International Journal of Research

The Enigma of Existential and Metaphysical Pain in Paulo Coelho's Veronica Decides to Die and Aleph 22. 82-84 Preeti Vaswani 24...

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Volume 4 (2): Jan-Jun 2015

ISSN 2231 - 6124

International Journal of Research A Blind Peer Reviewed Biannual Journal

DR. M. Z. FAROOQUI EDITOR IN CHIEF

International Journal of Research Published under the aegis of

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For any query / Information, please contact The Principal, Rizvi Education Society's Rizvi College of Arts, Science & Commerce Off. Carter Road, Bandra (W), Mumbai - 400 050, India Phone : +91-22-2648 0348,+91-22-2604 1696, +91-9819825929 Fax : +91-22-2649 7448 E-mail : [email protected], [email protected] Website: http:\\www.rizvicollege.edu.in

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RESEARCH Chief Patron Dr. Akhtar Hasan Rizvi (President– Rizvi Education Society)

Editor in Chief Dr. M.Z. Farooqui, Principal Rizvi Education Society’s Rizvi College of Arts, Science & Commerce, Off: Carter Road, Bandra (W), Mumbai – 400050, Maharashtra, India Email id: [email protected]

Executive Editor Dr. (Mrs.) Anjum Ara Ahmad , Vice Principal & Associate Professor, Email id: [email protected]

Editorial Board Dr. A.M. Bhagwat, Former Director, Shri C. B. Patel Research Centre, Mumbai Dr. Aqil Ahmed, Professor, Lucknow University, UP Prof. Furqan Qamar, Vice Chancellor Central Univ. of Himachal Pradesh, HP Dr. G.Y.Shitole, Principal, S.N.D.T. Arts and Commerce College of Women, Pune Dr G. V. Bhavani Prasad, Professor, Kakatiya University, Warangal, Andhra Pradesh Dr. Kiran Mangaonkar, Principal , Guru Nanak Khalsa College (Univ. of Mumbai), Mumbai. Dr. M.B. Bhide, Director, State Ins for Administrative Careers Mumbai. Dr. Paras Jain. M.D. College (Univ. of Mumbai), Mumbai. Dr. Rafat Hussain Rizvi, Senior Scientist, Washington, U.S.A. Dr. Sabir Ali Siddiqui, Dhofar University, Sultanate of Oman. Dr. Shakeel Ahmed, Vice Principal, Poona College (Univ. Of Pune), Pune CA. Kiran Rege, Chief Mentor, Dr Baba Saheb Ambedkar Institute, Wadala, Mumbai. Mr R. Prabakaran, Scientific Officer (D), TIFR, Mumbai. Mrs. Sheila Master, Administrative Consultant, Sophia College (University Of Mumbai), Mumbai. Dr Syed Iqbal, Former Head of Department, Burhani College, Mumbai Dr. Sanjay Kaptan, Professor and Head, University of Pune, Pune, Maharashtra Dr. Rafia Shabnum Abedi, Former HOD, Maharashtra College, Mumbai

Dr. Abbas A. Rangwala, Faculty, Dept. of Physics, University of Mumbai, Mumbai Dr. Chandrahauns R. Chavan, JBIMS, University of Mumbai, Mumbai. Dr. Gajendra K. Vishwakarma Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad, Jharkhand Dr. G. K. Kalkoti, HOD, Economics, Nagindas Khandwala College (Univ .of Mumbai), Mumbai. Dr. (Smt) S. Indumati, Vice Chancellor, Davangere University, Karnataka University, Karnataka Dr. Mohd Ali Akbar Khan, Dean, Faculty of Commerce, Osmania University, Hyberabad Prof. (Dr.) Pranjal Bezborah, Dean of School of Commerce & Management Science, Dibrugarh Univ, Assam. Prof. Prabir Burman University of California, Davis. Dr. Sachin S. Vernekar, Dean & Director, BVIMR University, IMED, Pune. Dr. Sayed Hasan Tahir, Scientist, California, U.S.A. Dr. Kumar Pankaj, Director of Arts Faculty, BHU, UP. Dr. Michael Rajamathi, Department of Chemistry, St. Joseph's College, Bangalore. Mrs Masarrat Saheb Ali Govt. of Maharashtra`s S. T. College, Mumbai. Dr. Syed Hasan Mahmud Former Professor-Director, UGC-Academic Staff College, Jamia Millia Islamia Univ., New Delhi. Dr. Rakesh Kumar, Scientist and Head, Mumbai Zonal Center, NEERI, Mumbai. Dr. Shaikh Mehmood, Principal, A.P. College (University Of Mumbai), Mumbai. Dr. M. K. Singh, Director, MBA, Vinoba Bhave University, Hazaribag, Jharkhand.

Message from the Patron A proper 'Teaching Learning Process' is a passport to a good, comfortable and secure life. This process is transmitted through commitments and sharing of the Teacher-Pupil relationship. Education is not merely imparting knowledge in a particular faculty or subject. Education should be training in pragmatic and logical thinking and should help the coming generations adjust to the available environment. Education should make the student community think and become worldly wise. Today, there is a strong feeling that the education imparted at the college level does not match the needs and expectations of the employment sector. Therefore, there is need for a comprehensive programme for college improvement. The college improvement programme is based solely on the efforts of management, principal, teaching, non-teaching staff and students. But the present scenario indicates that the rigidity in the process of planning and its implementation has reflected very badly on the Indian Education system. In view of the ever increasing number of colleges, and the ever increasing student populace, the problem of providing students with quality education has assumed a serious dimension. Until and unless there are sufficient infrastructures and the best teaching –learning facilities in every corner of the country, the aim and objectives of higher education are sure to suffer a setback. So, the need of the hour is to build quality institutions in India. The aim and purpose of imparting education must change in response to economic and social changes. The traditional rigid approach to planning and implementing will not work anymore. To achieve these objectives, experts within and without the system are to be mobilised for working out higher education programmes. While deliberating upon the problems in the field of higher education one has to perceive the entire picture in totality. Colleges are unable to lead the students towards the fulfilment of social needs or a complete adoption of advanced technological skills. Colleges should become knowledge-based learning centres. There has to be a definite change in the attitude of students, teachers, principal as well as the management. Without adopting a humanistic approach, colleges would fail to achieve the goal; of quality in education. Therefore, it is time to rethink and revise the environment in the college campus and devise a strategy that would work towards a Quality Culture. When there is no compromise in the quality of education, change is certain and progress would be inevitable .

Dr Akhtar Hasan Rizvi President Rizvi Education Society

From the Editor's Desk It is indeed a great pleasure to present the eighth issue of IJR. With this we complete four years of our journal. This was possible only because of the meticulous joint effort taken by the Editorial Board and the members of the Journal Committee. The call for papers for the issue as usual received papers from different streams from all over India and outside India. In order to maintain the standard of the journal we adopted double blind review approach for getting the papers reviewed by our esteemed editors. We are very thankful to our editors for their support and would like to acknowledge that without their co-operation it would not have been possible to bring this issue. We also checked the plagiarism level of each paper and considered only pure original research work. The present issue covers the important domains of Accounts, Commerce, Management, Economics, Education, Home Science, Psychology, Social Sciences, Chemistry, English, Hindi and Urdu Literature. Interesting research articles like, A Study of the Perception of Placement Officer towards Campus Recruitment, A Study of Ombudsman Scheme in India – Achievements and Challenges, An Analysis of Liquidity Position of the Top Manufacturing Companies using Financial Ratio Analysis, Consumer Ethnocentrism: An Empirical Investigation, Financial Evaluation Of Public Sector Banks : An Indian Study, Impact of E-Tailing on Brick-And-Mortar Stores in Mumbai city, Industry- Academic Partnership – Employability skills?, Mutual Fund Investment from Virar City, Strengthening HRM systems for Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs): A Systematic Approach; are considered in the Section of Accounts, Commerce and Management Section. In Economics and Other Social Sciences fields like Education, Home Science, Psychology, Sociology, History and Philosophy we selected articles like Financial Inclusion – Way Forward, Growth of Cost of Production Per Farm in Post Reform Era, Reforming the International Financial Architecture - Some Indian Perspectives, Integrating Social Networking Site in Teacher Education: A Case Study, Characteristics of Same Brand (Scooped and Packed) Ice-Creams in Mumbai Ice-Cream Parlors .Neuropsychological Profile of the Patient with Head Injury: A Case Report, From Comfort to Discomfort, Re-Approaching Colonial Ideology in Shatranj Ke Khilari, ~ the Story and the Film, Stress in Nursing Staff, The Good Life –Aristotle Way, Tribal Women's Narrative in Liar's Dice In Chemistry we have an article on Synthesis of Biologically Active Schiff Bases Containing Bithiazole Moiety. Two English article; “The Enigma of Existential and Metaphysical Pain in Paulo Coelho's Veronica Decides to Die and Aleph” and “Poile Sengupta and The Theatre of Protest” has been accepted by our Editorial Board. We also selected an article of Hindi Literature “Language and Technique in the Lyrics of Kavi Pradeep” and of Urdu Literature “Sir SyedAhmed & Urdu Journalism” in this issue. We hope, the present issue will serve as an incredible document to the entrepreneurs, aspirants, policy makers, educationists as well as researchers and practitioners. Valuable feedback of readers on this issue will be highly appreciated.

Dr (Mrs.) Anjum Ara M.K. Ahmad Executive Editor

Dr. M.Z. Farooqui Editor in Chief

International Journal of Research, Vol . 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015, ISSN 2231-6124

CONTENTS COMMERCE

Pg No

1.

A Study of the Perception of Placement Officer towards Campus Recruitment G. Syamala, Rajkumari Tamphasana

1-4

2.

A Study of Ombudsman Scheme in India – Achievements and Challenges Sanjay Kaptan, Lukman Patel

5-7

3.

An Analysis of Liquidity Position of the Top Manufacturing Companies Using Financial Ratio Analysis Shehnaz Khan

8-10

4.

Consumer Ethnocentrism: An Empirical Investigation Atul Dhyani, Shivendra Singh

11-15

5.

Financial Evaluation Of Public Sector Banks : An Indian Study Sanjay Anandilal Hiran, Mahendra Sojatia

16-19

6.

Impact of E-Tailing on Brick-And-Mortar Stores in Mumbai City Sandeep Rajendra Sahu

20-23

7.

Industry- Academic Partnership – Employability skills? Chandrashekhar K. Ghogare, Shilpa C. Ghogare, T. P. Ghule

24-27

8.

Mutual Fund Investment from Virar City Varada Katle

28-30

9.

Strengthening HRM systems for Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs): A Systematic Approach Mohammad Khalil Ahmad, M.Z Farooqui

31-35

ECONOMICS 10.

Financial Inclusion – Way Forward Rajeshwari Padmanabhan

36-39

11.

Growth of Cost of Production Per Farm in Post Reform Era Rabindra Kumar Mishra

40-42

12.

Reforming the International Financial Architecture - Some Indian Perspectives Geeta Nair

43-46

EDUCATION 13.

Integrating Social Networking Site in Teacher Education: A Case Study Usha A. Borkar

47-51

HOME SCIENCE 14.

Characteristics of Same Brand (Scooped and Packed) Ice-Creams in Mumbai Ice-Cream Parlors

52-55

Saloni Salunkhe, Unnati Shah, Petra Sequeira

PSYCHOLOGY 15.

Neuropsychological Profile of the Patient with Head Injury: A Case Report Mustafa Nadeem Kirmani

56-60

SOCIAL SCIENCES 16.

From Comfort to Discomfort Vatika Sibal

61-64

17.

Re-Approaching Colonial Ideology in Shatranj Ke Khilari ~ The Story and the Film Rashmi Condra

65-67

18.

Stress in Nursing Staff Ajay Bhamare

68-71

19.

The Good Life – Aristotle Way Fenil Dedhia

72-74

20.

Depiction of Tribal Women's Narrative in Liar's Dice Md Nisaruddin

75-78

CHEMISTRY 21.

Synthesis of Biologically Active Schiff Bases Containing Bithiazole Moiety Masurkar Rajesh Manovilas

79-81

ENGLISH 22.

The Enigma of Existential and Metaphysical Pain in Paulo Coelho's Veronica Decides to Die and Aleph Preeti Vaswani

82-84

23.

Poile Sengupta and The Theatre of Protest Preeti Bambolkar

85-87

HINDI 24.

Language and Technique in the Lyrics of Kavi Pradeep Ratna Sharma

88-89

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan & Urdu Journalism Nadeem Ahmed Ansari

92-90

URDU 25.

About the College

93

General Information

94

Guidelines to the Contributors

95

Order Form

International J. Res. Vol. 4. No. 2. 1-4, Jan-Jun 2015 ISSN : 2231 - 6124

A Study of the Perception of Placement Officer towards Campus Recruitment * G.Syamala, **Rajkumari Tamphasana Abstract Campus Recruitment is one of the modes of recruitment in the present times. It is an easy way of recruiting a large number of potential employees at one single time. Recruitment process not only benefits the students but also the Institutions. Placement Officer plays an important role in organizing and conducting the whole placement procedures. The present paper highlights the views and perceptions of Placement Officers towards Campus Recruitment procedures. The present study is based on Campus Recruitment information and data collected from Placement Officers of professional colleges in Pune. Keywords: Campus interview, campus recruitment, Gender discrimination, Introduction: Campus interview is the program conducted by the representatives of the employing organization to offer jobs to students who are completing their course. It is an important platform for the students since it is an opportunities for them to get placed in the organizations. Campus recruitment is a process of searching, selecting and appointing suitable candidates for the job in the organizations. It is one of the most popular methods of recruiting talented, sound and competent employees. Placement officers play an important role in organizing, arranging and conducting campus interview. He is the one who look after the placement process. His responsibilities start from inviting various reputed companies. They invite the companies to the Institutions and also prepare the students to face the interview. Hence the role of placement officers is very important in the arrangement of campus interview. The study is very important and thus conducted to understand how the recruitment process exists in an institution. For this purpose the researchers collect the views of 50 placement officers in order to know the activities being taken up by placement officers towards campus recruitment. Although the present study focuses on Campus Recruitment activity, it has somehow reflects that whether gender discrimination exists in the recruiting policies or not. Objectives of the Study: The principle objectives of the research study are as follows: 1. To know the role of Placement Officers in Campus Recruitment. 2. To know the perception of Placement Officers towards recruitment process. Research Methodology: For the purpose of the study information is collected through structured questionnaires from Placement Officers from professional and technical institutions or colleges across disciplines such as Management, Engineering, Architecture, Hotel Management, Catering Technology and Pharmacy. The

sample size of the study is 50 Placement Officers working in these Institutions in Pune during the period of study. A method of convenience sampling is used as sampling method. The researcher used both primary data and secondary data. Ø Primary data: Primary data is original / first hand information generated from direct observation or direct contact with the respondents. It was collected from Placement Officers, who is in charge of Placement Cell, by using a structure questionnaire. Ø Secondary data: Data which are not originally collected but rather obtained from published or unpublished sources are known as secondary data. The secondary data was collected from articles and research paper and relevant websites. Literature Review: Global Perspectives on gender and work- Readings and Interpretations which is edited by Jacqueline Goodman, Rowman & Littlefied publisher's incorporation. This book gives an overall view or idea about global perspective on gender issues at work. It points out what are the various issues which create discrimination among genders. It says that structural arrangements are presumed to be responsive with such differences. The sex difference approach is more commonly attributed to psychologists that to sociologists and changes taking place in the participation of women in public life is increasing the changing the overall scenario. In the article – “ Discrimination in Recruitment: An Empirical Analysis” by Jerry M. Newman has investigate discrimination practices that could take place in recruitment, by analyzing variations in responses from different companies to uncalled resumes, sometimes equivalent and sometimes not, from pretended black and white applicants. And it was found that there is a discriminatory behavior in the organization. That means affirmative action and nondiscrimination have not yet become a part of recruitment practices of most of the companies. It also said that an affirmative action pressure may (or may not) leads to reverse

* Asst. Prof, Department of Commerce, Savitribai Phule Pune University. Email id : [email protected] ** Research Associate, Savitribai Phule Pune University. Department of Commerce

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G.Syamala & Rajkumari Tamphasana

discrimination. James D. Slack, in his article, “ Affirmative Action and City managers: Attitudes towards Recruitment of Women” , examines the attitudes of city managers towards the use of affirmative action principles and practices in the recruitment of women. And it was found that city managers support the principle of affirmative action but oppose some mechanisms to facilitate its implementation. Byrd Mcdaniel in his paper, “ The effects of gender discrimination” says that gender discrimination is seen at all fronts in the society. It is seen at school, colleges, work place and everywhere. It says that gender discrimination normally affects the person's career, his/her outlook, personal life, feeling, etc. the paper also studies the effects of gender discrimination and provides solutions for the same. ViewsAnd Perceptions Of Placement Officers: For the research study, the information was collected from 50 Placement Officers of Technical and Professional Institutions and their views and perception about gender discrimination were as follows: Majority of Placement Officers No of placement officer said that they have separate Interaction Cell, which undertaken certain activities 5 like Communicating with corporate world, Making personal visit to Industry and Yes enter into tie-up with corporate 45 No world, Arranging guest lectures and training program for Figure 1: Interaction cell

students for their overall development, Guiding the students in writing CV and skills to face the interview and so on. b) Memorandum of understanding: No of director agreed

11 39 Yes

39 respondents out of 50 said that they have M.O.U. ( M e m o r a n d u m o f Understanding) signed with industries for placement. And some of the industries with which they have signed are

Figure 2: MOU

Vijay chemicals, Raka Oil Ltd., ETH Ltd, ICICI, SK Mobi Ltd, WNS Ltd, Idea Ltd, HR Remedy, Kumar Motors and Infosys KPO. c) Employment agreement: As per the response, only 22% respondents have agreement 22% with employment consultancy/ recruitment firms to deploy their 78% Yes graduates' students. Whereas No 78% respondents say that they Figure 3: Agreement of Employment don't have such kind of agreement. This shows that recruiting agencies/ corporate conduct campus Percentage

2

placement as per their needs and requirement. d) Campus placement for the last five years: Table 1: Placement for last five years Years

No. of Male

No. of Female

2009

No. of students placed 3296

1978

1318

2010

4316

2698

1618

2011

3260

1918

1342

2012

3161

2107

1054

2013

2973

1610

1363

The above table shows information about the placement taken place in 50 institution/colleges undertaken for study over the past 5 years. The data shows that there are variations in the placement of students both in case of males and females, the number of female placed are less than that of males which is noticed every year consistently. This highlights the fact that there is discrimination amongst female and male candidates during placement. e) Course-wise Placement over the last five years: Table 2: Course-wise Placement

Course

No. of placement made Male Female

MBA BCA BBA CIVIL

1157 6 5 1206

714 4 4 762

COMPUTER E & TC MECH. IT MCA P.G.D.B.M MPM

1015 995 1439 932 960 315 45

887 739 772 733 765 185 45

Course wise place ment over the past 5 years reveals that professional institution running Mechanical Engineering have the highest placement by placing 2211 students, of which 1439 are males students and 772 are females students. Next highest is Civil Engineering where 1968 students were placed consisting of 1206 male students and 762 female students. Then comes Computer Engineering 1015 males and 887 females were placed. The lowest placements were found in courses like BBA were the number of placement students over the last 5 years was 9 consisting of 5 males and 4 females. The next professional course which had minimum placement was BCA (Bachelors in Computer Application) where 70 were males and 30 were females. But Courses like MPM (Master in Personal Management) the number of males and females placed were equal. These shows that in almost all professional courses the number of males placed were more than the number of female

International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

A Study of the perception of Placement Officer towards Campus Recruitment

placed. Only in MPM course the number of males and females were equal. f) Types of placement made in the last 5 years: Table 3: Types of placement offered Types of placement Technical Supervisory Managerial Marketing Sales

Total no of students placed 4355 2590 2798 1881 1104

Total males placed 2513 1521 1575 1320 759

Total females placed 1842 1069 1223 561 345

The various types of placement where students got placed were Technical, Supervisory, Managerial, Marketing and Sales. The highest placement was in Technical field were the number of placement over the past 5 years for the sample under study were 4355 in which 2513 male students were placed and 1482 female students were placed. Placement for sales position is the least one, where the total number of students got placed were 1104, in which 759 were males and 345 were females. In fact, when we see the data, in every type, the number of males placed was more than females placed. g) Placement of different Industries: Table 4: Types of Industries Types of industry

Manufacturing

Total no of students placed 1396

Total males placed

Total females placed

908

488

1385 2257 1237 178 112 1331 123

887 1409 727 56 71 709 88

498 848 510 122 41 622 35

Service Banking & finance Insurance Education Hospitality Marketing Any other

Placements were made by different types of industries like Manufacturing, Services, Banking & Finance, Insurance, Education, Hospitality, marketing and others. It is seen that in education alone the number of female placed are more than males where as in rest of the industries the number of males placed are more than females. h) 0rganization – wise placement over the last 5 years: Table 5: Organization-wise placement Nature of the Total Number of organization students placed

Total number of male students placed 3356

Total number of female students placed 2133

Multi National Corporation Public Ltd.

5489 139

87

52

Private Ltd. PSU’s

7087 14

4384 8

2703 6

Any other

1631

1028

603

The various organizations were placements are made are Multinational Corporation, Public Lt. Companies, Private Ltd. Companies, Public Sectors Unit, and others.

3

The number of placement for Public Sector Undertaking is the least, resulting into 14 placements over the past 5 years for the institutions/colleges under study. In which 8 were males and 6 were females. Even in different organizations like number of females placed was less than that of males. Highest placement were held in the Multinational Corporations were 5489 placement were made over the past 5 years. In which 3356 male students were placed and 2133 female students were placed. i)Placement activity: Table 6: Months in which placement activity conducted Sr. No. Month 2 Feb 6 Jun 7 July 8 Aug 9 Sept 11 Nov Total

No. of Director 1 1 29 14 3 1 50

Normally the placement activities are held in the month of November, December, Jun and July. And the principle activities of placement cell are:

v

To organized and arranging guest lectures by corporate ex p e r t , p e r s o n a l i t y d eve l o p m e n t p r o g r a m , entrepreneurship workshop. v Arranging training program for students' improvement for soft skills, interview facing skills, aptitude test preparation, and writing of CV. v Arranging for placement activities and to collect feedback from the companies coming for placement. Most of the institutions have working schedule planned for the placement cell which run throughout the year. The institution/colleges communicate to the industry about the vacancies through phone and e-mail. Students are also communicated about campus recruitment through College Web Site, Notice, mails and SMS. The placement cells also conduct some pre-placement activities like: v Giving training to students on interview skills, communication skills, etiquettes & manner. v How to make resume, build positive personality and so on. v Encourage students to take up industrial assignment. v Conducting mock GD and PI. v Taking pre-assessment test for students. Option forms are also given to the students who have to inform the placement cell about their acceptance or rejection of offer. In fact in some institutions the first three chances are given to the students and if they get selected they are not allowed to attend any more interviews organized through placement cell. The match between placement officer and students' expectation are concealed through: v The counseling session held by the placement office. v By arranging guest lectures from industry experts about the current scenario of the industry. v Conduct mock interviews of the students to be placed. Conclusion: The above study was about the Placement Officers' perception towards Campus Recruitment. Recruitment through Campus

International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

G.Syamala & Rajkumari Tamphasana

Interview is a common method for recruiting required candidates. The finding in the study state that Placement Officers plays an important role in Campus recruitment. He looks after all the campus recruitment process. The placement data reveal that the number of male students placed is more than the number of female students placed in all the years for any types of placement in any course. Thus, it shows the fact that when it comes to recruitment of males and females students, male are more preferred than female students.

· · · ·

Books: · Dr.Ravindranath Badi (2011), Human Resource Management, Himalaya Publishing House. · Lawrence .S. Kleiman,(2208), Human Resource Management, A Managerial Tool for Competitive Advantage, biztantra · R.S.Dwivedi (2009), A Textbook of human Resource Management, Vikas Publishing House. Papers: · Campus Recruiting and Interviewing, (Posted by the

4

· · ·

Editors on Jun 16, 2011), https://www.wetfeet.com /articles/campus-recruiting-and-interviewing Lucy Friend, eHow Contributor, Types of Recruitment & Selection http://www.ehow.com/about_5418581_typesrecruitment-selection.html Job discrimination against women, http://www.ehow. com/about_6716545_job-interview-discriminationagainst-women.html Jerry M. Newman, Oct 1978, Industrial and Labour relation, Cornell Universities. James D. Slack, March-April 1981, Public Adminis trative Review, Wiley Publication. Sands, Roberta G, (Nov 1 1998), Gender and the perception of diversity and intimidation among university students, Nandini Sahai, (Feb 6 2012-page 4), Gender discrimination, The Times of India. Lauretta Iberiyenari (Nov 13, 2013) Gender discrimination in the workplace? Are women sufficiently protected? http://thelawyerschronicle.com, viewed on December 2014.

International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

International J. Res. Vol. 4. No. 2. 5-7, Jan-Jun 2015 ISSN : 2231 - 6124

A Study of Ombudsman Scheme in India – Achievements and Challenges * Sanjay Kaptan, **Lukman Patel Abstract The present study deals with the concept of ombudsman and its implementation in Indian Banking industry. Today, ombudsman plays a key role in improving the quality of banking system. Banking today is a complex financial institution. It deals with a variety of customers and offers a large number of banking and financial services. The expectation and aspirations of customers are on rise and so the numbers of complaints are also on rise. In the present study the researcher has made an attempt to understand the prevailing system implemented by banking ombudsman and how the customer grievances are redressed and what are the issues associated with grievance redressal and their implications on banking services. This is a desk research for which the data is collected from RBI archives. Keywords: Ombudsman Scheme, Banking Efficient customer service is the key to success of every service industry. A true test of a service industry is customer first and customer last. Unless and until the customers are rightly and properly satisfied in terms of quality and utility the purpose of offering a service is defeated. Customer service has now become the benchmark and essential ingredient for growth and survival of service industry Banking is an important financial service. Banking institutions work for providing financial service to the people in relation to utility cost efficiency and timeliness. If a bank fails to fulfill the expectations of the customer in terms of efficiency and utility of financial service then the reason detray of its existence ceases, therefore as a service provider a banker must consider various issues related with financial services to be provided and the manner in which self service could be provided. Complaints often occur due to non satisfaction of customers expectations, Most of the customers feel that need demand and expectation related with banking services remain neglected because the prevailing system of banking operations is not effective or purpose oriented. This results in to disputes and complaints. An appropriate mechanism of redressal is essential. This itself required a more broad base and comprehensive mechanism of grievance redressal. RBI has recommended ombudsman scheme to redress this grievance and thus in 1995 ombudsman scheme became operational. Ombudsman scheme is now well established, reformed and modified considering the needs of the economy. Various social, economic and global changes are considered and the Indian Ombudsman act was altered from time to time. It is our high time to review the performance & achievements of implementation of Ombudsman scheme in India. Statement of the Problem The success of any scheme depends on its effective implementation. Unless and until the scheme is properly and efficiently implemented, its objective cannot be rightly achieved. From this point of view it-becomes essential to

evaluate the performance of ombudsman scheme implemented by RBI. Hence the title of the present paper is “A study of Ombudsman scheme in India – Achievements and Challenges” Purpose of writing the paper The present study is conducted with the following objectives 1. To assess the performance of ombudsman scheme in terms of grievance redressal 2. To examine the effectiveness in implementation of the scheme 3. To assess the kind of complaints addressed 4. To justify the role of ombudsman scheme. Review of Literature. Myladri and Sirisha(2011) in their research revealed that banking ombudsman is a boon for the customers to redress their complaints, ombudsman is meant to solve the individual cases of customers, he further says that the ombudsman should be impartial towards any customers be it small customers They should win the confidence of such customers. Dr Tejinderpal Singh (2011) suggests that there is a substantial increase in the complaint received by the banking ombudsman, it shows the confidence the customers are getting about the banking ombudsman, but it has not reached the rural poor, so the awareness should be spread there, if the customers are knowing about the scheme, they would surely complain about their dissatisfaction regarding any service. Mahesh Baburao Patil (2011) points out that the awareness provided by the Reserve Bank of India is much low and still the awareness has to be created. He also points that if there is an individual ombudsman for each urban co-operative bank, then his objectives would be satisfied. The number of studies has been conducted regarding the services of banking ombudsman to their customers. Aparna Meduri (2006) argues that the Banking Ombudsman under the Banking Ombudsman Scheme and the Consumer RedressalAuthorities under the Consumer ProtectionAct both redresses the cases on deficiency of banking service. However,

*Professor and Head, Dept. of Commerce, Savitribai Phule University, Pune ** Director, A.I's Allana Institute of Management Studies, Mumbai. Emailid [email protected]

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International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

Sanjay Kaptan & Lukman Patel

there exists a difference both in terms of redressal machinery and the procedure for redressal and makes an attempt to give out the reasons why most of the aggrieved bank customers prefer to take shelter under the Consumer Protection Act instead of under their Banking Ombudsmen Scheme, and finally the proposed remedy for it. Singh (2006) found that majority of respondents (63%) surveyed had no knowledge about the bank ombudsman scheme irrespective of their banks and none of the surveyed respondents had ever filed a complaint with bank ombudsman. Khan (2010) suggested that attempts should be made to increase the instances of disputes being resolved by mediation/conciliation rather than by awards. Further, in the event, if ombudsman has to give an award; it must be made final and binding on the parties with only single appeal allowed to a higher court of law. As far as performance of bank ombudsman is concerned no exhaustive study has been conducted so far. Working definitions Considering the following study the following terms are defined. a. Ombudsman: an official appointed to investigate individuals' complaints against a company or organization, especially a public authority. b. Customer service: The terms customer service means and includes the efforts made by a service provider, to satisfy the demands and needs of the customers by implementing the various schemes. c. Customer complaints: It means the kind of dissatisfaction experienced by the customer which results in seeking compensation for loss or expressing his disagreement with the kind of service received from the service provider. Premises of the study The present study is based on the following premises a. There is a continuous increase in number of complaints inspite of having ombudsman at in force. b. A variety of customer complaints are received due to failure of banks to provided the desired quality of service. c. IT is necessary to improve the prevailing ombudsman act, so as to reduce the number of customer service related complaint. Discussion The ombudsman scheme is initiated basically to improve the quality of service, it is presumed that every time the customers will avail the facility, it will result in reduction of grievances and improve the quality of services. The author has tried to assess whether there is a qualitative change in the quality of customer service and reduction in customer complaints. Table: No of complaints (5 years) No of Complaints received

2008-09

2009-10

2010-11

2011-12

2012-13

69117

79266

71274

72889

70541

From the data it is clear that there is a minor variation in the number of complaints received since 2008-09 there is a gradual increase which has further stabilized which indicates that the

6

extent of modification in the customer service is minimal and not significant. The classification of customer complaints according to the population group is useful to know who the complainants are and what their social background is. For these purpose the customers are classified as rural urban semi-urban and metro. 2008-09

2009-10

2010-11

2011-12

2012-13

Rural

13915

25055

7816

8190

8598

Semi Urban

9817

10741

10816

11982

10868

Urban

15723

16423

21218

24565

24246

Metropolitan

29662

27047

31424

28152

26829

It can be observed that the quality of customer service in metro region has enhanced whereas the customer service in rural and urban area is not up to the mark. There is a consistent and regular increase of complaints in the rural and urban area. Premise 2 Customer of banking services cannot be classified as one homogenous group, there are variations, In reality there are different types of customers who belong to different category. Due to variation in the occupation, vocation and purpose of using a particular banking service and the form of ownership of the business/ status of user of banking services. From this point of view the customer complaints are classified in following categories Table 2008-09

2009-10

2010-11

2011-12

2012-13

Individual

62327

71341

63064

66279

65808

Individual Business

1446

2742

2739

2635

2245

Proprietorship / Partnership

329

367

306

253

227

Limited company

930

1099

901

690

628

Trust

87

191

224

150

213

Association

222

519

667

461

325

Government Department

262

477

523

521

390

PSU

429

115

120

80

222

others

3085

2415

2730

1820

483

The data provided in the above table clearly indicates that most of the institutions and users irrespective of categories have some kind of dissatisfaction regarding banking services; however the most dominant class of users which large number of complaints is individual's professionals and small businessmen. In other words, customers belonging to small business and user category are not satisfied with the quality of the prevailing banking

International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

A Study of Ombudsman Scheme in India – Achievements and Challenges

services. Nature of complaints A customer may remain dissatisfied with the quality of services provided by the banks and what is the purpose of using a particular service or facility. From this point of view the data regarding type of customer complaints regarding the types of services provided by the bank is presented here. Table No. 4. Category wise distribution of complaints 2008-09

2009-10

2010-11

2011-12

2012-13

Deposit accounts

6706

3681

1727

8713

3913

remittances

5335

5708

4216

3928

2664

card related

17648

18810

17116

14492

17867

Loan & advances

8174

6612

4564

6016

5996

levy of charges without prior notice

4794

4764

4149

3806

3817

Pension Payments

2916

4831

5927

5944

5740

Failure to meet commitments/Non observance of fair practices code BCSBI codes

11824

11569

16302

18365

18130

DSAs and recovery agents

3018

1609

1722

459

351

Notes and coins

113

158

146

165

56

Others

8589

188840

7201

7327

8635

Out of subject

0

2684

8204

3674

3372

The data presented above clearly indicates that maximum number of complaints is related to failure of banks to meet commitment and non observance of clear practices by the banks. There are various banking codes related with quality of service to be observed by the banks. However, it appears that most of the banks do not adhere to codes of conduct and healthy practices. Another area of complaint is related to credit and debit card and non performance as to failure to transfer funds similarly there are complaints regarding improper or irregular entries of deposits and failure to transfer remittances as per instructions. Many banks fail to adjust the variation in interest rates or proper adjustments of loan installments. In other words, the quality of banking services is not up to the mark from the customer's point of view which is the root cause of outgrowing dissatisfaction and complaints. Premise 3 It is necessary to review the improvement of the quality of services provided by banks to reduce the customer grievances.

7

The RBI has introduced ombudsman act since 1995. The act is having many provisions to protect the customer's interest, the act has also provided with a well defined mechanism so as to improve the quality of services and minimize customer grievances. However, it is noticed that inspite of two decades of implementation of ombudsman act the results are yet not quite satisfactory. It is necessary to bring in reforms in the prevailing form of the act and simplify the mechanism of the customer grievance redressal. A few important observations in these connections are made here. A. An awareness campaign should be launched about their rights and duties. B. A charter of bank customer rights be given wide publicity C. The rural and semi-urban customer should be informed about their right and duties as bank customers. D. Customer service day should be observed more meticulously. E. Frequent meeting with the customer should be organized and a mechanism to devised to simplify the procedure and prevent occurrence of such grievance s on recurring basis. Conclusion Thus the ombudsman scheme of the bank should be revitalized and reformed to address the grievance of the customer and enhance the quality of banking services. It is seen in the above discussion that the prevailing quality of customer service needs improvement and devising a appropriate mechanism to improve the service quality is necessary unless and until measures are taken to improve the quality of service the image of the banking service cannot be galvanized. References:· Banking Ombudsman Scheme – Annual Report 20122013 · Banking Ombudsman Scheme – Annual Report 20102011 · Taxmann, Corporate Laws, 26th edition, 2012 Taxmann Publication Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi; · Universal's Legal Manual, Banking and Financial Institutions Laws, 2013, Universal Law Publishing Co., New Delhi; · M.L. Tannan, Banking Law and Practice in India, 23rd Edition, 2010, Eastern Book Company, Lucknow; · Siladitya Chatterjee, “The Banking Ombudsman Scheme: A critical Review”, Company Law Journal, 02(02), 2007

International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

International J. Res. Vol. 4. No. 2. 8-10, Jan-Jun 2015 ISSN : 2231 - 6124

An Analysis of Liquidity Position of the Top Manufacturing Companies Using Financial Ratio Analysis * Shehnaz Khan Abstract Cash management and the management of operating liquidity are important for the survival of business organizations. A Company can make profits but at the same time it is also very important to have better cash position else it won't survive. This is why it is important for business organizations to use all financial metrics and measures available to manage liquidity and cash and maintain good liquidity position. Keywords: Cash Management, Liquidity, Financial Metrics. Introduction Short term liquidity is of prime importance in the daily running of business activities. . A business is financed by either debt or equity in the long run but in the short run the business is very much dependent on its current assets and current liabilities. This research is based on these two (Current Assets and Current liabilities) important components of the top manufacturing companies listed on BSE SENSEX. The study is to find out whether the selected companies are able to maintain good liquidity position in the short run. Research Problem and Hypothesis The research problem is framed as “Whether the top manufacturing companies have good liquidity position in the short run?”, and the hypothesis is that; “In the short run the companies are able to maintain good liquidity position.” Research Methodology The sample for this study was collected from companies listed on BSE SENSEX. In order to analyze the liquidity position of the companies the need was to have the companies' balance sheet and income statements at disposal. Therefore the research work is based on eighteen manufacturing companies from the thirty select companies which are moving force of the S & P BSE SENSEX. Liquidity ratios are used to evaluate the companies' ability to pay the short term debt obligations such as accounts payables i.e. payment to suppliers, accrued taxes and wages, short term notes payable to banks and such other relevant items. In this research, in order to determine the liquidity position of the companies, Current ratio and the Net working capital have been selected as the two important variables. These are the key components of a simple liquidity analysis for a business. The current ratio is probably the best known and most used of the liquidity ratios. In addition to the above two ratios, the other

relevant ratios used are quick ratio, cash-current assets, cashcurrent liability ratio, current investment-current asset ratio. The data has been drawn from secondary source. From the published financial statements of the financial year 2013-2014 the data of the current assets and current liabilities have been collected. This data has been accessed from the websites of the respective companies. Data collection The following are the formulae of the various ratios used in the analysis: 1. The current ratio is calculated as: Current ratio=Current assets/Current liabilities. 2. The net working capital is calculated as: Net working capital=Current assets-Current liabilities 3. The quick ratio is calculated as: Quick ratio=Quick assets/Quick liabilities 4. The cash-current assets ratio is calculated as: Cash- Current assets ratio=Cash/Current asset×100 5. The cash-current liability ratio is calculated as: Cash -Current liability ratio =Cash/Current liability ×100 6. The current investment-current asset ratio is calculated as: Current Investment-Current asset ratio= current investment/current asset ×100 Inventories, Trade receivables, current investments, advances payments, cash and cash equivalents, short term loans and advances and other current assets are included in Current Assets. Trade payables, provision for taxes, proposed dividends and other outstanding bills are included in Current Liabilities. Trade receivables, current investments, cash and cash equivalents, short term loans and advances and other current assets are included in Quick assets.

*Assistant Professor, Department of Accountancy, Rizvi College of Arts, Science & Commerce. Email id: [email protected]

8

International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

An Analysis of Liquidity Position of the Top Manufacturing Companies Using Financial Ratio Analysis

The details list of the selected companies and their relevant data is as follows: Name of the companies Current assets Current liabilities (Rupees in crores) (Rupees in crores) 1. Hero motor corps 5556.33 4423.00 2. Cipla 5097.97 2416.74 3. Wipro 32604.20 14915.50 4. Reliance Industries 135333.00 95566.00 5. Mahindra and Mahindra 9080.40 4219.30 6. Maruti suzuki 14171.70 8074.10 7. Tata Motors 6739.06 18797.53 8. Sun Pharmaceuticals 5172.04 3706.07 9. Hindustan Unilever 8852.47 8603.84 10. Hindalco 21951.89 12581.79 11. Tata Steel 11564.60 18881.78 12. Dr. Reddys lab 8907.80 4114.20 13. Gail India 11250.32 9471.33 14. Larson and Toubro 51114.61 38361.51 15. Bajaj Auto 5616.63 4730.24 16. Coal India 629.85 491.13 17. ONGC 29843.30 19079.76 18. ITC 20928.73 11505.32 The details of cash, current investments, quick assets follows: Name of the companies Cash Current investments 1 Hero Motor Corps 117.50 3275.89 2 Cipla 46.04 258.85 3 Wipro 10554.9 5839.2 4 Reliance Industries 36624 33370 5 Mahindra and Mahindra 2826.30 NIL 6 Maruti suzuki 629.70 8813.10 7 Tata Motors 226.15 100.85 8 Sun Pharmaceuticals 141.48 860.00 9 Hindustan Unilever 2220.97 2457.95 10 Hindalco 1163.17 6595.01 11 Tata Steel 961.16 2343.24 12 Dr. Reddys Lab 665.10 1066.40 13 Gail India 2650.98 2254.76 14 Larson and Toubro 1782.86 4046.23 15 Bajaj Auto 495.48 2289.70 16 Coal India 109.18 NIL 17 ONGC 1079.88 588.25 18 ITC 3289.37 6311.26

and quick liabilities is as Quick assets 4886.78 2586.81 32375.9 92401 9080.40 12465.80 2876.53 4253.66 6104.94 13037.04 5556.79 7315.70 8995.56 49132.08 4976.91 624.08 2167.76 13569.19

Quick liabilities 4423 2416.74 14915.5 95566 4219.30 8074.10 18797.53 3706.07 8603.84 12581.79 18881.78 4114.20 9471.33 38361.51 4730.24 491.13 19079.76 11504.32

The computations yielded the following results. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18.

