
– Vector data, such as road network, political boundary, cadastral data, river, coastal lines, etc.
Get Capabilities Describe Feature Type Get Feature
Get GML object Transaction LockFeature
Web Map Services Specification • WMS, which filters and portrays spatial data to return static maps (rendered as pictures by the server). (Basic,Queryable) • It is one of the most widely implemented OGC specifications. Get capabilities Get map Get featureinfo
Web Catalogue Services Specification (CSW) • •
Web Registries Services Specification defines the interfaces between web-based clients and servers for finding the required data or services from the registries. Originally, the WRS was called Catalog Interoperability Specification (State-less).
Geo-Information System- Simple Architecture External and Internal data
Data Management Spatial & Non-spatial data
Model Management Spatial model & Non-spatial model
Dialog Management Attribute base query and report Spatial query and spatial output
What is Web GIS ? The integration of GIS and Internet technologies is allowing GIS professionals to solve one of the most important problems inhibiting information utility: How to provide access to information and data without burdening end users with complicated and expensive software. Internet is a perfect means of GIS data accessing, analyzing and transmission. The World Wide Web, FTP (file transfer protocol) and HTTP programs make it convenient to access and transfer data files across the Internet. The Internet provides GIS users easy access to acquire GIS data from diverse data source in distributed environment. GIS users can use and download the data by sending the request through web browser application.
Internet/ Web Environment Internet Protocols : e-mail (Simple Mail Transport Protocol or SMTP), Telnet (Facilitates login to a computer host to execute commands) Usenet (Network News Transfer Protocol or NNTP (Distributes Usenet news articles derived from topical discussions on newsgroups) News. FTP (File Transfer Protocol) is another important protocol in web environment. This network protocol is both a program and the method used to transfer files between computers. In addition to these, the World Wide Web has its own protocol: Hypertext Transfer Protocol, or HTTP. The Internet uses the Hypertext Transfer protocol (HTTP) to communicate queries and response across the Internet. HTTP is the clientserver protocol; it takes request from client and transmits the request to web server, which then sends back its response.
Web GIS Can Do… The World Wide Web is fast becoming a standard platform for Geographic Information System (GIS). It is a means for GIS users to exchange GIS data, conduct GIS analysis and present GIS output in the form of maps. Internet has facilitated three major changes in GIS:
Access to data; Transmission of data; and GIS Data analysis.
The Internet GIS applications provide all or almost all functionalities of traditional GIS software. In addition, it has additional functions that take advantage of the Internet and its associated protocols. The user of Internet GIS application can use traditional GIS tools for analyzing their data without having any specific GIS software
Components of Web GIS A client/server application has three components: •
Network . The client sends a request to the server, which processes the request and returns the result to the client, the client then manipulates the data and/or results and presents to the user. Internet GIS applies the client/server concept in performing GIS analysis tasks.
Web GIS- Basic Properties Web GIS technology is dynamic, for example, once any client (s) or database administrator updates the data or information at server end, it will available for all the clients on web at the same time. The Internet GIS can also link with real time information, such as satellite images, traffic movements and accident information by real time connection with the relevant information sources. The applications developed are cross-platform and accessible through any web browser. The Internet GIS applications can categorize into two major categories i.e. server-side applications and client-side applications. Server-side applications rely on GIS server (usually reside on a remote server) to perform all GIS analysis, while client-side applications perform GIS analysis and processing in the Web browser on the user’s local machine.
