IC 221 Industrial Inorganic Chemistry Introduction to Inorganic Industries and Raw Materials
Nattapol LAORODPHAN 4th Floor, Chulabhorn Building
Contents ((3 hours)) 1. Introduction to inorganic industries - Industrial chemistry and chemical engineering - Inorganic I i iindustries d ti
2. Introduction to industrial inorganic Chemistry - Application of Inorganic chemistry principle to the industries e.g. examples of metal and ceramic industries.
3. Inorganic Raw Materials - Examples of raw materials in inorganic industries
1.1 Industrial Chemistry / Chemical Engineering / Chemical Engineer g
Industrial chemistry : inorganic (all elements ) and organic chemistry (carbon + a few others) Inorganic products, e.g. sulphur, phosphates, mineral salts, metal oxides and inorganic g ores.
1.2 Inorganic Industries 1.2.1 Types or inorganic chemical industries: 1) Large Volume Inorganic Chemicals – Solids and Others (LVIC-S) 2) Chlor-alkali (CAK), (CAK) 3) Large Volume Inorganic Chemicals – Ammonia, Acids and Fertilisers (LVIC-AAF) 4) Specialty Inorganic Chemicals (SIC) industries 1.2.2 Other inorganic g industries e.g. g Metallic industries, Metal coating or plating, Ceramics and Glasses, Cement, Enamel, Electronics, etc.
Large Volume Inorganic Chemicals – Solids and Others ((LVIC-S)) involves - Basic inorganic chemical e.g. salts (ammonium chloride, potassium chlorate, chlorate potassium carbonate carbonate, sodium carbonate, perborate, silver nitrate) or non-metals, metal oxides or other inorganic compounds (calcium carbide, silicon, ili silicon ili carbide). bid ) - food and feed phosphates, e.g. inorganic phosphates, detergent g phosphates p p - iron oxide and chorosulphate - sodium hydrogen sulphite and sodium thiosulphate - potassium chlorate - sodium sulphide - And a lot more …..
1.3 Examples of processes used in inorganic chemical industries - Soda ash and Sodium bicarbonate
- Titanium Oxide
-Synthetic amorphous silica
1.4 Examples of Unit operation used
1.4 Examples of Unit operation used (cont.)
These four units are commonly used in inorganic chemical industries. 1.4.1 Sedimentation
1.4.4 size reduction
2.1 What’s inorganic chemistry? If organic chemistry is a chemistry of “hydrocarbon” “Inorganic Chemistry” is then a chemistry of everything else. Including organometallic chemistry, catalysis in organic reaction, bioinorganic, etc. Almost limitless field.
2.2 What are in the general inorganic chem. eg e.g.
1) Atomic Structure 2) Bond Theory 3) Symmetry and Group Theory 4) Crystalline Solid State 5) Acid Base 6) Oxidation Reduction 7) Coordination Chemistry 8) Organometallic 9) etc.
How this relates to the industrial?
2.3 Contrast / Comparison -Bonding g
single double and triple covalent bonds are found in both
Direct metal‐metal bond
Carbon : C has 6 electrons [He] 2s2 2p2 Thus when bonding only s- and p-orbitals are involved. This occurs in only hydrocarbon compounds, but in inorganic or organometallic compounds the delta bond are formed instead due to the involvement of d-orbital. Delta bond is a quadruply bond containing 1 sigma and 2 pi.
-Coordination Number and Geometry C Consider id :
-What are coordination number and geometry? organic – usually coordination number = 4 (e.g. for C in CH4). Inorganic g – higher g coordination number is frequently q y found – e.g. [TiF6]3- where the coordination number = 6.
For geometry of compounds, In case of CN CN=4 4 only square planar and tetrahedral are found in organic. other geometries are also found, found e.g. eg octadral (CN=6). Carbon is not only involved in organic maerials, it is also found in organometallic compounds. Even molecules that contains only C, e.g. diamond, graphite and C60, are “inorganic”.
2.4 Distribution of elements on earth
Sometimes the minerals have been classified by the solubility in 1) water and 2) magma. Goldschmidt classified the periodic table as Lithophile (Rock-loving elements) Sidrophile (Iron-loving elements) Chalocophile Ch l hil (Sulfur-loving (S lf l i elements l t ) Atmosphile (Gas-loving elements)
2.5 Examples of Processes in an industry. e.g. 1) Industrial Carbon : Carbon black, Activated carbon, Graphite and diamonds. 2) Ceramic, Cement and Glass Industry. 3) Salt and sodium compounds : S di Sodium Chl Chloride, id sodium di sulfate, lf t sodium peroxide, etc. 4) Soda Ash, Ash Caustic Soda, Soda etc. etc 5) Others
Raw M R Materials t i l -e.g. Clay, feldspar and sand structure of raw materials Firing Process - Solid-state reaction, solid-liquid interaction, crystallisation, etc.
Glaze, Pigment, Stain, colour-glass
Iron smelting process
Group Essay (2-3 people) 3% Describe the ways “Inorganic Chemistry” y involved in an “Industry”. - explain p the process p of the selected factory. p how the inorganic g chemistry y - explain takes part in each unit in the selected factory. ** about 10 pages 2 give the references yyou used at the end of the ** g essay.