9

Name of the company Hero Motor Corps Cipla Wipro Reliance Industries Mahindra and Mahindra Maruti Suzuki Tata Motors Sun Pharmaceuticals Hindustan Unilever Hindalco Tata Steel Dr.Reddys Lab Gail India Larson and Toubro Bajaj Auto Coal India ONGC ITC

Current Ratio 1.26:1 2.11:1 2.19:1 1.42:1 2.15:1 1.76:1 0.36:1 1.39:1 1.03:1 1.74:1 0.61:1 2.17:1 1.19:1 1.33:1 1.19:1 1.28:1 1.56:1 1.82:1

Working Capital 1133.33 2681.23 17688.70 39767.00 4861.10 6097.60 -12058.47 1465.97 248.63 9370.10 -7317.18 4793.60 1778.99 12753.10 886.39 138.72 10763.54 9424.41

Other ratios are computed as follows:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

Name of the company

Quick ratio

Hero Motor Corps Cipla Wipro Reliance Industries Mahindra and Mahindra Maruti suzuki Tata Motors Sun Pharmaceuticals Hindustan Unilever Hindalco Tata Steel Dr.Reddys Lab Gail India Larson and Toubro Bajaj Auto Coal India ONGC ITC

1.10:1 1.07:1 2.17:1 0.97:1 2.15:1 1.54:1 0.15:1 1.15:1 0.71:1 1.04:1 0.29:1 1.78:1 0.95:1 1.28:1 1.05:1 1.27:1 1.14:1 1.18:1

Cashcurrent asset ratio in % 2.11 0.90 32.37 27.06 31.12 4.44 3.36 2.74 25.09 5.29 8.31 7.47 23.56 3.49 8.82 17.44 36.18 15.72

Cashcurrent liability ratio in % 02.66 01.91 70.76 38.32 66.98 07.79 01.20 03.82 25.81 09.24 05.09 16.16 27.99 04.65 10.47 22.23 56.59 28.59

Current investmentcurrent asset ratio in% 58.95 05.08 17.91 24.66 Nil 62.18 01.49 16.63 27.77 30.04 20.26 11.97 20.04 07.92 40.77 Nil 19.71 30.16

Limitations of This Study This study has only considered the financial results of the year 2013-14, a further study in this area can be done by taking into account the details of previous years also. The sample size is also limited to only eighteen companies as out of the total companies on the BSE SENSEX only eighteen are manufacturing companies. Only short term liquidity is considered in this study. A study of long term liquidity may help develop deeper insights. Findings and Views The above table shows various ratios of the selected companies. As we study the selected sample of the blue-chip companies across sectors we find a huge variation in results. The results reveal that there is huge variation even among the companies of same industry. In most of the cases the companies are having a good current ratio and a positive working capital except in case of Tata Motors and Tata Steel. Positive working capital indicates that the short term payments are met on time and the companies are able to meet the obligations without any stress. This is obviously a good position. If the current ratio is low as in case of Tatas' then it is indicative of liquidity crisis. So usually a higher ratio is better in maintaining liquidity. In most of the companies the liquid or quick ratio is approximately 1:1 except in case of Tata Motors where the ratio is very low i.e. 0.15:1 which indicates that the company has very poor liquidity. In case of cash-current asset ratio huge variation is observed and among these eighteen companies the ratio varies between ranges of 0.90 to 36.18. This indicates that some of the companies have very low cash liquidity, which would affect their immediate payment position. Such companies may not be able to meet their urgent bills. Also the cash to current-liability ratio is lies between 1.20 and 66.98. Here an even expansive variation is observed which on one end indicates that some companies keep excessive cash balances in the short run while the others sport a very disappointing picture raising serious concerns for immediate liquidity. Finally the current investment-current asset ratio ranges between 5.08 to 58.95.In case of Coal India and Mahindra & Mahindra the ratio is nil indicating there are no short term investments in these companies. The companies which have low ratios would have poor liquidity as compared to

International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

Shehnaz Khan

companies that have a good ratio. Hence we conclude that these short term financials depend upon specifics of each company and general categorization like being blue chip or from a particular industry do not seem to be relevant variables. Therefore, the hypothesis that; “In the short run the companies are able to maintain good liquidity position.” cannot be generalized for all companies and the specifics of each company needs to be considered to derive conclusion about each company. For the selected samples, we can however specify the following: 1. The current ratio is very good for most of them. 2. The net working capital ratio is also positive for all except in case of the Tatas. 3. The quick ratio for most of the companies is stable. 4. In most of the companies the cash-current asset ratio is very weak. 5. Except four companies most of them have very poor cashcurrent liability ratio. 6. Almost 12 companies have more than 15% asset blocked in current investments. Implications of conclusions. For companies having insufficient cash or working capital, this shortage may create inability for them to purchase raw material or trading goods thus hindering the business to work to its full capacity. Poor working capital or low current ratio also indicates inability to maintain the repair and replacement cost of its assets. Further, this may result delay in payments to workers, creditors and also the shareholders. Finally all this may lead to inability by the companies to maintain their position or prestige and credit worthiness in the market. Suggestions: Studies in relation to financial situations should be company specific and a vertical study of the trends over a period of time will give better conclusions instead of a horizontal study across companies and industries. The companies indicating poor liquidity need to strike a balance between the currents assets and currents liabilities thus increasing the available working capital or adopt some measures like ploughing back of earned profits and reducing the level of activity in their operating cycles. The companies can opt for taking longer credit from suppliers. In some cases, possibility of liquidating investments and raising additional funds can also be an option. References: · Hero motor corps limited Annual Accounts 2013-14, (Monday 2nd March 2015), Retrieved from:http://www. heromotocorp.com/enin/uploads/Annual_Reports/pdf/20 140708105458pdf291.pdf limited Annual Accounts 2013· Reliance Industries 14,(Monday 2nd March 2015), Retrieved from:http:// www.ril.com/ar13-14/standalone-balance-sheet.html#. VPw3uo7sQtk · Mahindra& Mahindra limited Annual Accounts 201314,(Monday 2nd March 2015), Retrieved from:http:// www.techmahindra.com/sites/resourceCenter/Financial %20Reports/Annual%20Report%20FY13-14.pdf

10

·

·

·

·

·

·

·

·

·

· · ·

·

· ·

Sun Pharmaceutical limited Annual Accounts 201314,(Monday 2nd March 2015), Retrieved from;http: //www.sunpharma.com/sites/all/themes/sunpharma/ima ges/annual/2013-14%20SPIL-%20Annual% 20Report.pdf HindustanUniliver limited Annual Accounts 201314,(Monday 2nd March 2015), Retrieved from;http:// www.hul.co.in/Images/HUL-Annual-Report-201314_tcm114-391926.pdf Larsen& Toubro limited Annual Accounts 201314,(Monday 2nd March 2015), Retrieved from :http:// investors.larsentoubro.com/upload/SubAnnualRep/FY2 014SubAnnualRepLT-Sub-AR-Volume%202-201314.pdf Tata Motors limited Annual Accounts 2013-14,(Monday 2 n d March 2015), Retrieved from;http://www. tatamotors.com/investors/financials/69-ar-html/pdf/ Balance-Sheet.pdf Cipla limited Annual Accounts 2013-14,(Monday 2nd March 2015), Retrieved from: http://www.cipla.com/ CiplaSite/Media/PDF/2014_08_06_78th_Annual_Repo rt_2013_14_001.pdf Wipro limited Annual Accounts 2013-14,(Monday 2nd March 2015), Retrieved from: http://www.wipro. com/documents/investors/pdf-files/Wipro-annualreport-2013-14.pdf Hindalco limited Annual Accounts 2013-14,(Monday 2nd March 2015), Retrieved from;http://www. hindalco.com/ Portals/0/Documents/investors/download/Hindalco_An nual_Report_2013-14.pdf Tata Steel limited Annual Accounts 2013-14,(Monday 2nd March 2015), Retrieved from:http://www. tatasteel.com/ investors/annual-report-2013-14/annual-report-201314.pdf Gail India limited Annual Accounts 2013-14,(Monday 2nd March 2015), Retrieved from:http://www.gailonline. com/final_site/pdf/2013-14/Financial%20Statements. pdf BajajAuto limitedAnnualAccounts 2013-14,(Monday 2nd March 2015), Retrieved from:http://www.bajajauto.com /report/bal_2014_for_web1.pdf Coal India limited Annual Accounts 2013-14,(Monday 2nd March 2015), Retrieved from:http://www.cmpdi.co.in/ accounts/CMPDILEngAnnual_2014.pdf ONGC India limited Annual Accounts 2013-14,(Monday 2nd March 2015), Retrieved from:http://www.ongcindia. com/wps/wcm/connect/c1199b2c-9f53-43cc-a2005cb739d922ec/Annual+Report+Final.pdf?MOD=AJPE RES ITClimited Annual Accounts 2013-14,(Monday 2nd March 2015), Retrieved from:http://www.itcportal. com/about-itc/shareholder-value/annual-reports/itcannual-report-2014/pdf/report-accounts-2014.pdf DrReddys limited Annual Accounts 2013-14,(Monday 2nd March 2015), Retrieved from:http://www.drreddys.com/ investors/pdf/annualreport2014.pdf Maruti Suzuki limited Annual Accounts 201314,(Monday 2nd March 2015), Retrieved from:https:// marutistorage.blob.core.windows.net/marutisuzukipdf/ Maruti%20AR%202014%20cover%20to%20cover%20 dt%2006-08-14%20Deluxe.pdf

International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

International J. Res. Vol. 4. No. 2. 11-15, Jan-Jun 2015 ISSN : 2231 - 6124

Consumer Ethnocentrism: An Empirical Investigation *Atul Dhyani, ** Shivendra Singh

Abstract Globalised economy helps marketers to sell their product in different countries. Beside various internal factors, consumers' ethnocentric behavior also affects the turnover of a firm. This study looks into the relationship of ethnocentric behaviour and its impact on purchase intention. The main aim of the study is to ascertain the demographical factor responsible for ethnocentric behaviour and attitude of consumers for foreign brands in respect to Indian brands. ANNOVA and t-test is used for analysis. The sample size was of 500 respondents, residing in two cosmopolitan cities of North India. The findings reveals that people prefer to buy Indian products over foreign products and there is no significant difference found across demographics towards the quality of Indian brands. Beside time and money constraints, the present study cannot be generalized. Keywords: Ethnocentrism,Attitude, Brand, Globalization. Introduction The word 'ethnocentrism' means judging another culture solely by the values and standards of one's own culture. In marketing terminology consumer ethnocentrism refers to consumer's priority for domestic products on imported products. Ethnocentric consumers think that purchasing foreign products is unpatriotic, could become the cause of job loss and also inversely affects the domestic economy. There are various factors through which country images are made and that image works to affect response towards products. Country images formation is a widely spread process. Those images could be framed by information gathered from non product usage. These framed images of the foreign country and the residents will be acquired as children in schools as well as through contacts with children in the play ground who are immigrants or first generation. Other images come through movies, musician and traveling. In decision making between domestic and foreign products consumer ethnocentrism play a key determinant. Positive or negative attitude for foreign brand have a great influence on ethnocentric behavior. Thus, a society with high level of ethnocentric behavior leads to less favorable market for foreign products, although those imported goods might cost less to them in comparison to domestic products. Non ethnocentric consumer compare foreign product to domestic counterpart on their merits and uniqueness by ignoring the origin of the country. This research paper is an attempt to investigate how the consumers make their choice for brands to be purchased over their ethnocentricity. Literature Review Shimp & Sharma (1987) developed CETSCALE model and carried out an empirical study on American consumers. They revealed that between consumers' ethnocentric tendencies with their attitude for imported products; there is a negative correlation and positive for domestic products. Netemeyer, Durvasula & Lichtenstein (1991) carried out a

cross-national study of Japanese and Western European consumers. However, in this study respondents were asking to evaluate the product manufactured in different developed countries that was largely comparable with respect to quality. The result shows that consumers attitude for western countries product is quite different from the eastern product. In these countries, products tend to be preferred to national product on foreign product due to their superiority in quality over others. Elliot and Cameron (1994) investigated that when Australian consumers perceived domestic product as inferior in terms of quality they have no problem to switch on the foreign products. They seek for value of money they spend on need satisfaction. Witkowski (1998) carried out his study in two nations with having similar economic and political circumstances namely Hungary and Mexico. To find the evidence of ethnocentricity influencing purchase probability he used Consumer Ethnocentrism Scale (CETSCALE) method. The results indicated that in comparison to Hungarian counterparts Mexican customers were much more ethnocentric. Also, the Mexican customer was not much interested in buying foreign brands. Many factors like education, age, ability to understand foreign language and closeness to border of nation; were found to be significantly correlated with ethnocentricity. This empirical research became a strong foundation of the research regarding ethnocentricity, as it proves that ethnocentricity does exist in consumers' mind. Supphellen & Rittenburg (2001) revealed that in a situation between foreign and national brands, where foreign brand is superior, consumer's ethnocentric behavior is showed more positive perception towards national product, with less or no effect on perceptions for foreign products. It supported the social prediction that consumer ethnocentrism has greater effect on evaluations of experience the qualities rather than on search of the qualities.

* Associate Professor, School of Commerce, HNB Garhwal University, Uttarakhand. ** Research Scholar, School of Commerce, HNB Garhwal University, Uttarakhand. E-mail ID: [email protected]

11

International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

Atul Dhyani & Shivendra Singh

Acharya (2003) examined the existence of consumer ethnocentrism for Australian consumer and existence their home country biasness for domestic brand. The result revealed that although there is a correlation in perceived choice and quality of domestically designed and assembled products and consumer ethnocentrism, but the values has been seen to be only to level of moderate. Study suggested the fact that for the majority of section of population, consumer ethnocentrism plays a major influencing role for the choice of the national brands. Lee & Simon (2006) carried out a study in Almaty, Kazakhstan. They examined the influence of the multinational's marketing appeals and the country of origin (coo) affects on consumers' perceptions on the quality of foreign brands. They present the finding on the factors mainly country of origin effect, brand image and consumer's purchase intention. The findings suggested that there is a high level of influence of country of origin image and brand image on consumer's perception of quality of the foreign product and their purchase behavior for the same. Alexandra, Lobb & Mario (2009) examined consumers association of domestically produced food with increased food safety and the association of Country of Origin (COO) and food safety information with socio-demographics and others aspects of consumers physiology such as attitudes, risk perception and trust. They found that domestic production of food is an extrinsic cue for food safety and as consumers place increasing importance on food safety, they are more interested in food produced in their country. Consumers showed inclination for domestically produced food. Kamwendo et al. (2014) collected data from 500 university students of Durban University of technology and University of KwaZulu-Natal and revealed that there is an ethnocentrism behavior exists in South African consumers for household goods. On the other hand, on demographic factors like gender, age and education, do not differentiate between those who do, and those who do not, exhibit ethnocentric behavior. Objectives The objectives of the study are: Ø To examine the brand consciousness and considerations for brand among the consumers. Ø To investigate the ethnocentric attitude of the Indian consumers. Ø To explore the difference in ethnocentricity level across demographics. Methodology The study is mainly empirical in nature. Data were collected on consumer brand consciousness, brand considerations and their attitude towards Foreign and Indian brands to investigate the ethnocentricity through primary sources. For the purpose only three most commonly used durables (Television, Refrigerator and Washing Machine) have been chosen. Efforts have been made for proper and proportionate representation of the sample on demographic segment. On daily basis collected data have been edited in order to check the accuracy, completeness and consistency of responses given by respondents. The universe for the study is consisted of consumers residing in two major north Indian cities i.e. Delhi and Dehradun. Sample size

12

was of 500 respondents (250 from each) who were selected on the basis of cluster sampling whereas, the accessibility and convenience also taken into account. Data has been analyzed by frequencies, mean scores, t-tests, and one wayANOVA. Respondents Profile Respondents' demographic profile is given in Table 1 which reveals that out of total respondents male respondents have the majority (64%). It is appreciable to note that most of the respondents (67%) were post graduates and professionals (48%); age group between 36-45 (47%) and Income between 20001-30000(41%) were also dominant in their category respectively. Table 1: Respondents Profile Variable Gender

Age

Occupation

Education

Income ( Monthly)

Description Male Female 25-35

Percent 64.0% 36.0% 23.0%

36-45

47.0%

46-55

21.0%

56 & above

09.0%

Self employed

28.0%

Service

19.0%

Retired

05.0 %

Professionals

48.0%

Under Graduate Graduate Post Graduate

09.0% 24.0 % 67.0%

10,000- 20,000

25.0%

20,001-30,000

41.0%

30,001-40,000

15.0%

40,000 & Above

19.0%

Source:Author's finding

Findings Rapid economic growth and increasing per capita income tends consumer to spend more on their needs. Increasing awareness and technological enhancement in market leads to consumer for better product. Manufacturer could not sell its product or service only by saying 'it is a foreign product. The present study deals with consumer's brand consciousness, brand preferences and reason for using foreign brands along with their ethnocentrism. Brand Consciousness It is presumed that brand of a product or service is important for making choice to the consumers, as findings also reveals that a majority (77%) of consumers accepted that brand name associated with the product or service is important to them whereas, for a small number of the respondents (13%) brand does not matter. However, the least number of the respondents (10%) were uncertain about their brand value.

International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

Consumer Ethnocentrism: An Empirical Investigation

Table 2: Brand Consciousness Factors

Frequency (N) Percent (%)

Most Important

Important

110 22.00

275 55.00

Uncertain

Buying foreign products would lead 9 to unemployment in India.

Not Important

Total

65 13.00

500 100

50 10.00

Source:Author's finding

Preference of Brand among Foreign Vs. Domestic Brand name is the key indicator of quality and it directly affects consumers' buying decision. It is appreciable to note that a majority of the people (63%) preferred Indian brands instead of foreign brands, whereas, a small number of the respondents (13%) do not think about the brand while making purchase decision. Table 3: Preference of Brand Factors

Prefer Foreign Brand

Prefer Domestic Brand

Don’t Think About Brand

Total

Frequency (N)

120

315

65

500

Percentage (%)

24.00

63.00

13.00

100

Source:Author's finding

Brand Considerations Increasing disposable income now tends consumers to buy more qualitative product at high cost instead of less price product. Finding shows that quality of products or services becomes the most significant (38%) considerations for the same. Interestingly non-consumption factors like social recognition (19%) also play important role followed by after sale service (16%), personality enhancement (14%) and reference group influence (13%). Table 4: Brand Considerations Personality Recognition Reference Superior Better Group Quality after Sale Enhancement in Society Influence Services 190 79 71 97 63 Frequency (N) 16.00 14.00 19.00 13.00 Percent (%) 38.00 Factors

Total

100

Consumer Ethnocentrism Table 5: Consumers Ethnocentric Attitude

Being an Indian I should always buy 6 Indian products. Indian made products are reasonably 7 priced. For reducing foreign products entry 8 in nation high tax should be imposed

13

The products made in India can be 13 easily found at outlets. When I compare Indian products 14 with other countries, I am satisfied with the product made in India. Having a foreign brand is a status 15 symbol

109

164

57

127

43

2.662

94

286

77

42

01

3.860

119

234

51

70

26

2.300

113

242

46

88

11

3.176

85

276

63

71

05

3.730

78

226

68

101

27

2.546

62

192

66

134

46

3.162

Source:Author's finding

It is good to realize that most of the time, consumer prefer to buy Indian products and also seem to be agreeing with the view that Indian made products are long lasting, easily available at any outlets and are reasonably priced too. They further viewed that Indians should buy Indian products as the quality of products in India has also reached at par to the foreign products and feel that foreign brand no more remain status symbol; it is only a state of mind. Further, it is appreciable to note that people rely more on Indian brands however, at the same time they also feel that foreign products should not be restricted in the country to protect the right to choose of the consumers. It is noteworthy to see that the respondents hold the view that buying foreign products is not treachery. Consumer Ethnocentrism across Demographics To determine whether or not is there any difference among consumers in level of the ethnocentricity towards Indian products across various demographic variables, t–test has been applied on gender, age, education and income whereas, one way ANOVA has been used on occupation. The variables through which consumer's ethnocentricity have assessed are Reliability, Status Symbol, Buying Indian Products and Treachery and the following observations have been made:

500

Source:Author's finding

S.No. STATEMENTS I always prefer to buy Indian 1 products. In India, quality of products has not 2 reached up to required level. The products made in India are 3 mostly reliable and seem to be long lasting. Products that is unavailable in India 4 only those should be imported. Purchasing foreign product is not 5 treachery.

10 Indian brands are more reliable. The products made in India need 11 more advertisements and promotion to sell. Quality of the product in India has 12 remarkably improved in recent.

Demographics v/s Reliability Ho: There is no significant attitudinal difference between demographics and reliability of Indian Products Table 6: Demographics v/s Reliability Variable

SA

A

N

D

SD

Mean Score

82

237

81

91

09

3.584

120

214

59

88

19

2.344

59

265

70

95

11

3.532

96

227

42

110

25

2.482

Gender Age Education Income

Description Male Female Younger Adult Up to Graduation Post Graduation Low income High income

Businessman 67

152

66

170

45

2.948

78

178

88

139

17

2.698

74

296

41

81

08

3.694

62

178

65

168

27

2.840

Government Occupation Employee Retired Professional Others

Mean Score 3.883 3.825 3.845 4.000 3.842

t-value p-value 0.776

0.438

-1.137

0.256

1.556

0.120

4.046 3.881 4.062 N 065

-2.968 Mean S. D. 4.000 0.770

091

3.769

0.875

021 246 077

4.190 3.674 4.064

0.601 0.862 0.675

0.007 F-value

p-value

3.696

0.006

Source: Author's finding

International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

Atul Dhyani & Shivendra Singh

The mean difference between gender (t= 0.776 and p= 0.438 > 0.05), age (t= -1.137 and p= 0.256 > 0.05) and education (t= 1.556 and p= 0.120 > 0.05) are not statistically significant hence, hypothesis are accepted showing no difference among the gender, age and education regarding the trust on reliability of Indian products. However the mean difference between income (t= -2.968 and p=0.007 < 0.05) and occupation (F=3.696; p=0.006) are statistically significant. So hypothesis is rejected showing influence of income and occupation in opinion towards the reliability of Indian brands. Demographics v/s Status Symbol Ho: There is no significant attitudinal difference between demographics and status symbol Table 7: Demographics v/s Status Symbol Variables Gender Age Education

Description

Mean Score

Male Female Younger Adult Up to Graduation Post Graduation Low income High income

3.150 3.180 3.136 3.212 3.395

t-value

pvalue

-0.270

0.788

-0.565

0.573

1.315

0.189

N

3.140 3.173 3.114 Mean Score

Businessman

065

3.29

0.424 S.D. Fvalue 1.208

Occupation Government Employee Retired Professional Others

091

3.142

1.22

Income

3.33 3.122 3.155

Occupation

0.672 pvalue

1.316 1.22 1.192

065

Government Employee Retired Professional Others

091

2.725

1.116

021 246 077

2.523 2.687 2.688

1.167 1.130 1.497

Gender Age Education Income

14

t-value

pvalue

1.117

0.265

-1.419

0.157

2.713

-0.937

0.349

2.732 2.552

1.333

0.183

Description

Mean Score

Male Female Younger Adult Up to Graduation Post Graduation

2.746 2.625 2.675 2.951 2.534

Low income High income

0.187 0.945

Gender

Education

Description

Mean Score

Male Female Younger Adult Up to Graduation Post Graduation Low income High income

3.016 2.845 2.960 2.804 2.907

Source:Author's finding

Variables

1.169

FPvalue value

Demographics v/s Treachery Ho: There is no significant attitudinal difference between gender and treachery. Table 9: Demographics v/s Treachery

Income

The mean difference between gender (t= -0.270 and p=0.788 >0.05), age (t= -0.565 and p= 0.573 > 0.05), education (t =1.315 and p=0.189 >0.05), income (t =0.424 and p=0.672 >0.05) and occupation (F=0.361; p= 0.836) are not statistically significant hence, there is no difference in attitude of the respondents regarding the demographics and the foreign products as status symbol which reveals that foreign products does not remain status symbol. Demographics v/s Buying Indian Products Ho: There is no significant attitudinal difference between demographics and Indian should buy Indian products (Nationalism). Table 8: Demographics v/s Buying Indian Products

S. D.

The mean difference score of gender (t = 1.117 and p =0.265 > 0.05), age (t = -1.419 and p =0.157 > 0.05), education (t = 0.937 and p =0.349 > 0.05), income (t = 1.333 and p =0.183 > 0.05) and occupation (F=0.187; p=0.945) are not statistically significant hence, there is no difference in attitude of the respondents regarding the demographics and the attitude towards buying Indian products, which reveals that Indian products are being considered as a qualitative products.

Age 0.836

Businessman

Mean Score 2.769

Source:Author's finding

Variables

0.361 021 246 077

N

Businessman Occupation Government Employee Retired Professional Others

t-value

pvalue

1.517

0.130

0.770

0.441

2.951 2.996 2.760 N Mean Score 065 2.861

-0.226

0.821

1.650 S. D. Fvalue 1.309

0.100 Pvalue

091

3.000

1.164

021 246 077

2.714 2.963 2.974

1.189 1.249 1.277

0.321

0.864

Source:Author's finding

The mean difference score of gender (t = 1.517 and p =0.130 > 0.05), age (t = 0.770 and p =0.441 > 0.05), education (t = -0.226 and p =0.821 > 0.05), income (t = 1.650 and p =0.100 > 0.05) and occupation (F=0.321; p=0.864) are not statistically significant. Therefore, demographics do not confirm the opinion that buying foreign product is anti national. Discussion Marketers know that the consumers' attitude and belief does differ for the products of different origin country. This perception could work against or favorable to their revenue. By influencing other factors indirectly or directly, this perception plays an important role attributes in decision and making process. The favorability of perception for country of origin must be considered from both foreign and domestic perspective. In the domestic market, perceptions for country of origin may stir consumers patriotic notions or remind them of

International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

Consumer Ethnocentrism: An Empirical Investigation

their past. The present study reveals that there is no demographically significance in the consumers' attitude towards foreign brand which indicates that Indian consumers are little bit ethnocentric. However, there is disagreement shown by respondents in relation to the most patriotic or radical expression of ethnocentrism. On majority of cases respondents have shown their favor for domestic brands but at the same time they have also shown inclination for foreign brands. They have liberal approach towards foreign brands and were found to appreciate them for their latest technology, better after sales service; durability and performance however, criticize them only for high pricing With the rapid growth of Indian economy and growing stature of India in world affairs, consumers feel that the quality of Indian products has also reached at par to the foreign products. It is appreciable to note that people rely more on Indian brands however, at the same time they also accept that foreign products should not be restricted in the country to protect the right to choose of the consumers. It is clearly indicated that the Indian consumers are satisfied with the quality of Indian products. Conclusion Globalised economy helps international trade to grow; although consumers perceive certain brands as symbolically important for their own precious heritage and cultural identity. All over the world marketing strategies have been patriotic appeals. However, patriotic appeals may lack uniqueness and even be overused. A company has other options when its product is competitively priced but their place of origin turns consumer off. Joint production with a multinational or foreign player of industry that has a better name or adopting world class quality for product or service could opt in the local industry. References: · Acharya, C. and Elliot, G.R. (2003), Consumer Ethnocentrism, Perceived Product Quality and Choice-An empirical Investigation, Journal of International Consumer Marketing, Vol. 15(4), pp. 87-114. · Al-Sukati, K.I. and Bakerm, J. (1998), Country of origin Effect: a literature review, Marketing Intelligence and Planning, Vol. 16(3), pp. 150-199. · Elliot, G.R. and Cameron, R.S. (1994), Consumer

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·

·

·

·

· ·

·

· ·

·

perception of product Quality and the Country-of origin effect, Journal of International Marketing, Vol. 2 (2), pp. 49-62. Kamwendo, A. R., Corbishley, K. M. and Mason, R. B. (2014), South African consumer ethnocentrism and attitudes towards foreign convenience products, Problems and Perspectives in Management, Volume 12, Issue 4, pp. 320-333. Lee, J. and TAI, W. S. (2006), The effects country of origin and Corporate image on the perceptions of product quality and purchase intention, World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, Vol. 2 pp. 33-39. Maheswaran, D. (1994), Country of Origin as a Stereotype: Effects of Consumer Expertise and Attribute Strength on product Evaluation, Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 21, pp. 354-365. Netmeyer, R. G., Durvsula, S. and Lichtenstein, D. R. (1991), A cross national assessment of the reliability and Validity of the CETSCALE, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 10, pp. 320-328. Papadopoulos, N. and Heslop, L.A. (2002), Country equity and country branding: problems and prospects, Journal of Brand Management, Vol. 9, pp.294-314. Shimp, T.A. and Sharma, S. (1987), Consumer ethnocentrism: construction and validation of the CETSCAL, Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 24, pp. 280-294. Suffu, K., and Walker, J. (2006), The country of origin effect and consumer Attitudes to Buy local Campaign: The Ghanaian Case, Journal of African Business, Vol.7, pp.183-199. Supphellen, M. and Terri, L. R. (2001), Consumer Ethnocentrism When Foreign Products are Better, Psychology & Marketing, Vol.18 (9), pp. 907-927. Wahng, C. L. and Chen, Z. (2004), Consumer ethnocentrism and willingness to buy domestic products in a developing country setting: testing moderating effects, Journal of Consumer Marketing, Vol. 21, pp. 391400. Wall, M. and Heslop, L. A. (2007), Consumer's attitude towards Canadian made versus imported product, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol. 14, pp.27-36.

International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

International J. Res. Vol. 4. No. 2. 16-19, Jan-Jun 2015 ISSN : 2231 - 6124

Financial Evaluation of Public Sector Banks: An Indian Study *Sanjay Anandilal Hiran, **Mahendra Sojatia Abstract In order to ensure the sustainable growth of Nationalised Banks (Indian Public Sector Banks), it is imperative to take major corrective measures &actions i.e. improving the quality of debt monitoring procedure, control the operating expense of the banks, skill development of human resources, improve the project appraisal procedure and use upgraded version of technology. The main objective of this article is to make an evaluation of the financial performance of Banks under study .The performance of a bank is measured or benchmarked by a number of indicators with reference to Deposits, Investment, Advances, Non-performing assets, Operating Expenses and Net Profit etc. This study will provide insight to management of the banks to go through the findings of the study and formulate stringent strategies to adopt the latest framework as per the BASELIII accord. Keywords: Advances, Deposits, Investment, Non-performing assets, Net Profit and Public sector banks. Introduction Banking industry plays an important role to mobilizing savings of public. In case of Indian economy, banks are in central position for its growth. It is an institution which deals and transacts with money and credit. It accepts savings of public as deposits and advance surplus funds to those who needs it. Due to such deals & transaction depositors gets return on their ideal savings and also the business entity and individual gets funds to fulfil the requirement of its operations and their need. Mobilization of savings into business operations will create employment opportunity and supply into the economy consequently, demand and consumption will increase and accumulated impact will be development of economy. Hence, it can be said that banks are one of the driving force for any economy. The importance of banks is reflected in every sector i.e. agriculture, business and service sector in India. In India till the eighties, the bank operated in a protected manner, during the year 1991 initiatives were taken to reform in banking and financial sector. The outline of these reforms was provided by report of Narasimham Committee. The objectives of the reform process were to improve productivity and efficiency of the financial system and to provide highly competitive environment for banks. Classification of Banking Industry in India Banks which are included in the second schedule to the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 are called as Scheduled Banks. These banks comprise scheduled commercial banks and scheduled co-operative banks. Scheduled commercial banks in India are categorised into five different groups according to their ownership and nature of operation. These groups are, State Bank of India and itsAssociates, Nationalised banks, Private sector banks, foreign banks and Regional rural banks. The majority of commercial banks in India are in public sector with the State bank of India. In 1991, after major initiatives of liberalisation and globalisation, several private sector and foreign sector banks are allowed to operate its business in the India.

Review of Literature: Amidu (2007), in his paper titled, “Determinants of Capital Structure of Banks in Ghana: an empirical approach”, used linear regression model and found adverse relation between profitability and leverage. They found that profitable banks in Ghana accumulate internal reserves hence they depend less on financing from external sources. Therefore concluded that more than 87 percent of the banks, assets are financed by debts and out of this, short term debt appear to constitute more than three quarters of the capital of the banks. This highlights the importance of short-term debts over long-term debts in Ghanaian banks financing. Kajal and Monika (2011), in their research paper titled, “Performance of Indian Public Sector Banks and Private Sector Banks: A Comparative Study” concluded that an efficient management information system should be developed. The bank staff involved in sanctioning the advances should be trained about the proper documentation and charge of securities and motivated to take measures in preventing advances turning into NPA. Public banks must pay attention on their functioning to compete private banks. Banks should be well versed in proper selection of borrower/project and in analyzing the financial statement before sanctioning any loan. Anurag & Priyanka (2012), in their study named, “Comparative Analysis Of Capital Structure Of Banking Companies With Special Reference To State Bank Of India And ICICI Bank” stated that it is revealed form the above study the dependence of State Bank of India on outsider fund but the dependence of ICICI Bank on owned fund is increasing continuously. Earnings per share of the firm are also showing an increasing trend. As per the solvency ratio, which is showing an increasing trend in SBI which depicts the favourable device on Trading on Equity whereas in ICICI Bank showing a decreasing but stable. From the above study it can be concluded that SBI is using more debt fund as compared to equity fund which decreases the weighted average cost of

* Research Scholar, Pacific Academy of Higher Education & Research University, Udaipur, Emailid: [email protected] ** Director, Pacific Institute of Business Studies, Udaipur, Emailid: [email protected]

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International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

Financial Evaluation of Public Sector Banks: An Indian Study

capital thereby increasing the return of shareholders while ICICI Bank is using less debt fund as compared to equity fund which increases the weighted average cost of capital. Bhavet et al (2013), in their study, “Performance Analysis: A Study of Public Sector Banks in India” , concluded that In order to ensure the development of the banking sector, it is imperative to initiate some concrete actions. Application of recent technology in public sector banks, debt recovery system, and improved manpower skills could be some way outs for improving the financial performance of the banking sector. Saeed et al (2013) used multiple regression models to estimate the relationship between capital structure and banking performance in his paper, “Impact of capital structure on banking performance (A case study of Pakistan)” , and found a positive relationship between determinants of capital structure and performance of banking industry. Performance is measured by return on assets, return on equity and earnings per share. Taani (2013), in his study, “Capital structure effects on banking performance: a case study of Jordan”, examines the impact of capital structure on performance of Jordanian banks. The annual financial statements of 12 commercial banks listed on Amman Stock Exchange were used for this study which covers a period of five years from 2007-2011. Multiple regressions was applied to estimate the relationship between capital structure and banking performance on performance indicators such as net profit, return on capital employed, return on equity and net interest margin as well as total debt to total funds and total debt to total equity as capital structure variables. The results show that bank performance, which is measured by net profit, return on capital employed and net interest margin is to be significantly and positively associated with total debt; while total debt is found to be insignificant in determining return on equity in the banking industry of Jordan. Verma et al (2013), in their study, “Profitability of commercial banks after the reforms: a study of selected banks” , studied profitability of four commercial banks after the reforms and concluded that the remedial measures initiated by the banks and profitability of banks depends upon various factors. They analyse profitability of four major banks in India. The profitability and efficiency of private sector banks are comparatively higher so far as the financial parameters like interest income, non-interest income and wages bill are concerned. Objective of the Study The main objective of this study is to evaluate the financial performance and health of public sector banks in India with reference to Deposits, Investments, Advance, Non-performing assets, Operating Expenses and Net Profit as measures of financial performance. Research Methodology STUDY PERIOD The period of five years from financial year 2009-10 to 201314 is selected for comparative analysis of financial strength of selected public sector banks in this study. Sources Of Data The attainment of objectives of this study is primarily based on secondary data. Sources of the data are as under: 1) Key Business statistics from Indian Banking Association (IBA) website, http://www.iba.org.in.

17

2) Balance sheet, Statement of profit & loss and relevant enclosures as published in relevant bank's annual reports. Sample Size To make study comprehensive, nineteen (19) Nationalised banks (Public Sector Banks) are selected for this study. DataAnalysis In order to achieve the inherent objectives of this study, following statistical measures used for the period and banks under study: a) For the period under study arithmetic average is calculated for each bank under study. b) Growth rate in term of percentage is calculated: consider FY 2010 as base year. c) Standard deviation i.e. absolute measure of deviation or distribution of data and co-efficient of variation i.e. relative measure of deviation or distribution of data Analysis & Discussion Data collected as per method prescribed above is being analysed below: Deposits: In general terms money placed into bank for safekeeping are known as bank deposits. Such deposits are made into various accounts at a bank i.e. saving bank account, term deposit account, demand deposit account etc. The 'deposit' is a liability owed by the bank and disclosed under Schedule 3 of respective bank's balance sheet in the liability side. The format of balance sheet and profit and loss account of banks prescribed by Banking Regulation Act, 1949.The pattern of deposit in nationalised banks is given in Table-A. Name of the Nationalised Banks Allahabad Bank Andhra Bank Bank of Baroda Bank of India Bank of Maharashtra Canara Bank Central Bank of India Corporation Bank Dena Bank Indian Bank Indian Overseas Bank Oriental Bank of Commerce Punjab & Sind Bank Punjab National Bank Syndicate Bank UCO Bank Union Bank of India United Bank of India Vijaya Bank

Table 'A' - Deposits of Indian Public Sector Banks (` in Crore) FY2011 FY2012 FY2013 FY2014 Average Growth Standard Coefficient Rate (%) Deviation of variation 1,06,056 1,31,187 1,59,593 1,78,742 1,90,843 1,53,424 80 34,593 0.2255 77,618 92.134 1,05,851 1,23,796 1,41,845 1,08,267 83 25,343 0.2341 2,41,262 3,05,439 3,64,871 4,73,883 5,68,894 3,94,870 136 1,30,596 0.3307 2,29,762 2,98,886 3,18,216 3,81,840 4,76,974 3,41,135 108 93,305 0.2735 63,301 66,845 76,529 94,337 1,16,803 83,563 85 22,138 0.2649 2,34,651 2,93,437 3,27,054 3,55,856 4,20,723 3,26,344 79 69,407 0.2127 1,62,107 1,79,356 1,96,173 2,26,038 2,40,069 2,00,749 48 32,239 0.1606 92,734 1,16,747 1,36,142 1,66,005 1,93,393 1,41,004 109 39,723 0.2817 51,344 64,210 77,167 97,207 1,10,028 79,991 114 23,855 0.2982 88,228 1,05,804 120,804 1,41,980 1,62,275 1,23,818 84 29,194 0.2358 1,10,795 1,45,229 1,78,434 2,02,135 2,27,976 1,72,914 106 46210 0.2672 1,20,258 1,39,054 1,55,965 1,75,898 1,93,489 1,56,933 61 28,990 0.1847 49,155 59,723 63,124 70,642 84,730 65,475 72 13,251 0.2024 2,49,330 3,12,899 3,79,588 3,91,560 4,51,397 3,56,955 81 77,706 0.2177 1,17,026 1,35,596 1,57,941 1,85,356 2,12,343 1,61,652 81 38,130 0.2359 1,22,416 1,45,278 1,54,003 1,73,431 1,99,534 1,58,932 63 29,167 0.1835 1,70,040 2,02,461 2,22,869 2,63,762 2,97,676 2,31,361 75 50,287 0.2174 68,180 77,845 89,116 1,00,652 1,11,510 89,461 64 17,315 0.1936 61,932 73,248 83,056 97,017 1,24,296 87,910 101 24,085 0.2740 FY2010

In Table “A” above exhibited total deposits for selected nationalised banks for the period of five years from financial year 2009-10 to 2013-14 and also discloses the growth rate which is based on 2009-10 as base year. This table is also showing average of total deposits of banks under study In financial year 2014, Bank of Baroda shows the growth rate is 136 percent, average deposit Rs.3,94,870/- crore with standard deviation of Rs.130,596/- crore and coefficient of variation is 33.07 percent which is highest among the banks under study Advances: In general, it means the loans made by the banks to its customers and as per financial dictionary, bank loan is the extension of money from a bank to another party with the bilateral agreement that the money will be repaid within stipulated duration. Bank gives advance in the form of cash

International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

Sanjay Anandilal Hiran & Mahendra Sojatia

credit, bank overdraft and loan payable on demand. All these advances are the assets of a bank and will be shown under schedule 9 in the asset side of balance sheet of a bank. The Table “B” given below shows pattern of advance of the nationalised banks under study. Name of the Nationalised Banks Allahabad Bank Andhra Bank Bank of Baroda Bank of India Bank of Maharashtra Canara Bank Central Bank of India Corporation Bank Dena Bank Indian Bank Indian Overseas Bank Oriental Bank of Commerce Punjab & Sind Bank Punjab National Bank Syndicate Bank UCO Bank Union Bank of India United Bank of India Vijaya Bank

Table 'B' - Advances of Indian Public Sector Banks (` in Crore) FY2010 FY2011 FY2012 FY2013 FY2014 Average Growth Standard Coefficient Rate (%) Deviation of variation 0.2476 92.73 26,927 93,625 1,11,145 1,29,490 1,38,007 1,08,774 71,605 0.2473 91.83 20,614 83,358 98,373 1,07,644 83,223 71,435 56,114 0.3040 1,75,035 2,28,676 2,87,377 3,28,186 3,97,006 2,83,256 126.81 86,118 0.2989 1,68,491 2,13,096 2,48,833 2,89,368 3,70,734 2,58,104 120.03 77,144 0.3290 61,529 120.57 20,243 88,920 75,471 46,881 56 ,060 40,315 0.2077 77.79 48,032 1,69,335 2,11,268 2,32,490 2,42,177 3,01,067 2,31,367 0.2041 68.26 29,872 1,05,383 1,29,725 1,47,513 1,71,936 1,77,315 1,46,375 0.2813 86,850 1,00,469 1,18,717 1,37,086 1,01,265 116.90 28,482 63,203 0.2968 56,064 118.69 16,638 77,554 65,781 56,693 44,828 35,462 0.2614 96.65 23,819 91,114 90,324 1,05,643 1,22,209 75,250 62,146 0.2902 78,999 1,11,833 1,40,724 1,60,364 1,75,888 1,33,562 122.65 38,763 0.2044 66.58 22,872 95,908 1,11,978 1,28,955 1,39,080 1,11,882 83,489 0.2020 9,296 75.37 46,020 57,239 51,431 46,151 42,638 32,639 0.2283 87.17 63,049 1,86,601 2,42,107 2,93,775 3,08,796 3,49,269 2,76,110 0.2574 92.37 33,062 90,406 1,06,782 1,23,620 1,47,569 1,73,912 1,28,458 0.2252 81.30 25,896 99,071 1,15540 1,28,283 1,49,584 1,14,996 82,505 0.2476 92.02 43,838 1,19,315 1,50,986 1,77,882 2,08,102 2,29,104 1,77,078 0.1842 55.37 10,817 58,710 65,768 68,909 63,043 53,502 42,330 0.2682 96.36 16,058 59,880 81,504 69,766 57,904 48,719 41,507