BHUVAN – Indian Geo-Platform of ISRO Visualization (30 TB) and Free Download (110 GB)
Maps & OGC Services (~7000+)
Crowd Sourcing (23 M)
State Portals (30)
Bhuvan : Indian GeoGeo-Platform of ISRO Bhuvan (Sanskrit for Earth) is a Geoportal of ISRO (http://bhuvan.nrsc.gov.in), allowing host of services covering visualization, free data download, thematic map display and analysis, timely information on disaster and project specific GIS applications since August 2009, developed using Open source Geospatial Solutions OpenLayers, MapServer, GeoServer, PostgreSQL, POSTGIS, GDAL/OGR. Name Bhuvan 2D / 3D
Description Data Availability Allows visualization with pan, zoom, place Resourcesat-1– AWiFS, LISS III & LISS IV, name search, overlays and online editing Cartosat 1 & 2 – PAN (merged with LISS IV), Oceansat – 1&2 - OCM
NRSC Open EO Data Allows download of free satellite data and Resourcesat-1: AWiFS Ortho and LISS III Ortho, Archive products of specified period and resolution IMS-1: HySI, CartoDEM, Oceansat-2:OCM2: NDVI(LAC, GAC), VF and Albedo, Water bodies Fraction, Tropical Cyclone Heat Potential, Ocean Heat Content, D 26, Wind Products. Thematic Services To display or analyze using WMS / WMTS Thematic Maps of 1:10000, 1:50000, 1:250000 – (OGC web Services) Landuse/Landcover, Wasteland, Geomorphology, Lineament, Urban Landuse, Urban Sprawl, Erosion, Salt Affected and Water Logged Area, Water bodies. Disaster Services To provide timely information on various Drought, Earthquake, Flood, Forest Fire, Landslide disasters for better decision making and Cyclone. Data Support for International Disasters. Projects
To provide platform to create, visualize, share, Municipal GIS, Tourism GIS, Forestry, Irrigation, analyze Geospatial data products and services Agriculture, Urban, E-governance, Rural etc towards Spatial Mashups
NRSC Open EO Data Archive Since Sep 2011 Geophysical Product
Cartosat-1 : DEM (All versions) IMS-1 : Hyper Spectral Imager
1 arc Sec (~ 32 m) Spectral Binned Data (17 bands)
LAC- 2011(Monthly), From 2012 (Fortnight) NDVI-GAC-2013 (Monthly), From 2013 Nov (2-Day Repeativity) TCHP: 1998 to till date OHC, D26: Jul-2013 to till date, Wind Stress, Wind Stress Curl, Wind Velocity-Sep2013 to till date MM5,WRF:2004 to2013
GAC- World North Indian Ocean (30S – 30N; 30-120E) India(0- 40N; 60-100E) India
2004- 2013(39Months) From Jan-2014 (Fortnight) From March-2014 (Fortnight)
From Jan 2015 to Feb 2015
No. of downloads 32273 84909 96350 119366 168748 123576 625222
16000 14000 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0
“OGC Web Services (WMS, WMTS) towards interoperability” Bhuvan-Thematic Services facilitate the users to select, browse and query the Thematic Datasets from this portal. Users can also consume these Thematic Datasets and integrate into their systems as ‘OGC Web Services’.
Land Use Land Cover -50 K (2005-06, 2011-12)
Land Use Land Cover -250 K (10 Cycles : 2004-05 to 2013-14)
Land Use Land Cover – 10 K (SIS-DP)
Urban Land Use: 10K (NUIS)
Wasteland: 50K (2008-09)
Geomorphology:50K (2005-06) & Lineament: 50K
Erosion :50K (2005-06)
Salt Affected and Water Logged Area :50K (2005-06)
Flood Annual Layers (1998 to 2010) – Assam & Bihar
Landslide • Inventory • Hazard Zone • Landslide Early Warning System Earthquake • Recent Seismicity • Historic Seismicity Cyclone
Indian Forest Fire Response and Assessment System (INFFRAS) Updated on daily basis (Day and Night) during Feb to June.
