hatched later turned Royal Palm yellowish white with

A new serious and very damaging pest of coconut and ... Call, write or visit: The Crop Protection Division Davao Research Center Philippine Coconut Au...

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SIGNIFICANCE A new serious and very damaging pest of coconut and ornamental palm Destroy the developing and unopened spear leaves where they feed on leaf tissues Severe attacks can lead to complete defoliation, affecting photosynthetic activities of the palm, thus resulting to a reduction in yield

Larva

NATURE AND EXTENT OF DAMAGE

Pupa

Larvae and adults are destructive They shun light Gnaw long incisions in the tissues of the unopened leaf of coconut Parallel to one another and to the veins of leaflets

ALTERNATE HOSTS

Whitish when newly hatched later turned yellowish white with prominent caliper-like hooks at the hind end. 8-10 mm long, 2 mm wide

Other ornamental palms species Royal Palm

Limited movement, found in between surface of leaflet. 9-10 mm long; 2 mm wide

Adults Velvet Palm

Leaving longitudinal white streaks Incisions close to one another Burnt appearance at a distance Photosynthesis reduced

Two colored, orange/ brown thorax and brown to dark elytra Nocturnal Found in unopened leaflet 120 eggs on the average 7.5-10 mm long, 1.5-2 mm wide

Pygmy Date Palm

CONTROL MEASURES A.

Biological Control  Naturally occurring biological control agents 1) Parasitoids

DESCRIPTION OF LIFE STAGES Egg Flat, surrounded by debris and excrement, laid in rows of 2 to 4 (sometimes singly) 1.4 mm long, 0.5 mm wide

c

a

b

d

b Tetrastichus sp. Wasps attack larvae (a), pupae (b), and eggs (c & d) of the Brontispa longissima

2) Entomopathogens (Fungus)

D.

Infect larvae, pupae and adult of Brontispa

a

Chemical Spraying Chemical spraying may be done on a case to case basis (feasible only in nursery seedlings and young plantings) but not compulsory especially when the biological control agents are numerous enough to minimize pest population. This may not be feasible on tall palms.

b

CPD TECHNOGUIDE NO. 13 Series of 2010

THE COCONUT LEAF BEETLE Brontispa longissima Gestro

(a) white muscardine fungus (b) green muscardine fungus 3) Predator (Earwig) Preys on larvae of Brontispa

Chelisoches morio

B.

Mechanical Control Prune infested leaves and destroy beetles especially in nursery seedlings and young plantings

C.

Cultural Control Plant covercrops, other leguminous crops and banana under coconut to enhance population of parasitoids and predators (earwig) as they feed on nectars of these crops

Fig. 1.

A pyramid where biological control is the foundation of the Integrated Pest Management Program for Brontispa longissima

FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION: Call, write or visit: The Crop Protection Division Davao Research Center Philippine Coconut Authority Bago-Oshiro, Tugbok District, Davao City Tel. No. (082) 293-0115 Fax No. (o82) 293-0571 E-mail : [email protected] [email protected]

Crop Protection Division Davao Research Center Agricultural Research, Development & Extension Branch Philippine Coconut Authority Bago-Oshiro, Davao City