Table “B” shown total advance for selected nationalised banks for the period of five years from financial year 2009-10 to 2013-14 with growth rate, average of total advance of banks under study, standard deviation and coefficient of variation. Bank of Baroda has the highest rate of growth i.e. 126 percent, highest average advance of Rs.283, 256/-crore with standard deviation Rs.86, 118/- crore among the banks under study. Coefficient of variation is highest in case of Bank of Maharashtra i.e.32.90 percent. Investments Investment can be defined as sacrifice of present consumption with the expectation of higher return in future. Term investment is defined by Investodia.com, as in an economic sense, an investment is the purchase of goods that are not consumed today but are used in the future to create wealth. In finance, an investment is a monetary asset purchased with the idea that the asset will provide income in the future or appreciate and be sold at a higher price. It will be shown under schedule 8 in the asset side of balance sheet of a bank. In investment of bank, we can include investment in govt. securities, investment in shares, bonds, debentures and investment in subsidiaries. The data relating to investments of the nationalised banks is presented in Table “C”

Table “C” indicated total investments for selected nationalised banks for the period of five years from financial year 2009-10 to 2013-14 with growth rate, average of total investment of banks under study, standard deviation and coefficient of variation. Dena Bank has the highest growth rate i.e. 133 percent with coefficient of variation 36.36 percent and Punjab National Bank has highest average advance of Rs.113, 854/crore among the banks under study. Standard deviation for Bank of Baroda is Rs.26, 870/- crore which is highest among the banks under study. Operating Expenses Operating expenses is a category of expenditure that a business incurs as a result of performing its normal business operations. For operating banking business, bank pays rent, taxes, lighting charges, salaries to employees, advertisements, directors fees, auditors fees, law charges, repairs, insurances and other expenses. It also occurs certain losses on the sale of asset or depreciation. It is shown under Schedule 16 of profit and loss account of bank. The data indicating operating expense of nationalised banks under study is exhibiting in Table “D” below”

Table “D” exhibited total operating expenses for selected nationalised banks for the period of five years from financial year 2009-10 to 2013-14 with growth rate, average of operating expense of banks under study, standard deviation and coefficient of variation. Central Bank of India has the highest rate of growth i.e. 133 percent and coefficient of variation 27.64 percent and Punjab National Bank has highest average operating expense of Rs 7,126/-crore with standard deviation is Rs.1,743 crore among the banks under study. Net Profit: Profit is a financial measure to evaluate the performance of any business organisation. It is the difference between income earned and expenses incurred to earn it during a given period of time. Table “E” given below shows data relating to net profit of

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International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

Financial Evaluation of Public Sector Banks: An Indian Study

Table “E” above shows net profit for selected nationalised banks for the period of five years from financial year 2009-10 to 2013-14 with growth rate, average of net profit of banks under study, standard deviation and coefficient of variation. Syndicate Bank has the highest rate of growth i.e. 110 percent and Bank of Baroda has highest average net profit of Rs.4, 266/-crore among the banks under study. Non-Performing Assets (NPA) In simple words, it means to give loan to those parties who will not repay on the time. If bank does not get his given loan within 90 days after date of its collection, it will become nonperforming asset in bank. In bank term, it is called NPA. The data indicating non-performing assets of Indian public sector banks under study for the period under study is displayed in Table “F” below”

Table “F” above shows on-performing assets for selected nationalised banks for the period of five years from financial year 2009-10 to 2013-14 with growth rate, average, standard deviation and coefficient of variation. Andhra Bank has the highest growth i.e. 3392 percent with highest coefficient of

19

variation i.e.103.93 percent and Punjab National Bank has highest average NPA of Rs.4, 926/- crore with highest standard deviation i.e.Rs.3,687/- crore among the banks under study. Findings and Conclusion Higher operating expense (range in 51 percent to 133 percent) is a major element which is impacting profitability of the Indian public sector bank. There is an increase of 133 percent of operating expenses in FY 2014 from FY 2010 in case of Central Bank of India, 123 percent in case of Bank of Maharashtra, 118 percent in case of Union Bank of India etc. In our study net profit (range in -476 percent to 110 percent) has negative growth of 476 percent in case of Union Bank of India, 219 percent in case of Central bank of India, 58 percent in case ofAndhra Bank etc. in FY 2014 as compare to FY 2010. The financial position of the banks under study can be enhanced by keeping a control on operating cost. As far as non-performing assets (range in 117 percent to 3392 percent) of banks under study are concerned there is an increase of 3392 percent in FY 2014 from FY 2010 in case of Andhra Bank, 1807 percent increase in case of Indian Bank, 1540 percent in case of Punjab and Sind Bank etc. which shows that banks under study should improve the quality of appraisal and evaluation of loan proposals. Further they should also strengthen their system of loan monitoring. In order to ensure the justifiable &sustainable growth of Nationalised Banks under study, it is imperative to take major corrective actions i.e. improving the quality of debt monitoring procedure, control the operating expense of the bank, improve skill of human resources, improve the project appraisal procedure and use upgraded version of technology. This study will provide insight to management of the banks to go through the findings of the study and formulate stringent strategies to adopt the latest framework as per the BASEL-III accord. References: · Anurag B. Singh & Priyanka Tandon (2012), Comparative analysis of capital structure of banking companies with special reference to State Bank of India and ICICI Bank, International Journal of Research in Commerce & Management, 3 (10), 124-131. · Amidu, M. (2007), Determinants of capital structure of banks in Chana: an empirical approach, Baltic Journal of Management, 2(1), 67-79. · Bhavet, Priya Jindal & Sambhav Garg (2013), Performance analysis: A study of public sector banks in India, International Journal of Research in Computer Application & Management, 3 (1), 54-58. · Kajal Chaudhary and Monika Sharma (2011), Performance of Indian public sector banks and private sector banks: A Comparative Study”,International Journal of Innovation, Management and Technology, 2(3),249-256. · Khalaf Taani (2013),Capital structure effects on banking performance: A case study of Jordan, International Journal of Economics, Finance and Management Sciences, 1(5), 227-233. · Saeed,Gull, & Rasheed (2013), Impact of Capital Structure on Banking Performance: A case study of Pakistan, Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 4(10), 393-403. · Verma Shefali, Goyal Rita and Priya Jindal (2013), Profitability of commercial banks after the reforms: a study of selected banks, International Journal of Research in Finance & Marketing, 3(2), 20-29.

International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

International J. Res. Vol. 4. No. 2. 20-23, Jan-Jun 2015 ISSN : 2231 - 6124

Impact of E-Tailing on Brick-and-Mortar Stores in Mumbai City *Sandeep Rajendra Sahu

Abstract E-Tailing (or E-Retailing) is synonymous with business- to- consumer (B2C) transaction model of e-Commerce. Etailing, which comprises of online retail and online marketplaces, has become the fastest-growing segment in the larger market of India. The size of the India's E-tail market is pegged at 6 billion USD in 2015. India has an internet user base of over 240 million users in 2014. The penetration of e-tailing in India is very low compared to markets like the US and the UK but is growing at a much faster rate with a large number of new entrants like Snap deal, Flipkart, Amazon etc. Recently, many e-tailers like Flipkart, Snapdeal etc. has mushroomed in the Indian market with their big discounts and events like “Big Billion Day Sale”. But emergence of these e-players in Indian retail market has an impact on the sales and profits of the brick and mortar stores (organized retail stores). This research paper aims to explore the influence of e-tailing business on brick-and-mortar retail business. Researcher takes thirty-five retail stores from the two main markets of Mumbai city as a sample for the study. The study is based mainly on primary method of data collection. After the analysis of the study, researcher suggests that although the brick-and-mortar retailer's business are affected due to sudden emergence of e-tailers, there is a space for both the retailers to grow and expand their business. Keywords: E-Commerce, E-Tailers, E-Business, Brick-and-Mortar Stores Introduction E-tailing, which comprises of online retail and online marketplaces, has become the fastest-growing segment in the larger market of India, having grown at a CAGR of around 56% over 2009-2014. The size of the E-tail market is pegged at 6 billion USD in 2015. Books, apparel and accessories and electronics are the largest selling products through E-tailing, constituting around 80% of product distribution (PWC, 2015). Increased internet penetration, improved security measures, convenience of shopping in lives pressed for time, and, of course, dozens of retailers to choose from – these are a few factors that are attracting more and more consumers to shop online. In recent time, many e-tailers like Flipkart, Snapdeal, Amazon, etc. has mushroomed in the Indian market with their big discounts and events like “Big Billion Day Sale”. According to Indo-Asian News Service (2014), on October 6, 2014 - Big Billion Day Sale, Flipkart had sold products worth $ 100 million (Rs. 600 crore) in the various parts of Indian market. But it had affected the diwali sales of many of the brick and mortar stores. These retail stores are now gearing up to accept the challenges brought by e-tailers. This paper attempt to identify the impact of e-tailers like Snapdeal, Flipkart etc. on the brick and mortar stores and how these retailers are preparing to face the challenges. B) E-tailing in India Table 1: Share of E-tailing in India's Retail Sector Independent Retail Brick and Mortar Retail E-tailing

2014 91.60% 8.00% 0.40%

2020 83% 14% 3%

The share of e-tailing is, at present, is 0.40% of total India's retail sector which can be seen from the above table 1, while brick-and-mortar retail (organized retail) is 8%. But with increasing internet users, convenience factor and emergence of multiple online retailers, e-tailing will grow to 3% of India's retail sector in 2020. Chart 1: India's E-commerce and E-tailing Growth (2009 - 2015) 30 25

6

20 3.5 15

2.3 1

5 0

21.3

1.5

10 0.4 3.8 2009

0.6 5.3 2010

9.5

7 2011

E-tailing

16.4

12.6

2012

2013

2014

2015 (est.)

E-commerce (incl. e-tail)

Source: PWC (2015), “E-Commerce in India - Accelerating Growth”, p. 5.

From the above chart 1, it can be understood that e-tailing was mere 0.40% of e-commerce in 2009 but it has increased to 3.5% in 2014 and further predicted to increase to 6% in 2015. C) Review of Literature Indo-Asian News Service (2014) in an article “Indian ECommerce Growth Shakes up Retail Industry in 2014” concluded that e-commerce format will give serious competition to brick-and-mortar stores. It found out that ecommerce market is still a small component of India's Rs. 38

Source: PWC (2015), “E-Commerce in India - Accelerating Growth”, p. 8.

* Assistant professor, Smt. MMK College of Commerce and Economics, Bandra (W), Mumbai – 50, E-mailid: [email protected]

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International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

Impact of E-Tailing on Brick-and-Mortar Stores in Mumbai City

trillion ($600 billion, roughly Rs. 38,08,200 crores) overall retail sector. Yet, the e-commerce format with sales of Rs. 1 trillion ($16 billion, roughly Rs. 1,01,552 crores) managed to create a buzz in 2014 like never before - not just with mega promotions but also with mergers, acquisitions and some crazy valuations. CRISIL Research (2014) showed the recent impact of Indian e-tailers on organized retailers such as Shoppers Stop, Trent etc. It found out that the net store addition of these organized retailers, because of emergence of e-tailers, was reducing on continue basis such as 39 in 2009-10; 23 in 201011; 1 in 2011-12 and 15 in 2012-13. It also found out that the maximum impact were in books, music & electronics segment. Sinha V. and Gairola M. in an article “E-tailing: next big thing in India's retail story” concluded that it is a win-win situation for online and brick-and-mortar retailers. The retail market will expand at a rapid pace and there will be space for both groups to grow. By taking a sample of 1,327 customers with considerable online shopping experience, the survey was conducted in the NCR, Chandigarh and Lucknow between November 2013 and December 2013 by Joshi P. and Upadhyay H. (2014). They found out that although websites like Flipkart, Jabong and Myntra have got the highest number of respondents reporting problems with regard to delay in delivery, asking for replacement/ return/refund, or deficiency in customer service, the overall share of these problems is relatively small against the positive ratings they have got. These are the sites that have been rated the best in terms of overall satisfaction. And they concluded that e-tailing market will increase its market share at rapid rate. Based on series of interviews with senior managers, e-tailing consultants and 30 shoppers in Kolkata, Dawn S. K. and Kar U. (2011) suggested effective e-tailing strategy for the Indian companies. To retain, a mix of marketing tools such as public relations, advertising, promotions, direct marketing and Internet advertising should be used. Customer loyalty programs should be initiated and also customer care should be a top priority as with leading online companies. D) Objectives of the Study Following are the objectives of the study. Ø to study and understand the impact of e-tailers on brickand-mortar (organized) retailers. Ø to find out the ways adopted by brick-and-mortar retailers to face competition with e-tailing retailers. Ø to give suitable suggestion and recommendation on the basis of the study. E) Scope of the Study For the purpose of this study, thirty-five stores are taken as a sample from the two main markets situated within one km. of railway stations of Dadar (W) and Bandra (W) respectively, mainly to find out the influence of e-tailing business on brickand-mortar retail business. The Period of the study is year 2014 and data collection for the study is January - February 2015. F) Limitation of the Study The present study has some limitations such as: Ø It is restricted to only thirty five stores as sample size from two main markets of Mumbai city. Ø The research findings are based on the responses of the store managers. However, the genuinity and frankness in

21

their responses is assumed. G) Research Methodology This research study is mainly based on primary method of data collection such as questionnaires, interviews and observation. All the data and information are properly classified and arranged in tabular form and simple percentage method is used as statistical tool for this study. H) Analysis and Interpretation of the Study Table and Chart 2: Category of Retail Stores

Clothing Footwear Electronic Products* Watches Books/Music/Gifts Total

In No’s 7 7 7 7 7 35

In % 20 20 20 20 20 100

20 15 10 5 0 Clothing Footwear Electron. Watches B/M/G

*Electronic Products means Mobile & Accessories Stores and T.V/DVD Stores.

From the table and chart 2, it is understood that researcher takes thirty five stores as a sample from five product categories. Seven stores are taken from each category for the study. Table and Chart 3: Since When Stores began to Operate? <= 2000 2001 - 2005 2006 - 2010 2011 - 2014 Total

5.7

In No’s 26 7 2 0 35

In % 74.30 20.00 5.70 0 100

0

<= 2000

20

2001 - 2005 2006 - 2010 2011 - 2014

74.3

It is evident from the table and chart 3 that nearly one-third of sample stores, selected for the study, are operating their business before the year 2000. Table and Chart 4: Has E-tailing (Online retail) affected your Store's Sales? Yes No Can’t Say Total

In No’s 24 9 2 35

In % 68.60 25.70 5.70 100

International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

Sandeep Rajendra Sahu

80 60 40 20 0

It is clear from the table and chart 7 that majority of stores feel that e-tailers will hamper their store's growth in future. Table and Chart 8: Which of the following e-tailer is/will be more harmful to your store?

68.6 25.7 5.7 Yes

No

Can’t Say

Above table and chart 4 shows that nearly 69% of the sample store's sales are affected from the business of e-tailers, while nearly 26% of stores are unaffected. Table and Chart 5: If affected, then please give the Severity of Impact? In No’s 9 11 4 24

Extreme Moderate Less Total

40

34.3

30 20

20

5.7

10 0 0 Flipkart

Snapdeal

Amazon

Ebay

Any Other

45.8

Mod. 37.5

Extreme 0

20

40

60

Out of the affected stores, nearly 46% of them (table and chart 5) have a moderate impact on their sales because of e-tailers and 37% of them have an extreme impact. Table and Chart 6: In which of the following occasion, Etailing affects your Store's Sales? Festivals Seasonally Daily Total

In No’s 16 6 2 24

In % 66.70 25.00 8.30 100

100 50 0 Festivals

Seasonally

Daily

Out of the stores affected, table and chart 6 shows that nearly 67% of store managers say that e-tailers take away the business in festivals and 25% of them say during seasonal time. Table and Chart 7: Whether E-tailing will hamper your Store's Growth in future? 11.4

In No’s Yes 31 No 4 Can’t Say 0 Total 35

0

In % 88.60 11.40 0 100

Yes No Can’t Say 88.6

22

40

In % 34.30 40.00 20.00 0 5.70 100

Table and chart 8 shows that majority of stores (i.e. 40%) are feeling threat from Snapdeal, 34% of stores from Flipkart, and 20% of them are feeling threat from Amazon. Table and Chart 9: According to you, which is the main Strength of E-tailer's Selling?

In % 37.50 45.80 16.70 100

16.7

Less

In No’s Flipkart 12 Snapdeal 14 Amazon 7 Ebay 0 Any Other 2 Total 35

Cost Benefit, So lower Price Heavy Advertising Quality Product Efficient & Quick Service New Concept, So attractive to Customers Total

In No’s In % 15 42.90 10

28.60

2 3

5.70 8.60

5

14.20

35

100

50

42.9

40

28.6

30 14.2

20 8.6

5.7

10 0 Cost Ben.

Heavy Advert.

Quality Prod.

Eff. & Quick Ser.

New Concept

Regarding strengths of e-tailers, then table and chart 9 shows that majority of stores (i.e. 43%) feel the cost benefit as a biggest strength of e-tailers, nearly 29% of stores say heavy advertising as the strength, 14% of them feel e-tailing as a new concept for customers so attractive, 8% of stores say efficient service and last 6% of them say quality product as a strength of e-tailers. Table and Chart 10: According to you, which is the main Weakness of E-tailer's Selling? Poor Home Delivery Service Problem of Payment Problem of Internet Poor Quality of Product Problem in After Sale Service Total

In No’s 16

In % 45.70

3

8.60

4

11.40

2

5.70

10

28.60

35

100

Prob. in After Sale Ser.

28.6 5.7

Poor Quality

11.4

Problem of Net

8.6

Problem of Pay.

45.7

Poor H.D Service 0

20

40

60

Regarding weaknesses of e-tailers, then table and chart 10 shows that majority of stores (i.e. 46%) feel the poor home delivery as a biggest weakness of e-tailers, nearly 29% of stores say problem in after sale service as the weakness, 11% of them feel problem of internet, 8% of stores say problem of payment and last 6% of them say poor quality product as a weakness of e-tailers. Table and Chart 11: Which two important measures you will take/have taken for facing the Competition with E-tailers? (Please tick any two measures)

International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

Impact of E-Tailing on Brick-and-Mortar Stores in Mumbai City

Introduction of E-retailing More Attractive Offers/Schemes Cost Cutting for lower Price Flexibility in Payment Heavy Advertising & Publicity Total

In No’s 8

In % 11.40

40

28

40.00

35

7

10.00

25

9

12.90

20

18

25.70

70

100

40

30

15

25.7

12.9

11.4

10

10 5 0 Intro. of E-ret.

More Offers

Cost Cutting

Flexi. in Pay

Heavy Advert.

It is understood from the table and chart 11 that majority of stores (i.e. 40%) say that they adopt the strategy of more attractive offers/schemes to face the competition from etailers, nearly 26% resort to heavy advertisement & publicity as their strategy, 13% of them say flexibility in payment, 11% say introduction of e-tailing business and last 10% of them say cost cutting as their strategy to face competition. I) Conclusion and Suggestions It can be concluded that more than one-third of sample stores have felt the impact of e-tailing business on their sales. Mostly, the impact is extreme or moderate on their sales and that also mainly during festival times. But almost all stores agree that etailing business, if maintained the same growth rate, would hamper their business growth in future. Therefore, these brickand-mortar stores are gearing up to face the competition with etailers with the different strategies such as more attractive offers/schemes, heavy advertisement and publicity etc. There are number of reasons behind the success of e-tailing business in India. On e-commerce portals, products are priced lower than in brick-and-mortar shops, customers can shop at

23

their convenience, a customer in a small town can buy products that are available only at big store in cities. Overall, it can be said that it is a win-win situation for both i.e. online and brickand-mortar retailers. The retail market will expand at a rapid pace and there will be space for both groups to grow and expand their business. J) Bibliography · PWC (2015), “E-Commerce in India - Accelerating Growth”, pp. 5 - 8. http://www.pwc.in/en_ IN/in/ assets/pdfs/publications/2015/ecommerce-in-indiaaccelerating-growth.pdf, accessed on 18th March 2015. · Indo-Asian News Service (2014), “Indian E-Commerce Growth Shakes Up Retail Industry in 2014”, http://gadgets.ndtv.com/internet/ features /indian-ecommerce-growth-shakes-up-retail-industry-in-2014639641, accessed on 27th February 2015. · Dawn S. K. and Kar U. (2011), “E-Tailing in India: Its Issues, Opportunities and Effective Strategies for Growth and Development”, Zenith International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, Vol.1, Issue 3, July, pp. 101 115. · CRISIL Research (2014), “E-tail eats into retail”, February, http://www.crisil.com/pdf/research/ CRISILResearch-Article-Online-Retail-Feb14.pdf, accessed on 14th March 2015. · Joshi P. and Upadhyay H. (2014), “E-retailing in India despite issues, customers satisfied with top retailers”, http://consumeraffairs.nic.in/consumer/ writereaddata/eRetailingindia.pdf, accessed on 14th March 2015. · Sinha V. and Gairola M., “E-tailing: next big thing in India's retail story” The Hindustan Times, p. 5.

International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

International J. Res. Vol. 4. No. 2. 24-27, Jan-Jun 2015 ISSN : 2231 - 6124

Industry- Academic Partnership – Employability Skills? *Chandrashekhar K. Ghogare, **Shilpa C. Ghogare, *** T. P. Ghule Abstract India, today, is considered as a talent pool of the world, having qualified and educated human resources in abundance. Skills development and Employability of students at the campus is possible through corporate academia interface. The spread of education in society is critical. So is the creation of capabilities among people. The Industry-Academic partnership will help us to put valuable inputs to make education meaningful. Conversion of the population into skilled human resource is the need of the hour. Knowledge and practice deficit, and inability of higher education institutions to professional development are key lacunae which need to overcome. Higher education in India has seen many challenges related to accessibility, quality & equity (quite crisis) over the decades. Educational institutes known as places of learning are totally centers of rote learning and at the end of the three /four years of undergraduate study there is no conceptual knowledge and no value addition takes place. Objective of our study is to discover the scope for Industry-Academic partnership in given educational set up. The present study has adopted questionnaire method for collecting data. In order to collect comprehensive and related data, two structured questionnaires were framed. Corporate were not very forthcoming with their opinions as they were not related to it directly. However the researchers are of the opinion that a lot more needs to be done to really bring out the concept of Industry-Academic partnership. There is more scope into their area of study - hence scope for further research. Keywords: Employability, Globalization of higher education, Quite Crisis Introduction: Higher education is a global business. In this global context, India is next only to China and USA in student enrollment (16.9 million) in higher education sector. Apart from this, India has a large network of Universities and Colleges (634 and 33023 respectively) with a massive geographical reach and the facilities for higher education have been expanding rapidly in these years. Expansion, inclusion and excellence along with equity and quality have been the overarching goals of the government in this sector. However, skills have a considerable importance as one of the major contribution made by human to increased economic growth and it is generally referred by literature as human capital. In spite of several new initiatives taken up by the central th th government during the 11 and proposed 12 FY Plan “Report to the Nation 2006” of the NKC which concludes that there is 'a quiet crisis' (the neglect of India's most gifted and talented young people) in higher education in India that runs deep.' The reasons for the same are: Poor Access to education; Quality in general remains a huge concern; Premier institutions do not figure among the best in the world; Shortage of faculty and promotion of research; Dearth of university-industry interface. Employability refers to a person's capability for gaining and maintaining employment. For individuals, employability depends on the knowledge, skills and abilities they possess, in addition to the way they present those assets to employers. As such, employability is affected by both supply-side and demand-side factors which are often outside of an individual's

control. Employability skills development is vital to secure sustainable growth performance and economic development in the environment of technology innovation and globalization. Therefore, nations should realize and recognize the importance of investment in education, training and skills to build knowledge based economy with potentialto sustain a stable economic growth. Additionally, skills increase productivity, and attract foreign direct investment since they are considered as raw material in the knowledge based economies and are important determinants of revenue. In a modern globalized economy, changes in technology, liberalisation of the market as well as the flow of foreign direct investment, skills development is essential to keep the growth performance sustainable. The supply-demand gap in higher education and India emerging as a leading knowledge economy has led to the entry of private and foreign education providers imparting education through conventional, distance learning and online programmes. Academia and corporate have to recognize each other's role to work together to create a workforce which is most essential for industry otherwise it can potentially give rise to mismatch between demand and supply of quality manpower, which, in turn, can cause disruption in the job market. Objectives of Study: a) To ascertain the scope for corporate – academic collaboration within the existing educational set up. b) To have possible tie-up with corporations through

*Associate Professor (Commerce Dept.), Email id: [email protected] ** Associate Professor (Maths Dept.), Email id:[email protected] *** Principal, Maharishi Dayanand College of Arts, Science & Commerce, Mumbai, Email id: [email protected]

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International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

Industry- Academic Partnership – Employability Skills?

academic exercises. c) To study the relevance of end-product of education system as an effective input (HR) for the corporate sector. Scope of the Study: One of the core competencies of academic institutions is teaching. And many institutes engaged in education at high end, have the courseware and ability to provide training for high-end manpower development. Many of these topics are of interest to industry. Therefore, a natural collaborative possibility is for the academic faculty and institutes to conduct training in topics of interest for industry. Due to shortage of high quality trained manpower, another possible area of collaboration is training for manpower of the industry. The engineering education system, the way it has evolved, is currently not in best of shape, and will require a lot of help to improve. The industry and the established education players will have to pitch in. Some companies and institutes have started initiatives in very viable areas for collaboration, where joint programs have a better chance of success. Today, in the world driven by Intellectual Property, there is an increased interest in collaboration in the area of research. Research can be considered as the activity of creating new knowledge. Though academicians in most good institutes engage in research, collaboration in this area is possible only if the industry has a need for research. There is scope for corporateacademic collaboration in the area of Syllabus framing , Corporate involvement is required in teaching, campus placement, improvement in teaching learning ,skills development and employability of students at the campus through corporate academia interface. Literature Review: Our study emphasizes on interaction with university colleges, management institutes and corporate, to find out current status and scope for collaboration. In this context, literature review comprises of reference books, reports, news-paper references and online sources and primary data collected from various academic institutions. This data essentially remain the core of our research work, which help us to draw conclusion and recommendations. Research Methodology: The University of Mumbai is one of the oldest and premier Universities in India. All colleges, management institutes in the city affiliated to Mumbai University and engineering colleges affiliated to AICTE and respective boards/trusts come under the scope of the study. The present study has adopted questionnaire method for collecting the data. In order to collect comprehensive and related data, two structured questionnaires were framed – Type I – For Institutional Data - 20 Institutes (8Management Institutes, 6-Engineering Institutes, 6- Arts, Science & Commerce) & Type II – For Corporate Data (13 Industries) The filled-in questionnaires were later classified, tabulated and analyzed. Apart from the questionnaire additional methods like discussion, observation, documentary sources and interaction with experts are used to collect and consolidate the data. The interview schedule was semi structured. Most of the questions were close- ended. The entire process of coding was undertaken by electronic data

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processing. Using computer applications in Excel programme, the coded data was processed. Statistical tools and techniques –Percentages and graphs are used. Responses to open ended questions were examined and classified. The corporate and academic representatives consisted of People with considerable personal and organisational experience in the field. Their challenges and comments have been invaluable during the final stages of the review. The conclusions and recommendations are based upon informed judgement. Results: Academia and corporate have to recognize each other's role to work together to create a workforce which is most essential for industry otherwise it can potentially give rise to mismatch between demand and supply of quality manpower. Our study ascertain following measures for inculcating employability skills amongst young generation to make them globally competitive; as a result of industry-academic partnership. Internship: (Learning Experience) Internship is a good exercise for learning. This is recommended by the government but companies feel it hindrance because of today's rote learning system. Students are less wanted in the company because they cause disturbance to the normal routine working. . The education syllabus which was laid years ago in some of the best institutions of the country is still being followed today, with no up gradation to the changing technologies, so the students are misfits in the industrial setup. Practical component of the various academic programmes 60% 35%

60% 35%

30%

Apprenticeship: In case of student apprenticeship, secondary data has revealed that mass media students are eligible for internship in area of graphic design, art work, journalism, content writing of the duration of 2-3, 6 months. Various companies, provides internships including Science, Engineering, Business and IT companies like JP Morgan advertise on the net for getting students to apply for summer internships. The survey actually reveals that traditional courses like B.A, B.Sc, and B.Com are almost nil in availing internship and summer placement. Project Based/ Vocational Projects: According to the survey 55% engineering and management students have been able to do project work with industry. To complete their interns, the students have to take up projects work. Taking live projects which are industry oriented give

International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

Chandrashekhar et. al.

them firsthand experience with industry working; application of theoretical concepts and this also earn them academic credits. Traditional course like BA, BSC, B.Com students are able to have industry experience in the form of surveys, field work for. Their exposure towards internship is minimal or nil. Main reason for not having such initiative or response from industry are - standards are not being met, courses are not updated as per requirements of companies, students not getting practical exposure of work flow of companies. They find students nuisance flow because the students are not oriented towards industry working. If the right type of students goes for such internships it allows the company to create 'talent pool' and nurture talent for betterment of companies. The college and educational institutes are lacking in providing such type of training. The student's objectives are only to earn maximum marks through rote learning which actually does not enhance knowledge. The onus of providing students with proper learning and giving the right type of orientation lies on colleges. The course structure which includes project work can be used for academic-industry collaboration. On The Job/ Task: According to the survey 30 percent of colleges have agreed that the students get on the job experience. This generally happens in management institutes –students of marketing are made to do the job of “selling” as a part of their study programme. Field Work: According to the survey 60 percent colleges have reported students doing some kind of field work. Students have the experience of some or the other practical work for e.g. zoology students visiting fish landing centers, arts students visit to museums and art galleries, commerce students visit to banks, courts, national insurance agency to see their functioning and presenting reports on the same. This is type field work enhances teaching-learning and makes it more effective. Campus Placement: According to survey - Almost all the colleges surveyed have reported to have campus placements taking place for their final year students. Companies visit the institutes in the months of November and December for recruitments .The students so selected are then asked to join the companies after their annual examinations. The companies recruit the best brains. Generally, students are given placement for routine jobs. In the excitement of getting employment, the students initially accept the jobs and later if they don't find it suitable they leave it for better opportunities. Colleges have to learn from the industry's point of view. If campus placements have to become effective they have to be properly oriented and also trained in soft skills. "A key purpose of education is to ensure a job for students and industry linkage is important to ensure that. Industry linkages also ensure the value of students and teachers improve drastically," said Shankar S Mantha, Chairman,AICTE. Resources In the days of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), it is noticed that undergraduate colleges especially get funding from corporate for their annual cultural events in the form of sponsorships. There is no objective oriented funding that the corporate undertake to enhance educational

26

products. The corporate/banks have their own training institutes, in order to give training for their needs. Corporate sponsorships also come in the form of gifts for students/cash prizes and in kind – for their annual cultural events. In certain colleges, corporate have sponsored training programmes especially in the IT sector where trainers came from the corporate and certificate courses were provided to the students. They have sponsored all the expenses for knowledge sharing. In case of professional colleges there was some element of corporate sharing recourses.. Only 10 percent of the institutes have corporate providing resources to academic institutions. VJTI has shared information regarding getting funding for buying equipments. Apart from this money comes for funding faculty research. Secondary data has shown a lot of funding of corporate towards education happens at the school level, as CSR initiatives. Several Indian companies have developed synergistic initiatives towards higher education and vocational training. Examples: General Electric, has a five year $ million “college bond” programme to increase the students enrolling to colleges DCF administrates scholarship for meritorious students in Haryana and U.P. BharatiAirtel, Bharati Foundation 263, Satya Bharati primary schools across 5 states- Punjab, Rajasthan, Haryana U.P., Tamilnadu. Bharati Foundation has partnered with IIT Delhi in 2000 to set up Bharati School of Telecommunication Technology and Management. IIT Delhi-200 students are supported every year to pursue courses in telecommunication. It also set up Bharati Centre for communication in partnership with IIT Mumbai. Research Limitations: 1. The survey was limited to institutional level only .All stakeholders were not taken into consideration when the survey was undertaken. Student's opinion also should have been taken in to consideration while making the study. 2. Corporate were not very forthcoming with their opinions as they were not related to it directly. 3. The data collected about campus placement was very wide and kept changing and hence it did not give any proper analysis for the study. 4. The questions framed generated qualitative data mainly, hence no statistical tools other than graphs and percentage could be used. However the researcher is of the opinion that a lot more needs to be done to really bring out the concept of industry-academic partnership. There is more scope into their area of study hence scope for further research. Conclusions / Suggestions: In the present times of knowledge economy, a productive interface between academia and industry is a necessary requirement. Universities and industry, which, for long have been operating in separate domains, are rapidly coming closer to each other to create synergies. Indian Industry, after the liberalization, has become marginally more aware of the vital

International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

Industry- Academic Partnership – Employability Skills?

linkage between the education system and business and corporate productivity. We suggest following possible measures for skills development and employability of students at the campus through Industry-Academic Partnership. Visiting faculty can bridge the gap between conceptual and practical aspect of the subject. Academic infrastructure needs to be flexible enough to incorporate the changes in the syllabus as suggested. Today academic institutes are going to face competition in the globalised world. In order to retain the demand for their institutes they have to expose their students to the industry. On the job training is a win-win situation for corporate and students .The corporate can take advantage of the creative ideas of the young blood and students can get a hands on experience of the industry. Colleges have to learn from the industry's point of view if Campus placements have to become effective. They have to properly orient the students and also train them in soft skills. They must have an active placement cell, conduct aptitude test and send them for jobs which suit their skills. They should conduct various workshops for making students employable. Academicians are involved in research and they have a very strong ability to abstract from the problem and conceptualize and then solve it in the conceptual domain. There is a possibility of collaborative efforts on the issue of disbursement of funds for education purpose. Indian educational institutes have to work on the following areas: 1. Flexibility in course selection 2.Autonomy in syllabus framing 3. Industry based Research 4. Teaching learning more project based and independent 5. Teacher more a facilitator –so changing role of the educator and the learner The domains in which partnership is theoretically possible are: 1. Industry support to basic research for knowledge creation 2. Industry participation in technology development involving some exploratory work 3.Academic intervention in solving specific industry problems

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References / Bibliography · Pawan Agarwal, Indian higher education 'Envisioning the future' SAGE publications, · J.B.Tilak, Higher education in India - In search of Equality, Quality and Quantity, Orient Black Swan · Shambhu Nath Singh (2013) 'Globalisation of Education' -. University News, March18-24, · Industry-Academia Interface (2011) : An effective Tool towards Skill Development' University News,49(17) April 25-May 1 · Academic-Industry Interaction for Innovation (2014): An Empirical Study' University News, 52(9) March 03-09 Government Reports · NKC Report to the Nation 2006 · UGC Report 'Higher Education in India at glance'–Feb. 2012 · UGC Report 2013 On line references: · http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Employability · 10 tips to improve campus placements – www. Campus placement Interaction · http://www.larsentoubro.com/l · http://www.cgc.edu.in/industry-academia-interface.html · http://www.esamskriti.com/essay-chapters/Education-inthe-Vision-of-Vivekananda 1.aspx News-paper sources:

· · · · ·

Economic Survey 2011-12, India to join league of youngest nations by 2020 ET Bureau, Inside the mind of young India, Rama Bijapurkar, Jan 7, 2010 The HINDU- Demographic dividend at its peak, 7th Sept. 2012 The Economic Times, Economic Survey: Reform education sector to reap demographic dividend, PTI Feb 25, 2011 Sunday Times of India, 5th January, 2014, Report on access to Higher Education in Country

International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

International J. Res. Vol. 4. No. 2. 28-30, Jan-Jun 2015 ISSN : 2231 - 6124

Mutual Fund Investment from Virar City *Varada Katle Abstract Mutual Fund plays an important role in economy through mobilization and channelization of funds towards the security market, which has become the barometer of economic health. Mutual Fund is trust that pools the saving of small investors. This article is all about the investments done by people residing in Virar City. Virar is a small but integral part of western Mumbai. Here people are more enthusiastic, fun loving and hardworking. Here literacy rate and per capita income is increasing very fast. But people are not investing in financial products like stock, insurance, mutual funds. I have used survey method (Questionnaire & observation) for this research. From this research I come to know that most of the people in Virar whether they are educated ,uneducated , from upper, middle class or middle class , they prefer to invest in bullion , real estate , bank etc. The reasons why they are not investing in financial product are ignorance and unawareness of these products. From my point of view the investment in mutual fund is more feasible than other financial product. Because most of the people inVirar city are engaged in their ancestral business like fishing, sand supply, farming etc. we cannot ignore service class people .Virar is the last stop of western side. People have to spend on an average 3-4 hours daily in travelling. In all they won't find time to follow constant stock market and ups and downs of it. So investing in shares and debenture is not a feasible option for them. Mutual Fund is the investment where investor does not have to follow and check market every time because only fund managers of mutual fund do investing their money in to stock market. Other most important thing is that mutual fund gives diversified portfolio, so here risk can be minimized .From this type of investment they will get confidence as they are getting good return with less risk. They may try to invest in other financial product which is important for economic development.'' Keywords: Mutual fund, Investment, Financial product, Awareness, Diversified Portfolio. Introduction:The motive of this study is to find out the mutual fund investment of people residing in Virar city. For that we have to understand what is mutual fund, what are the types of mutual fund, features of mutual fund and advantages of it. SEBI Regulation1996 “Mutual Fund means a fund established in the form of trust to raise money through the sale of unit to the public or section of public under one or more scheme for investing in securities , in accordance with regulation.” A mutual fund is a type of professionally managed collective investment scheme that pools money from many investors to purchase securities. It is most commonly applied only to those collective investment vehicles that are regulated and sold to the general public. They are something referred to as 'Investment Companies' or registered investment company. Most mutual fund are open ended ;means stock holders can buy and sell shares of fund at any time by redeeming them from the fund itself rather than an exchange. Types of Mutual Fund: 1. Money Market Funds 2. Bond or Fixed income Funds 3. Stock or Equity Funds 4. Hybrid Funds. Fees: Investors in Mutual Fund pay the fund's expenses which reduce the fund's returns and performance. There is controversy about

the level of these expenses. A single mutual fund may give investors a choice of different combinations of expenses (which may include sales commissions or loads) by offering several different types of share classes. Features and Advantages of Mutual Fund: When an investor purchases shares in mutual fund, investors' money is invested in large number of companies all at once and their investment risk is spread out over many stocks of many companies and not just one. With mutual fund their potential for risk is less. The ups and downs in value for their investment are potential less with mutual fund than with an individual stock because they are more diversified. Mutual Fund makes it easy for investor to invest in stock and bonds. The two main advantages of investing their money in mutual funds are; 1. Investors received professional money management. 2. Investors are able to truly diversify their holdings with a small sum of money. Each mutual fund has one or more fund manager who is skilled in principles of money management. They have access to a huge data base of research. So basically investors are leaving the drive to them i.e. fund manager. Each fund also has a particular objective .That objective is defined in fund prospectus which describe the mutual fund and offers it share for sale. The prospectus provides information such as investment objectives, charges, expenses and operating policies. The objective could be for example, long-

*Assistant Professor, Viva Collage, Virar, Email: [email protected]

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International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

Mutual Fund Investment from Virar City

term growth, current income or combination of income and growth. Some stock mutual funds can own shares of stock from a few hundred companies, thereby limiting their holding in any one company to not more than 5-6% of all the assets in mutual fund. This is true diversification and investor risk generally is less than if they invested in just one or two individual unit. Some Top Mutual Funds Large cap Funds No 1. 2. 3. 4

Fund Name Birla Sun Life Long Term Birla Sun Life Top 100 BNP Paribas Equity Fund Quantum long Term Equity

NAV ( Rs. unit) 22.76 38.01 57.93 35.92

1year Return 64.1% 61.9% 52.5% 55.2%

AUM (RS. In Cr) 141.34 474.81 271.84 272.92

1year Return 114.1% 106.7% 131.2%

AUM (RS. In cr) 97.71 556.1 535

Small cap Fund No 1. 2. 3.

NAV(Rs. Unit) Birla Pure value fund 32.92 Franklin (I)smaller cos. 30.99 Reliance small cap Fund 20.15 Fund Name

NAV: NAV (NetAsset Value) represent a fund per share market value. This is the price at which investors buy fund share from Fund Company and sell them to a fund company. It is derived by dividing the total value of all the cash and securities in fund's portfolio, less any liabilities by the number of share outstanding. An NAV computation is undertaken once at the end of each trading day based on closing market price of the portfolio's securities. AUM: Asset under management sometimes called funds under management measure the total market value of all the financial assets which a financial institution such as mutual fund. Important Note: With all mutual funds the value of investor's investment could decline so he could lose money. Funds are subject to the general risks associated with the market and securities in which they invest. Research Study:Virar is city located in Maharashtra, India, part of the Mumbai metropolitan region. Virar is also part of Vasai-Virar Municipal Corporation in Palghar District .Virar railway station is the northern most railway station on western line of Mumbai suburban railway. Real Estate has been booming in Virar because of its tourism and big construction developers like Rustomjee, HIDL have already started constructing in Virar. In the next 2-3 yearsVirar is being eyed as a major developed city. Over a period of time Virar has become a cosmopolitan suburb with approximately 70% population being Marathi speaking and rest of mixed communities. The slow and gradual adoption of cosmopolitan nature of city is result of migration from Mumbai main land to this part due to ever increasing cost of real estate property. Research Methodology: 1. Primary Data: Obtain directly from public. · Questionnaire Method

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· Observation Method 2. Secondary Data: standard Text Books, Journals and Periodicals, News Papers, Websites, magazines. Sampling Method: · Sample size: 200 upper middle classes and middle classes families ofVirar City. Limitations of studies: 1. Sample size is small. 2. The study is under taken for Virar City only. 3. The study is approximate and due to human behavior people are not willing to give exact percentages or personal information regarding investment. Findings: According to data collected in May, Jun, July 2014 maximum people give preference to invest their saving according to the following chart. Preferred saving pattern of upper middles class people surveyed. Equity stock 4%

Investment

Real Estate 20%

Mutual Fund 1%

Gold 45% Bank 30%

From the chart we come to know that people prefer investment in Gold up to 45% of their saving. They would like to keep their saving in bank up to 30%.20% of their saving they like to invest in Real Estate, rest 4% in Equity Stock and hardly 1% in Mutual Fund. Reasons why the people would like to prefer to invest their saving in above pattern. · Most important reason is their tradition. Kunbi , Agry, Koli communities are residing in Virar. Having lot of gold is a matter of reputation. And due to traditional prospects they have to give lots of gold to their daughter/ sister in marriage. · Less awareness and more ignorance are the causes of less investment in Equity stock and Mutual fund. · They do not have sufficient time to trade in Equity share. Why Mutual Fund is more feasible for Virar People. · Virar is in western side of Mumbai. Here most people are engaged in ancestral business like fishery, sand supply, sale of fish, farming. And other class people spend 3-4 hours daily in travelling so they don't get enough time to focus on variety of investment areas. Many of them think of opting one time investment like FD or gold to save time and hence they invest their money in unproductive manner.