Web GIS – 2D, 3D view, Time series, Add Content, Geo-location, Navigation, Reverse geocoding, Mobile compatibility etc. – Online Mapping – Dynamic Maps : Choropleth Maps – Decision Support Dashboard – Evaluation water supply pipeline grid using GIS
Bhuvan-ASI Site Suitability Analysis
Location Based Services – Citizen centric Application : Locate post offices, services, pin code search – Election GIS : Polling booth location, Basic Minimum Facilities, Vehicle Trackin – Geotagging of Assets – MGNREGA, IWMP, Vellammal Engg College, Housing for All Madurai – Geoprocessing for monument Authority of India
Post office search
MGNREGA Rural Connectivity
• Central – Delta Information System
DECCMA India – Indian Deltas
– Department of Posts
Postal Delivery Zone Map creation, 2 tier moderation, statistics, Responsive Web Design. ‘crop, price and mandi location’ details with admin – state, dist and taluk
• 3 crore assets, web services, lakhs of users, NIC, Geotagging, reports
– Flood Early Warning System – Mahanadi, GodavariCitizen Centric - Post • Run off, Inundation, Hydrograph MGNREGA
– Light House Geotagging : Min of Shipping • 2 Level moderation
– Forest Fire Alert System • SMS and Email on SNPP (375 and 750)
– Island Information System
Island Information System
• WAMSI– WAQF property details along with photos • Housing For All – Web Services, Geotagging, Analysis, 2 level • National Monument Authority – Online Geoprocessing
• Bhuvan – NABARD • Provision to edit, Cadastral, Microwatershed, Field Photo
• PRAGATI – PMO Project Monitoring
– Health GIS • Vector Borne Diseases, Public Health facilities
– CPCB • Air Quality Station
– – – –
Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana Soil Health Card Group of Ministry – IPU Clean Ganga • Ghat progress, CPCB & CWS data visualization
– Ministry of Social Justice • SC/ST Census Viewer for 110 Villages
– NTPC • option to view plantation layer boundary, filed data and moderation
Central Pollution Control Board
– Telangana Water Resources Information System (TWRIS) Visualisation - 39000+ Tanks, Major & Medium Command Projects , Canal Networks,
Lift Irrigation Schemes, Dams, Barrage/Weir/Anicut, Mapper Tools for Tanks and Ayacut Boundary delineation, Moderation, Statistics Cropping Pattern & statistics and Hydromet Info – AWS & Ground Water Level trends – Telangana Revenue Department : Land Administration Land Info linked with LeaseDeedId, stats
– HP Forest Department (v2) Forest Fire alert Management layers
– Punjab – Health GIS – Telangana - Haritha Haram – Anganwadi Mapaping – AP – Kerala PWD Citizen reporting (2 Way)
– Election GIS – Tamil Nadu Election 2016 Vehicle Tracking
– Citizen Centric application – NTR Vaidya Seva and Drugs
– APSHCL – Phase II on repair works – Mahabubnagar GIS, Krishnagiri GIS – Punjab Election – 2017 • Public Utilities and Emergency (108 Ambulance)
– MH Water Resources Management Support Citizen Centric – Health GIS
Hot Weather Outlook •
• • •
The hot weather outlook product gives the likelihood of occurrence of hot weather conditions which are estimated from daily maximum heat index obtained from ISRO and IMD Automated Weather Station (AWS) data Slider selection for Day wise Hot Weather Outlook State, District, Taluk selection for finer Grid view Data Available for Visualization – – – – – – – – – –
Administrative layers Heat Index Adjusted Heat Index NDVI OLR Maximum Temperature Anomaly data(Current) Maximum Temperature Anomaly data(Forecast+24hrs) Hot Weather Outlook Maximum Temperature data(Current) Maximum Temperature data(Forecast+24hrs)
Hot Weather Statistics Table view representing Grid points classification – State wise – District wise – Taluk – Day selection
Geotagging of RKVY Assets for 18 Sectors Sector, State, District wise Visualization Project Year selection and filtering Role based access for the Modules (3 Levels of Users) 1. Administrator 2. Data Provider Citizen View 2 Level Moderation – District Sector Officer – State Sector Officer Sector wise Statistics Geotagged more than 2000 Assets
Department of Post “Administrator view having 36 State level logins and Citizen having option to view, search and Pincode information system”
Spatial Visualization of Geo-tagged post offices based in the filters provided Moderation by Department of Post officials Search Post offices / Proximity by Location name, Filter by Services provided Pincode – Pincode information system with Details of services offered
Slide 37 a1
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Bhuvan-Bhujal: Ground Water Prospects Information System
“Geological parameters: Lithology (rock type), Geomorphology (landform), Geological structures (fractures/faults) and Ground water prospects (Authorized users): Probable Depth and yield range of wells” http://bhuvan-noeda.nrsc.gov.in/projects/gwis/
Slide 38 a2
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Integrated Watershed Management Programme (IWMP) Application facilitating the consolidated view of the Watersheds along with all supported datasets aimed at planners and general public. • • • • • • •
Hierarchical Watershed Select Mechanism Visualization of Watershed datasets Action Plan, Cadastral Boundary, Administrative Layers etc. Time series satellite data for monitoring the progress. Year-wise IWMP Watersheds, Net Plan Visualization. Customized Bhuvan Mapper for IWMP Users Admin, Data Provider, Guest views. Reports of Watersheds State/District/Year-wise.