International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

Varada Katle

Mutual Fund is a good option for them because they do not have to spend time to check out the market trends which are necessary for equity share investment as fund manager will invest their funds in diversified manner. · Investment in Mutual Fund is very affordable investment in it starts from 5000/-. · Some Mutual Fund is open ended means they can withdraw money whenever required. · Mutual Fund gives diversified portfolio. By all means it is safer than Equity share or Debenture of particular company. As education is increasing day by day, they can easily understand what financial products are and benefit out of it. They can try other financial products like share, debenture, unit linked insurance plan etc. As investment in this product leads to our economic development. Conclusion: Mutual Fund plays a vital role in economic development. It collects fund from small investors and investing it in diversified market. Research of Mutual Fund investment from Virar city is very small part for whole Mutual Fund industry but it will surely provide good outlook and positive contribution towards economic growth. For above all, the interest of people regarding Mutual Fund is important. Recommendations: · By general awareness recruit the Mutual Fund agents from

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· · ·

local areas, means the persons should be from the same community and residing in nearby area. So at least people are willing to understand and get easily convinced to invest in Mutual Fund as the agents seem reliable. For awareness among local public, Mutual Fund seminars & presentation should be arranged by Mutual Fund companies. Financial product awareness through education should be increased in this area by distributing pamphlets, booklets, and past performance records of Mutual Funds. Mutual Fund companies can make small documentaries which they can show before the film starts in theaters.

References: · Text book T.Y. BFM 'Mutual Fund Management'-by Atul A. Sathe , Priti SAggrawal. · Text book T.Y. BFM 'Mutual Fund Management' –by LailaAhemed Patel · Mutual FundAnd Hedge Funds-by D.R.Joshi · Mutual Fund in India –by Nalini Prava Tripathi · www.moneycontrol.com · www.stockmarket.com · www.sebi.com · www.amfi.com

International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

International J. Res. Vol. 4. No. 2. 31-35, Jan-Jun 2015 ISSN : 2231 - 6124

Strengthening HRM Systems for Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs): A Systematic Approach *Mohammad Khalil Ahmad, **M.Z Farooqui Abstract Small business enterprises are located around the world and these businesses also have to perform all management functions. Though HR is an indispensable function in these business enterprises, it continues to be on the backseat among all other management functions such as finance, marketing, procurement, technology, The focus is on firefighting activities to maximize revenue, save costs, ensure better financial management. Since the HR expertise within an organization plays an important role in deciding its successes and failures, it is of paramount importance to pay heed to how well the HR systems have been devised. Keywords: HR, HR system, MSME, HR Practices, SSI units Introduction: Small businesses are the fastest growing segment of the US economy, and accounted for half of the nation's private gross domestic product and 75% of all new jobs in 1995 (Small Business Administration, 1996). The Small Business Administration defines small businesses as having fewer than 500 employees, and in fact, a large percentage of those businesses have fewer than 100 employees. This significant presence, combined with high failure rates, creates a need for increased attention to, and support of, the needs of these businesses and their owners. I/O has traditionally focused on finding solutions to the challenges facing large organizations, but we are seeing a call for attention to small businesses in recent years (Abbott &Aguinis, 1997; Schmidt, 1993). Small businesses are the fastest growing segment of an economy. The Indian economy includes a very large number of small enterprises, and the present government provided a number of protectionist measures. Even in the US economy, small businesses play an important role and accounted for half of the nation's private Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and 75% of all new jobs in 1995 (Small Business Administration, 1996). The Small Business Administration of the US defines small businesses as having fewer than 500 employees, and in fact, a large percentage of those businesses have fewer than 100 employees. The Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Development Act, 2006 has defined small-scale enterprises as those enterprises in which the investments in plant and machineries exceeds from 5 to 25 lakh and less than Rs. 5 cr. For the purpose of this paper, we are considering all organizations or business enterprises with investments ranging between Rs. 1 cr. and Rs. 5 cr. and the number of employees between 50-100. Enterprises with investment below Rs. 1 cr. and less than 50 employees are not included within the scope of this paper, as investment in HR by these enterprises may not be considered as an important function and laying emphasis on the same may prove expensive. As HR does not contribute directly to the enterprise's profitability and productivity, it is regarded as less

important even by many medium and large-scale organizations. Small business organizations only grow big. Even the most successful large organizations such as Escorts, NIIT and MRF started as small ones. But it has also been observed that despite the best of the governmental support, there has been a high incidence of sickness and failure of many small enterprises. The significant presence, combined with high failure rates of small business organizations creates a need for increased support to these enterprises to help them become more professionally managed. A lot of attention has been given to these small businesses in recent years as a lot of investment of the government has gone into them. Success and Failure of Small Businesses: Some Experiences and Observations Small businesses of different categories in India have received the support of the government, banks, financial institutions and many others, including small industrial associations and federations, for a long time. However, the support did not probably help them perform better and grow bigger. In spite of the extremely constructive role played by these, the postglobalization period saw a series of closures of small businesses in various states such as Maharashtra, Gujarat, UP, Himachal Pradesh, Delhi and Punjab. During the preliberalization period, some of these businesses performed very well, and these are now faced with severe setbacks and finally not only faced closure but complete ouster from the business world altogether. Some of the organizations which met with failure are Weston Electronics, Televista and Texla among the private ones, and Uptron, Keltron, etc. among the government ones. Some companies such as Luxor could survive the shocks of the post-liberalization period and continuously grow amidst rising competitions. Luxor, today, is a well-known company in the writing instruments industry. Likewise, many small businesses have grown big. HCL started as a small company and has today become a great organization. Nirma too started in a small way and by doing the right things has become a

*HOD, Department of Commerce, Burhani College of Commerce & Arts, Mumbai. E-mail id: [email protected] **Principal, Rizvi College of Arts, Science, & Commerce, Mumbai.

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International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

Mohammad Khalil Ahmad & M.Z Farooqui

leading brand and a large organization today. It is important to understand reasons which made a major difference in the successes and failures of these organizations. When we look at some of the small organizations of the past that have excelled and grown big, such as HCL and Infosys, it is clear that HR was one of the important things given high attention to by these companies, though it could be limited to attracting talent, fitting the right person to the right job, keeping people motivated and satisfied, giving them a feeling of pride that they are working there. And the companies did these, in spite of the expenses involved. Talent management, talent development and talent transformation for competency development were resorted to. Talented human resources have made a difference even among large organizations. State Trading Corporation (STC) and Minerals & Metals Trading Corporation Ltd. (MMTC) met with similar setbacks, but the redefinition of organizational goals by MMTC conforming to the organizational talent possessed helped them in achieving excellence. Making the right effort in the right manner is important. It makes a difference, and that is what HR is all about when we talk of the same in small businesses. 'Talented people driven organizations', as compared to 'individual entrepreneur and few technical and field personnel driven organizations', have made a difference in the past and are going to make a difference in future as well. Creating a corporate vision for a small organization for a positive turnaround requires strengthening the role and function of HR in small organizations on a war footing. Small-Scale Sector in India: The small-scale sector is widely known as the less capitalintensive producer of goods and services and provider of employment to labour, thereby addressing the issues of reducing poverty and unemployment. According to rough estimates of 2013-14, there were about 183.95 lakh SSI units (registered and unregistered) in the country accounting for more than 40% gross value of output in the manufacturing sector and about 34% of the total exports of the country. It also provides employment to about 271.36 lakh persons, which is second only to agriculture. It has emerged as the engine of growth for Indian industry and has a direct impact on the growth of the national economy. Employment in the sector increased from 220.55 lakh persons to 282.82 lakh persons in 2013-14. Similarly, exports increased from Rs.79, 248 cr in 2008-09 to Rs.140, 013 cr in 2012-13. Various reasons for sickness has been identified by DC (SSI) ,* such as lack of demand, shortage of raw material, non-availability of raw material, power shortage, labour problems, marketing problems, equipment problems and management problems. Table 1 gives the details of the number of units which became sick due to various problems. It can be seen from the Table that the total SSI units affected due to these various problems are far too many. Most of the causes can be attributed to low capability/ competency in SSI units to manage these problems, thus stressing the need for HR in small businesses. Nature of Small Business Problems: Small businesses, especially those with fewer than 100 workers, have unique features and have huge variations among them. Technology adopted, nature of the business, market competitiveness, market demands, future potentials are all

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different. Most of these organizations have the following major unique features: v High numbers of single incumbent jobs; v High incidence of employees performing multiple roles in the company. v Unclear roles and responsibilities.

Characteristics Lack of demand

Table 1: Reasons for Sickness of the SSI Sector Registered SSI Unregistered Total SSI Sector Sector Sector 1, 11,508 (58%) 4, 35,121 (69%) 5, 46,629 (66%)

Shortage of working capital Non-availability of raw material Power shortage Labor problems Marketing problems Equipment problems Management problems

*

1, 09,844 (57%) 2, 69,648 (43%) 3, 79,492 (46%) 23,493 (12%)

76,029 (12%)

33,099 (17%) 77,345 (12%) 12,182 (6%) 26,282 (4%) 70,202 (37%) 2, 24,002 (36%) 16,995 (9%) 76,038 (12%) 9,124 (5%) 21,088 (3%) Source: DC(SSI)

99,522 (12%) 1, 10,444 (13%) 38,464 (5%) 2, 94,204 (36%) 93,033 (11%) 30,212 (4%)

Development Commissioner (Small Scale Industries).

Less capacity and less willingness to pay a fair amount of wages and salaries A firm belief that a "carrot-and-stick approach" to taking work is the best way Business owners look for employees with high belongingness levels Exploitative approach still regarded as the best one as that gives a feeling to the business owners that they have been able to take more work for a very less Pay. In the whole, the problems of small businesses are many, and they have to be made the base for determining what all aspects of HR must be taken up for strengthening the small businesses. In many cases, new businesses start with a handful of people who are brought together because of their unique skill sets and contributions to the endeavor. ESCORTS can be taken as an example which started only with a handful of people. Small businesses grow gradually into big businesses, and over a period of time depending on the requirements, manpower also increases. Then comes the problem of restructuring of the business, creating different departments and thus needing to carry out HR processes also. Initially, small businesses cannot hire specialist HR staff and thus have the limitations of providing best depending on what is the knowledge level of the family business owner. HR is not an area which a small businessman is likely to give importance to as he is often engaged in managing market, managing pressures from the customers and also in providing quality products and services. Injustices are, in the process, done to the human resource. It ay so happen also that by default some very good and highly experienced employees also land up in the organization. But in the absence of good and properly evolved HR practices, it may not be possible to keep these people and thus they find their way out of the organization eventually or otherwise continue with a lesser degree of involvement or motivation. Small businesses can build a good human resource

International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

Strengthening HRM Systems for Small and Medium Enterprises ....

pool and that requires working in that direction. Linked to these HR issues, there are also problems such as promotion of strong individual contributors to management positions. mall business owners often tell stores about their homegrown staff such as the accountant who grew into the CFO position and the software development expert who directs the R division. Some of these employees have from the verybeginning unhesitatingly carried out all kinds of work along with the owners and hey develop a huge loyalty towards the business, business promoters and also the business family with whom they get very close. They know all the minute historical developments of the business, and eventually they enjoy—as they are more often than not liked by family business owners—more perks and facilities than most employees on the rolls and emerge as the second set of power centers. However, they may severally lack the insights to lead the business to greater height as they also may not be professionally wellrained Taking business to the next phase of its development is highly needed or else the organization after a good period of growth may not be able to even sustain and eventually perish. This may be because they may often lack the skills and experience required to manage people, which can increase tension and ambiguity among employees and reduce overall organizational effectiveness and productivity. Problems in Designing HR Systems and Processes for Small Businesses Small businesses are not unaware of the challenges facing them. In one of the surveys conducted, it was found that businesses with ewer than100 employees liste the following as the major HR problems affecting the functioning of small businesses, wage rates, availability of quality workers, benefits and government regulations. The most obvious challenge presented by small businesses is the small number of people in any one job. Designing HR systems requires careful study of what the organization actually requires and also what the organization' owners actually want. A balance is always needed to be struck between the two, as otherwise the HR system may be made available to them but the same may not be acceptable to them. Therefore, a R consultant, who has the experience of best HR practices, may be engaged for small businesses, and also a needs-based HR system can be provided to small organizations. The system should be such that it actually influences them. This is important, as generally this is a function which owners feel they know better. An owner of family business may make people accept that what he feels about HR practices is something that none else can think of and force others to follow a system with severe flaws. And the system with all the flaws goes on in the organization, and no one knows how long these systems can take to carry the business forward to the next needed development phase. In the past, there were several examples of failures such as Weston Electronics, Texla TV, Televista and several others in the electronics sector which no longer exist today. It is not that they did not hire professionals, but even they could not change the family business owners' mind sets and had a spiraling fall after a spiraling rise. They just were not able to manage the shocks of globalization and liberalization. At around the same time, Hindustan Computers Ltd. was also set up as a small business to start with. But Shiv

33

Nadar, the man behind HCL, did not take any chances and hired HR specialists for its human resource systems, policies and strategies. And it is well known where HCL stands today. Definitely, It is the HR expertise available to a small business that probably makes a difference, and there are many examples of these kinds of successes and failures. Specific HR Components Essential for Small Businesses he small businesses have to decide in the first place whether they want to stick to the existing size and operate at the same level without much of expansion, or they want to continuously expand to become big and global. All businesses start as small. But it is their vision that guides them to their destiny. If they want to become big, they can. But for that they have to resort to good HR practices, as finally it is the human resource skills and talents which can make them big. NIIT is a classic example of the fact that it started small and today it is mobilizing funds from the public. NIIT had set out its vision clearly and had evolved the best of the HR policies to attract the best available talent, retain, train, develop and provide best career for best deliveries and high growth achievements. For all these, NUT needed to evolve and it did evolve the best HR policies, systems and strategies for best HR actions from HR planning to recruitment, selection, induction, placement, training, development, career planning, role analysis, performance appraisal, assessment centers, 360 degree feedback, etc. It had the best of HR systems from the beginning, and its policy was to have best people and keep them the best. Therefore, the HR policies and the strategy are sed on what the company wants. Even large autonomous government institutions with smaller number of people, where not much need for professional HR approach to managing people was felt, had to face tremendous setbacks only because of inappropriateness of HR policies. Therefore, whether it is a large or small organization, industrial organization or an institution, HR is a must, and has to be context-based. Depending on what the organization's vision is, its competitive and comparative advantages, and the industry trend, the HR policies and systems have to be devised. Approach to Developing HR for Small Businesses he first step in the process of developing HR for small businesses is developing the organization vision. HR for small businesses is possible only in those organizations that have a clear vision of becoming big. The organization, thus, must be one with a vision. Once the organization's vision is in place, an HRD vision will also have to be developed, i.e., what all must be done in HRD to strength the organization's internal systems and processes, and it should focus on: Devising HR plans and strategies for the organization's line personnel to carry out organization's core/line activities. Devising HR policies and systems for the organization as a whole keeping in view achieving the organization's vision, which must be in terms of at least a five-year perspective to introduce such HR systems and strategies that the organization's growth may demand. These require making the owner group fully acquainted with the nature, need, importance and scope of HRD in terms of what it can do to the organization. The importance has to be emphasized strongly to make them realize that HRD is

International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

Mohammad Khalil Ahmad & M.Z Farooqui

extremely essential and must not be ignored in any way. The small organizations have to be also impressed upon that HRD is not something that is hi-fi, but that it' systematic and planned introduction will strengthen the organization and contribute to the achievement of s vision. This is important because a small organization's concern is growth. They always indulge in firefighting with regard to main organizational and business concerns. The main problems and issues are that of finance, marketing, and technology for becoming big, and people who are available in abundance can be hired anyway at any cost on any terms and conditions.As the hygiene factors are even today important, employers have an upper edge, and employment of people is possible on any terms. These are the basic guiding philosophies of the small businesses as far as implementation of HR in small business is concerned. HRD Vision Development The next most important process therefore is development of the HRD vision of the organization. HRD vision for the organization has to be specifically evolved to be achievable in a period of next four to five years. After developing the HRD vision, it must also set out clearly HRD thrusts needed and HRD goals. It must subsequently clearly spell out the various subsystem the HRD of the small organization must focus on. The various subsystems in which HR can be introduced in small organizations are: 1. Work Subsystems ! Role analysis and clarity ! Work planning ! Potential appraisal and deployment 2. Career Subsystems ! HR planning ! Recruitment selection and induction ! Placement and career planning 3. Development Subsystems ! Knowledge and skills training in the area of work of the employee ! Behavioral training 4. Culture Subsystems ! Addressing and resolving employees' problems. ! Right concerns for the right people v Managing employee informal groups ! Managing and shaping organizations' political dynamics 5. Self- Renewal Subsystems v Organizational problem diagnosis v Organizational Development (OD) interventions for managing external and internal change pressures ! Bench marking and inter-firm comparisons ! Team-building linked to organization development These and many other aspects are all covered in large organizations. In small organizations, depending on the nature of the organization, some selected aspects of the different subsystems of HRD have to be carefully devised. Some such aspects on selective basis for each of the above subsystems are discussed below: Work Subsystems Role analysis and clarity is the most important in the work subsystem. The small organization's resource mobilization capacity is relatively lower, therefore lesser number of

34

personnel carry out or manage more than one or more roles. Achieving highest levels of 'Role Efficacy' has to be an important criterion for making roles in small organization more effective. Role analysis requires to be thoroughly carried out from top to bottom, making every position's vision, mission, goals, Key Result Areas (KRAs) and objectives of the KRAs more clearly to one and all. Work planning and potential appraisal done on the basis of the role analysis will develop higher effectiveness. Career Subsystems HR Planning, Recruitment Selection and Induction, and Placement and Career Planning are the main jobs of a large organization's HR department, and these have to find an appropriate place in small organization also. The CEO may carry this out or a Personnel Officer or an HR Executive specially appointed f the purpose. Not only HR planning, but based on HR planning, the complete HR budgeting will help increase a small organization's HR productivity. Recruitment, selection, induction, placement and career planning processes have to be based on the organization's specific needs. Development Subsystems The main components of the development subsystem that must be introduced in small organizations are training systems based on competency mapping, which takes into account the actual training needs of the employees across the organization. It must specifically focus on enhancing the knowledge and skills in the area of work of the employee and behavioral training which directly or indirectly affects performance adversely. Culture Subsystems Employees' problems, concerns for people, employees' informal groups and organization's political dynamics are a few of the many others that give rise to or helps in developing an organization's culture. Systems and processes require to be rightly addressed for each of these so that the small organizations' culture remains conducive to organizations' growth and productivity. Self-renewal Subsystems Small organizations generally are continuously struggling for survival and growth. Therefore, the self-renewal needs are not as high as of large organizations. However, undertaking organizational problem diagnosis programs for identifying various organizational problems and deciding on choice of the various interventions may help small organizations proceed in the right direction. OD interventions may be required for managing external and internal change pressures in the organization. Bench marking studies and inter-firm comparisons may help small organizations in chalking out long-term growth strategies. Working in teams is productivity and therefore nurturing team culture and stressing on team-building for developing organization will also help smaller organizations achieve higher performance. Cost effectiveness could be viewed as the result of the other three characteristics. A system, process, or tool that is flexible, expandable, and creates internal expertise is one that likely saves money. Other cost reduction strategies include outsourcing specific processes, contracting for specific HR services rather than building an internal function, and transferring ownership of HR processes to line management (if

International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

Strengthening HRM Systems for Small and Medium Enterprises ....

trained) rather than having a large staff function manage them. Conclusion Small organizations generally focus on product, quality, finance, marketing, etc. which can help in sel-sustainability and expansion of business activities. HR looks to them to be relatively unimportant. The general belief of small business organizations also has not changed. They still believe in the carrot-and-stick approach. To introduce HR systems androcesses in small organizations, there has to be a paradigm shift from such a belief towards a climate of more openness, trust, autonomy, pro-activity, cooperation and teamwork. Introducing HR in small organizations on a selective basis as above may help all organizations improve organizational productivity.

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References: · Abbott, E. T., & Aguinis, H. (1997, April). Applications of industrial/organizational psychology research to small businesses. Paper presented at Twelfth Annual SIOP Conference, St. Louis, MO. · Schmidt, F. L., (1993). Personnel psychology at the cutting edge. In Schmitt, N., Borman, W.C., and Associates (Eds.), personnel selection in organizations San Francisco: Jossey-ass. · Hornsby, J. S., and Kuratko, D. F., (1990). Human resource management in small business: Critical issues for the 1990s. journal of Small Business Management, 28 9-18. · United States Small Business Administration (1996). The facts about small business (See also: http://www. sba.gov)

International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

International J. Res. Vol. 4. No. 2. 36-39, Jan-Jun 2015 ISSN : 2231 - 6124

Financial Inclusion – Way Forward *Rajeshwari Padmanabhan

Abstract The issue of Financial Inclusion attracted attention in India as a fallout of the NSSO Survey 2003. RBI encouraged banks to open no-frill accounts. Though a number of accounts were opened they remained inactive in many cases. This was followed by Committee on Financial Inclusion in 2006. Based on recommendation of this Committee, a phase wise coverage of geographical area based on population was adopted. It appeared that the banks had achieved the targets but this was only on paper as the access to the account in these new geographies was not addressed adequately through the presence of BC and related infrastructure. The figures reported to RBI by Banks showed an increasing trend but the number of transactions in these account remained negligible. The GCC was also not active in most cases. Reviewing the initiative of the previous Government and the slow progress, the new Government in 2014 has shown urgency and launched Jan Dhan programme. Under this programme new accounts were to be opened and insurance cover to be provided to the account holders. This paper examines the journey of Financial Inclusion since 2004 and the way forward to make banking a reality for the excluded. Keywords: Financial Inclusion, Insurance, BankAccount Introduction and Definitions The debate in the Financial Sector for the past decade has been dominated by Financial Inclusion. In order to understand the various facets of this issue, there is need for clarity on what Financial Inclusion entails. If the literature is scanned for the various definitions of Financial Inclusion it throws up quite an interesting variety. To understand the concept of Inclusion it may be useful to ponder on the opposite i.e. Financial Exclusion. The definitions of financial exclusion vary depending on the dimensions it emphasizes. The emphasis could be on 'breadth', 'focuses and 'degree' of exclusion. The 'breadth' dimension is the mostly commonly debated and accepted of all definitions linking financial exclusion to social exclusion which defines financial exclusion as the barriers that prevent poor and disadvantaged social groups from gaining access to the financial system (Leyshon and Thrift, 1995)[1]. Over the years several definitions of Financial Inclusion/Exclusion have evolved. Most of these definitions are operational and are context-sensitive depending on the country-specific problems of financial exclusion and socioeconomic conditions. A list of definitions emanating in the recent past is given in Table 1. [2] One of the important aspects of the definition is identification of delineable verifiable indicators to assess whether the objective as defined is being achieved or not. Reserve Bank of India (RBI) in its report on currency and finance in 2008 has done a succinct analysis of all aspects of Financial Inclusion in India. Review of the evolution of the Problems of Financial Inclusion Decennial surveys of Debt and Investments have been carried

out in India since 1951-52. The first two surveys were undertaken by Reserve Bank of India (RBI). From 1971-72, these surveys were undertaken by National Sample Survey Organization under the aegis of Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MOSPI). These surveys revealed that large gaps in financial access from formal institutions by a large majority of the population. The Nationalization of Banks in July 1969 was aimed at improving the access of banking services in rural areas. But it was soon realized that branch expansion in the rural areas by Commercial Banks was proving to be expensive and was fraught with issues of human resources. The recruits in Banks were largely from urban areas and were unwilling to go to rural areas. Wherever posted did not exhibit the right attitude to deal with the rural customers. This forced the Government to look for a low cost model of Regional Rural Banks (RRBs) having commercial orientation manned by persons with local feel. The combined efforts of Nationalization and establishment of RRBs saw unprecedented branch expansion. The increase in outreach was visible. The All India Debt and Investment Surveys during the period 1971-72 to 1991-92 showed growing access to financial services with concomitant reduction in the role of informal sector. However, the NSSO Survey of 2003 highlighted stagnation or a subtle reversal of the trend in the decade 1992-2002. Policy Thrust – Financial Inclusion RBI encouraged banks to open no-frill accounts in November 2005[3]. Provision was also made for issue of General Credit Card (GCC) of small amounts to these account holders not exceeding Rs. 25000[4]. In order to encourage the banks to undertake the activity advances issued under GCC was

* Associate Professor in Business Economics, Rizvi College of Arts, Science and Commerce, Bandra , Mumbai. Email id: [email protected]

36

International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

Financial Inclusion – Way Forward

reckoned as part priority sector lending. Though a large number of accounts were opened they remained inactive in many cases. RBI also permitted the banks to employ Business Correspondents in January 2006[5]. This was followed by Committee on Financial Inclusion in 2006. Based on recommendation a phase wise coverage of geographical area based on population was adopted. It appeared that the banks had achieved the targets but it remained only on paper as the access to the account in these new geographies was not addressed adequately through the presence of BC and related infrastructure. The figures reported to RBI by Banks showed an increasing trend but the number of transactions in the newly opened accounts remained negligible. The GCC was also not active in most cases. As can be observed from the Table 2[6], data published by RBI that the number of accounts grew constantly during the period 2002 to 2013. From nearly 44 crore accounts in 2002 it grew to around 52 crore in 2007 and doubled to 104 crore accounts in 2013. The amount of deposits doubled between 2002 and 2007 while it grew nearly twenty nine times during 2007 to 2013. It is also interesting to note that the share of rural deposits slowed during 2002 and 2007 (could be attributed partially to the fact that banks were permitted to close down loss making branches and relocate them). This is also reflected in the decline of rural branches during 2002 and 2007. The situation has improved after the policy thrust towards Financial Inclusion has been witnessed since 2006. The number of rural branches as well as the amount of deposits have shown increase and the share of rural deposits has also registered an upward trend. Financial Inclusion – Way Forward There was a change of Government in 2014. While reviewing the initiatives of the previous Government and the fact that in spite of such huge growth in number of accounts, there remained many rural families without a bank account. This prompted a degree of urgency in the new Government which launched Jan Dhan programme. While addressing the nation on Independence Day, Prime Minister Narendra Modi announced from the ramparts of Red Fort to start a national mission of financial inclusion styled as the Pradhan Mantri's Jan-Dhan Yojana (PMJDY) envisioning bank account for all Indians. In its first phase, ending August 14, 2015, the target was set at 75 million accounts. Quoting the Prime Minister Narendra Modi on the occasion “I wish to connect the poorest citizens of the country with the facility of bank accounts,” “There are millions of families who have mobile phones, but no bank accounts. We have to change this. The change will commence from this point.”

The PMJDY was formally launched on August 28, 2014. Banks across the country had worked overtime to make the necessary arrangements and on the day of launch more than 15 million accounts were added. “It is the end of financial untouchability,” reiterated the PM. “It is the beginning of freedom from poverty.” These accounts opened under PMJDY entitled every account holder to a RuPay debit card; accident insurance cover of Rs.100000 and life insurance coverage of Rs. 30000 for those opening accounts before January 26, 2015 and an overdraft facility of Rs. 5000. Though the target was set at 75 million accounts by January 26, 2015 more than 130 million accounts had been opened. The Prime Minister has now announced launch of two insurance schemes Prime Minister's Jeevan Jyoti Bima Yojana (PMJJBY) and Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima Yojana (PMSBY). If the same degree of success is achieved in the two insurance schemes as was registered during the account opening drive under PMJDY it can be conclusively told that India is moving toward Financial Inclusion in a much more emphatic manner as has never before been achieved in the nation's history. What will remain to be addressed is the credit needs which too given the commitment and motivation of the Government does not seem too far away and we shall well and truly achieve Total Financial Inclusion as described by Dr C Rangarajan in his report of the Committee on Financial Inclusion. Reference: · Leyshon, A. and N. Thrift. 1993. “The Restructuring of the UK Financial Services Industry in the 1990s: A Reversal of Fortune?” Journal of Rural Studies, 9: 223–41 · Reserve Bank of India, Report on Currency and Finance 2008 ChapterVII · http://old.rbi.org.in/scripts/BS_CircularIndex Display.aspx?Id=2615-RBI circular on “no-frills” account · http://old.rbi.org.in/scripts/BS_CircularIndexDisplay. aspx?Id=2670 - RBI circular on issuance of GCC cards · http://old.rbi.org.in/scripts/BS_CircularIndexDisplay. aspx?Id=2718 – RBI circular on appointment of BCs · Reserve Bank of India, Trends and Progess in Banking (2014 publication), (2009 publication) and (2003 publication). Table 1.3 Population Group-wise deposits and credits.

Appendices:

Table 1

37

Institution/Author

Definition

Indicators

ADB (2000)

Provision of a broad range of financial services such as deposits, loans, payment services, money transfers and insurance to poor and low-income households and their microenterprises.

Deposits, loans, payment services, money transfer and insurance.

International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

Rajeshwari Padmanabhan

Stephen P. Sinclair (2001)

Financial exclusion means the inability to access necessary financial services in an appropriate form. Exclusion can come about as a result of problems with access, conditions, prices, marketing or self-exclusion in response to negative experiences or perceptions. Financial exclusion is lack of access by certain consumers to appropriate low cost, fair and safe financial products and services from mainstream providers. Financial exclusion becomes a concern in the community when it applies to lower income consumers and/or those in financial hardship.

Basic banking services for money transmission, credit, insurance, debt and debt assistance, long-term savings and financial literacy.

Ability of individuals to access appropriate financial products and services.

Affordable credit and savings for all and access to financial advice

Access for individuals to appropriate financial products and services. This includes having the capacity, skills, knowledge and understanding to make the best use of those products and services. Financial exclusion by contrast, is the converse of this. A financial sector that provides ‘access’ to credit for all ‘bankable’ people and firms, to insurance for all insurable people and firms and to savings and payments services for everyone. Inclusive finance does not require that everyone who is eligible use each of the services, but they should be able to choose to use them if desired.

Access to products and services, and/or capacity, skills, knowledge and understanding

The process of ensuring access to financial services and timely and adequate credit where needed by vulnerable groups such as weaker sections and low income groups at an affordable cost.

Access to financial services and timely and adequate credit

Broad access to financial services implies an absence of price and non-price barriers in the use of financial services; it is difficult to define and measure because access has many dimensions. Source – Report on Currency and Finance, RBI, 2008 Chapter VII

Access to financial services such as deposit, credit, payments, insurance

Chant Link and Associates, Australia (2004)

Treasury Committee, House of Commons, UK (2004) Scottish Government (2005)

United Nations (2006 b)

Report of the Committee on Financial Inclusion in India (Chairman: C.Rangarajan) (2008)

World Bank (2008)

Deposit accounts, direct investments, home loans, credit cards, personal loans, building insurance and home insurance

Access to credit, insurance, savings, payment services.

Table 2: Details of Deposits with Scheduled Commercial Banks during 2002 - 2013 Amount in Rs. Lakh Mar-13 No. of Amount Accounts

POPULATION GROUP

No. of Offices

RURAL

1 39,233

2 335347106

3 6698886.82

(35.9)

(32.1)

(9.6)

38

No. of Offices

Mar-07 No. of Amount Accounts

No. of Offices

Mar-02 No. of Amount Accounts

1

2

3

1

2

3

30,393

1496,62,685

253013,69

32,443

132999542

159423,46

(9.7)

(47.8)

(30.2)

(14.2)

(41.5)

(28.8)

International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

Financial Inclusion – Way Forward

SEMI-URBAN

URBAN

METROPOLITAN

ALL-INDIA

28,529

283989969

9791935.47

(26.1)

(27.2)

(14.0)

21,618

203090638

14970129.4

(19.8)

(19.4)

(21.3)

19,899

222676882

38665251.9

(18.2)

(21.3)

(55.1)

109279

1045104595

(100.0)

(100.0)

16,352 (22.3) 13,699 (18.7) 12,755

1328,08,237 (25.6) 1134,21,838 (21.8) 1233,06,447 (23.7)

357395,14

14,910

117393585

214990,39

(13.8) 532592,21

(21.9) 11,252

(26.7) 94621681

(19.1) 532592,21

(20.5) 1454043,47

(16.6) 9,292

(21.5) 94974540

(22.8) 493501,37

70126203.6

(17.4) 73,199

5191,99,207

(56.0) 2597044,50

(13.7) 67,897

(21.6) 439989348

(43.9) 1123393,32

(100.0)

(100.0)

(100.0)

(100.0)

(100.0)

(100.0)

(100.0)

Source - Trends and Progress in Banking, RBI various issues

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International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

International J. Res. Vol. 4. No. 2. 40-42, Jan-Jun 2015 ISSN : 2231 - 6124

Growth of Cost of Production per Farm in Post Reform Era *Rabindra Kumar Mishra

Abstract This research paper examines the growth of cost of production per farm in agricultural sector in post reform over pre reform period. After receiving new inspirations from different institutions and agencies, Indian farmers, in post reform period, have left the conventional approach in acceptance of the modern agricultural practices and are using purchased inputs like high yielding variety seeds, fertiliser, pesticides and insecticides, machine labour, hired labour etc. in anticipation of augmentation of the production and productivity to form a authenticated circumstances to feed the inadequate teeming millions. Due to the application of these inputs, the cost of production is growing. So, in this paper in order to examine the growth of cost of production, a field study (2013-14) of three villages of different degree of Bargarh district (Odisha) India has been done. In order to know the significant difference in the growth of cost of production per farm across the villages and farm sizes in post reform over pre reform period, the analysis of variance (ANOVA) has been used. Keywords: Cost of production, farm, inputs, pre reform, post reform and agricultural development Introduction In the post reform period farmers are accessible to new ideas and consequently interested to take risks by using the inputs like high yielding seeds, application of high quantity of fertilizer, pesticides and insecticides, machine labour (tractor, thrasher, harvesters etc.), hired labour etc essential for modern agricultural practices to surmount the biggest challenges countenanced by the nation concerning to let-up of hunger and poverty. In addition, it is also observed that since 1991 the average productivity has been increasing due to the increased use of modern inputs. However, the price of these inputs is increasing progressively by which the poor farmers are unable to meet the cost of production and accordingly gives a break in the enhancement of food grain production. But, the growth of production in agricultural sector exemplifies compassionate forward-looking to the problem of food crisis experienced worldwide, provided it is bestowed with financial support together with technological assistance. But, the cost of production per farm in post reform period has been growing. In countries like Mexico and Japan, agriculture has fared better off several times than that of India. It is not because that they have relatively superior quality of land but due to the developed technology, skill, better quality seeds and better financial facilities etc (Desai,2001). In India there has been a significant increase in the areas under high yielding variety programme in post reform period. A number of high yielding varieties of rice and wheat, hybrids of maize, jower and bajra have been introduced. By 1997-98 a total of 76 million hectares of land were covered by high yielding varieties. The coverage of area under high yielding variety is high as 90 percent of total in case of wheat and 75 percent in case of rice of total area. However, it is 100% in Japan and South Korea, 98% in China, 96% in Sri Lanka and Philippines. In this way, it is more in case

of Indonesia, Vietnam. It is appealing to note that the most important rice producing country, Thailand uses the high yielding variety seeds only in 30% of rice sown area. In Asia, 80% of total rice sown area is coming under high yielding variety seeds (Economic and Political weekly, Jun 21, 2003).Definitely the use of modern technology enhances the agricultural productivity. Recently, it has been seen that various modern technologies developed and espoused by the farmers over the period have continued to make a substantial impact on the growth of productivity. Besides crops loose self protecting power, it compels the farmers to use more pesticides and insecticides. There is also the erosion of soil fertility and consequently the use of fertilisers per hectare has been increased from 105.5kg in 2005-06 to 128.6kg in 200809(Shivay and Rahal, 2010). Like HYV seeds, pesticides and insecticides the use of machine labour has already been increased. The share of animal power in India has also been declined from 45.3% in 1971-1972 to 9.5% in 2001-2002(Datt and Mahajan, 2010) which clearly indicates about the substitution of machine power in place of animal power. Machine power now appends 44% of total farm power requirement. Recently government programme relating to augmentation of agricultural implement and machineries have been promoting farm mechanisation and the use of improved agricultural implement in the country. So, due to the increased use of these purchased modern inputs and rise in their price, the cost of production is becoming high. Most of the studies illustrate the significance of the use of modern technology in agricultural field for the growth of agricultural production. But, specifically the analysis and discussion on the cost of production and its growth per farm in post reform over pre reform period are found to be deficient. So, in this paper an endeavor has been made to examine the

* Lecturer in Economics, Sohela Degree College, Sohela, Bargarh(Orissa), India, Pin-768033.Email ID: [email protected]

40

International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

Growth of Cost of Production per Farm in Post Reform Era

growth of cost of production per farm in post reform over pre reform period. More distinctively, the objectives of the study were: 1. To analyse the importance of the use of modern inputs and equipments in agricultural sector to enhance production and productivity. 2. To examine the percentage growth of cost of production per farm in agricultural sector in post reform period over pre reform period across the villages and farm sizes under study. 3. To deduce certain findings for a valuable concluding remark for the policy maker to recommend to reduce the price of the inputs used by the farmers. Data base and Methodology The present study is confined to Bargarh district of Odisha state only. Bargarh district is an agriculturally developed district of western Odisha which forms a part of eastern plateau and hills as far as agro climatic zone is concerned. The study district is basically composed of two distinct agro-climatic zones- one is canal irrigation and the other zone rain fed farms. The district under study is agriculturally rich being major beneficiaries of the canal irrigation system of Hirakud (Dam) command area. The study is mostly based on the primary source of data collected through a pre-designed questionnaire. The help of secondary source of data collected from the published/unpublished records of government and other sources has also been taken for the purpose of cross checking the primary data concerning to the use of purchased inputs, cost of production and other aspects for the year under study 2013-14. Three villages- irrigated (double crop area), semiirrigated (where irrigation for one crop i.e. kharif crop is assured) and rain fed (non-irrigated) with different degree of agrarian development and irrigation facilities drawn from three different blocks of the district are considered for present study. These villages were selected by stratified random sampling method. But the selection of the sample cultivators of the sample villages is made on the basis of census method. Based on the operational holdings the farms in each village under study are divided into three categories such as small, medium and large farms. Altogether 227 samples were collected from three sample villages. The year 1989-90 was selected as the pre-reform period. During this year and prior to that the percentage of farmers not interested to take risks by using the purchased inputs like fertiliser, pesticides, insecticides; machine labour etc. either due to their conservative attitude or lack of awareness as well as institutional financial support was more. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to ascertain the difference in growth of cost of production per farm between villages (Irrigated, semi-irrigated, and nonirrigated) and farm size categories (Small, medium and large). ResultAnalysis In pre reform period, most of the farmers of the study villages were not interested to take risks by using new technology and adopting modern agricultural practices. It was due to absence of knowledge, awareness and conservative attitude. However; in post reform period due to the

41

establishment of new institutions and agencies developed for ensuring services required by modern agriculture and institutional financial support, farmers became aware and interested to adopt modern agricultural practices and gradually cost of production increased. The cost of production per farm both in pre and post reform period and its growth both in rupees in agricultural sector in study villages is shown in table 1. Table-1 Cost of production per farm both in pre reform and postreform period over pre reform period.

Nature of villages surveyed Irrigated

SemiIrrigated NonIrrigated

Size of farms Small Medium Large Small Medium Large Small Medium Large

Cost of production per farm in Pre reform period (in Rs.)

Cost of production per farm in Post reform period (in Rs.)

Growth of cost of production in post-reform period over pre reform period (in Rs.)

14620.73 28509.00 49347.25 12583.47 16868.50 25726.70 4869.20 8254.32 20828.65

21356.15 42961.92 74422.50 21625.61 28501.37 44735.50 7546.26 14267.92 29321.65

6735.42 14452.92 25075.25 9042.14 11632.87 11008.80 2677.06 6013.60 8493.00

Sources: Field Survey Note: - 1. The farms are categorised on the basis of their operational holdings Small farms– Upto 5 acres, Medium farm - 5.01 to 10 acres and Large farms – more than 10 acres 2. The cost of production per farm=cost incurred for the use of HYV seeds per farm+ fertilizer per farm+ pesticide per farm+ hired labour per farm +machine labour per farm+ others per farm. It is observed from the table-1 that the cost of production per farm in the pre reform period in irrigated village (V1) is found highest in case of large farm followed by medium and small farms respectively. The similar situation is observed in semi irrigated (V2) as well as non-irrigated village (V3).Like the pre reform period; in post reform period also the similar situation i.e cost of production per farm in all villages is found highest in case of large farm followed by medium and small farms respectively. However, the percentage growth of cost of production per farm in all villages is different which is evident from table-2. Table-2 Percentage of growth of cost of production in postreform period over pre reform period.

Nature of villages surveyed Irrigated

Semi-Irrigated

Small Medium

Percentage of growth of cost of production per farm in postreform period over pre reform period. 46.06 50.69

Large Small Medium

50.81 71.85 68.96

Size of farms

International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

Rabindra Kumar Mishra

Large Small Medium Large 'F' Value column df(2,4) (i.e. across Villages) 'F' Value Row df(2,4) (i.e. across Farms) Non-Irrigated

42.79 54.97 72.85 40.77 0.94? 2.52?

Source: - Compiled from questionnaire. ?? Not significant at any level. It is observed from Table-2 that the percentage growth of cost of production per farm in the post reform over pre reform period in irrigated village (V1) is found highest in case of large farm followed by medium and small farms respectively. The same situation is not noticeable in semi irrigated village rather it is opposite. That means, unlike the irrigated village in semi irrigated village (V2), the percentage growth of cost of production per farm in the post reform over pre reform period is found highest in case of small farm followed by medium and large farms. However, in non irrigated village (V3), the growth of cost of production per acre is found highest in case of large farm. But it is gone behind by medium and small farms respectively like the irrigated village. This result analysis is supported by the analysis of variance (ANOVA) represented in table-2. The difference in the percentage of growth in the cost of production per farm in agricultural sector in post reform over the pre-reform period across the study villages and farm sizes are found statistically insignificant for F(2,4) = 0.94 and F(2,4) =2.52 respectively. It is found that in post reform period the cost of production per farm has grown over pre reform period irrespective of villages and size classes of farm but at varying degree among the villages and size classes of farm. This specifies the consequence of taking risks by the farmers by using the purchased inputs such as high yielding seeds, application of high quantity of fertiliser, pesticides and insecticides, machine labour, hired labour etc. Moreover, it substantiates that in post reform period the farmers have received new ideas from different institutions, agencies developed by the government and for that reason, left the traditional outlook in response of the modern agricultural practices. Conclusion It is accomplished that in post reform period, the cost of

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agricultural production is growing due to the appliance and rise in price of the purchased inputs like fertiliser, pesticides, high yielding variety seeds, hired labour, machine labour etc. Basically, it is intricate on the part of the farmers to handle the cost of production in long run. For that, there should be wide coverage institutional financial support, so that farmers can be capable to use the inputs for better agricultural production. Besides, it is extremely crucial for the farmers to compare the agricultural earning between the pre and post reform period to ascertain the achievement of the use of modern agricultural practices. So, the policy makers should take all probable actions to support requisite guidance and make provision for institutional finance at low rate of interest to the farmers in order to facilitate them for modern agricultural practices to maximise production at low cost of production. References: · Datt and Mahajan,( 2010)., Datt & Sundaram Indian Economy. New Delhi: S.Chand & Company Ltd.555-558. · Desai R.G. (2001). Agricultural Economics, Himalaya Publishing House, Bangalore.19-21 · Gurumoorthy, TR. (1995). New Life to Rural Credit Agencies - an Urgent Need. Kurukshetra. July, 9. · Karmakar K.G.( 2011), “ Financing Agriculture: some issues, ” Yojana, January, 26-30 · Mishra, R.K, Bhoi, A & Satpathy, B (2010), Short term credit: a steps towards to use HYV seeds to enhance production and productivity.International Journal of tropical agriculture, No. 3-4 Dec. p. 547-551. · Mishra, RK.(2011), “Overdue in agricultural credit”,Journal of business and economic issues.Vol.no3(2),22-29. · Mishra, RK.(2012), “Agricultural development through commercial banks in post reform period”,Indian journal of development research. July-December,1-11. · Mishra, RK.(2013), “Disbursement of agricultural loan by the banks in post reform period”,Indian journal of commerce and management studies. May, IV, 2(1), 52-55. Tripathy, K.K. (2011), India's Agricultural growth and stagnation: A Review, Kurukshetra, 60(2), December,310. · Shivay and Rahal. (2010): Increasing Agricultural Production in India, Kurukshetra, July, Vol-58,9.

International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

International J. Res. Vol. 4. No. 2. 43-46, Jan-Jun 2015 ISSN : 2231 - 6124

Reforming the International Financial Architecture-Some Indian Perspectives *Geeta Nair

Abstract The recent global economic crisis universally affected various nations across the length and the breadth of our globe largely on account of globalization and increasing interconnectedness. However, the North bloc suffered greater losses, crisis, mayhem, and misery on socio-economic, as well as political fronts. Massive reform packages and bail-outs en masse are shortterm temporary solutions as introspection into the 'mother of all crisis' would point at larger issues at stake involving several multi-faceted functional and systemic changes. This audit also questions the hegemony of American-centric growth and the efficacy of the existing over-arching international financial architecture. Global growth and governance needs to be democratic and inclusive in nature as the South bloc nations, especially India and China must be recognized as partners in the global village. A revisit, review, reform, and reconstruction on an emergency basis are called for in the interest of long-term solutions and sustainable development. Keywords: Crisis, Interconnectedness, Revisit, Reform, Reconstruction. 1. Introduction The present research paper attempts to focus on the ramifications of the global economic meltdown, along with a rationale for reforming Neo-liberal institutions, policies, and practices by presenting a few Southern viewpoints. Postnineties, the world embarked on a range of initiatives to help prevent crises and to manage them in the event that they nevertheless occur. This framework is referred to as the International Financial Architecture (IFA). In response to major financial crises in the 1990s, the international community opted for good structural and social policies in addition to macroeconomic stability. These underpinnings are critical not only to successful economic development and poverty reduction but to market and financial stability as well. The international community has stressed the need for actions both at the country level in order to strengthen national systems and institutions, and at the global level in order to ensure global financial stability and to help developing countries benefit from financial integration (www.worldbank.org). We are amply aware of the recent global economic crisis that universally affected various nations across the length and the breadth of our globe largely on account of globalization and increasing interconnectedness. However, the North bloc suffered greater losses, crises, mayhem, and misery on socioeconomic, as well as political fronts. Massive reform packages and bail-outs en masse are short-term temporary solutions as introspection into the 'mother of all crisis' would point at larger issues at stake involving several multi-faceted functional and systemic changes. The paper puts forth a case of audit in order to question the hegemony of American-centric growth and the efficacy of the existing over-arching international financial architecture. Global growth and governance needs to be democratic and inclusive in nature as the South bloc nations,

especially India and China must be recognized as partners in the global village. Attempts to revisit, review, reform, and reconstructour structures and archaic notions on an emergency basis are called for in the interest of seeking long-term solutions and attaining sustainable development.The bygone century witnessed tumultuous situations affecting the rise and fall of nations and powers on account of the two World Wars punctuated by the emergence of the Red Revolution that surged the Second World of Socialism as a plausible alternate economic system to an ailing American Capitalist 'First World' crumbling under the impact of the Great Depression. Several ideological and political dramas enacted by various actors across these two worlds in an era of Cold War led to the emergence of the League of Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement, the International Trade Organization and the birth of the Bretton Woods Twins, along with the facilitator and guide of international trade, namely the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). The turn of this dynamic century was marked by the demise of several institutions and organizations as they had outlived their utility or were replaced by better institutions and systems like the GATT by the World Trade Organization (WTO) or the Socialist bloc by the Confederation of Independent States or Laissez-faire Capitalism bythe Welfare State. The trajectory of these Northern developments were highlighted and publicized as these were presumed to the creators of global growth that ran the engines of modern science, technology, markets, and formed dominant political ideologies. However, the oft-ignored matter of the fact remains that several Asian and African economies gained longdeserved independence from Colonial empires and these 'Third World' nations, especially of India and China are a force to reckon with as the present century belongs to Asia. This was

* Head, & Associate Professor, Dept.of Business Economics, H. R. College of Commerce & Economics E-mail ID: [email protected]

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International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

Geeta Nair

clearly demonstrated by the recent meltdown that severely affected the Western world that has not yet fully recovered from the shock and downturn. Globalization has increased the interconnectedness thereby indirectly or minimally affecting even the Southern bloc nations. Despite this fact, the developing nations have sustained their growth rates and contribute to the positive figures of world economic growth apart from the huge demographic dividend and humungous market concentration. In the light of the above, the global growth process needs to democratized and made participatory to engage all citizens and tackle discontent and disillusions propagated by the North-South divide manifested in the monopoly of developed nations lobby and veto powers at practically all international financial arrangements or locations or policies. 2. Research Methodology We use largely secondary data sources and review of existing studies to get a theoretical background to better out understanding of the growth ad dependency theorem accentuated by globalization by Asian Development Bank, The World Bank, and several researchers like Birdsall, Scott, Kapur, and the like. The recently managed world crisis situation has had a short-sighted approach to a long-standing malady of the existing IFA that crumbled under the deadweight of an American-centric Neo-liberal model of capitalist growth. The inherent crisis has created a domino effect on all economies and the world cannot miss yet another opportunity for overhaul. The IFA has become too over-arching and Northbiased with cracks within as each institution, be it the IMF, WB, or WTO is aware of the others, but none is responsible for the overall coherence of their various policies, let alone the achievement of overarching international objectives. Sometimes the United Nations (UN) convokes treaty negotiations on economic affairs on matters not already within the mandate of the other institutions. Leading world leaders like Bush and Sarkozy did understand that the global financial crisis was part of a larger set of problems two years ago, but did little that time. The WTO is always stuck on inconsistencies between the North and South bloc countries as it protects the interests of the US at the cost of its original mandate of trade liberalization. The IMF is known to be openly criticized for ruining new economies by its 'conditionalities' while loaning countries out of bankruptcy and Balance of payments disequilibrium by recipes that put them back towards indebtedness of the IMF. The irony of the present situation is the failure of laissezfaire economics to understand the historical roots of the current crisis lies in its success in severing all ties with historical political economy as noted by Schumpeter that laissez-faire economics is the victim of its own political success or as Marx's contention that the farce of Neo-liberal defeat follows the collapse of liberalism a century earlier. In his 1926 Essay entitled, “The end of laissez-faire”, Keynes had observed that the world was not governed from above; and private and social interests do not always coincide (Keynes, 1926). Thus, understanding the current financial crisis requires th understanding its social and political origins in the 20 century. The similarities between the current crisis and the Great Depression are many, but one crucial difference is that the

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1930s crisis was resolved by labor and popular movements shifting the burden of the crisis onto capital via recognition of a social wage contract, collective bargaining and workers rights, social security and insurance. Today, however the crisis is being dealt with by shifting the burden on labor and the working classes that will only deepen the crisis further. This coupled with the falling confidence in the American dollar as a reserve currency along with rising prices of food, fuel, water, and energy will cause 'stagflation' and 'agflation'. The reformist solution that would work in the short and medium term would involve abandoning the debt regime in favor of high wages and full-employment policies and 'green growth strategies'. Without such policies, bailouts and rescue plans will have only temporary effects. It is the crisis of negative Keynesianism that is at the heart of the current critical point, and which is leaving its global institutions - the World Trade Organization, the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank - with no solution other than transferring the costs to the South (and to the South within the North). By adopting this logic, the United Nations climate summit in Copenhagen followed exactly in the footsteps of these institutions. The failure of the Copenhagen climate talks is indicative of the depth of the crisis of "long Keynesianism" that has exhausted its positive and negative ways of dealing with the "unsustainability" of global capitalism. (Araghi, 2008). One of the few plausible hypotheses about the political economy of reform (Williamson, 1993) both nationally and internationally is that there is a great tendency for reforms to be implemented during or in the immediate aftermath of crises. The magnitude of the present crisis gives us a huge window of opportunity to revisit, review, and reform our archaic structures, policies, and mindsets. 3. Results – Some Southern Viewpoints The UN Commission on reforms of the IMF goes beyond making a critique of the paradigm that has held hegemonic sway over economic theory and policy.It becomes imperative to take cognizance of southern viewpoints more over than during the earlier crisis as the newly liberated Asian and African economies, along with the Eastern European ones have emerged stronger from the shackles of colonialism or socialism. These are fast movers and high potential growing economies that have sustained global economic growth and are moving towards double-digit growth largely on account of cheap and abundant natural resources and labor, service sector revolution, intellectual capital, resilience of people, and reducing bureaucratic controls and privatization. The US economy needs to think and believe in a world of multilateralism where non-American choices point to the changing structures and policies of the real world. It must give up coaxing China to revalue its yuan because its excessive deficits due to burgeoning imports and falling dollar. It must stop levying punitive action and force opening up of agriculture and retail in developing countries while protecting its own markets and resorting to regionalism of the NAFTA and quotas on developing countries. The developed world has its intrinsic clashes and trouble as witnessed by the European Union and dead-weight partners like Greece, Portugal, and Spain. The time has come to change and look at the colored world through the Southern lens by engaging developing

International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

Reforming the International Financial Architecture-Some Indian Perspectives

nations as partners in sustainable development and inclusive growth instead of the archaic viewpoint of treating them as gold mines of natural or human resources. Similarly, overcoming mindset problems by the developing countries by throwing away the yoke of colonialism and dependency and being assertive by a collective voice would pave a 'win-win situation'. Some exponents have proposed a new lending instrument, The Stability and Growth Facility, to be housed at the IMF or the World Bank to provide a predictable source of long-term funds at a cost low enough to help high-debt emerging market countries reduce their debt burdens without having to forego vital pro-poor expenditure programs.They even hosted an open forum blog called the Bretton Woods NonCommission, as a counterpart to two officially organized commissions that delivered reports that year, one on the World Bank and one on the IMF (Birdsall; 2014, 2015). 4. Conclusion: The detailed analysis of the emerging financial architecture in our world today clearly points to a shift of focus from the North to the South with pioneering young economies of the BRICS, as well as supreme dominance of India and China within that group. These have become new centers of not just demand and aspiring young people comprising the bustling market; but also important manufacturing, servicing, and out-processing hubs. New aspirants with new dreams and skills are emerging in this new knowledge economy where the time of the developing nations has come. Greying old European and American economies are becoming mere relics of the past as their structures, policies, and institutional dynamics are unable to cope with modern challenges and thus, are missing new opportunities. Emerging strong macroeconomic dynamics is putting IFA reforms at the foremost race-runners like Chin India! Latest developments in the emerging international financial architecture are the surprising move of 56 nations to join a new multilateral development bank (MDB) for Asia; thereby confirming the movement of world economic power from the North to the emerging South. This will infuse new energy in international movements, as well as initiate bold reforms needed to break the existing lull in the present structure. While the legal structures vary, the basic issue affects many MDBs that have a “hard” window (OCR in the case of ADB, IBRD in the case of World Bank) with governance driven by an Executive Board with all members represented, and a “soft” window (ADF or IDA, for instance) with governance largely determined by periodic replenishment agreements negotiated outside the Board room among the donor governments financing the bulk of the replenishments (Birdsall, 2014). The ADB proposal is a healthy step toward greater flexibility in particular giving the bank the opportunity to (1) revisit the balance between country-based activities and regional and global pursuits, (2) to redefine lending terms and eligibilities, and (3) to better engage the bank's borrowers, whose economic success is not yet fully reflected in the bank's management and governance, in mobilizing and managing the bank's resources. We see three opportunities in particular that the ADB could usefully exploit on the heels of the financial

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restructuring. By providing something to each of these three groups (ADB borrowers, ADF recipients, and ADF donors), the proposal promises to be a “win-win-win.” The structure of governance would become more integrated, as well improve transparency of decisions. A “bank-wide resource review” (or BRR, first explained by Scott (2014) in the case of the World Bank could replace the ADF replenishment model with a broader ADB-wide resource review covering both the soft and hard windows. Under the current “replenishment model,” first adopted by the World Bank to fund IDA, traditional donor countries set policy for ADF and similar soft windows, while policymaking for the rest of the bank is determined by the broader constituencies of the institution (borrowers and non-borrowers alike). This bifurcated governance has created tension within the ADB as well as the other MDBs, between borrowers and non-borrowers in that it created a kind of "back door" for policy changes (Kapur, 2002). Although formally such mandates are eventually agreed by the Executive Board as a whole, operational policy changes introduced as part of a “replenishment” deal which has been negotiated outside the Boards can be seen as a run-around of the governance structure by the non-borrower contributors to the soft windows. Adopting a more integrated model for MDBs' “high level” governance would help improve the transparency of policy decisions and provide a better basis for managing strategically all the available resources. In the case of ADB it would also serve to pre-empt the tensions that can easily arise around the use of pooled resources following the merger and provide a sounder basis for addressing trade-offs. A bank-wide resource framework could also prove more successful in broadening the donor base. Emerging market countries have been reluctant donors to all MDB soft windows (Birdsall, 2014). They might be more inclined to participate in a grand bargain that includes a mix of grant contributions to the “soft” windows (ADF, IDA, etc.) and core capital contributions (OCR in the case of ADB, IBRD in the World Bank's case, etc.), making their total contributions more transparent. Eligibility for soft window borrowing is currently determined largely with reference to a GNI per capita threshold. Alternatively, instead of a binary notion of eligibility, concessionality levels (blended lending terms) could be along a continuum with a formula that goes beyond average indicators such as GNI per capita (Morris et al, 2015). All this would finally result in slowing the decline in donor contributions to allow for greater financial flexibility and increased support for regional public goods and more. The ADB's proposed new financial model implies a major, frontloaded decline in donor contributions. A similar path is envisaged – given current eligibility rules – for IDA donor contributions. This decline results from a combination of net income contributions from OCR (and similarly for other hard MDB windows), repayments of old concessional loans and reduced demand as countries cross the concessional eligibility threshold. Contributions to ADF and other soft windows from ADB OCR net income (similarly with transfers from IBRD and IFC to IDA) have also been part of the replenishment deals and not resulted from strategic resource management

International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

Geeta Nair

considerations. Big non-concessional borrowers perceived these transfers as forced, non-transparent “contributions” by them — since the alternatives would be for the net income goal to be reduced and borrowing costs lowered, or for resources to be allocated to activities that also benefit non-concessional borrowers. Reducing the reliance on net income transfers and planning a more gradual phasing out of donor contributions to the soft (and grant) windows offers many advantages in general and even more so in the specific case of the ADB merger proposal. Such a transition would generate a cushion that would strengthen the sustainability of the post-merger model and would better allow for testing of some of the premises on which the proposal is built — including scalability and profitability of non-sovereign operations. Slowing down the reduction in donor contributions while maintaining current levels of net income generation offers a more balanced burdensharing approach between hard window borrowers and donors and creates a context in which MDBs gain financial flexibility. This financial flexibility would serve them well in cases of extended crises and, in normal times, opens the door to other compelling uses for MDB resources (www.worldbank.org). In fine, the ADB's financial restructuring proposal offers many benefits in and of itself. But it also creates an opening for additional and complementary changes in governance that would greatly strengthen the bank and would ensure all of the benefits of the restructuring are fully captured. The merger proposal represents a highly credible down payment by the ADB on a set of innovations that can greatly expand the institution's ability to respond to the region's needs and opportunities — and in the process, stimulate similar dynamics at other MDBs. We very much hope that the bank and its shareholders build on this momentum in the years ahead to deliver something even bigger and better. And we also hope

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that progress at ADB serves as a springboard for policy changes across MDB to better integrate the management and governance of soft and hard window resources. References: · Araghi (2008) The End of 'Cheap Ecology' and the Crisis of 'Long Keynesianism', Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. XLV, No.4. · Asian Development Bank (2015) The ADB's Bold Move and What It Can Mean for the MDB's, Center for Global Development by Nancy Birdsall et al. · Birdsall, (2014) “The World Bank and Inter-American Development Bank: Fit for 21stCentury Purpose?” Center for Global Development Policy Paper 039. · Birdsall, Nancy, Scott Morris, and Enrique RuedaSabater (2014) “Review of 'Enhancing ADB's Financial Capacity to Achieve the Long-Term Strategic Vision for theADF,'” Center for Global Development. · Morris, Scott, “Shaking Up the Donor Shakedown at the World Bank,” Center for Global Development Essay (2014). · Kapur, (2002) “Processes of Change in International Organizations” in Governing Globalization: Issues and Institutions ed. Deepak Nayyar (Oxford: Oxford University Press,), 334. · Keynes (1926), “The end of laissez-faire”, Hogarth Press. · Morris, et als., (2015) “The World Bank at 75,” Center for Global Development Policy Paper 058. · Scott (2014); http:www.cgdcv.org/blog/shaking-donorshakedown-world-bank. · Williamson (1993) “The Economic Analysis of Institutions and Organizations in General and with

International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

International J. Res. Vol. 4. No. 2. 47-51, Jan-Jun 2015 ISSN : 2231 - 6124

Integrating Social Networking Site in Teacher Education: A Case Study *Usha A. Borkar

Abstract Web 2.0 technologies and the emergence of social networking sites have expanded accessibility and use beyond levels that may have been thought imaginable just two or three years ago. These developments have been accompanied with calls to integrate the new technologies and experiences of social networks within formal education. Paradoxically even though Social Networks for teachers are fairly numerous, very few teachers have dared to consider or implement training activities in the classroom by using these services. Why not? Is it simply a matter of time? Or is it because there is limited research on the potential or outcomes of such initiatives for educators to bank upon? Or is it because there is a lack of initiative on the part of colleges of education to educationally exploit this technology? The present article presents a case study that examines the integration of social networking site in the formal teacher education environment. The integration is on basis of Cooperative Learning Electronic Network Model developed by the researcher. The set up of the case study is a college of education situated in Mumbai, India. The case study also throws light on potential problems, challenges and issues related to educational use social network through the experiences of the participants. Keywords: Cooperative Learning, Social Networking Sites, Student Teachers, Teacher Education, and Web 2.0. Introduction Today the web has transformed the way people interact and communicate in daily life. As the web continues to evolve, web-based social media or social networking services/sites (SNSs), which help establish or maintain human relationships and social networks, are becoming ubiquitous. Social Networking is a range of activities enabled by social technologies and operationalised by a group of people i.e. the today's youth categorized as Digital Natives. The youth are using social networking technologies in two important ways. First they engage in “friendship based ways”, which help the youngsters to stay 'connected'. But the other way that the youth are beginning to connect using these tools is more compelling. That is, youth are using social networks for “interest based” interactions, connecting to peers and adults outside their physical spaces, people who they don't know but with whom they share a passion. They become at once teachers and learners in these spaces, and, in the process, they learn about the things that school can't or won't teach them. In both of these interactions, whether friendship based or interest based, the youngsters engage in “self directed, peer based learning” that looks very different from most of their experiences in school (Ajjan, H & Hartshorne, R 2008). More than anything else, Social Networking Technologies are the new participatory and active methodologies being adopted worldwide, particularly for “collaborative working”, which is understood as the exchange and development of knowledge among small peer groups aiming to achieve identical academic goals. Many educational researchers and practitioners also believe that the Social Networking Sites (SNS) has vast potential to shape the way people learn (Barbour and Plough 2009). It appears reasonable that

educators should make instructional use of the social nature of SNS in order to create optimal, natural environments for learning to take place. On other hand learning has traditionally assumed a winnertake all competitive form rather than a cooperative form. One cooperates in a classroom only if it maximizes narrow selfinterest. Networked learning, in contrast, is committed to a vision of the social that stresses cooperation, interactivity, mutual Benefit and social engagement. The power of ten working interactively will invariably outstrip the power of one looking to beat out the other nine. Bangert (2009) and others have empirically shown that sense of classroom cohesiveness is an essential element of successful e learning. Summers and Svinicki (2007) found that the students in cooperative learning classrooms perceived higher sense of group mind and reported greater motivation in achievement goals than those in non-cooperative learning classrooms. Besides being a great tool for collaborative working, the educational potential of Social Networking platforms is practically endless, none of which is bound by space and time constraints of a school environment. Despite broad consensus on the use and incredible uptake of most Social Networking platforms and the generally held view that the potential for their educational use is vast as it is interesting, the educational exploitation of these resources is limited to isolated experiences in higher education more so in teacher education specially in a developing country like India. The student teachers in the colleges of education are the potential teachers and hence involving them in networked learning spaces is a step towards using the same for the school children. Today's schools are faced with a difficult dilemma that pits a student body that has grown up immersed in

*Assistant Professor, Gujarat Research Society's Hansraj Jivandas College of Education, Mumbai, India Email: [email protected]

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International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

Usha A. Borkar

technology against a teaching faculty that is less agile with the tools of the trade. Hence it is of utmost importance for future teachers to experience networked learning spaces environment themselves in order to fully understand the pedagogies or rather 'technogogies' of using the social networking sites. This study, therefore, explored the possibility of creating cooperative learning class social networks with a Web 2.0 social networking tool as an alternative supplement to traditional classroom teaching in a teacher education institution. Organization Background The organizational setup for the present case study was Gujarat Research Society's Hansraj Jivandas College of Education, Mumbai, India. The B.Ed programme offered by the college equips the student teachers to teach at secondary and higher secondary levels (Grade V to Grade XII). The programme is of one-year duration and is transacted in face-toface mode. The group of student teachers is very heterogeneous in terms of ability and socio-economic backgrounds. Setting the Stage In recent years the college has experienced a remarkable increase in the number of student teachers as well as faculty interested in exploiting the potential of Social Networking Platforms in course delivery. It has been suggested that a new generation of learners, 'digital natives', those born since 1980 and who have grown up in a digital world, will require a different kind of education system (Prensky, 2001a, 2001b, 2005) to prepare them for a workplace that has also fundamentally changed. Also, Prensky (2009) has put forward the idea of digital wisdom and the notion that today's 'homo sapien digital' differs from today's human in that they are digitally wise in the way they access digital enhancements to complement innate abilities and to facilitate wiser decision making. The student teachers coming to the college of education are not only 'digital natives' but they are being trained to teach school students who are even more digitally enhanced. Hence educating such student teachers must encompass making them digitally proficient in the classrooms of tomorrow. It is in this context, that the researcher who herself has been a teacher educator for last two decades undertook the case of exploring the potential of social networking sites and cooperative learning for instructional purposes for the student teachers. Combining a Social Networking Site and Cooperative Learning to create Cooperative Learning Electronic Network (CLEN) model did this. In this scenario, the researcher endeavoured (1) to ascertain CLEN Model for using the social networking site among the student teachers enrolled for the B.Ed degree programme (2) impact of CLEN Model for using SNS on student teacher's achievement. The initial findings would allow the researcher to pursue further two objectives: (3) to ascertain the reaction of the student teachers to the educational use of SNS with the help of CLEN Model (4) to establish the perceived usefulness of CLEN model for using the SNS in schools. Case Description Social networking can be seen as 'the practice of

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expanding knowledge by making connections with individuals of similar interests' (Gunawardena et al. 2009, 4). Cooperative Learning Strategy (CLS) is viewed by Vygotsky (1978) as part of a process leading to the social construction of knowledge. Caplow and Kardash (1995) (cited in Johnson, 1999, p34) considered Cooperative Learning as a process in which “knowledge is created and located in the learning environment”. From these definitions one could highlight that learning in a cooperative environment is dependent on the socially structured exchange of information between students in groups, active involvement of the learners, intergroup interaction. For the adoption of SNSs in the classroom an elaborate framework of instructional activities must be made. Most digital natives rarely use SNSs for educational purpose but more for entertainment and friendship. Therefore, to ensure these arguments, the researcher carefully designed a suitable process in appropriate timing with proper use of technology. In line with this thinking, the researcher made an attempt to utilize a combination of social networking sites and cooperative learning to create Cooperative Learning Electronic Network CLEN model. Technology Components Despite the popularity of SNSs like Facebook and MySpace, Ning was chosen as Social Networking Site based on the researchers' belief that social networks for academic purposes created with Ning bring about more focused learning environments with less distraction. Also Facebook is still not a site that many schools allow through their filters. But if one wants Facebook like environment for course delivery and teaches social networking skills as well, the alternative is Ning.com Ning (http://www.ning.com) is a web-based social platform launched in 2005. For educators, the best part of a Ning site is that it is totally self contained – meaning all of that sharing and posting happens less than one roof, and it can be totally private only to those whom you want to participate. Teachers who create Ning sites have total administrative control over who can gain access to the site and, to some degree, the extent of their participation. Ning enables registered users to create their own social networks around particular interests and passions free of charge (a paid option is also available for users seeking advanced functionality). Major functions of Ning include: text searching, media sharing (e.g. photos, music, and videos), interaction (e.g. forum, chat, comments, and blog), and content delivery (e.g. RSS feeds). The unique feature of Ning is that any network creator can customize the above-mentioned functionality of their site, design the site's appearance, and determine the membership or accessibility of the site (i.e. public or private) to suit their own purposes. This study investigated transaction of four compulsory course content taught by the researcher. Similar to courseware or e-learning platforms, the course-learning environment created with Ning allowed the students to access the course materials and exchange opinions anytime and anywhere. To supplement regular class meetings, the student teachers were asked to reflect on class learning by participating in discussion

International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

Integrating Social Networking Site in Teacher Education: A Case Study

forums on the course sites and also maintain a journal. Participants: The participants for the present study included 50 student teachers as experimental group and another 42 student teachers participated as control group. While the control group did not use any SNS, the experimental group was treated by using Ning as SNS in CLEN model setup. In order to identify that all participants posses equal level on prior background knowledge for learning the new course content they took a pre test. The result of t-test for each comparision between the two groups revealed no significant difference. Potential participants were asked to sign a consent form indicating their voluntary participation and were assured participating in the study did not affect their course grade in any way. All confidential data (e.g. learner maintained profiles and online postings) were password protected in the private, class social networks. The researcher also assigned participant codes to maintain the anonymity of participating student teachers' responses collected for data analysis. With regard to demographics of the participants, males represented 10 (20%) of participants while 40 (80%) of the participants were females. Age of the participants varied significantly: 13(26%) participants were under 25 years of age, 25 (50%) were between 21 and 30 years of age, 09 (18%) were between 31 and 40 years of age, and 3 (6%) were over 40 years of age. Given the focus of the present study on social networking technology, the participants' respective background information was collected to provide a better understanding of their learning experiences in the observed classrooms. All the participants reported that they were comfortable learning with computer and technology in and out of class. Implementation of SNS using CLEN model Integration of SNS using CLEN model for student teachers in the experimental group was done in the three phases as described below: Figure 1: Cooperative Learning Electronic Network CLEN Model

The pre-study achievement test was administered to the student teachers of the experimental group at the beginning of Phase I. Phase I: Pre Implementation Phase The Pre Implementation Phase involved the two stages:

49

1. Initiation stage 2. Familiarization stage 1. Initiation: • The cycle of learning in CLEN Model started with formation of pairs from among the volunteers selected for the study. • The researcher encouraged the student teachers to form pairs for working on the selected content • The researcher then provided instructions for pair functioning. • Each member of the pair had an active and participatory role to play. • Each week, one student in the pair was assigned the role of commentator, the other student the role of reviewer. • Commentator acted as expert emphasizing on four activities –summarizing /self-review, questioning, clarifying and predicting. • These roles are reversed on weekly basis. 2. Familiarization: • This process of familiarization took place in a face-to-face classroom situation, as all students in an Indian setup may not be comfortable with the medium of asynchronous online learning. • The researcher then provided a set of instructions on how to work with Ning. • Basic training was provided to each pair. The pairs were given hands-on training on how to use Ning and to utilize the site resources. • The stage of Familiarization concluded with the researcher asking the students to check for further set of instructions posted on Ning. Phase II: Implementation Phase The Implementation Phase involved the two stages: 1. Execution and Utilization of Ning 2. Reflection 1. Execution and Utilization: • The researcher invited the pairs to join by sending e-mails to the students. • The pairs registered themselves on the Ning • After the confirmation of the account • The pairs are then communicated via e-mail to prepare their profile • Initial exposure and some experience to working in asynchronous on-line environment was provided through the activity of 'IntroduceYourself' • The commenter initiated the discussion by introducing himself/herself to the reviewer. • At this stage both the students undertake a review of the previous contact. • On completion of 'Introduce myself activity', the researcher then invited the pairs to read the further set of instructions provided by her. • The researcher provided a very clear set of instructions that described her expectations for student contributions to asynchronous online learning. She posted the following message to her students. v The pairs of students read an assigned article or chapter in an online environment. v They prepare a reflective commentary on the key points of

International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

Usha A. Borkar

each paragraph individually. v The commenter will post the prepared reflective commentary on the Ning for the reviewer. v The reviewer receives an alert to this via e-mail. v The reviewer reads the reflective commentary and asks for explanation wherever required. • On completion of the reflective commentary by the commenter; the roles are reversed. • The procedure specified earlier is repeated with reversed roles. • Pairs then prepared a composite annotation, summarizing the whole article or chapter. • The researcher as well as the other pairs can view comments posted on the Ning. • The composite annotation is posted on the Ning for the researcher to go through and comment on it. (Addition of notes, case studies and PowerPoint, website links) • Each pair posted their work for others to view and participated in the discussion. 2. Reflection: • The researcher provided some time frame for the pairs to deliberate on the composite annotations posted. • The pairs were encouraged to reflect and seek for explanation for the content. • After the completion of requisite time frame the instructor started the discussion by posting one or more questions at the beginning of each week (Monday). The discussion continued until the following Saturday night, at which time the discussion board closed for that week. Phase III: Post Implementation Phase The Post Implementation Phase involved the following stage: 1. Evaluation and Reorientation: The instructor provided the following set of instructions for the students in the Reflection stage of Phase II, which enabled the researcher to conduct the stage of evaluation in a smooth manner: • The instructions guided the students on both the quantity (“two substantive postings” per discussion question) and the quality of contributions expected. Qualitative aspects of a substantive posting are also described. The instructions revealed the teaching presence as structured and explicit, yet appreciative of qualitative outcomes associated with deep learning and critical thinking. • Evaluation criteria for facilitating an online discussion • The use of proper etiquette, including language, typing, and, I assume, spelling. • There should be more frequent posting and the messages should be spread through the week. • The second set of criteria (responsiveness and demonstration of understanding) illustrates the way the online discussion is used to motivate students to complete the weekly readings. The post-study achievement test was administered to the experimental as well as control group and a Reaction towards Social Networking using CLEN model scale was administered to the student teachers of the experimental group at the end of the phase III Results and Discussion

50

Achievement in Learning: The student teachers of the experimental as well as control group were administered pre study achievement test to verify their homogeneous background knowledge. After the experiment the participants took a posttest to examine their achievement. The statistic results are shown in Table 1. TABLE 1 Pre Test & Post Test Achievement Mean Scores of Experimental and Control Group Test

Group

Pre Test Experimental Control Post test Experimental Control

N

Mean

50 42 50 42

46.72 45.05 67.62 52.84

Std. Deviation 14.054 10.046 20.776 19.714

Std.Error Mean t-test 1.998 1.630 2.938 3.198

t=.620 p=.537>.05 t=3.378 p=.001<.05

In pretest, the result of t-test between the two groups shows no significant difference between them. That indicates all participants had the homogeneous background knowledge. In posttest, the mean score of experimental group is significantly better than control group. That indicates using social networking sites can enhance learning achievement. Student teacher's Reaction towards Social Networking using CLEN model The student teachers of Experimental Group were administered the scale (Cronbach Alpha = .832) for measuring Reaction towards Social Networking using CLEN model. Percentage was used to study Reaction towards Social Networking using CLEN model. Table 2 gives details of Percentage with respect to Scores of different aspects of Reaction towards Social Networking using CLEN model of Experimental Group. Table 3 gives details of Percentage of Reaction towards Social Networking using CLEN model Total Scores of Experimental Group. TABLE 2 Percentage of Scores of Experimental Group of different aspects of Reaction towards Social Networking using CLEN model Aspects of Reaction Learning Process

Learning Environment

Development of Learner Characteristics

Range 15-30 31-45 46-60 13-26 27-39 40-52 15-30 31-45 46-60

Description Low Medium High Low Medium High Low Medium High

Frequency 0 6 36 0 8 34 0 9 33

Percentage 0 14.28 85.71 0 19.04 80.95 0 21.42 78.57

Table 2 reveals that the number of student teachers showing low positive reaction to all the aspects of the reaction towards Social Networking using CLEN model is zero in all three cases. Whereas 6, 8, and 9 student teachers have shown medium positive reaction with respect to Learning Process, Learning Environment and Development of Learner characteristics aspect of Reaction towards Social Networking using CLEN model scale respectively. 36, 34 and 33 student teachers have shown high positive reaction with respect to Learning Process, Learning Environment and Development of Learner characteristics aspect of Reaction towards Social

International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

Integrating Social Networking Site in Teacher Education: A Case Study

Networking using CLEN model respectively. TABLE 3 Percentage of Total Scores of Experimental Group of Reaction towards Social Networking using CLEN model Range 43-86 87-129 130-172

Description Low Medium High

Frequency 0 0 42

Percentage 0 0 100

Table 3 reveals that the number of student teachers showing low, medium and high positive reaction to Social Networking using CLEN model is 0, 0, and 42. This indicates that 100% of the student teachers showed a positive Reaction towards Social Networking using CLEN model. Thus the aforementioned findings indicate that the use of Social Networking using CLEN model elicited positive reaction towards the learning process, learning environment and development of learner characteristics. Recommendations Based on the challenges faced during the integration of Social Networking Site using CLEN model, the researcher would like to recommend the following strategies for handling the same: · Before starting with a social networking site independently, it is better to explore the social network sites for the educators. This will help the facilitator to design the activities in a meticulous manner. · Involve as many members of the organization as possible; this will enable more effective management of the SNS. · Provide clear instructions to the students and provide them with hands on training. This is essential to bring all participants technologically on par with each other. · Provide and allot appropriate time slots for conducting on line activities · Plan in advance the number of participants to be admitted. Taking too many participants will make managing the SNS an extremely difficult task. · Provide guidelines to the students regarding the behavior and social network etiquette to be maintained and to be adhered to strictly. · Care should be taken for providing the technological support such as laptops, Internet facility, electric supply, which are some of the most basic requirements. But these requirements are missing from quite many Indian classrooms. Conclusion When today's students enter their post education professional lives, odds are pretty good that they will be asked to work with others from around the globe collaboratively to

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create content for a diverse and wide ranging audiences. Odds are also pretty good that they are going to need to read and write effectively in linked environments as they locate, analyze, remix and share the best, most relevant content online for their own learning. Slowly, gradually, teachers are tapping into the potential of a World Wide Web that is a conversation, not lecture, where knowledge is shaped and acquired through social process and where ideas are presented as a starting point and not ending point. In case after case, the walls of the classroom are literally made irrelevant by the creation of communities of learners that span oceans, races, genders, and generations. References: · Ajjan, H & Hartshorne, R. (2008). Investigating faculty decisions to adopt Web 2.0 technologies: Theory and empirical tests, Internet and Higher Education, 11, 71-80. · Bangert, A.W. 2009. Building a validity argument for the community of inquiry survey instrument. The Internet and Higher Education 12, no. 2, 104-11. · Barbour, M., and C. Plough. (2009). Social networking in cyberschooling: Helping to make online learning less isolating. TechTrends 53, no. 4: 56-60. · Ellison, N. B., Steinfield, C., & Lampe, C. (2007). The benefits of Facebook “friends”: Social capital and college students' use of online social network sites. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 12, 1143-1168. · Gunawardena, C.N., M.B. Hermans, D. Sanchez, C. Richmond, M. Bohley, and R. Tuttle. 2009. A theoretical framework for building online communities of practice with social networking tools. Educational Media International 46, no. 1: 3-16. · Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R.T., (1999). Making Cooperative Learning Work. Theory into Practice, Building Community through Cooperative Learning, 38(2), 67-73. Retrieved August 31,2012 from the World Wide Web: http://www.jstor.org/ · Prensky, M. (2001). Digital natives, digital immigrants. On the Horizon, 9, 1-6. Retrieved 17 May 2012, from http://www.marcprensky.com/writing/Prensky - Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants - Part1.pdf · Subrahmanyama, K., Reich, S. M., Waechter, N., & Espinoza, G. (2008). Online and offline social networks: Use of social networking sites by emerging adults, Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 29, 420–433. · Summers, J.J., and M.D. Svinicki. (2007). Investigating classroom community in higher education. Learning and Individual Differences 17, no. 1: 55-67.