“Monitoring and Evaluation”
WebGIS Services : Applications on Bhuvan
Accelerated Irrigation Benefit Program (AIBP) Bhuvan – AIBP Portal: Facilitates Visualization of Irrigation projects carried under 2 Phases Phase-III: Ongoing Datasets Available for Visualization: Canal Networks, Canal Boundaries, Hydraulic Structures
Monitoring the Canal progress on Bhuvan Phase-III: This module is for the Ongoing projects facilitating CWC officials for the Online monitoring through Satellite data and Digitization Tools available. http://bhuvan3.nrsc.gov.in/applications/aibp/aibphome/aibp.html
Forestry : Karnataka Forest “Joint effort of KFD and ISRO towards developing a geospatial query system resulting a enterprise image server(EIS) working as a virtual GIS laboratory providing organization wide access to spatial data including high resolution imagery and GIS tools with an emphasis on analysis, processing of spatial data”
Status of Forest Karnataka Landuse
Forest fire locations Forest Fire regimes
Karnataka forest regularly Shares Geospatial data on Forest Management and the field info
Bhuvan regularly update the portal for providing online info and decision making
“Know Your Forest, Active Fire Mapper, Asset Management, Change Monitoring, Greening India, Wild Life, My layers”
Tourism GIS and Heritage site
Top Destinations Hotels and Stay Food Hubs Tourist spots Heritage walk Services Travel- Find Route Commercial
School Bhuvan An e-learning portal for the students A portal providing map based learning to bring awareness among the students about country's natural resources, environment and their role in sustainable development.
Salient Features • Visualization of 9Th ,10th class maps of various categories ( Agriculture, Water, Soil, Mineral etc) based on NCERT syllabus • Provision to swipe the layers to know the ground reality • Provision to take print the maps in PDF format Future Plans • Online Interactive quiz for both practice and exam • On click Feature information
150 Location ; 9 Categories - “Autonomous Body, Centre of Excellence, ENVIS Centre, Focal
Point, Institute/Stat. Body/Regd. Society, Ministry, Public Sector Undertaking, Regional Office, Subordinate Office” http://bhuvan-noeda.nrsc.gov.in/projects/moef/cris.php
Bhuvan – Ganga Portal
“Platform for crowd sourcing to monitor pollution in river Ganga and enable decision makers to prioritize interventions by enabling public to collect and report information on various pollution sources that affects the water quality of river Ganga” http://bhuvan.nrsc.gov.in/projects/ganga/
State Portals – 30 States A customized state viewer for the state of Andhra
Pradesh having various Natural Resources, Disaster information besides Admin layers and Socioeconomic details Dynamic custom print with active layers and legend Add Layer: KML, Raster, Shapefile, WMS Tools: Draw, Measure, AOI, WMS-Manager,
Analysis, Search, Custom Print.
Looking for the volunteers in the areas of • • • •
Language Data providers Validation Developers etc
If you wish to collaborate with Bhuvan, please feel free to write to us