International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

International J. Res. Vol. 4. No. 2. 52-55, Jan-Jun 2015 ISSN : 2231 - 6124

Characteristics of Same Brand (Scooped and Packed) Ice-Creams in Mumbai Ice-Cream Parlors *Saloni Salunkhe, **Unnati Shah, **Petra Sequeira Abstract Ice-creams are a good media for microbial growth due to high nutrient value, almost neutral pH and long storage duration. The present literature focuses more on microbiological analysis and limited studies have been conducted on analysis of same brand ice-creams but sold either in the form of scoops to be eaten at parlors or packed family size take away. Hence the present research was conducted to assess and compare the physical, chemical, sucrose content and microbial properties between scooped and packed ice-creams of the same brand. The second objective of study was to compare ice-creams with reference standards (BIS and FSSAI).Simple random sampling was used to collect 20 samples (10 scooped and 10 packed of the same brand) from 5 outlets in south zone of Mumbai. Independent sample t test and one sample t test were used as an advanced statistical test. There was no significant difference in total solids, titrable acidity, overrun, sucrose, yeast and mold count of scooped and packed ice-creams. Whereas standard plate count and total coliform count of scooped ice-creams were significantly greater when compared to packed ice-creams {(t= -2.722, p< 0.01) (t= -2.798, p< 0.01)}. Total solids, titrable acidity, standard plate count and total coliform count of scooped ice-creams were significantly greater than the required standards {(t=230.49, p<0.01) (t=4.89, p<0.01) (t=2.33, p<0.05) (t=2.60, p<0.05)}. For packed ice-creams when compared with standard values there was a significant difference in total solids and titrable acidity {(t=107.4, p<0.01) (t=4.02, p<0.01)}, however microbial load did not exceed the standard values. Only sucrose content was significantly below standard values for scooped as well as packed ice-creams {(t=-39.33, p<0.01) (t=-27.20, p<0.01)}.All samples analyzed had negative results of salmonella species. Conditions of scooped ice-creams were even poor as compared to packed ice-creams of the same brand. Probable reasons could be improper handling, unhygienic practices by vendors, significantly low sucrose content and improper storage temperature. Keywords: Ice-creams, Microbial quality, Packed, Scooped, Sucrose Introduction: According to Prevention of Food Adulteration rules (1976) ice-cream is the frozen product obtained from cow or buffalo milk or combination. It is a good media for microbial growth due to high nutrient value, almost neutral pH and long storage duration of ice-cream. However, pasteurization, freezing and hardening steps in the production can eliminate most of the microbiological hazards. Ice-cream is sold in packages or in open containers at retail outlets, ice-cream parlors; the open variety is being distributed manually in scoops, cones or sundaes across the counter. The present literature focuses more on microbiological analysis and limited studies have been conducted on analysis of same brand ice-creams but sold either in the form of scoops to be eaten at parlors or packed family size take away. The consumption of ice-creams as compared to last decade has improved and ice-cream is preferred by almost all age groups so there is a need to compare it with the standards. Hence the present study was conducted with the following research purpose: To assess and compare the physical, chemical, sucrose content and microbial properties between scooped and packed ice-creams of the same brand. The second objective of study was to compare physical, chemical, sucrose content and

microbial properties of scooped and packed ice-creams with reference standards (BIS and FSSAI). For the present

study scooped term is used for ice creams sold in ice cream parlors to be consumed there and packed refers to family size taken parcel commonly used during parties and occasions. Methodology: Scooped and packed ice-creams sold in south zone of Mumbai district were studied. Study design was descriptive and comparative. Purposive sampling technique was used to identify 5 outlets in south zone of Mumbai and simple random sampling was used to collect 20 samples (10 scooped and 10 packed of the same brand) from these outlets. Scooped icecream size was 1 small cup with 2 scoops and packed size was minimum 500 grams. From this initial size a portion was used for sample analysis. Table 1describes frequency of samples procured from 4 outlets. In total 20 samples were analyzed. Table No. 1: Sample and sample size Number of Outlets Outlet 1 Outlet 2 Outlet 3 Outlet 4 Outlet 5 Total

Plain ice-creams Scooped 1 1 1 1 1 5

Packed 1 1 1 1 1 5

Ice-creams with nuts Scooped Packed 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 5 5

Total

4 4 4 4 4 20

** M.Sc II - FPP (Semester IV) student ** Ph.D Scholar and Visiting lecturer, Department of Foods, Nutrition and Dietetics, College of Home Science, Nirmala Niketan, E-mail ID: [email protected] *** Associate professor, Department of Microbiology, Jai Hind college 52 International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

Characteristics of Same Brand (Scooped and Packed) ....

Table 2 states the techniques used for analysis of total solids, titrable acidity, overrun, sucrose, standard plate count (SPC), total coliform count (TCC), yeast and mold count, test for pathogen (Salmonella). Table No. 2: Variables of the study and standard techniques Type of analysis Chemical components

Variable assessed Total solids Titrable acidity

Physical Overrun Component Nutritional component Sucrose Microbial Standard plate count (SPC) components Total coliform count (TCC) Yeast and mold count Test for pathogen (Salmonella)

Procedure No Standard No IS 2802-1964 (R2011) IS 2802-1964 (R2011) IS 2802-1964 (R2011) IS 2802-1964 (R2011) IS 2802-1964 (R2011) IS 2802-1964 (R2011)

NUTRITIONAL PROPERTY 2

Sucrose (% wt)

5

3.02 ± 0.96

2

7

3.09 ± 1.38

-0.141 0.890

MICROBIAL PROPERTIES Standard plate 5.9 count (cfu/ml) × 10 4 Total coliform 2.9 count (cfu/ml) × 10 2 Yeast and mold 0 count (cfu/ml) salmonella detection (cfu/ml)

-

3.2 × 9.5 × 10 6 ± 2.5× 10 3 8.6 × 10 5 3.1 × 10 5 ± 107 12665770.02 358126.46 4.0 × 1.3 × 10 4 ± 104 15677.83 2

1.6 × 3.2 × 10 ± 103 518.77 -

Absent

2.0 × 101 9.9 × 10 3 1.4 × 10 3 ± 3138.26 0

9.6 × 10

-

-

1

-2.722 0.002

-2.798 0.002

1

3.0 × 10 ± 37.60 Absent

-1.438 0.082 -

-

IS 2802-1964 (R2011) IS 2802-1964 (R2011) IS 2802-1964 (R2011) IS 2802-1964 (R2011) IS 2802-1964 (R2011) IS 2802-1964 (R2011) IS 5403:1999* FSSAI(2012) IS 5887(III) 1999* FSSAI(2012)

Data presented as mean ± standard deviation, p<0.05 is considered significant. Kocaket. al. (1998) studied 46 samples of ice-cream for *Adapted under guidance of experts – In yeast and mold count bacterial quality from different markets in Ankara. These instead of using pour plate technique, spread technique was included 27 open ice-cream and 19 packed ice-cream samples. used. In test for salmonella detection tetrathionate broth and 7 samples had fecal coliforms exceeding the legal limit. The xylose lysine deoxycholate agar (XLD agar) were used. XLD counts of total bacteria of ice-cream samples ranged from agar is a selective growth medium used in the isolation of 1.3×101cfu/g to 2.1×106cfu/g. Owniet. al.(2009) conducted a salmonella species from clinical food samples. study on chemical composition of ice cream. They examined A statistical package of social sciences (SPSS-16) was samples from machines and a modern factory produced in used for analysis. Descriptive statistics and advance statistics Khartoum State, Sudan. There was a highly significant were performed. Independent sample test was used for contrasting between scooped and packed ice-creams and one difference for total solids in ice cream made by machines and sample test for comparing with the reference standards. p<0.05 factory. Kumar et al.(2011) conducted a study to assess the was considered to be statistically significant. bacteriological quality of local made open scoop ice cream Result and Discussion sold by street hawkers in different areas of Jalandhar city, In the present study scooped and packed ice-creams Punjab and found that the samples of all the areas show heavy were tested and compared with BIS and FSSAI standards to contamination of bacteria ranging from 0.1×109 CFU/g to determine physical, chemical, nutritional and microbial 10.2×109 CFU/g. properties. The tests carried out were overrun, total solids, 2. Physical, Chemical, Nutritional And Microbial titrable acidity, sucrose, standard plate count, total coliform Properties Comparison With Standard Values Of Scooped count, yeast and mold count, test for Salmonella detection. And Packed Ice-Creams 1. Estimation And Comparison Of Physical, Chemical, Overrun, yeast and mold count were in acceptable Nutritional And Microbial Properties Of Scooped And Packed Ice-Creams limit. Total solids and titrable acidity of scooped ice-creams There was no significant difference in the physical, chemical was greater than the required standards, and this departure and nutritional properties of scooped and packed ice-creams (p from reference standards was highly significant {(t=230.49, > 0.05). Thus scooped and packed ice-creams were similar for p<0.01) (t=4.89, p<0.01)}.Standard plate count and total physical, chemical and nutritional properties. Standard plate coliform count of scooped ice-creams were also significantly count and total coliform count of scooped ice-creams was greater when compared to reference standards {(t=2.33, greater as compared to packed ice-creams and this difference p<0.05) (t=2.60, p<0.05)}. Forpacked ice-creams when was highly significant {(t= -2.722, p< 0.01) (t= -2.798, p< compared with standard values there was a significant 0.01)}However, for yeast and mold count there was no difference in total solids and titrable acidity {(t=107.4, significant difference (t= -1.438, p>0.05). Salmonella was p<0.01) (t=4.02, p<0.01)}, however microbial load did not absent in all samples of scooped and packed ice-creams. Table exceed the standard values. Only sucrose content was no. 3 describes physical, chemical, nutritional and microbial properties of scooped and packed ice-creams. significantly below standard values for scooped as well as Table No. 3: Properties of scooped and packed ice-creams packed ice-creams {(t=-39.33, p<0.01) (t=-27.20, p<0.01)}. Variables Scooped ice-creams (n=10) Packed ice-creams (n=10) t p value Overall condition of scooped ice-creams for chemical, Min Ma Mean ± SD Min Max Mean ± SD value nutritional and microbial ice-creams were poor as compared to x packed ice-creams. Table No.4 describes comparison with PHYSICAL PROPERTY 200 510 385 ± 200 520 383 ± 135.24 0.032 0.975 reference standards. All samples analyzed had negative results Overrun 141.12 (g/litre) of salmonella species. CHEMICAL PROPERTIES Joshi et.al.(2004) conducted a microbial analysis of 90 93 91.22 ± 88 94 90.78 ± 1.61 Total solids 0.75 0.774 0.449 ice-cream sold in Kathmandu. Total 72 ice-cream samples (% wt) 0.22 0.50 0.37 ± 0.20 0.55 0.37 ± 0.09 Titrable 0.07 -0.099 0.922 (cups or as available in market) of 12 different brands were acidity (% lactic acid)

53

International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

Saloni Salunkhe et. al.

collected from different departmental stores of Kathmandu valley. 3 were plain and 3 were with additives. The study was carried out from July to September of 2004. In case of total coliform count, 52 (72.2%) were found to be contaminated with coliforms and 49 (68.1%) crossed the standard value for coliforms. Only 1 sample found to be contaminated with salmonella. Anuranjini et.al.(2008) studied Bacteriological analysis of ice creams from Mangalore. Softee ice creams were collected from ice cream vending machines installed in small shops in Mangalore. A total of five retail outlets were selected from four different localities, so total 90 ice-cream samples were analyzed, for six months from January to Jun 2006. A total of 18 samples were collected from each outlet. More than one type of bacteria were isolated from 72 samples. 7 Coliform count of >10 cfu/g was detected in 80 samples. None of the softee ice creams screened in the present study were within the BIS limits for coliform and total aerobic bacterial counts. Vica et.al.(2010) conducted a study on 40 ice-cream samples of various flavours in Romania. In this study only 23 samples showed a lower number of total coliforms (< 10 cfu/g) , 3 samples contained 10 cfu/g and the rest 14 samples a high microbiological growth (higher than 10 and up to 60 bacteria/g). All samples analyzed had negative results of salmonella spp. Kumar et.al.(2011) investigated microbiological quality analysis of ice-creams sold by street hawkers in Jalandhar City, India. 45 samples were collected in the mid of March to the mid of April 2011 from street hawkers from 9 zones. Branded ice-creams and ice-cream parlors were not included in this study. Samples from 7 zones exceeded coliform count compared to the BIS. Ambily and Beena (2012) conducted a study of bacteriological quality of ice-cream in Thrissur town, Kerala. They collected ice-cream samples from retail outlets and street vendors. They reported that 30 % of the samples contained coliforms above the prescribed limit. Though TVC was within the prescribed range, coliform count exceeded the limits in some brands. Salmonella was isolated from one sample sold by a street vendor. Jadhav and Raut (2014) conducted a microbiological study of self made, branded and road vended ice-cream. They observed that the Total Viable Count (TVC) 5 5 for all the self made ice creams was 2 x 10 to 7 x 10 cfu/g and 3 3 for branded 1.2 x 10 to 7.0 x10 cfu /g. However, none of the road vendor ice cream samples showed TVC within the 7 7 standards 4.3 x 10 to 8.0 x 10 cfu/g. The maximum coliform count was 400 cfu/gm in the road vender's ice cream sample and minimum count was 9 cfu/gm in the branded samples. Salmonella species (1-8 cfu/g) were also isolated from some ice cream samples. They concluded that about 40% samples showed presence of Salmonella species. The difference in chemical and nutritional properties could be due to storage duration. The difference in microbial properties of scooped and packed ice-creams could be due to various reasons like hygienic practices carried out by vendors, storage temperature and conditions.

54

Table No. 4: Physical, chemical, nutritional and microbial properties comparison with standard values of scooped and packed ice-creams Variables

Scooped ice-creams (n=10)

t value

p value

Packed icecreams (n=10) Mean ± SD Mean ± SD PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

t value

Overrun (g/litre) (Plain ice-creams) (n=5) Overrun (g/litre) (Nut ice-creams) (n=5)

392 ± 153.52

-1.93

0.125

384 ± 146.21

-2.15

0.097

525

378 ± 145.32

-2.49

0.067

382 ± 140.60

-2.51

0.066

540

p value

Standard values

CHEMICAL PROPERTIES Total solids (% wt) Titrable acidity (% lactic acid)

91.22 ± 0.75 0.37 ± 0.07

230.49

90.78 ± 1.61 4.89 0.001 0.37 ± 0.09 NUTRITIONAL PROPERTIES

107.4 0 4.02

0.000

36.0

0.003

0.25

Sucrose (% wt)

3.02 ± 0.96

3.09 ± 1.38 MICROBIAL PROPERTIES

-27.20

0.000

15.0

Standard plate count

314390 ± 0.56 358126.4 6 1408.80± 1.31 3138.26

0.584

2 50 000

0.220

100

30.70 ± 37.60

0.116

less than 10 per gram Absent per 25g

0.000

-39.33

0.000

9594216 ± 12665770.02

2.33

0.045

Total coliform count

13006 ± 15677.83

2.60

0.029

Yeast and mold count

321.90 ± 518.77

1.90

0.090

Test for Salmonella detection

Absent

Absent

1.74

-

-

Data presented as mean ± standard deviation, p<0.05 is considered significant. Summary and Conclusion: There was no significant difference in the physical, chemical and nutritional properties of scooped and packed icecreams. Whereas standard plate count and total coliform count of scooped ice-creams were significantly greater when compared to packed ice-creams. All samples analyzed had negative results of salmonella species. Total solids, titrable acidity, standard plate count and total coliform count were significantly greater when compared with standard values, except for sucrose content which was significantly lower in comparison to reference standards for scooped ice-creams. Total solids, titrable acidity of packed icecreams were also significantly greater when compared with standard values, except for sucrose content which was significantly lower in comparison to reference standards. Overrun, yeast and mold count were as per standards for scooped as well as packed ice-creams. Thus all 20 samples exceeded for total solids, titrable acidity also exceeded for all samples, except 1 scooped and 1 packed ice-cream. Standard plate count for 13 samples (9 scooped, 4 packed ice-creams) and total coliform count for 16 samples (10 scooped, 4 packed ice-creams) were not satisfactory when compared to BIS. Conditions of scooped ice-creams were even poor as compared to packed ice-creams of the same brand. Probable reasons could be improper handling, unhygienic practices by vendors, significantly low sucrose content and improper storage temperature.

International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

Characteristics of Same Brand (Scooped and Packed) ....

Recommendations: Ice-cream is a very nutritious medium for microbial growth because of its neutral pH, therefore ice-cream should be handled carefully and temperature should be maintained uniform during storage and transportation. Data on temperature, storage and transportation conditions also should be collected. Data on raw material purchase site and its quality at the initial stage of preparation also could have been evaluated. Applications: Present study helped to provide valuable information on the physical properties, chemical components, sucrose content and microbial quality differences across scooped and packed ice-creams. Study helped to provide an insight into the existing deviation for physical properties, chemical components, sucrose content and microbial quality from reference standards for scooped as well as for packed ice-creams. Also, this study can be a valuable source of information for auditors, food inspectors, health magazines and upcoming companies manufacturing ice-creams. References: · Ambily, Rand Beena, A .(2012), Bacteriological quality of ice-cream marketed in Thrissur town, Kerala, India, Veterinary World, 5 (12), 738-741.

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·

· ·

· ·

Anuranjini, C; Sebastian,G and Dhanashree, B. (2008), Bacteriological analysis of ice creams from Mangalore, south India, Indian Journal of Medical Research, 127, 9192. Joshi, D; Shah, PK;Manandhar, S; Sharma, S and Banmali, P. (2004), Microbial quality of ice-cream sold in Kathmandu, Journal of Nepal health research council, 2 (2), 37-40. Jadhav, A and Raut, P. (2014), Evaluation of microbiological quality of ice creams marketed in Kolhapur city, Maharashtra, India, Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci, 3(9), 78-84. Kocak, M; Akan, H and Yardimci. (1998), Bacteriological quality of ice-cream marketed in Ankara, Ankara Univ, Vet. Fak. Derg, 45, 131-134. Kumar, H.; Wadhwa, G; Palaha, R.; Gandhi, R; Singh, S. (2011), Microbiological quality analysis of ice creams sold by street hawkers: a case study of Jalandhar City, India, Internet J. Safety,13, 164-169. Owni, O. and Zeinab, K. (2009), Chemical composition of ice cream produced in Khartoum State, Sudan, Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 2009, 8 (2), 158-160. Vica, M; Glevitzky; Gabriela, A; Maria, P and Angela, T. (2010), Microbiological quality of ice-creams produced in Alba County, Romania, Journal of Agroalimentary Processes and Technologies, 16(1), 19-23.

International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

International J. Res. Vol. 4. No. 2. 56-60 Jan-Jun 2015 ISSN : 2231 - 6124

Neuropsychological Profile of the Patient with Head Injury: A Case Report *Mustafa Nadeem Kirmani

Abstract The aim of the current paper is to examine neuropsychological profile of a patient with head injury. The neuropsychological evaluation provides an extensive and comprehensive assessment of the patient's cognitive, emotional, behavioral and social assets and liabilities subsequent to injury to the brain. Neuropsychological assessment goes beyond the usual standard psychological assessment. It often demonstrates sensitivity to the effects of brain injury. Cognitive difficulties are very common in patients with head injury. Cognition includes an awareness of one's surroundings, attention to tasks, memory, reasoning, problem solving, and executive functioning (e.g., goal setting, planning, initiating, self-awareness, selfmonitoring and evaluation). Neuropsychological evaluation provides a comprehensive assessment of brain functions and helps in the plan of management. The essential feature of patients with head injuries is impairment in their cognitive functions like difficulty in attention, memory, planning, affective issues in the form of irritability, anger outburst, sadness and behavioral issues like behavioral inhibition and other areas like impairment in social and occupational functioning. The extent of these difficulties depends on the severity of head injury, brain part involved, other comorbid conditions and sociodemographic variables. Methodology: A single case design was adopted for the current clinical evaluation. 22 year old right handed female patient with a diagnosis of head injury was assessed for her neuropsychological functioning using NIMHANS Neuropsychological Head Injury Battery. A total of 4 sessions were conducted with the total duration of approximately 7 hours. Result: The neuropsychological profile of the patient indicates impairment in sustained attention, motor speed, mental processing, verbal memory, visual scanning, visual integration, visual learning & memory, planning, verbal comprehension, set shifting and working memory. The profile of the patient indicates diffuse involvement of the brain with predominant frontal & tempo occipital involvement. Keywords: Head injury, NIMHANS Neuropsychological Battery Introduction Neuropsychology is the scientific study of the relationship between brain and behavior. It bridges the disciplines of neurology and cognitive psychology and seeks to describe and explain how cognitions, emotions and behavior are mediated by different processes in brain. Joseph Gall paved the way to the study the relationship of brain to different behavioral aspects. Neuropsychology has the following sub disciplines: 1. Cognitive Neuropsychology: It studies the neuroanatomical and neurofunctional correlates of discrete cognitive processes and analyze the micro processes involved in everyday cognitive functions. 2. Clinical Neuropsychology: It studies the relationship between various neurological and psychiatric disorders to brain and how these disorders affect cognitions, affect and behaviors. It involves neuropsychological evaluation of patients to understand patients' strengths and various cognitive domains which need interventions. Another important purpose of clinical neuropsychologist is to plan neuropsychological and cognitive retraining subsequent to the disease condition after the evaluation of the patients. One of the most important aspect of clinical neuropsychology is that the evaluation is done of live brain

where in the effect of damage to brain can be seen on the spot during patient's performance on various tests of the neuropsychology battery during neuropsychological evaluation. 1. To understand the severity of brain damage 2. To understand localization and lateralization of brain in terms of damage to brain 3. To understand strengths of the patient (Intact brain functions). It helps the patient and the family members to also focus on functioning aspect not just on pathology. It motivates the patient and the treating team also. 4. To formulate management plan 5. To understand how the management is progressing in terms of recovery process. NeuropsychologicalAssessment It is a comprehensive assessment of neuropsychological functions which is being carried out by a trained clinical psychologist or a clinical neuropsychologist. NIMHANS Head Injury battery was administered on the patient. NIMHANS Head Injury battery comprise of the following tests. 1. Digit Vigilance Test (Lezak, 1995). DVT consists of 1-9 randomly ordered and placed in rows on a page. It assesses

*Research Scholar, Department of Psychology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh. Email id: [email protected]

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International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

Neuropsychological Profile of the Patient with Head Injury: A Case Report

sustained attention. 2. Digit Symbol Substitution Test (Wechsler, 1981). DSS test consists of a sheet in which numbers 1-9 are randomly assigned arranged in 4 rows of 25 squares each. The subject substitutes each number with a symbol using a number symbol key given on the top of the page of the test. It assesses visual motor coordination, response & mental speed. It also gives an idea of information processing speed. 3. Finger Tapping Test (Spreen & Strauss, 1998). FTT consists of tapping a key mounted on a box. The subject has to tap the index finger key as quickly as possible in 10 seconds. Both index fingers are to be tapped one by one. It assesses motor speed. 4. Token Test (De Renzi & Vignolo, 1962). It consists of tokens differing in size, color and shape. The subject has to follow the examiner's instructions and touch the token asked by the examiner. It assesses verbal comprehension. It can also be assesses clinically through clinical interview. Wernicke's area mediates verbal comprehension (Joseph, 1996) 5. Animal Fluency (Lezak, 1995). In this test, the subject has to generate and name as many animals as possible in one minute excluding the names of fish, birds and snakes. It assesses verbal fluency. 6. Stroop Test -NIMHANS Version. In this test, the names of colors Blue, Red andYellow are printed in capital letters on a paper. The color of the print occasionally corresponds with the color designated by the test. The words are printed in 16 rows and 11 columns. The subject has to read the stimuli column-wise as fast as possible and the time taken to read the 11 columns is noted down. It assesses response inhibition. 7. N Back Verbal 1 and 2 (Smith & Jonides, 1999). These tests assess working memory. The 1 back version requires verbal storage and rehearsal while 2 back version requires, in addition manipulation of information. 8. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (Milner, 1963). WCST assesses concept formation, abstract reasoning and the ability to shift cognitive strategies in response to changing environment. It also focuses on cognitive set shifting. 9. Tower of London Test (Shallice, 1982). TOL assesses subject's ability to plan and anticipate the results of their actions to achieve a predetermined goal. Planning is the identification and organization of the steps and elements needed to carry out an intention or achieve a goal. 10. Auditory Verbal Learning Test (Schmidt, 1996). AVLT was originally developed by Rey in 1964. It assesses verbal learning and memory. 11. Complex Figure Test (Meyers & Meyers, 1995). The test consists of a complex design which is abstract in nature and difficult to name. It has an overall structure and multiple subcomponents within it. It assesses attention, visuo spatial perception, visuo motor coordination, planning and error correction abilities. It also assesses visual learning and memory. 12. Focal Signs: Focal signs like agnosias, apraxias, alexia, body schema disturbance, acalculia and aphasia. Neuropsychological assessment also focuses on any

57

personality change in the form of mood changes, disinhibition, irritability, impulsity, frustration tolerance etc. Neurocognitive and Psychosocial outcomes subsequent to Head Injury Head injury even when mild is associated with a variety of psychological squeal. Cognitive, emotional and personality changes range from mild to severe degree. Consequent disturbances occur in the family and social functioning of the patient. Memory deficits, inability to attend to tasks and to concentrate, inability to understand rapid speech, and difficulties in doing complex tasks are some of the cognitive difficulties reported by head injured patients. Depression and anxiety are examples of emotional changes that follow head injury. Personality changes are in the form of unconcern, motivation, irritability, stubbornness and aggressiveness. In children temper tantrums would be present in addition to the above changes. These wide ranging changes occur suddenly against a background of adequate premorbid functioning. The nature of these changes and their suddenness, contribute to the dysfunction in the family and social life of these individuals. The important etiological factor for these wide ranging impairments is neuropsychological dysfunction following brain damage. Neuropsychological deficits occur even in mild injury. In moderate to severe injury these defects are obvious and severe. The neuropsychological deficits in severe injury are the frontal lobe syndrome. The patient falls into one of the following two categories. The patient is apathetic and amotivated. There is disinterest in activities of daily living. Expressive speech is minimal and the patient gives short answers. Repeated persuasion is required to make the patient do any task. It is difficult to arouse the patient's attention. If it is aroused with difficulty, there is a quick fatigability of attention. The family members report that the patient remains silent and does not take any interest in the surroundings. This state is termed as pseudo depressive type of personality change. The other variety of frontal lobe syndrome is termed as the pseudo psychopathic type of personality change. The patient is irritable and unconcerned. Attention can be aroused easily but the patient is easily distracted. Direction of attention to tasks on hand is poor. Consequently the patient remains idle and does not perform well on tests. Frontal lobe syndrome is also present if the patient is aggressive. Excessive and circumstantial speech is another symptom of the frontal lobe syndrome. Specific frontal lobe deficits might also be present in these patients. Expressive aphasia, deficits of motor programming, verbal fluency and abstraction might be impaired. If the deficits are diffuse in nature, a dementia type of picture would be seen. Moderate injury may be associated with the above deficits. In the case of focal head injury such as hematoma or depressed skull fracture a more focal dysfunction would be present appropriate to the site of the insult. Receptive aphasia, apraxia, agnosia, hemi neglect and other focal signs may be present. Neuropsychological profiles in Head Injury Cognitive deficits are the most debilitating of the sequels of head injury and are protracted. The functions are not

International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

Mustafa Nadeem Kirmani

uniformly impacted; some functions may remain intact, while others may be impaired (Levin et al, 1990), largely depending on the nature of the injury and location of the lesion. Frontal and temporal lobes are the most susceptible areas of injury, and if injured, may result in deficits of attention, executive functions, memory and personality change-Decreased speed of information processing has been demonstrated in all types of head injury)' (Kumar, et al, 2005; Mukundan et al, 1987., Rao et al, 1985). Attention deficits are evident even in mild head injury (Leninger et al, 1990). Commonly seen deficits in attention, across seventy, are: in sustained attention, divided attention, and focused attention (Hugenholtz et al, 1988; Levin et al, 1993; Misra & Rao, 1994; Stuss et al, 1986; Van Zomeran & Fassoti, 1992). Deficits in attention can affect all other cognitive processes which have devastating effect on the patient. Memory deficits are most frequent complications following head injury, known as post-traumatic amnesia (PTA). PTA is further classified into anterograde amnesia and retrograde amnesia. Anterograde amnesia refers to difficulty in recalling events subsequent to head injury. Retrograde amnesia refers to loss of memory of events before the injury. There is a temporal gradient in retrograde amnesia, i.e., events closer to the time of the injury are forgotten when compared to the remote memory, which is largely preserved. Retrograde amnesia may shrink or recede over time. Even after recovery from posttraumatic amnesia, memory deficits may persist. Studies of head injured patients have demonstrated impairments in various types of memory such as verbal and visual learning memory (Jannet, 1981; Mariadas et al, 1989), logical memory, associative memory, visual memory for complex geometric designs (Brooks, 1972),memory span, free recall (Levin et al, 1987), semantic organization, depth and automatic of encoding (Menon & Rao, 1997). Executive functions are higher order cognitive functions such as judgment, decision-making, planning, and organizing ability (Jones et al, 1996).These functions are essential for any goaldirected behavior. Impaired executive functions in head injuries are in the form of difficulty in self-evaluation, selfregulation, planning (Levin et al, 1987), working memory (McDowell et al,1987) mental flexibility, mental programming (Vikki, 1992),anticipation and goal-directed activity as well as prioritizing and ordering (Shallice & Burgess, 1991). In addition to the cognitive deficits, the emotional and behavioral problems following head injury (included under the rubric of personality change) often contribute to the disruption of daily activities of the individual. Personality change is seen as one or more of the following; emotional instability, depression, withdrawal, disinhibition, euphoria (Stuss & Benson, 1986), irritability, impatience, decreased interest and drive, and childish behavior (Jannet et al, 1981; Oddy,1995).Cognitive and behavioral deficits are sub served primarily by the cortical and sub cortical circuits and by the front subcortical circuits in particular (Cummings, 1993). Researchers have proposed five fronto-subcortical circuits; three of these circuits have been proposed to play a crucial role

58

in regulating behavior and mediating various cognitive functions. Dorsolateral prefrontal circuits (DLPFC) support executive functions (Cummings, 1993). The orbitofrontal circuits mediate mood regulation, response inhibition and socially appropriate behavior. The third circuit, involving conflict resolution. Damage to this circuit leads to apathy, akinetic mutism, and reduced verbal output (Cummings, 1998). Damage to the right orbitofrontal areas and its circuitry results in personality change. The possibility of damage of some or all of these circuits is high after head injury. Aim The aim of the current clinical work was to evaluate neuropsychological functioning of a case with Head Injury Objectives The objectives of the current clinical work was to a) Examine the functioning of frontal lobe in a patient with Head Injury b) Examine the functioning of temporal lobe lobe in a patient with Head Injury c) Examine the functioning of occipital lobe in a patient with Head Injury d) Examine the functioning of parietal lobe in a patient with Head Injury Methodology A single case design was adopted for the current clinical evaluation. Measure Used NIMHANS Neuropsychological battery (Rao et al, 2004) was used to evaluate the case with Head Injury. Procedure After the patient was referred for neuropsychological assessment, written informed consent was taken from him. The purpose and rationale and purpose of the assessment was explained to him and his family. It was explicitly explained that the assessment will help the treating team understanding his intact potential, areas of impairment and formulation of management of management plan. The assessment took approximately 7 hours and it got completed in 4 sessions on successive days with each session of approximately 1 hour and 40 minutes Case Summary Patient M was a 22 year-old unmarried right handed male post graduate student middle socio economic status, with no significant personal, past and family history. He met with road traffic accident in December 2009 and was unconscious for 2-3 hours. Bleeding from nose was reported by the family member. He was admitted to a local hospital was diagnosed to have moderate head-injury (Glassgow Coma Score 10/15), and treated medically in the local hospital. Patient reported to one of the Private hospitals in Bangalore in April 2010 with chief complaints of headache, forgetfulness, irritability, impulsivity, impaired attention and difficulty in studies. He was referred for neuropsychological assessment for understanding his neuropsychological profile in view of his cognitive and behavioral issues for planning cognitive retraining and

International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

Neuropsychological Profile of the Patient with Head Injury: A Case Report

therapy. Result & Discussion

·

S.No

Tests

Function

1

Digit Vigilance Test Finger Tapping Test Digit Symbol Substitution Test

2 3

4 5 6

7 8 9

N Back Verbal 1 and 2 Auditory Verbal Learning Test Complex Figure Test Tower of London Test Token Test Wisconsin Card Sorting Test

sustained Attention

Percentile Scores 10

Conclusion Impaired*

Motor Speed

20

Intact

Information Processing/Mental Speed Working Memory

13

Impaired

5

Impaired

Verbal Learning and Memory Visual Learning and Memory, Visual Integration Planning

10

Impaired

10

Impaired

7

Impaired

Verbal Comprehension Set Shifting

10 12

Impaired Impaired

*Percentile of 15 or below is considered as deficits/impairment as per Norms of NIMHANS Battery The neuropsychological profile of the patient indicates Frontal & Tempo Occipital Involvement. Recent work in neurosciences indicates the importance of neural plasticity. It is the ability of the brain to habituate and learn to re-organize and re-establish the lost functions. It becomes imperative in head injury cases to have neuropsychological profiling which aids in the management of the neuropsychological impairment of the patient. Limitations The major limitations of the current clinical work are as follows. a) Only a single case was used to evaluate neuropsycholo gical functioning in Head Injury b) Pre-post design would have given a better picture of comparison of the neuropsychological functions Conclusions & Suggestions The current case of head injury indicates Frontal & Tempo Occipital Involvement. Neuropsychological evaluation of head injury cases aids in understanding the patient's asset and areas of concerns and limitations. Neuropsychological profiling helps the clinical psychologist to formulate plan of management which not only improves patient's neurocognitive functions but also helps him/her to deal with emotional issues through psychotherapy. There is a strong need to have trained clinical psychologists/clinical neuropsychologists in all medical set up which deals with head injury cases. It will help overall rehabilitation of the patients, improves treatment outcomes, speedy recovery and quality of life. Acknowledgement The author is highly grateful to the Management of Vydehi Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Center, Bangalore for their constant support and encouragement for the current clinical work. References: · Brooks, D.N. (1972).memory and head injury. The

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· · ·

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Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 155, 5, 350-355. Cummings, J.C.(1993). Frontal subcortical circuits and human behavior. Archives of Neurology, 50,873-880. De Renz, E., & Vignolo,L( 1962). The Token Test: A sensitive test to detect receptive disturbances in aphasics. Brain, 85,665-678. Hugenholtz, H., Stuss, D.T., Stehem, L.L., & Richard, M.T.(1988). How long does it take to recover from a mild concussion? Neurosurgery, 22, 5. Jannett, B., Snoek, J., Bond,M.R., &Brooks, N.(1981). Disability after severe head injury; observations on the Glasgow outcome scale . Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry,44, 285-293. Jones, R.D.,Anderson,S.W., Cole, T., & Nepple, J.H.(1996). Neuropsychological sequel of traumatic brain injury. In:Rizzo,M.& Tranel, D.(Eds), Head injury and post concussion syndrome. New York: Churchill Livingstone Inc. Kumar, K.J., Rao, S.L., Chandramouli (2005). Innovative methods of rehabilitation in head injury. Paper presented in World Congress in Brain Injury, Melbourne,Australia. Leninger, B.E.,Grambling, S.E., & Forell , A.D.(1990). Neuropsychological deficits in symptomatic minor head injury patients after concussion and mild concussion. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 33,293-296. Levin,H.S.(1993). Neurobehavioral sequel of closed head injury.In: Cooper, P.R.(Eds.) Head injury, 3/e.Baltimore: Williams & Witkin. Levin, H.S., Gary, E.H., Howard, M., Eisenberg, H.M., Ruff, R.M.,Barth, J.T.,Kreutzer,J., High, W.M., Postman, S.,Foulkes,M.A.,Jane.A, Marmaran, A., & Marshall,L.F.(1990). Neurobehavioral outcome 1 year after severe head injury. Journal of Neurosurgery, 73, 699709. Levin, H.S.,Amparo, E., & Eisenberg, H.M.(1987). Magnetic resonance imaging and computerized tomography in relation to neurobioral sequel of mild and moderate head injuries. Neurosurgery, 66, 706-713. Lezak, M.D.(1995). Neuropsychological Assessment (3rd ed.) NewYork: Oxford University Press. Mariadas, C.A., Rao, S.L.,Gangadhar, B.N., & Hegde, A.S.(1989). Neuropsychological functioning in post concussion syndrome.NIMHANS Journal, 7, 37-41. McDowell, S.,Whyte, J., &D' Esposito, M.(1987). working memory impairments in traumatic brain injury. Evidence from dual task paradigm. Neuropsycho logia,10,1341-1353. Menon ,P., & Rao, S.L.(1997). Memory storage and encoding in patients with memory deficits after closed head injury. NIMHANS Journal, 15, 83-92. Meyers, J. E., & Meyers, K. R. (1995). Rey Complex Figure Test and Recognition Trial: Professional manual. PsychologicalAssessment Resource Milner B. Effect of different brain lesions on Card Sorting (1963). Archives of Neurology, 9, 90-100. Misra, S., &Rao, S.L.(1994). Divided attention in head injury.NIMHANS Journal, 12,157-162. Mukundan, C.R.,Reddy, N.,G.N., Hedge, A.S., Shankar, J.

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& Kaliaperumal, V.G.(1987). Neuropsychological and clinical recovery in patients with head trauma.NIMHANS Journal, 12, 23-32. Nag, S, Rao S.L.(1999). Remediation of attention deficits in head injury. Neurology India, 47, 32-35. Oddy, M., Coughlan, T., & Tyreman, A.(1985). Social adjustment after closed head injury. A further follow-up seven years after injury. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 48,564-568. Rao, S.L., Gangadhar, B.N., & Hegde, a.s.(1985). Information processing deficits in post concussion syndrome.NIMHANS Journal, 3, 141-146. Rao S.L.,Subbakrishkna, D.K.,& Gopukumar, K.(2004). NIMHANS Neuropsychology Battery Manual, NIMHANS Publication No 60, Bangalore. Schmidt, M. (1996). Rey Auditory and Verbal Learning Test: A handbook. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services. Shallice, T.(1982). Specific impairments of planning. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B, 298, 199–209. Shallice, T., & Burgus, R.W.(1991). Deficits in strategy

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application following frontal lobe damage in man. Brain, 114, 727-741. Smith, E. E., & Jonides, J. (1999). Storage and executive processes in the frontal lobes. Science, 283(5408), 16571661. Spreen,O.& Strauss, E.(1998).A compendium of neuropsychological tests,(2nd ed.) New York: Oxford University Press. Stuss, D.T., & Benson,D.F.(1986). The frontal lobes. New York: Raven Press. Van Zomeran, A.H.,Fasotti, L.(1992). Impairment of attention in brain damaged patients. In:Von Steiinbuchel,N.,Von Cramon, D.Y.,Poppel, E.(Eds.), Neuropsychological rehabilitation. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag. Vikki , J.(1992). Cognitive flexibility and mental programing effect after closed head injuries and anterior or posterior excisions.Neuropsychologia, 30, (9), 807814. Wechsler, D. (1981). Manual for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale— Revised. New York: Psychological Corporation

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International J. Res. Vol. 4. No. 2. 61-64, Jan-Jun 2015 ISSN : 2231 - 6124

From Comfort to Discomfort *Vatika Sibal

Abstract The changes that often come in later life - retirement, the death of loved ones, increased isolation, and medical problems can lead to depression. Depression prevents the individual from enjoying life like one was used to. Movement from one place to another in the sunset phase of one's life can be a complex and different experience. Seniors who have spent a major part of their life in a certain cultural environment face several challenges in adapting and adjusting to a new societal framework. Parents of adult immigrants often choose to immigrate late mainly for purpose of family bonding and unity. Providing assistance and helping in raising grandchildren is considered to be important. This paper highlights and explores various aspects that have arisen from the analysis of interviews; these include personal investment in adult children, language/cultural barriers, use of formal services, acculturative experience, intergenerational relationships, and expectations for the future. The findings highlight the need for gerontological research that is culturally attuned to the needs of these elders so service delivery may be optimally provided. Keywords: Relocation, Depression,Ageing Introduction: India ranks in terms of size of elderly population. Rapid increase in the population of the elderly people in the developed and industrialized countries is considered a problem today. This phenomenon is not restricted to the western world only, but country such as ours, is now feeling the impact of this transition. This situation is due to several factors such as increase in age, longevity and lowering death rates due to advancement in the field of medicine, improvement of life expectancy at birth, and enhancement in the average span of life. The elderly are increasingly becoming an underprivileged, exploited and neglected lot in the world today. They are population is growing fast as the baby boomer generation is now in its sixties. High standards of living in developed nations, falling mortality rates in developing countries and medical advancements have led to the rising lifespan of an individual. This study is, thus, aimed at understanding the social, economic and psychological changes of old age that are experienced by a small segment of the rapidly increasing ageing population who keep relocating themselves time and again. Definition ofAgeing The definition of ageing varies from society to society and has been modified considerably over time. Ancient Chinese scholars divided human life into seven phases. During 6th century BC, Pythagoras compared human life to the different seasons. In both cases, old age seems to have started after the age of 60. According to traditional Hindu culture, the life span of a human being is 100 years. And these 100 years have been divided into four life stages: Brahmacharya, Grihasthashrama, Vanaprastha and Sanyasa . Old people are defined by every society on some basis. It could be chronological, functional or even generational. This group

is then assigned and associated with a set of rights, duties and privileges that differ from those of the younger members of society. In general, there are two classes of elders as distinguished by society. The first comprises those elderly individuals who are not economically productive but are able to tend to their own physical and mental needs; the second category is made up of those who are totally dependent on others and are thus, regarded as social burdens and may even end up being negatively treated by family and society. However, all elderly people need not be non-productive or dependent. Thus, there also exists a third category of elderly individuals who remain productive in the economy either directly through self-employment or farming, or indirectly by caring for grandchildren or maintenance of house and performance of household chores while the younger members are at work outside home . As a society we have tended to undervalue older people and to assume that most elderly are unintelligent, unemployable, non-productive, senile and asexual is not true. The tragedy of old age is not that each of us must grow old and die, but that the process of doing so has been made unnecessarily and at times excruciatingly painful, humiliating, debilitating and isolating. Ageing is generally perceived as a less than desirable gift from the Almighty. Ageing is not only seen as being “one step closer to death”, but it is traditionally stereotyped with images of helplessness, physical inability, sickness and senility. However, the truth still remains that the elderly are a diverse group of individuals who cannot be so easily put in a slot or rather classified. According to Hooyman & Kiyak, 1988, ageing can be viewed in terms of four distinct processes: Chronological Ageing, Biological Ageing, Psychological Ageing and Social Ageing. Problems of the elderly are heightened because of three major socio-economic reasons:

* Assistant Professor, Department of Sociology, St. Andrew's College, Bandra (West), Mumbai-50. E-mail ID:[email protected]

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International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

Vatika Sibal

(1) labeling the aged as fragile and incapable, (2) the idea that work is the measure of any worthwhile life, and (3) economic deprivation often leading to cultural isolation and psychological depression. In traditional Asian societies, the old were revered and respected; old age was treated as the golden age. Old people were supposed to be the repositories of knowledge, wisdom, law and custom by virtue of their experience. Moreover, by being a titleholder of the family property, the elderly head exercised enormous control over the younger members of the family. In India, the joint family system provided a safe haven for the aged. An entire extended family system would be willing to look after the elderly in the family. As a result, the elderly felt loved, respected and wanted by the family Modernization has played a major role in the ever-changing status of the elderly. As societies modernize, older people begin to lose their political and social power, influence and leadership. These changes may also lead to the disengagement of ageing persons from the community. Moreover, the younger and older generations become increasingly separated socially, morally and intellectually – this results in an ever-widening generation gap. Youth is glorified as the embodiment of progress and achievement, as well as the means to attain such progress. The old and the retired, especially those without savings for old age, start becoming looked at as non-productive and dependent social burdens that use up the resources of the young, working and growing population. Socio – Psychological Implications ofAgeing The social implications of ageing may not be common to all, however events like retirement, marriage of a child, demise of a spouse etc. do leave an individual in a situation that might not be very pleasant for them to face especially if they do not have familial support. Combined with this is the fact that the large proportion of the elderly may often not have the finances to bank on. Thus, they are left to lead a solitary life without having control over their finances, unlike the life they led in the past. Women are busy with the household chores, whereas men find it difficult to adjust and pass their time, so they age psychologically. Finding Meaning In India, as elsewhere, life expectancy has generally improved with latest growth in medical care and improved nutrition. As a result, people are living longer. They constitute a great number of experienced human resources with tremendous potential to contribute to national development. Their wellbeing is the concern of both the society and the state. The traditional Indian family structure provides adequate mechanism for meeting their needs. Family is the main source of care giving and solace to all its members. One's need for and ability to give care is negotiated by one's place in family life cycle. Nowadays, the role of families in case of older person has declined due to structural changes which have taken place in the Indian society and the concomitant disintegration of the joint family system, which results in the rejection or neglect of the aged. People go to institutions mainly because they have no relatives to care for them. Thus, the individuals who see alternative accommodation due to isolation or loneliness, may increase their social contact and have a positive impact on their well- being (Bergeron 2001). One of the major impacts

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of globalization is breaking up of traditional family system. In India, migration from the villages and towns to cities predominates, resulting in breaking up of families into nuclear families. The aged who are left behind have to fend for themselves. This is due to an increased danger of marginalization of the geriatric population due to migration, urbanization, and globalization. Another impact of the globalization is the increasing economic burden on the elderly, especially the women who have practically nonexistent property rights and other social security measures to support them in the latter years of life. It becomes important for the elderly to age in a way where they now see themselves not merely as burdens to their families and to society at large but where they see themselves as being able to contribute to society in the best way possible. Often what may happen is that these elderly, who may think of themselves as being burdens, may then insist to be sent away to home where they would like to think of life being much better as compared to that at home. On the other hand, in order to avoid mistreatment from members in the family they may choose this option. It becomes very necessary for them to get involved in activities that they find peace in eg: prayer, looking after their grandchildren etc. Social Isolation Being alone can cause anxiety at any age, but isolation is most common among elderly people. Retirement closes off one's source of social interaction, Besides, physical problems may limit mobility and negative stereotypes of the elderly as “over the hill” and may discourage younger people from close social contact with them. Researchers define Social Isolation both objectively or in a way that can be determined by onlookers, such as living alone or lacking social contacts, and subjectively, in ways that only the older adult can report from his or her internal experience such as feeling lonely and isolated. Objectively, social isolation is the lack of contact with other people. Subjectively, it is the feeling of loneliness or lack of companionship or close and genuine communication with others. Although older persons can live alone without being socially isolated or feeling lonely, living alone is a leading indicator of the potential of social isolation. The greatest cause of social isolation, however, is the death of significant others. Few experiences affect people as profoundly as the death of a spouse. A study found that almost three-fourths of widows and widowers cited loneliness as their most serious problem. In such cases, people must rebuild their lives in the glaring absence of others with whom, in many cases they spent most of their adult life. The problem of social isolation falls more heavily on women because they typically outlive their husbands. For older people, family members are the major sources of social support. Socially isolated older persons are difficult to find as they belong the culture of silence. Like other vulnerable older persons, they tend to be invisible. Unfortunately, it takes a crisis to bring the issues of social isolation and, more generally, vulnerability among older person, to the policy agenda. Socially isolated older persons had higher mortality rates in poor neighborhoods with abandoned lots than in equally poor, but more sociallyconnected neighborhoods.

International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

From Comfort to Discomfort

Rates of living alone among all age groups are typically higher in urban areas, particularly dense urban areas, which make it a prime location for all the risks associated with such household arrangements. But living alone is not the same thing as being lonely or isolated. One might even argue that the rise of older people living alone, like the growth of population ageing is an extraordinary human achievement worthy of celebration. The challenge is to distinguish among those older persons who live alone, and not exclude those who do not, how many are vulnerable due to social isolation, poverty, disabilities, lack of access to primary care, linguistic isolation, or inadequate housing, e.g. living in walk-up apartments without elevators. Retirement is a period of a person's life during which he or she is no longer working or the commencement of that period. Retirement seems to be a crucial moment in the process of growing older since it is generally viewed as a point of no return and when actually old age begins. Retirees are often referred to as the “young old”, a term that shows some of the uncertainty of those peoples age identity. They often do not feel old but often find themselves suddenly belonging to the category of the elderly. Work not only provides us with earning, but is also an important part of our personal identity. Thus retirement means not only a reduction in income but also reduced social prestige and perhaps some loss of purpose in life. Ageing and poverty By the time they reach sixty-five, most people have paid off their home mortgages and their children's college expenses. By now medical care, household help and home utility bills typically go up. At the same time, retirement also means a significant decline in income. Many lack enough savings or pension benefits to be self –supporting. Social Security is the major source of income for most people over sixty-five. Not surprisingly, then, the risk of poverty rises after midlife Because of personal pride and a desire to stay independent, many elderly people conceal financial problems even form their own families. People who have supported their children for years find it difficult to admit that they can no longer provide for themselves. It might happen in some cases that due to poor income in their working days, mismanagement of funds or other reason that the elderly may not have enough money to sustain them. They may be forced to beg or work by their families so that they do not prove to be burdensome. Thus their physical abilities may not be taken into account in the kind of job that they may do. At the same time, they could be victims of exploitation or abuse at their work place considering that they lack the physical strength to fight back and are mostly unheard. Relocation - Older adults who relocate usually do so as a result of different requirements of life: Retirement, need of a serene surrounding, emergency life changes, eg. death of spouse and health changes. Although most adults prefer to age in a culture they are familiar with or stay in their current home and neighborhood, this may not be an option for everyone. Factors that influence the decision to relocate include: · Proximity to close knit family, friends and acquaintances · Availability of amenities such as recreation, health and leisure activities. · Familiarity with the surrounding or social environment.

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· Need for assistance with daily chores. · Need for lesser home maintenance responsibilities. There are usually three types of moves that occur for older adults. Each can be affected by the adult's health and mobility as well as other factors. The first move tends to occur primarily among persons in their sixties who are healthy and have a flow of regular income. The motivation for the move may be to leave the negative features and especially experiences of the former residence, as well as to be close to the attractive features of the new residence, such as better climate, silence, natural surroundings, social facilities and services. Friendships with adults who have already moved on and have had a good experience or the opportunity to be closer to family may be other motivations. Family ties are often maintained at a diplomatic distance through periodic visits, telephone calls or letter contacts. The second move is usually at a time when adults reach a stage of sickness and when they fell they have to be dependent. This creates difficulty in carrying out everyday household tasks, such as shopping, cooking, cleaning, and taking care of their personal finances. The move usually involves an increasing need for constant follow up and support, yet a desire to continue living independently and at their own pace. The third move occurs as a result of a severe illness or physical disability that requires more care than can be provided in the home by family members(due to their busy schedule), homemaker services, nursing care services, or adult day care. This move is usually to a closely monitored skilled facility with doctors and nurse, just a call away. Adjusting to relocation involves various adjustments and common questions usually arise: · Will I meet and make new friends in this new surrounding? · Are doctors and medicines close at hand? · Will I actually miss my familiar surroundings? · Am I burden to my family? Adapting to a completely new environment needs foundation of new friends, new routines and time to become familiar with a new physical setting. Many positive experiences can occur following a move. At the same time, unexpected situations may also occur, particularly after a move from a long-time residence. Some examples might include: · Personal disorientation. · Reminiscing of the old environment. · Confusion and depression. The degree of adjustment to a new home may depend on elder's involvement in mental preparation, their perception of the new environment and how comfortable they will feel in their new home. Coping With the Change of Relocating Moving significantly affect the elders. Most seniors have lived in their homes for twenty years or more. As a result, relocating presents challenges. Eg. establishing new connections. For older adults, the perception of home usually includes good neighbours, friends, and surrounding. Security and comfort are also important to maintain as the older adult considers relocation. It is not necessary that every person who grows old would face the same problem. Every individual is unique and therefore every problem or situation too. It would be incorrect

International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

Vatika Sibal

to generalize the problems. Conclusion Old age had never been perceived as a major problem for India as we have a value- based joint family system. Indian culture has a tradition of being respectful and supportive of elders. The reality remains that they are marginalized. Today, the disintegration of the joint family system and the impact of economics have brought into sharp focus the problems which the old people now face in our country. In the traditional sense, the duty and obligation of the younger generation towards the older generation is being eroded. They are caught in the web of corporate world and their own family life. The older generation is caught between the decline in traditional values on one hand and the absence of an adequate social security system on the other hand. This makes it difficult for them to adjust in the family. Therefore, is important for society to realize that the elderly population is an asset and we are fortunate to have such wealth of knowledge, culture and experience in the form of our elderly citizens. It is every individual's duty to ensure that this special population is cared for and included in the mainstream of our society. It is also every citizen's responsibility to provide a clean, safe and peaceful environment for our elderly population to grow.

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References: · Bhat K (2001).Ageing in India: Drifting international relations, challenges and option. Cambridge Journal Online, 21: 621-640. · Chakraborti, Rajagopal, Dhar. (2004). The Greying of India: Population Ageing in the Context of Asia. New

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Delhi: Sage Publications India Pvt. Ltd. Dandekar K (1993). The Elderly in India. New Delhi: Sage publishers. Dhillon, P. K., & Singh, S. (2005). Retirement Transition, Health and Well-Being. (K.L. Sharma, Ed.) Indian Journal of Gerontology , 19 , 213-222. Gowri GB (2003). Attitudes towards old age and ageing as shown by humor. Gerontologist, 17(2): 220-226. Gormal K 2003. Aged in India. Mumbai: TISS Publishers. Hooyman, Nancy., & Kiyak, Asuman. H. (1988).Social Gerontology: A Multidisciplinary Perspective . Massachusetts:Allyn & Bacon, Inc. Huoliqin Y (2002).Adding life to years: Predicting subjective quality of life among Chinese oldest-old. Demo- graphic Research, 9(2): 52-69. Iyer V (2003).Old age protection in urban agglomeration of a developing economy: An integration analysis. Aging and Human Development, 1(3): 241-250. Kanwor P (1999). Psychosocial determinants of institutionalized elderly. Indian Journal of Gerontology, 12(3):27-39. Litwin H, Shiovitz E (2006). Association between activity and well- being in later life: What really matters? Ageing and society, 26: 255-242. Marshall, Mary. (1983). Social Work with Old People. Hong Kong: The Macmillan Press Ltd. Mayor R (2006). Significance of grandparents: Perceptions of young adult grandchildren. Gerontologist, 16(1):137-140. Smith J, Borchelt M, Jopp D (2000). Health and wellbeing in the young old and oldest old. Journal of SocialIssues, 58(4):733.

International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

International J. Res. Vol. 4. No. 2. 65-67, Jan-Jun 2015 ISSN : 2231 - 6124

Re-Approaching Colonial Ideology in Shatranj Ke Khilari ~ The Story and the Film *Rashmi Condra Abstract The year 1857 had been very eventful and marks a transition of Indian sub-continent from one setup of administration into another. There are many legends formed and written during the times of Great Revolt. Present study analysed the event of taking over of Oudh (Awadh), the last Princely State by English East India Company and its adaptation and interpretation in historical fiction such as in a book and in a film. The paper looked into historical last phase of transfer of Power in Oudh and colonial ideology as construed by two avant-grade in Indian literature and Indian Cinema, namely Munshi Premchand and Satyajit Ray. A precise discussion is on political decadence, beneficial social structure and cultural reminiscence in the times pre-revolt year. The discussion ensued in understanding some political, societal and cultural nuances vis-à-vis colonial ideology both of the compellers and the compelled in the times ofWajid Ali Shah and the game of chess. This paper analyze story written in pre-independence times (1924), film made in post independence times (1977) and its present context and reliance. This is a newer approach that gives a contemporized perspective understanding the above event. Keywords: Chess, Colonial Ideology, Cultural Reminiscence, Nuances. Introduction: The year 1857 had been very eventful and marks a transition of Indian sub-continent from one setup of administration into another. There are many legends formed and written during the times of Great Revolt. The colonial ideology is been interpreted and reinterpreted in different period of time and correspondingly various theories are proposed explaining annexation policy of Company rulers and subjugation of Indian Princely States. Present study aims to analyse the event of taking over of Oudh, the last Princely State by English East India Company and its interpretation through historical fictions. The paper will look into historical last phase of transfer of Power in Oudh and colonial ideology as construed by two avant-grade in Indian literature and Indian Cinema, namely Shri. Munshi Premchand and Satyajit Ray. There is precise discussion on political decadence, beneficial social structure and cultural reminiscence in the times pre-revolt year. The discussion aims to ensue in understanding some political, societal and cultural nuances vis-à-vis colonial ideology both of the compellers and the compelled in the times of Wajid Ali Shah and the game of chess. Political Decadence-Atale of King, Nobility and Raiyat: Lord Dalhousie's policies of annexation had many pretext for subduing Indian princely States. One of the measure reason Company Bahadurs gave for the seizure of Oudh was the inefficiency of native ruler to govern his people. As Joseph Conrad, an established Company historian puts in his work The Heart of Darkness states, the British often use to justify their “take overs” of those Indian States by inefficiency of monarchs (like WajidAli Shah). General Outram, British resident in Lucknow is known to have consulted a list given by Henry Sleeman which provided an hour-by-hour, detailed account of the king's activities on a

particular day. All of these activities, whether it was praying five times a day, listening to a mushaira, flying a kite, sleeping, reciting a new poem on the bulbul, etc., signalled the Nawab's ineptitude, his decadence. All these activities were held to be a waste of time which the ruler would have better spent attending to administrative matters. As for Resident Outram Wajid was “a bad king, a frivolous, effeminate, irresponsible, worthless king.” Similarly, his nobles were known to have plunged into pleasure and overall scenario of State administration was considered as very deplorable. The historical fiction of Munshi Prem Chand 'Shatranj ke Khilari' in 1924, echos similar sentiments including the people, and is full of condemnation for Lucknow's degeneracy. 'It was the time of Wajid Ali Shah', the story begins. 'Lucknow was plunged in pleasures. The young and the old, the poor and the rich – all were pleasure bent. To kill time, some held dancing parties, others smoked or sipped opium in company with great gusto. Apathy was writ large across every aspect of life: administration, art, literature, industry and social conduct.' Although Prem Chand, in a tone of irony, does make explicit the analogy between the chess king and the real King – who falls to the British while his loyal subjects are trying to save their chess kings – his chief concern is to make the two aristocrats believable. He presents them as apathetic towards public affairs but not inherently cowards; though they run away to avoid being called on to fight for their King and to continue their chess games undisturbed, they show courage when roused to passion by each other's behaviour. In fact, they duel together with swords and kill each other, which is how Prem Chand's story ends. Satyaji Ray in his film Shatranj Ke Khilari (1977) also ostensibly tells a straightforward story of how self-indulgence

* Assistant Professor, Department of History, PGDT Humanities, RTM Nagpur University. Email id: [email protected]

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Rashmi Condra

and decadence on the part of the Indian upper class allowed the relatively small (compared to India) contingent of British invaders to take over an entire subcontinent. The Indian upper class are portrayed as effete and almost degenerate whereas British are portrayed as disciplined, vigorous, and pragmatic. Ray's nobility portrayal focused mainly on lavish and politically idyllic lifestyle. Ray essentially staged portrayal of two negative forces, feudalism and colonialism. The narrator begins with saying “they have no work to do... ever heard land of gentry working?” The story ends with nobles reconciling with new setup and their own situation. There is strong contradiction in the two creation but overall message remains dormancy of noble class. Here too, the blame for befall in later period is just not pawned upon the ruler but also his worthless nobles. People too are illustrated busy in pleasure seeking and having fun that led to copious problems. The story however revolves round the centre theme of Shatranj- Chess, wherein City of Lucknow alias Paris of the East was absorbed into King of games and games of Kings. 'Shatranj Ke Khilari', thus, is an informed rendering of the politico-colonial metaphor of chess used as a game of power between the colonizer and colonized whereby it compares the experiences of colonization in select countries of Africa and Asia. In Ray's creation the games played by the two nobles symbolized the debauchery of the elites whose preoccupation with their pursuits of pleasure helped to bring about the downfall of Avadh. The result of the games played by the British stereotyping can be witnessed in Ray's filmic version itself and Ray's interpretation unless countered, or put in perspective could also have a similar lasting impact. The stories summarize sad part played by aristocratic class of landlord and Kings in facilitating Oudh's annexation by the British colonial rulers. Their blinkered absorption in games and arts and their ensuing neglect of State affairs created not only native political impotence but also gave the imperialist aggressor the justification to step in and set things right. Reference to Pari Khana and Mut'ah marriage: Wajid Ali Shah came under utter criticism by British, Munshi Premchand and then by Ray for his overt sexual preferences. This went against general notion of 'good ruler' credentials. Wajid Ali Shah's Harems and its procurement are much discussed in British records & in historical fiction. He is known to have specially appointed entertainer , a Daroga, his two sisters and later his wives. The Nawab's Harem is called Pari Khana. The King has written a long autobiography of his passion known as Ishqnama where he refers to all his inmates as Paries. This writing is considered as the frankest autobiography of 19th century it has 103 miniature paintings. There were almost 150 and more Paries with most of them he had a Muta Marriage and it is said that by end of his life he had married almost 375 women. Mut'ah marriage that was discussed and ridiculed by British was temporary marriage for entertainment, contracted for a limited period for a certain sum of money. Mut'ah wives could be chosen from Muslim, Christian and Jewish community and female slaves, but not Hindu. British officer George Mallison concerned to Nawab gives details that there were three classes of Mut'ah wives like Mahal (who bear King's children and veiled), Begums (unveiled) and Khilawat (lowest class who did menial work as domestic

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workers but tied to King in marraige). They all received payments. Paris were innovation of Waji Ali Shah and were recruited from lower classes including courtesans. They were mainly for serving musical apprenticeship & if found pleasing taken as a Mut'ah wife. Historically evident, one of his mut'ah wives was Mahak Pari who is better known in history as Hazrat Mahal, and who later defied British during the uprising of 1857. Conclusion: Thus, we are presented with certain questions in understanding colonial ideology through the ages, by considering two creations having strong and actual historical base. Firstly, should Wajid Ali Shah be seen only as an ineffectual and worthless ruler? How apt and justifiable was British diplomacy? Was there a perspective change in understanding pre- 1857 revolt period when story was written in colonial India and film was made in free India? And lastly, how much history and how much fiction? Referring to first question when Wajid Ali Shah took over as King, the whole kingdom of Oudh was in the hands of the Company's army officers, the treasury became empty by forced loans and contributions, and it was impossible for the Nawab to administer his territory independently or to introduce internal reforms. But the philanthropic Company kept on urging upon him, pointing to the articles in the treaty of 1801, to alter his administration so as to make his subjects happy and contended. This youthful prince introduced strict regulations as to the discipline of the Sepoys and even personally supervised their drill. He issued strict orders that every regiment that was late in presenting itself on the parade ground should be liable to a fine and he, at the same time, bound himself to pay the same amount as fine if he himself failed in this duty. When he describes his army, he doesn't mention the arms, the cannons, or, the fighting prowess of the soldiers. Instead, he waxes eloquent on the names he gave to the various sections of the army, 'bagha, tircha, akhtari, dadari, ghamba' (sic); he describes the beauty of his zenana forces; he discusses their costumes, the beauty of the leap of theArab horses, etc. Wajid Ali Shah was beloved and respected by his subjects, from the highest to the lowest, from the Raja to the Raiyat and this more so as he has ever discharged the duties of his high office with justice tempered by mercy. Similarly, Wajid Ali Shah was a prolific poet and wrote under the pen name of "Akhtar". He wrote in almost all the styles like Hajo (satirical), marjiya (elegy,dirge, funeral songs), ghazal, masnwi (verse), salam (religious poetry) and nauha (mourning poetry). His best work is much hit number 'Babul Mora Nauhar choota Jaaye' sang by legendry K L Saigal. He is known to be a great patron of Kathak, Thumri, Urdu language, Calligraphy and Cuisines for what Lucknow is still cherished. He built magnificent architectures like Qaiser Bagh. He was quite a secular ruler and had great affinity towards Krishna cult. He is known to have often indulged in Rasleela, posturing himself as Lord Krishna. Ray's work projects this side of the Oudhi ruler. This brings us to our second question. The answer can be sought in a letter discovered by S Ray during his research on film. His discovery of the letters of Lord Dalhousie, then GovernorGeneral, said, 'The wretch at Lucknow who has sent his crown to the [1851] Exhibition would have done his people and us a good service if he had sent his head in it – and he would never have missed it, That is a cherry which will drop into our mouths

International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

Re-approaching colonial ideology in Shatranj Ke Khilari...

one day.' Moreover it's well to think that what better administration did British gave to Oudh under the pretext of which it was annexed. Coming to perspective point, than the censorious tone is not surprising, given PremChand's background and the date of the story in 1924, when Indian nationalist feeling dictated outright disgust for India's recent past. Prem Chand's instinctive milieu was the life of the small town and village rather than the big city, seen from the point of view of the less privileged. His perspective was to provoke nationalist sentiments by reapproaching historical past, make people realise valour in themselves and against whom their fiery reactions be directed. Munshi Premchand was a patriotic writer, he very categorically mentions twice that they did not lack 'personal valour' but didn't want to use qualities of courage and bravery for their nation. However, Ray takes path of colonial reconciliation, gives humanist treatment to King, British and aristocrats and tries to put them in box of 'imperialistic situation'. Resident Outram's softer side is shown while performing his duty of annexing Oudh where he says to his doctor, “I don't like this job”. And lastly, how much history and how much fiction? Munshi Premchand extensively made use of pre 1857 revolt background to set his story and successfully highlight reasons for India becoming a colonial state. There is no empathy in his writing for Colonial masters. There is disgust for natives who though being powerful lacked discretion. So as a historian one could consider this piece as a historical fiction and take subjective approach of writer's view. Treatment of same story differs by Ray. He adds a parallel thread to the story that covers the historical background concerning the political turmoil of the time (1856) and places things more firmly in a social context. In filmic adaptation of Premchand's short story, the metaphor of the game is enlarged to include the larger historical game that was being played by the East India Company (EIC) officials within the province of Awadh for its annexation and deposition of Nawab Wajid Ali Shah. Ray's this historical exposé is based on original documents at India Office Library, Asiatic and Calcutta Archives and Delhi Archives and so on. He primarily referred to a contemporary work Lucknow: The Last Phase of an Oriental Culture by Abdul Hamil Sharar. It was translated by Fakhir Hussain who complimented Ray's work by saying that every detail in the film was correct. Sharar a historian and essayist wrote that the King appeared to be one of the most dubious in all the records of history but yet was extremely devout, abstinent and a strict observer of Muslim religious law. Thus Ray presentation is more as a contemplative, though unsparing view of the clash of two cultures – one effete and ineffectual and the other vigorous and malignant. He took into account the many half-shades that lie in between these two extremes of the spectrum . . . and expected to read this film between the lines. Rajbans Khanna a well known historian criticized Ray's projection of King Wajid Ali Shah and suggested that there are reports that suggest that Wajid Ali Shah willingly abdicated

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because he knew that the betrayal of the English and their shameful treatment meted out to him would have incited the Avadh populace to revolt. And it happened. Particularly because of this incident, Queen's Proclamation assured that there will be no further encroachment on the territorial possession of the native Princes and promised to respect the treaties and engagements made by EIC. Consequently, quoting William Jones there are two types of mind operating through human history. The tough and the tender minded. The tough minded are honest hunters and tender minded are shamans, rishis, poets , artists. It is the second kind of men who are eminently the vessels or vehicles of that force of the unconscious and through whom and whose creations become manifest the images and symbols of that dark deep. The Company rulers and Nawab of Oudh could be viewed in this contextualisation. Considering the story, the perspective differed from Nationalist approach to more holistic approach there is attitudinal change in looking to individual involved. The reminiscence of 1857 revolt continues through the centuries and its worthwhile thinking how perspective change in interpreting colonial ideology and native states in pre and post independence period. References: · Ashcroft Bill, Griffith Gareth, Tiffin Helen.( 2007), Postcolonial Studies: The Key Concept, Routledge, United Kingdom. · Cooper Darius. (2000), The Cinema of Satyajit Ray – Between Tradition and Modernity, Cambridge University Press, United Kingdom. · Lal Vinay, (1990) Sexuality in the Chess Players, Deep Focus, (1), Jun. pp. 48-58. · Llewellyn- Jones Rosie. (2014), The Last King in India – Wajid Ali Shah,Vintage Books. United Kingdom. · Nandy Ashis, (1995) The Savage Freud and other Essays on possible and retrievable Selves , Princeton University Press, New Jersey, United States. · Novell- Smith Geoffrey (ed.). (1997), The Oxford History of World Cinema, Oxford University Press, Oxford, United Kingdom. · Omendra Kumar Singh, (Dec. 2014) Translation as Allegory: Adaptation of Premchand's “Shatranj Ke Khilari” into Films, Asiatic, 8 (2),. pp. 164-175. · Premchand Munshi. (2013), Satranj Ke Khilari, Orient Publishing,Allahabad · Rizvi Fatima, () Politics of Language and cultural representation: Premchand's “Shatranj Ke Khilari” in translation, The Annual of Urdu Studies, (28). pp. 197214. · Robinson Andrew (ed.).(1989), The Chess Players and other screenplays, Faber and Faber, London · RobinsonAndrew. (1989), Satyajit Ray The Inner Eye, The Biography of a Master Film-Maker, I B Tauris, NewYork. · Sleeman William, (2005). A Journey through the Kingdom of Oudhe, Volume I & II, Gutenberg,Articles:

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International J. Res. Vol. 4. No. 2. 68-71, Jan-Jun 2015 ISSN : 2231 - 6124

Stress in Nursing Staff *Ajay M. Bhamare

Abstract Paramedical forces like nursing staff, technicians, and attendants play an important role in hospital. Amongst them the nursing staff in any hospital has a crucial role to play in the well-being of patients. They are more in closer contact with the patient than the doctors. The nursing staff also works closely with the doctors by carefully listening to the instructions of the doctors and by reporting to them about the patients' progress. They also have to be cautious while giving medication to patients as any small mistake may prove fatal to the life of the patient. Due to all the above reasons and many more the nursing staff experiences a lot of stress. This stress affects their performance adversely and has to be tackled by hospitals as it leads to many physical and mental problems in the nursing staff. Their health too comes as a priority. This problem becomes all the more severe as the nursing staff consist majority of females who have already to tackle home-front in a male-dominated society. This article tries to deal with the various factors that lead to stress among female nurses and tries to suggest measures to reduce it. To get an in-depth understanding nurses of Private Medical Colleges were interviewed, their expectations from a job, stress and remedies were suggested and some recommended by the author. Keywords: Care Professionals, Stress, Eustress, Distress, Fighter Introduction: Care Professionals, as the nurses are called, have gained importance in providing health care services through hospitals during the last decade in India with the establishment of specialized hospitals. Since an attempt is to provide good health care facilities and nurses play a very strong role in it, there is a need to improve the efficiency of care professionals which at times is hampered by stress. Thus, the issue of stress amongst care professionals is currently a major concern in health policy. This article tries to deal with the various factors that lead to stress among female nurses and tries to suggest measures to reduce it. To get an in-depth understanding nurses of Private Medical Colleges were interviewed, their expectations from a job, stress and remedies were suggested and some recommended by the author. The term 'stress' is often used very simplistically. It is commonly used to describe the symptoms produced by the body in response to increased tension. Negative connotations are usually ascribed to the term, yet some stress responses are of positive benefit. A certain level of stress is normal to help one complete the work and deal with the challenges of life. Thus, stress is classified into two types: Types of Stress: · Good stress – 'Eustress' is a term commonly applied to these more positive responses. This is essential and required to complete work. · Bad stress – This is termed as 'distress' and control over this is required. Too much stress however, causes the body to respond in unpleasant ways and adversely affects efficiency of nurses in providing care to the patients. Stress is a subjective phenomenon based on individual perceptions, producing positive (eustress) and negative (distress) perspectives. Transition from eustress to distress will

depend upon an individual's stress perceptions. The responsibilities of a nurse are manifold and so are the reasons of stress. Though there may be varied reasons for stress amongst people, the reasons of stress experienced by nursing staff could be stated as follows: Sources/Reasons of Stress: A. Job Related Sources: 1. Work Load – Care Professionals have to look after the patient 24 hours round the clock in different shifts. It requires devotion to patients along with understanding the needs of the patient and their relatives/friends. It also requires understanding properly the instructions of the doctors relating to how the care is to be taken, medication, food, clinical tests, etc. They not only have to be attending to patients but also perform various non-nursing activities like clerical, answering phone calls, supervising stock of drugs, housekeeping, etc. have to be performed by the nurses. It is observed that nurses are required to complete around 20 registers per day. Half of the time spent by the nurse in the job is on performing nonnursing functions. In addition to performing various nursing and non-nursing functions it is also observed that nurses are overworked due to shortage of nurses which may be due to inadequacy of nursing schools/colleges, migration of trained nurses for better job prospects to other countries, assigning nurses for field work like clinical, preventive and educational activities, absenteeism amongst young nurses of child bearing age group, hospitals not being able to bear the financial burden of salary of trained nurses thereby under employing them, etc. Such overburdening due to underemployment/inadequate staff cover leads to stress. High workload takes a toll on their mental as well as physical health and results in out burn. Heavy workload is found to be most significantly correlated with mood disturbance.

* Principal, R.A.D.A.V.College Station Road, Datar Colony, Bhandup (E), Mumbai, Email id: [email protected]

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Stress in Nursing Staff

2. Shift Work – Shift working, particularly night shifts, traditionally attracts pay enhancements but can have a significant effect on personal and social life. Prolonged shiftwork, especially night shiftwork, also has a health risk as it produces symptoms that correspond closely to those of mild or moderate distress. Long-term night shift working has even been suggested to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. 3. Lack of Reward – Nurses are not paid in proportion to their qualifications. It could be said that they are lowly paid. This coupled with workload is one of the reasons for distress. In private medical college the payment is much more low leading to more frustration. 4. Work Place Stress – Nursing provides a wide range of potential workplace stressors as it is a profession that requires a high level of skill, teamwork in a variety of situations, provision of 24-hour delivery of care, and input of what is often referred to as 'emotional labour'. Nurses not only have to listen to their seniors and adjust to their colleagues in the nursing department but also to the doctors, patients and their relatives and their satisfaction, and since they perform various administrative duties have also to listen to the seniors in administrative department. Nurses especially in the mental health (psychiatric) department have to deal with aggression and violence. Coping with emotional needs of patients and their families/poor patient diagnosis/death and dying at times takes a toll on the mental health of the nurse. Conflict and emotional demands of caring have been identified consistently as factors of stress by nurses for many years. Dealing with death, and dying patients, patients/their families' calls for emotional labour. Emotional cost of caring and patient satisfaction is also responsible for burnout. 5. Hectic time schedule – Work has increased not only at work but also at home. Often nurses are required to do overtime due to inadequate staff and increased absenteeism. Imbalance between personal and professional and family commitment at times leads to frustration which ultimately leads to stress. Time pressure leads to various symptoms of stress. 6. Leadership/management style – Improper leadership and management style, poor control, poor group cohesion, lack of adequate supervisory support coupled with experiencing a lack of clarity about tasks/goals can also lead to stress. Research has indicated that there is a growing dissatisfaction with the terms and conditions of employment, rather than nursing. 'Working well' survey for the Royal College of Nursing (Ball et al. 2002) found that 30% of nurses on long-term sick leave reported harassment and intimidation arising from sex/gender, age, race, sexuality or personal clashes as the main cause of their absence. 7. Professional conflict – Inter and intra professional conflict continues to be an important source of stress for nurses. A nurse who closely monitors the performance of other nurse and patients is in a position to detect mistakes and to take corrective action. This leads to conflict with other nurses/physicians. Inter-professional conflict, particularly between nurses and physicians, appears to be more of a problem. The impact of professional conflict as a source of distress is supported by findings that bullying is major workplace stressor that impact on work satisfaction for staff nurses. Relationship with other clinical staff too is strained. Conflict with physicians, problems with peers, problems with supervisor, discrimination, and uncertainty concerning treatment affects the profession of caring badly.

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It is found that job demands (viz. workload, time pressure, demanding contacts with patients) were most associated with emotional exhaustion, whereas job resources (viz. lack of participation in decision-making, lack of reward) were most associated with disengagement from work. Whatever may be the reason/s, the work and the nurse both are affected. 8. Traveling – At times in cases where the residence of nurses is far off from the hospital and requires long traveling hours that too adds up to tension and leads to stress. 9. Social Status – In spite of the type of work/activities the nurses perform and the qualifications required they are not treated highly in the society. This lack of social acceptance also leads to bouts of stress. B. Personal Sources: 1. Pre-menstrual stress (PMS) – This too is one of the factors leading to stress amongst female nursing staff. 2. Family Stress – Improper interpersonal relations with family members like with in-laws, spouse, siblings, etc. coupled with hectic work schedule is also a cause of stress. Marriage, death, illness, parting with loved one/s, family politics may also lead to stress. 3. Perfectionist – This attitude, especially in case of head nurse/matron leads to not only taking pain but also giving pain as they expect the same from others. Non-fulfillment of work due to others. 4. Pleasing one and all – Trying to please family members in the short time she has to work and also trying to please seniors, colleagues on the job. 5. Acting strong – Due to controlling of emotions at times person is stressed out. 6. Increased Expectations and desires – Any person today expects good food, best children, beauty, great body, perfect homemaker. Tension is aroused due to kids' not studying, husband very busy due to whom he has no time listen to the wife, etc. Desire for less work with more money, more friends, more ability, better looks, etc. with the feeling that all these will lead to social acceptance and acknowledgement. 7. Unnecessary Worries – Some being emotional and sensitive take more tension reading real horrifying stories, emotional or horror movies, watching depressing serials, etc. All this leads to a burnout which has to be controlled. 90% are emotionally induced stress, but there is disagreement as to the magnitude of their impact. Each individual reacts in her own way in one way or in a combination of some. Because of stress there is chain reaction in our body. The problem is that stress leads to various negative reactions – both physically and mentally. Physiological and Psychological Indicators of Stress: A. Psychological symptoms could be 1. Get ratty or irritable, short temper, increased level of arousal, and mental acuity 2. Get out of control and forgetful 3. Anxiety,Apprehension 4. Fatigue and Lethargy 5. Unnecessary argumentative 6. Inability to concentrate and Procrastination 7. Feeling gloomy, boredom 8. Sense of out of control 9. Depression 10. Unease 11. Increased level of arousal, and mental acuity 12. Pessimism/ Negative attitudes

International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

Ajay M. Bhamare

13. Poor decision making skills 14. Lack of self esteem 15. Burnout i.e. (a) Emotional Exhaustion (b) DepersonalizationAnd Disengagement (c) Decreased PersonalAccomplishment B. Physiological symptoms include 1. Increased arterial blood pressure and clinical hypertension 2. Head ache, Neck ache, Back ache, JointAche 3. Cardiovascular problem – increase in palpitation and Coronary heart disease 4. Restlessness 5. Tremors 6. Stress induced diabetics 7. Indigestion and Ulcers 8. Atherosclerosis 9. Insomnia or Poor sleep 10. Weakened immune system 11. Constipation or diarrhea 12. Weight gain or loss of appetite 13. Gastric disorders 14. Menstrual problems 15. Increased asthma attacks in sufferers 16. Release of metabolic hormones especially cortisol (a) Increased metabolic rate (b) Mobilization of glucose, fatty acids, amino acids It is the transition to severe distress that is likely to be most detrimental for nurses, and is closely linked to staff absenteeism, poor staff retention, and ill-health. If severe distress is to be prevented, then it is important to understand what factors promote the transition. Center of the stress is in the brain and it gives three options – Fear, fight, flight preparation for activity · Be a frighter – fear it and continue in the situation · Be a flighter – avoid the situation · Be a fighter – find a solution and work on it Most of them would continue to be a frighter or desire to be a flighter but what is required is to be a fighter. We must consider the potential effectiveness of initiatives to reduce distress as it is harmful by affecting the effectiveness of the performance of nurses. Stress intervention measures should focus on stress prevention for individuals as well as tackling organizational issues. Achieving this will require further comparative studies, and new tools to evaluate the intensity of individual distress. An individual's stress threshold, sometimes referred to as stress 'hardiness', is likely to be dependent upon their characteristics, experiences and coping mechanisms and also on the circumstances under which demands are being made. A single event, therefore, may not necessarily constitute a source of stress (i.e. be a 'stressor') for all nurses, or for a particular individual at all times, and may have a variable impact depending upon the extent of the mismatch. Assessing stress is likely to be very difficult in an occupation as diverse and challenging as health care, yet the effectiveness of organizational interventions to reduce or eliminate sources of stress depends upon a sound understanding of the stress phenomenon for nurses. Remedies to combat stress: Treat cause not the symptom. Go for it – be a fighter not a flighter

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1.Staff Adequacy – Workload of both – nursing and nonnursing activities takes a toll on physical and mental wellbeing of nurse due to stress. Though nothing can be done to reduce the nursing activities of the nurses but an attempt can be made to reduce the workload by adequate staffing level of nurses. To reduce the non nursing activities of nurses, appointing adequate administrative staff who could reduce the paperwork burden on nurses could be a solution. The number of registers to be completed should be reduced to maximum 7 whether it is filled by nursing staff or administrative staff. In addition to performing various nursing and non-nursing functions it is also observed that nurses are overworked due to shortage of nurses due to various reasons. Sincere efforts should be made to see that there is adequacy of nursing staff. 2.Shift working – Prolonged night shifts is a cause for stress. There has to be equity in the allocation of shift schedules, and flexibility to reduce the social and personal impacts of shift working. A possible reason for shiftwork scheduling as a source of distress is that staff shortages make it more difficult for nurses to choose when to work unsocial hours. This lack of choice runs contrary and will not be improved if prescriptive patterns of shift working for staff are introduced. Indeed, the situation may worsen if current pay modernization plans lead to reduced payments for working unsocial hours. The scheduling of shifts seems likely to remain a source of distress until the problems, exacerbated by staff shortages, are resolved satisfactorily. Difficulties with internal shift rotation are common reasons for nurses leaving the profession. An alternative 12-hour shift pattern has been tried in some practice areas and in some studies it has been found to be beneficial and popular, primarily because it can have social benefits. However, other studies suggest that fatigue levels and stress may be higher with 12-hour shifts, possibly depending upon the practitioner's age. It could also be that by more payment for night shift could attract some to do night shift without it leading to stress. The top level management has to find out the right combination depending on the circumstances. 3.Proper Payment – Pay seems to be becoming more prominent as a major sources of distress for nurses, to the extent that they are displacing other sources in importance. Lack of reward is an increasing source of frustration and contributes to role disengagement, a component of burnout. There remains a disparity of pay for newly qualified nurses when compared with that for police officers and teachers, two professional groups traditionally compared with nurses, and nurses are especially aggrieved by failure to address the issue of salaries. Improving pay is the only long-term answer to nurse recruitment and retention difficulties. 4.Leadership/management Issues – Introducing a participative strategy for management is at the heart of human resource proposals. Ensuring an inclusive (i.e. 'transformational') leadership style would seem to be crucial to improving staff retention. This style engender group cohesion and empowerment and has been found to be inversely correlated with burnout in nurses, but a 'transactional' leadership style that is interventionist and potentially critical was positively associated with it. They must consider nurses individuals. Ensuring provision of professional, emotional and social support in the workplace as part of stress management should be seen as being preventive. Counseling of nurses in stress could also be one of the means to tackle the problem of stress.

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Stress in Nursing Staff

5.Professional Conflict – Improved leadership/management styles could also go some way to reducing inter-professional and intra-professional conflict. Conflict with other professionals is a group cohesion/ management issue, and would seem to require a culture shift if the problem is to be eradicated. This issue must be addressed quickly, as harassment from doctors, supervisors, managers and colleagues is an increasing cause of distress and absenteeism amongst nurses. What is required is a commitment from managers to remove harassment and discrimination. How and when the situation moves towards a more inclusive style of management will produce the culture shift required in practice remains to be seen, but it may take some time before the situation is sufficiently improved to have a significant impact on stress reduction. 6.Emotional Labour – An attempt be made to promote a more holistic approach to care to alter the dynamics between nurses and patients, from one in which nurses might distance themselves from the emotional needs of patients to one in which development of a nurse–patient relationship is considered essential. Such 'emotional labour' places considerable demands on those delivering health care and may reduce objectivity in caring. Identification of the need to cope with sick patients and their families as a source of distress for nurses, therefore, is not surprising. New patterns in learning to care are required to enable nurses to cope better with the emotional demands of their work. Constructive clinical supervision, mentorship, underpinned by an effective leadership style, will have a significant role to play here, especially for newly qualified nurses. 7.Facilities by Hospital – To make traveling not very hectic, if possible bus facilities be provided to the nurses. Other methods to overcome stress 1.Avoid confrontation. If unavoidable then remain peaceful. Count up to four. Severe wrong relations. 2.Balance home, family and work. Time Management – poor one leads to breached deadlines. Bring closure to today's work. Organize oneself, plan for tomorrow. Prioritize – its failure leads problems. Quit work and learn to delegate. 3.Break free – As a nurse one is required to maintain distance and stiff upper lip. Taking a break at regular intervals is a must to enjoy. Allow child in you to speak, dance, shout, sing, and play. 4.Exercising – Learn a sport. It helps to learn and accept defeat and develop sportsman spirit. Try to remain fit but not by reducing consumption of food but through exercise. 5.Do things slowly without pressure. Don't go for the kill. Fixing problems one by one. Hurry makes curry – go slow. Relax drop shoulders.

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6.Hobby Development – Cultivate one's hobby. This is a good way to distress. 7.Improve breathing pattern Pranayaam, which involves taking deep breath, Vipaasanaa, Yoga, Meditation are good methods of healing in these troubled times. 8.Joke, Laugh – Join laughter club 9.Massage with music 10. Networking: It is observed supportive relationships with peers may reduce the occurrence of high stress levels among nurses. Social support and the psychosocial work climate should be improved in health care institutions. 11. Religion – Practice your religion for your own peace 12. Share your troubles. Unbutton your emotions – express your joy and pain, vent out anger or else you will spoil your own relations with others 13. Stop seeing serials based on true stories or reading depressing true stories 14. Water – drink more 15. Improve self esteem – The bottom line is feelings of self esteem or self worth can only come from within – from your own soul and never from anybody's approval/sanction. One individual while talking to other wonders whether the other thinks she is successful, intelligent, attractive, while the other also thinks the same. For the problems related to job, it is for the management to intervene and in case of stress due to personal perceptions and behaviors it is the person alone who has to tackle it. Above all this is required the determination that we – the management and nursing staff, shall change to overcome stress. No one changes or no situation changes as we desire and so ultimately we have to change ourselves. But change is a must – in the attitude, perception and behaviour of management and nursing staff. References: · Claire Michaels Wheeler (2007),, New Harbinger Publication Simon & Schuster Inc. Free press Edition 2010. So Stressed: The Ultimate Stress-Relief Plan for Women Stephanie McClellan. · George S (2009), Controlling Stress and Tension (8th Edition) . Everly Persaon Education. · Pamela Gray-Toft and James G. Anderson (1981) , Stress among hospital nursing staff: Its causes and effects · Strengthening the Long-Term Care Workforce (2010): The Influence of the WIN A STEP UP Workplace Intervention on the Turnover of Direct Care Workers Journal of Applied GerontologyApril 1, 29: 196-214 · Trevor Romain (2008), Read how you want ,Stress Can Really Get onYour Nerves! (Laugh & Learn)

International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

International J. Res. Vol. 4. No. 2. 72-74, Jan-Jun 2015 ISSN : 2231 - 6124

The Good Life – Aristotle Way *Fenil Dedhia

Abstract For millennia, humankind has been searching for good and happy life. Some found it in spiritual world other in the material world. This article tries to explain Aristotle's way by first exploring 'Practical Wisdom' and then 'The Good Life'. Aristotle gives an idea of doctrine of mean to understand Pratical Wisdom. Practical wisdom includes a good understanding of what is valuable in life.You cannot judge where the mean lies between cowardice and bravery unless you are clear whether and how much something is worth taking a risk for. Any verdict about what it is best to do implies a judgment about what kind of life is better or worse. This article also tries to incorporate some of the recent psychological findings in support Aristotle's work. However main emphasis has been given on conceptual explanation of the idea. Keywords: Aristotle, Good Life, Habituation, Mean, Practical Wisdom, Virtue Practical wisdom To say Aristotle was a philosopher is an understatement. He was arguably the greatest polymath who has ever lived. As well as writing some of philosophy's foundational texts on abstract matters of logic and metaphysics, he also turned his mind to biology, drama and the ordering of human affairs. His ability to seamlessly move from the abstract to the concrete is nowhere more evident than in his writings on ethics, and is capsulated in an idea he put at the center of a good human life: practical wisdom, phronēsis. If we have this we'll reliably come up with right judgement about how to act in different situations. The question is, how do we go about developing it? First of all we need to think through our values and reach a good awareness of the sorts of things that contribute to a good life. Then it's a question of gaining the skills to put this understanding into practice. These include thinking clearly about ourselves, our situation, other people, what is and is not possible; sharpening the ability to select and assess potential goals, work out the best way to achieve them, monitor their consequences, and use what we learn to adapt and change. But good decision-making is only the first step. It's just as important that the appropriate actions flow from it without too much struggle. Pushing ourselves to stick to our deliberation while gritting our teeth is better than not implementing, but the ideal is to be able to follow them gracefully and easily. Reason will still have to guide this process, however, by instigating the actions and habits that can help us to develop the relevant qualities and character traits. This is how we become more likely to do the right thing automatically, without having to cogitate at every turn. There is nothing mystical or mysterious about this ability. Aristotle's ideas have a striking parallel in contemporary psychology's concept of expert intuition. Once you have become an expert in any field, the best course of action is liable to pop up without the need to articulate the exact reasons behind it. Of course your judgement is always fallible, and it's

good practice to try to work out the rationale for it. Nonetheless, explicit justification often comes after the event, which is just as well, since we often have to rely on experts to make good decisions quickly. In this sense practical wisdom is simply expertise in the art of living. Developing practical wisdom is not easy, but Aristotle has a useful device to think about it. It's the doctrine of the mean. The idea is that we are not faced with a binary choice to be, say, assertive or unassertive, courageous or timid, hedonistic or puritanical. Instead, we have to find a place on a scale that is appropriate for us and the situation we're in. That place is called the mean. This is howAristotle puts it: For example, fear, confidence, appetite, anger, pity, and in general pleasure and pain can be experienced too much or too little, and in both ways not well. But to have them at the right time, about the right things, towards the right people, for the right end, and in the right way, is the mean and best; and this is the business of virtue. Similarly, there is an excess, a deficiency, and a mean in actions.1 But the mean is not bland moderation for all. We shouldn't always aim at a modest amount of anger: some situations might call for great anger and others for none at all. The man should be finely calibrated to our particular circumstances. Aristotle is very clear about this, explicitly stating that the mean for human action is not like a mathematical average. Take weight, for example, 40 kg is too light for six-foot man and 80 kg too heavy. But the mathematical average – 60 kg – is not necessarily the right one for any given individual. A slightframed dancer may need to be lighter, a bodybuilder closer to the excess. As with much else in the good life, there is no algorithm for calculating the mean. Maybe we don't think about it in these terms, but many life issues we find difficult are struggles to find the mean. We may want to take more risks, be more confident, more patient, more tenacious, more able to resist immediate gratification. We may

* Asst. Professor in Commerce at St. Andrew's College of Art, Science and Commerce, Mumbai. Email: [email protected]

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The Good Life – Aristotle Way

wonder whether we are pushing ourselves too hard or not hard enough, at what point tolerance gives way to being a doormat or courage to recklessness, what the right balance is between achievement and enjoyment. At times the mean is hard to locate, and Aristotle gives us two rules of thumb to deal with those situations. One is to steer away from the more harmful extreme. When you see the sign warning of bears, is it cowardly to turn back or appropriately brave to carry on? If you're really not sure, turn back: better have missed out on a lovely walk than to be mauled to death by an angry grizzly. The other is to steer away from the extreme towards which we are naturally inclined. In any sphere of human behavior most of us tend more towards one pole. If you are inclined to be excessively cautious, say you can gently nudge yourself towards the mean by taking tiny steps to be slightly more daring. Moving towards the mean is possible because, unlike other objects in the universe, human beings have the capacity to change. As Aristotle put it, ' a stone that naturally falls downwards could not be made by habituation to rise upwards, not even if one tried to habituate it by throwing it up ten thousand times…. nor anything else that naturally behaves in one way be habituated to behave differently'. In contrast, good settled dispositions, which Aristotle calls virtues, 'arise in us neither by nature nor contrary to nature, but nature gives us the capacity to acquire them, and completion comes through habituation'.2 We are responsible for building our character despite the deep roots of our behavior in our childhood experience. But how can we effect these changes? Primarily through habituation. 'We become builders by building, and lyre-players by playing the lyre', wrote Aristotle. 'So too we become just by doing just actions, temperate by temperate actions, and courageous by courageous actions'.3 Again, Aristotle's ancient insight finds itself vindicated by contemporary psychological research. Various forms of behavior therapy work precisely by changing what you do can influence how you think and feel. The aim of all this self-training is not unthinking automaticity, but the intertwining development of our rational deliberation and our immediate response. Aristotle's account of the interplay between instinct and reflection has similarities with 'dual-process' models of the brain, such as the one described by psychologist Daniel Kahneman. This describes two systems: System 1 is concerned with fast, automatic, unconscious thinking, System 2 with slow, conscious deliberation.4 Although Kahneman points out that the latter has little direct control over the former, it seems evident that reason can exert indirect influence on some instinctive reactions, for example by initiating habit change. This does not happen without friction. If we have a habitual inclination to be impatient, say, and decide to cultivate patience, initially our only option may be to go against the grain and control our behavior, suppressing the impulse to butt in, move on or give up. But if we persevere, eventually we should come to feel as well as act appropriately. We have achieved virtue or excellence ( (aretē) when inclination and deliberation feed harmoniously into each other. The good life Practical wisdom includes a good understanding of what is

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valuable in life.You cannot judge where the mean lies between cowardice and bravery, for instance, unless you are clear whether and how much something is worth taking a risk for. The right degree of loyalty will vary depending on how important you think it is to maintain social and family ties when other considerations suggest they should be severed. Any verdict about what it is best to do implies a judgment about what kind of life is better or worse. We tend to be suspicious of general pronouncements about how best to live, often preferring to see these choices as purely subjective. But it wouldn't be surprising if some element of the good life were more or less universal, given the many experiences that all humans share. At the very least we should all be able to agree that a good human life is bound to look different from a good life for a cat or a pig. Rolling in mud may be fun sometimes, but doing it as much as a pig is no way for a human to live. Trying to identify one or a set of key ingredients for the good life has been a kind of philosophical parlour game for millennia, over which time the key contenders have remained pretty constant. Unlike many other philosophers of his time, Aristotle thought that some material comfort was a suitable part of the good life, since 'human nature is not self-sufficient for contemplation, but the body must be healthy and provided with food and other care'.5 But money, like health, is only a means to an end, and so he quickly dismisses it as a life-guiding goal. We shouldn't waste our life amassing material possessions, which we could lose at any point anyway, at the expense of more worthwhile goals. We can make the best of even unfortunate circumstances, just like 'a shoemaker makes the noblest shoe out of the leather he is given'.6 As for achieving fame or reputation, a common goal of our times, it can't be the main life pursuit either, according to Aristotle. Not only is it too dependent on other people and the workings of chance, it's also too indiscriminate. We'd be wrong to want recognition for its own sake, since it's not the honor that really matters, but receiving it from good people for our true good qualities.7 Aristotle also considers pleasure. He starts with the austere statement that people whose main interest lies in bodily pleasures live lives that are 'fit only for cattle'.8 Nonetheless, he ends up defending an appropriate degree of pleasure along various lines. First of all, even purely bodily pleasures are good in moderation. We are embodied creatures, and too little appreciation of bodily pleasures can hinder our quest for the good life. It's only excessive indulgence that is damaging and distracts us from more interesting pursuits. He also points out that there are different kinds of pleasures, and the best kind derives from being involved in a worthwhile activity. This can sound like high-minded prejudice. Just like when in the nineteenth century John Stuart Mill distinguished the higher pleasure of art and intellect from the lower pleasures of the body,9 there is a suspicion that philosophers try too hard to justify their preferred pleasures over those of hoi polloi. But this is less a matter of mind versus body than intellectual engagement versus passivity. Think, for instance, of listening to music. You could just let it wash over you, or you could attend to it consciously, appreciating its qualities. In the first

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Fenil Dedhia

case, your pleasures are more animal or child-like; in the second, they are distinctively human. While the example is not particularly Aristotelian, the distinction is, and it's a key one. Each type of living thing has its own nature or function, and the good life for anything means living with that. So the good life for human beings involves living in accordance with our nature as rational animals. There are two reasons why this may sound implausible. The first is that we have become more skeptical about the idea of human nature, let alone that of a natural 'function'. The second is that to place rationality at the centre of human life seems a bit elitist and naïve. Aren't we much more affected by rational impulses than rational ones? Aristotle may have overstated the extent to which humans are rational. He did nevertheless give due weight to our embodied nature, while insisting that it should be governed by rationality. The part of us that are in common with other animals are not denied or suppressed, simply not left to run the whole show. As for human nature, it need not be understood as something strictly fixed and tied to a notion of our proper function. To say that a good life is one lived in accordance with our nature simply means that it is lived in ways that most fully bring out our potential to live as more than just animals. This involves using reason, but not necessarily in some high-minded, scholarly way. Practical wisdom, as we have seen, lies at the heart of Aristotle's vision for the good life, and that is something we can all develop, no matter what our academic aptitude. We can talk of human reason in a broad sense, in contrast to simply following instincts unthinkingly. An essential part of what it means to be human is to have capacity to deliberate and make choices for ourselves, and no

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one can provide us with easy answers about what we should do. What we need, and what Aristotle provides, is not a set of prescriptions that diminishes our responsibility to make our own choices, but a philosophy of life that provides a framework for making better ones. End Notes 1. Roger Crisp (2000). Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, II, 6, Cambridge University Press, UK. 2. Roger Crisp (2000). Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, II, 1, Cambridge University Press, UK. 3. Roger Crisp (2000). Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, II, 1, Cambridge University Press, UK. 4. Daniel Kahneman (2011), Thinking, Fast and Slow, Allen Lane, UK. 5. Roger Crisp (2000). Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, X, 8, Cambridge University Press, UK. 6. Roger Crisp (2000). Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, I, 10, Cambridge University Press, UK. 7. Roger Crisp (2000). Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, I, 5, Cambridge University Press, UK. 8. Roger Crisp (2000). Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, I, 5, Cambridge University Press, UK. 9. John Stuart Mill (1962). Utilitarianism, Ch. 11, Fontana, pp. 258-61. Reference: · Richard. K (2001), Aristotle's Ethics, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, First published Tue May 1, 2001; substantive revision Mon Apr 21, 2014, http://plato.stanford. edu/entries/ aristotle-ethics/.

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International J. Res. Vol. 4. No. 2. 75-78, Jan-Jun 2015 ISSN : 2231 - 6124

Depiction of Tribal Women's Narrative in Liar's Dice *Md Nisaruddin

Abstract The present study explores new dimensions of tribal women's narratives. This paper will focus on 'Liar's Dice' a 2013 Hindi road drama film, written and directed by Geetu Mohandas. This Movie deals with the issue of the human cost of migration to cities and the issue of migrant laborers and their exploitation, through the story of young mother, living in remote village, whose husband goes missing after having left to work many months ago. Main theme on the base of tribal woman journey to find her husband. The suspicious wife packs up her children and her goat and attempts to track down her man. Along the way she gets help from a mysterious man she's not entirely sure she can trust. This film talks about a sense of futility; anger against the system and also explores the dynamics of a man woman relationship. It's a linear narrative travel story with a more alarming Backdrop of the socio political conditions of India today. So far, none of the previous studies in the women tribal issues and their challenges or tribe exclusion to explain. An aim of the study was to delineate as clearly as possible the tribal woman narrative in 'Liar's Dice' film. Especially how social exclusion, gender- discrimination and cultural practices that exert influence of narrative of tribe. The analytical research was conducted on cinema. This work is a departure from mainstream social exclusion of tribal women and narrative which predominantly focuses on poverty and income distribution. This paper investigates how 'Liar's Dice' film on the base of social exclusion to tribal women is linked with the phenomenon of gender discrimination and host of other cultural disparities. These disparities tend to severely undermine women's capabilities to participate in the realm of alone married woman. This may ultimately restrict their capacity to mobilize personality of women. The issues of tribal women exclusion are prevalent in the film. One of the most damaging consequences of this exclusion is that rendered women largely incapacitated to efficiently use contraception. This situation warrants immediate interventions based on well- conceived society which could reduce the existing level of society of women in Indian culture. This study recommends that, through proactive actions, society must ensure fuller participation of tribal woman in cinema as a second sex so that it will contribute to the development process. India cannot afford half of its population to be socially excluded and marginalized. Keywords: Disparities, Exclusion, Feminism, Patriarchy, Tribal narrative. India has largest population of tribes compared to any other country. Despite the protection given to their tribal population by the Constitution of India in 1950, it remains the most backward ethnic group in India. The literacy rate of a tribal female is lowest in all social groups. Mortality rate is higher and physical exploitation by outsiders is also common of tribal women.1The tribal women constitute like any other social group, about half of the total tribal population. The tribal women, as in all social groups are more illiterate than men. Like others social groups, the tribal women share difficulties related to reproductive health. When primary and secondary survival activities are counted, women work more than men. Status of women varies in different societies. The theoretical framework to analyses the position of women include the roles like parental, conjugal, domestic, kin, occupational, community and as an separate identity. In order to appraise the social ideals of women in these diverse ecological areas, the findings have been divided as girl, daughter, unmarried woman, married woman, widow, half widow, divorced and barren woman. Only the woman's role is not important in society, her activities also are equally important. Especially tribal women are very hard workers and Tribal married women

in India contribute positively to the local economy and participate along the men in existence activities. In reality, women do more work than men. They contribute in all agricultural activities (except ploughing) and other sectors of indigenous cottage industries. They share chief responsibilities in the production process. In addition, they have to manage household chores, which is a stupendous task. 2 Child rearing is also the duty of the women. Tribal women remain traditional in their dress, language, tools and resources, because they grow food crops rather than cash crops. Especially their language “The ultimate origins of language seen to me as mysterious of the universe itself. One must view it, I feel, simply as the 'given.' But once an animal comes into being that does happen to have this particular aptitude, the various tribal idioms are unquestionably development by their use as instruments in the 3 tribal way of living.” Which validates for the position of women in society because always in gender role inequalities and socialization determines the position. The Indian family structure is patriarchal, patricide and patrilineal. It denotes a culture of power relationship that promotes man's supremacy and woman's subjugation. It encompasses institutional

* Senior Research Scholar, Deptt. Of Women's Education, Maulana Azad National Urdu University. E-mail id: [email protected]

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International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

Md Nisaruddin

endorsement of man's ascendancy structures. Consequently a boy is looked upon as the perpetuator of the family line, and a female 'a bird of passage'. Indian organization makes discrimination between the sexes. It encourages a hierarchy of classification in which men are positioned to take dominance where as women derive their characters and second position by fathers, husbands, brothers and sons. Tribal women play a submissive role in social life. Despite several economic, political and social changes, they are still far behind. One of the most unflattering statistics concerning a girl child shows that the preference for a son runs across rich as well as poor households, educated and illiterate families. The desire for a male heir has pushed female foeticide to high proportions. Female foeticide is just one side of the vast anti-women behavioral range in our country. The tragedy is that even women, who have the choice, opt for a male child. They feel that only with a birth of a son, they will realize higher level in our patriarchal society4 But in this movie 'Liar's Dice' the lady character suffers for saving her daughter, and this suffering is natural to all tribal women who protect to their girl child. So the above discussion is show practically in the film 'Liar's Dice'. In the present society women are powerful, take part in activities and enjoy a greater position in society. So this movie had world premiere at the Mumbai Film Festival in October, 2013, where it took part in the Indian competition.5 It means in the present scenario of the society, there is a change in gender bias and discrimination is less than before 1980s. In January 2014, the film was screened at the Sundance Film Festival and International Film Festival, Rotterdam.6 It won a special jury award at Sofia International Film Festival.7 The film is set to have a worldwide theatrical release.8 The film went on to receive two National Film Awards. India has never won an Oscar in the best foreign film category. The last Indian film that made it to the final five nominees at the Oscars was Ashutosh Gowariker's Lagaan. But this film was nominated for the Oscars. Best Actress for character Geetanjali Thapa was played by Malayalam actress Geetu Mohandas – this film tells the story of a young tribal mother who, along with her three-year-old daughter, embarks on a journey in search of her missing husband. On the way, she meets an army deserter, who decides to accompany them to their destination. It is a road movie in which a headstrong woman from a picturesque village at Indian-Tibetan border sets out on a hazardous journey with her small daughter and a goat to find her husband in Delhi. A rough army fugitive runs to their aid. The film is based on this journey of a young tribal woman whose husband has failed to return home after leaving to work in Delhi many months ago. A tribal mountain community is on

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the border between India and Tibet embarks with her small daughter and her pet goat on a dangerous journey to find her husband, she encounters a rough army deserter who helps them quid pro quo. The very well talented actors who play the characters of the inquisitive child, the head strong young mother and the rugged smuggler perform in a way that makes the characters look very natural and convincing. The scenes unravel showing a perfect balance between deep drama and everyday reality. A lot of emotional tension is there. In a remote village, far away from Delhi, Kamala fails to hear back from her husband for five months. He is in the city for work,toiling on the

construction sites that have become the hallmark of the capital's expansion. When his cell phone is quiet for some time and when the village elders ask for more patience, Kamala sets out to find her husband on her own. Taking her daughter Manya and a lamb along for the long journey, she is a lone woman on a long trek in an unknown territory. She meets Nawazuddin Siddiqui, an army deserter who realizing the perils of the journey ahead for them, decides to accompany them to their destination. They are trapped together in the only available option of a trip to the city. 'Liar's Dice'- the film starts in a very small mountain village that deals with one of the significant aspects of our decaying socio-economic structure. A quietly effective debut set in a snowy border village centers on a young Indian mother, this film is about a woman who sets out to find her missing husband. When there's no news of her construction worker husband for five months, Kamala (Thapa) decides to head to Shimla and find out what has happened. The village elders advise her against this journey, but Kamala doesn't get swayed. She sets off with her little daughter and their goat, hoping to get news of Harud, her husband. The roads of mountainous north are rife with danger. Soon after they've left, Kamala is attacked by two truck drivers, but violence is avoided when the mysterious Nawazuddin saves Kamala from the men. He looks like a homeless mad man and Kamala doesn't trust him, but she quickly realizes that without his help, she won't be able to manage her little entourage. As the quest continues from Shimla to Delhi and Kamala negotiates her way through other snares. The story unsentimentally discusses serious issues like migration, the state of the urban poor and the terrible unfairness suffered by unskilled labor. The film portrays the tale of a young mother from a tribal community. Shedding all the inhibitions of an orthodox tribal life she embarks on a journey that makes her cross paths with an army deserter who decides to accompany them to their destination. Starting from a small village Chitkul on the Indo-Tibet border, her ordeal

International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

Tribal Women's Narrative in Liar's Dic

reaches to the industrial metropolis of Delhi where her missing husband was working. This sensible film is her feature debut so told the film director as Geetu says, “I am thrilled about Sundance. Even though we worked in the most difficult terrain, the shooting experience was very enjoyable. Sundance is an added feather in the Liars Dice experience for all of us”. After Peepli Live, 'Liar's Dice' is the only Indian film to be selected in this category in Sundance Film Festival, one of the largest independent film festivals in the US. And she says “the displacement of migrant laborers in our country is a big issue. I wanted to address that issue. No one thinks about their families back home. What happens when the sole breadwinner of the family disappears or dies in a mishap? Does anyone take responsibility? They are remembered as statistics.” There are a lot of cultural differences between nations. It's easy to judge one another. There are a lot of political, social and economic differences between nations. Also with the influx of social media, more and more such crimes against women are highlighted. One should not forget that we have had, and continue to have, women leaders representing our nation.9 Geetu makes an assured feature debut with the quietly effective “Liar's Dice.” This Indian road drama, following a young woman's search for her missing husband with a surly stranger's help, is always interesting to look at and nicely observed, though it does take its leisurely time getting to what feels like an overly abrupt, somewhat cryptic resolution. Commercial prospects will be minor, but the pic should travel far on the fest circuit and score some home-format export sales. In a snowy village near the Tibetan border, Kamala (Geetanjali Thapa) has worried long enough It's been five months since she last heard from her husband, who took a distant construction job. Has he been hurt in an accident? Has he run off with another woman? For lack of any real information, she's determined now to track him down physically. Weighed down with adorable daughter Manya and the baby goat she insists on bringing along, Kamala must first settle them all over a mountain or two on foot, as an avalanche has closed local roads. Waiting for a Jeep that will bring her to a bus, she witnesses stern, suspicious-looking Nawazuddin being discovered, beaten and abandoned by drivers of the truck he'd stowed away on. Reluctantly agreeing to help her — for a price — he accompanies the trio to the region's capital, Shimla, then on to vast Delhi in search of the elusive Harud. In a lonely remote village, high up in the Himalayan region, a w o m a n desperately tries to connect with her husband, a laborer working in Delhi, through the means of a mobile phone. When her husband fails to return her calls for five months at a stretch, a panic-stricken Kamla packs her bags and decides to make an ambitious trek to the city (with daughter and a pet lamb in tow) in search of her missing husband. The film is a woman's journey from a tiny Himalayan village to a city bustling with people.At the same time, it is also

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an emotional journey, one which is fraught with disappointment and disillusionment. How did the plot come together? I think it started with the idea of a woman in search of 10 her missing husband. “How is a woman with a child and a lamb going to sell?” …Liar's Dice confronts the human cost of the impact of migration through the intertwining stories of Kamala and Nawazuddin, whose journeys and choices are determined by their socio-economic circumstances. “There is a strong political undercurrent in the movie,” Mohandas says. “It's about a dog-eat-dog world in which there will always be a 11 prey and a predator. Narrative begins when a mother and her 3 year old child leaves their mountain village and its tribal community to search for their missing husband/father. The audience is acutely aware of the threats posed to them and their mistrust of everyone as they travel from their safe, snowcovered village and venture into the dangers of Delhi”. Construction workers are recruited from poor towns in the north and taken to accident-prone sites in big city bereft of safety norms. In her promising first feature, writer-director Geetu's cleverly skirts the issue in a wry road movie about a mountain woman who stubbornly ignores the village elders sand takes off in search of he a missing spouse not always convincing, the tale sails along on coattails of two fine actors, Geetanjali Thapa and Nawazuddin, who hold things together through various shifts in tone. Their presence propels the film. The intent of ethnographic narratives is to document lives of 12 individual women within their tribal societies. “Liar's Dice is the story of the faceless people who live in our midst. Kamala (the wife of a migrant labour), her daughter, a goat and a stranger are the main characters. Initially, people laughed at the idea of making a Hindi film with no singing or dancing or masala ingredients. This was in 2007, when I first wrote the plot. But I didn't let their reactions bother me. I don't know formula films, but I love to make outof-the-box stuff. So tribal woman Kamala leaves her village with her daughter and goat in search of her missing husband, a construction worker. Thus the story unfolds. My intention was to showcase the strength of woman. The goat in the film symbolizes hard realities”. 'Liar's Dice' follows a young tribal woman living in a village near the Indo-Tibetan border who embarks on a journey with her young daughter to Delhi in search of her missing husband. On the way, she meets an army deserter, played by Siddiqui, who realizing the perils of the journey ahead for them decides to accompany them to their destination. There is another story which is carried forward about this woman in search of her missing husband. It was important for the people to understand where this woman comes from and as the landscape and the terrain changes, how the attitude of the people change around them. Geography plays a big role in the narration of the film in a very quiet way. Scope of The study In view of the deprived status of tribal women in India this film gives further insight into the situation arising out of the deprivation of women. The fore going description of the problems faced by tribal women may open a window that could lead towards gaining an insight into the tribal women's problems in Indian culture by cinema lens. Another study captioned “Discrimination against tribal women in India - A Sociological analysis” is being undertaken to unearth the factors causing exclusion.

International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

Md Nisaruddin

Variables of the study The building blocks of hypotheses are variables. A variable is anything that varies. Changes or has differences. There are two types of variables: independent and dependent. Independent variables are those factors thought to be the cause or bring about change in other variables. Dependent variables are those things which change or are affected by independent variables. Independent variables always come before dependent variable in time and space. A hypothesis attempts to see the cause and effect phenomenon in the form of dependent and independent variables. Key Concepts Discrimination is treating a person or group unfairly and in the present study it has been used as the unjust treatment towards tribal women in the film “Liar's Dice”. Conclusion This film talks about a sense of futility; anger against the system and also explores the dynamics of a man woman relationship. It's a linear narrative travel story with a more alarming backdrop of the socio political conditions of India today. 'Liar's Dice' follows a young tribal woman living in a village near the Indo-Tibetan border who embarks on a journey with her young daughter to Delhi in search of her missing husband. Admiring actress Geetanjali who portrayed the role of a tribal woman, Thapa retorts, “Geetanjali is a phenomenal actress while Nawaz is an intelligent artiste. They could take it to the next level. There were no dialogues in the screenplay; it was revised along the way. Full credit goes to them for their performance.” and the film which describes a small tribe of women undergoing both modernization and 13 retraditionalization. 'Liar's Dice' demands from the audience to sit back and watch the story the way its filmmaker wants to narrate,” she confesses. She says that she has left the responsibility of Oscar campaign with her producers. In many ways, the leap was simply a physical manifestation of what Mohandas was already accomplishing with “Liar's Dice,” an unusually circumspect drama from India about a woman who ventures from her rural home with her daughter in search of her husband, a migrant worker who intended to provide for his family from afar, and is reluctantly aided by a fellow traveler (Nawazuddin) whose own journey remains mysterious. The film is a rare independent production from the country to find worldwide acclaim, a fact acknowledged prominently by its selection as this year's official entry in the Oscars. Liar's Dice” in this era of globalization, where it is materialism, fast life and instant gratification that are the success of mantra of India.- the poorer people, or the lesser privileged, come to the nation's attention only as a statistic

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when a crime or a tragedy happens. They're the nameless faces of India. They have a price tag attached to them. If you're injured, you might get 25-50,000 rupees. If you're dead, you get !100,000. That's the value for a human life in India. The film talks about a sense of futility. It's an anger against the system as well. As a citizen of my nation, I feel this is something staring at us in the face. We read in the dailies on a day-to-day basis and I really thought somebody needed to tell the story and give this nameless man an identity and a family back home. The perception of the West or of Europeans when they think about India is always the desert-clad woman and the angst. The film itself has a never-ending journey and the desert would have only brought about more mundaneness whereas the mountains gave the film more life. References: · Gretchen M. Bataille, Kathleen M. Sands, (1984), American Indian Women: Telling Their Lives, p.20. Lib. Congress cataloging, U.S. · http://dearcinema.com/news/page/20, DearCinema.com. "Liar's Dice wins Special Jury award at Sofia nd International Film Festival".Access on 2 March-15. · http://www.mid-day.com/articles/top-10-small-budgetindependent-films-set-to-release-in-2015/15898169. th Accessed on 24 March-15. · https://www.google.co.in/search? "Mumbai Film Festival Preview: Liar's Dice". Live mint. (5th Oct- 2013). th Accessed on 10 Jan-2015. · https://www.google.co.in/search? Livemint.com/Leisure. th Access on 13 feb-15. https://www.google.co.in/ search? th q=9.+Roffamonamour.com.Access on 25 Dec-14. · Rayna Green, Chicago Journals,( 1980), Vol. 6, No.2,p. 254,The University of Chicago Press,America. · Rediff.com Movies. 21 January 2014. Retrieved 2014-0418. · Sudhir Sigh A. Kachap. (2008), Disability, Citizenship and Social Exclusion, p.127-130,Anamika, New Delhi. · 'Sundance selection has changed everything for me'. th Access on 19 Feb-15. · Susan E. Chase. Ambiguous Empowerment: The Work Narratives of Women School Superintendents, (1994), p30, British lib. U.S. · Veena Bhasin, Veena Bhasin, “Status of tribal women in India”, P.7, (2007), https://www.google.co.in/search? th q=4.+?q=tribal+women,Access on 13 Feb-15. · Veena Bhasin. “Status of tribal women in India”,(2007), https://www.google.co.in/search?q=4.+scholar=tribal+w th omen,Access on 13 Feb-15. th · www.platform-mag.com,Access on 17 feb-15.

International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

International J. Res. Vol. 4. No. 2. 79-81, Jan-Jun 2015 ISSN : 2231 - 6124

Synthesis of Biologically Active Schiff Bases Containing Bithiazole Moiety *Masurkar Rajesh Manovilas

Abstract A large number of compounds containing one or more heterocyclic rings are well known biologically active agents .Bithiazoles and thiazoles exhibit therapeutic and pharmacological actions. Bacteriostatic drugs like Penicillin , Famotidine , Promizole contain the thiazole or the bithiazole moiety. Schiff bases show pronounced anti-fungal and anti-bacterial activity. They can also be cyclized to form thizolidinones and azetidinones rings. Thus an attempt was made to synthesize Schiff bases containing the 4,5' Bithiazole moiety and test the compounds for anti-microbial activity. Compounds were characterized on the basis of IR, NMR and MS data. They were found to possess an appreciable degree of anti-bacterial activity. Keywords: Anti-microbial, 4,5' Bithiazoles, Schiff bases Introduction : Multi drug resistance problem has increased since the last decade. Gradual increase in bacterial resistance towards important drugs like Penicillin, Tetracycline possesses a serious challenge to scientists all over the world. This has inspired researchers to design new molecules having 1 prominent anti-microbial activity . Anti-microbial agents are those which play a major role in eradicating the effects and growth of various pathogenic organisms. Destruction of these harmful pathogens reduces the risk of infections, restores health and promotes longevity in living beings. New strains having an ability to resist current 2 microbial drugs are causing a threat to human race . Death of about two million people infected with mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria has attracted the attention of researchers 3 around the world . According to WHO survey approximately 8.7 million people were infected with TB in 2011. 1.4 million people lost their lives. Thus multi drug resistant TB is now 4 categorized as the most dangerous disease globally . India has become the third country after Italy(2007) and Iran(2009) 5 where absolute drug resistant TB cases have been reported . With the appearance of multi-drug resistance bacteria and the increasing figures of TB cases, the development of new antimicrobial agents and TB therapeutics is of vital importance. Thiazoles , oxazoles, imidazoles and their derivatives are important intermediates of a series of drugs. They exhibit anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. These moieties are incorporated into biological molecules to make them active. Histidine is an amino acid having an imidazole side chain. It is present in many proteins and plays a vital role in the binding functions of haemoglobin. Imidazole compounds has thus attracted the interest of medicinal researchers. Therapeutically active compounds contain a heterocyclic ring as their basic moiety. Many heterocycles are widely used as therapeutic agents. Common examples are

Dantrolene (Furan ring ), Clopirac (Pyrrole ring ) , Secindazole (Imidazole ring), the anti-protozoal drug, Proxazole (Oxadiazole ring) etc. Apart from the above these rings may also show diverse activities. Thiazoles are five membered heterocycles having one sulphur and one nitrogen atom. Bithiazoles are compounds in which two thiazole rings are bonded by a single covalent bond. These moieties have been a structural subunit of many biologically active molecules and pharmacologically important synthetic analogues. These structures have attracted widespread interest 6 of chemists due to their potential anti-bacterial , anti7 8 inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic activities. Due to the wide spectrum of coverage, these moieties have gained appreciable importance in the pharma industry. In view of such reports it was contemplated to synthesize SCHIFF's BASES containing the 4,5' Bithiazole moiety and evaluate some of the compounds for their anti- microbial activity. Materials and methods: All the chemicals used for the synthesis were of LR Grade. Apparatus was thoroughly cleaned and dried. The melting points were determined by the open capillary method and are uncorrected. Purity of the compounds was checked by micro TLC using silica gel 'G' coated glass plate. Iodine vapor was used as the detecting agent. Benzene – methanol ( 90:10 ) and Acetone – ethanol (60:40 ) were used as irrigants. The compounds were purified by re-crystallisation mostly using aqueous alcohol as the solvent. The IR spectra were recorded on Perkin-Elmer IR283 spectrophotometer using a thin film supported on KBr -1 1 pellets. The values are reported as λmax (cm ). H NMR spectra were recorded on Bruker NMR spectrophotometer. Chemical shifts are reported as values in ppm relative to TMS ( δ = 0) as internal standard. The mass spectra were recorded on Schimadzu MS. The spectra were recorded at room temperature. Scheme : a

* Department of Chemistry, Rizvi College of Arts, Science and Commerce, Bandra (W), Mumbai. Email Id: [email protected]

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International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

Masurkar Rajesh Manovilas

Scheme : a X

NH 2 + H3 C

C

CO

S

CH CO

CH 3

Cl Ethanol, reflux H3C N CO

X

CH 3

S (I) Bromine / CHCl3

H3C N X

CH2 Br + H2N—C—NH2

CO S (II)

S

Ethanol, reflux

H3C N X

N

S (III) Scheme : b

S

NH2

H3C N

H

X N + O=C

S (III)

S

Y

NH 2

Dry benzene , water bath, 7-8 hours H3C N X N

S (IV)

80

S

H N =C

Y

Synthesis : Scheme a 1. Preparation of 5-acetyl-4-methyl-2-aryl thiazoles ( I ) Equimolar quantities ( 0.1 mol ) of 3-chloroacetylacetone , substituted thiobenzamide and sodium acetate were taken in a clean round bottom flask and 50 mL of ethyl alcohol was added. The contents were mixed and refluxed for 5 hours. The reaction was monitored on TLC. The refluxed contents were poured over ice. The crude product was filtered, washed with cold water and crystallised by using aqueous alcohol. 2. Bromination of 5-acetyl-4-methyl-2-aryl-thiazoles ( I ) to obtain Bromomethyl, 4-methyl-2- aryl-5-thiazolyl ketones.( II ) ( I ) was taken in a two necked round bottom flask ( 21.7gm ; 0.1 mol ) and dissolved in 60.0 mL of dry chloroform. A solution of bromine ( 5.5 mL ; 0.1 mol ) in 30.0 mL of chloroform was slowly added while simultaneously refluxing the solution. Evolution of HBr fumes indicated the initiation of the reaction. The contents were heated for two hours. Chloroform was removed by distillation. The separated solid was treated with a 10% solution of sodium bicarbonate, washed with cold water and crystallised from ethyl alcohol + acetone mixture ( 70 : 30 ) to obtain a pale yellow compound. 3. Condensation of ( II ) with thiourea to form 4,5'bithiazole -2-amine-4'-methyl – 2'- aryl.( III) A mixture of ( II ), ( 15.0g , 0.05 mol) and thiourea ( 4.25g, 0.05 mol ) in 100 mL of ethyl alcohol was placed in a round bottom flask fitted with a water condenser. The contents were refluxed using a water bath for 5-6 hours. The contents were poured over ice-ammonia mixture. The solid separated was filtered, washed with cold water. Purification was carried out using 1:1 alcohol. Scheme b: Condensation of 4,5'- bithiazole-2-amine-4'-methyl-2'aryl (III) with substituted benzaldehyde to form 4,5'bithiazole-2-arylideneamino-2'aryl-4'-methyl.(IV). A mixture of 4,5'- bithiazole-2-amine-4'-methyl-2'aryl ( III ) , (0.05 mol) and substituted benzaldehyde in 50.0 mL of dry benzene was refluxed on a water bath using the Dean-Stark water separator for 7-8 hours. The reaction was monitored on Tlc. The solvent was distilled off. The solid obtained was purified using alcohol-acetone mixture. Physical constants : Compound No. IV a IV b IV c IV d IV e IV f IV g IV h IV i IV j IV k IV l IV m IV n IV o IV p

X

Y

H H H H Cl Cl Cl Cl CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3 OCH3 OCH3 OCH3 OCH3

H Cl CH3 OCH3 H Cl CH3 OCH3 H Cl CH3 OCH3 H Cl CH3 OCH3

M.P o C 130 101 119 122 99 166 76 148 -----111 ---149 133 116 75 ------

International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

Synthesis of Biologically Active Schiff Bases Containing Bithiazole Moiety

Characterisation: The spectral data of some of the newly synthesized Schiff bases are as follows. IV a : YIELD- 1.3 gm , IR ( KBr ): 2260-2240 (C=N), 1600 (C-C str- Ar) , 3030 (Ar-CH ), 2800 (Ali-CH ) , 890-900 (monosubstituted benzene). NMR(CDCl3) : 7.1-7.5 ( m, 10 H , Ar-H ) , 6.03 ( s , 1H , CH ) , 1.3 ( s , 3H , -CH3 ) . m/z at 361. IV d : YIELD= 1.5gm , IR(KBr): 2230-2210 (C=N , str.), 3040 (Ar-CH ), 2830(Ali-CH), 1580 ( C-C, str.) 1250 (C-O-C ), 900-920(monosubstituted benzene) , 710-730 (disubstituted benzene ) NMR(CDCl3) : 7.4-7.7 (m, 9H , Ar-H), 6.09 (s , 1H, CH), 1.2 ( s ,3H, CH3), 2.9(s, 3H, OCH3), m/z at 391. IV k : YIELD= 1.1gm , IR (KBr ) : 2300-2280 ( C=N ,str.) , 3100 (Ar-CH) , 2820 ( Ali CH ) ,720-750 ( disubstituted benzene ). NMR (CDCl3) : 7.3-8.1 ( m, 9H, Ar-H ) , 6.13 ( s, 1H, CH ) , 1.1 ( s, 3H, -CH3) , 1.2 ( s, 3H, CH3 ) , 1.3 ( s, 3H , CH3 ). m/z at 389. IV l : YIELD = 0.8gm , IR(KBr): 2350-2330 ( C=N , str. ) , 3150 ( Ar-CH ), 2850 (Ali- CH ) , 700-730 (disubstituted benzene). NMR(CDCl3) : 7.5-8.2 (m, 9H , Ar-H ), 6.21 ( s, 1H ,CH), 1.0( s, 3H, -CH3 ), 2.7(s, 3H, OCH3) m/z at 421. Discussion: All the compounds have been synthesized in fairly good yield and some have been characterized on the basis of IR, NMR and MASS spectral data. In compounds IVd , IVk -1 and IVl , the appearance of an IR peak in the 700-750 cm region confirms the presence of disubstituted benzene ring. The NMR spectra of the compounds displayed signals at 1.0 to 1.3, corresponding to aromatic protons and the methyl group . In compounds IVd and IVl , the presence of a signal at δ 2.9 and δ 2.7 shows the presence of the methoxy group (3H). This signal (singlet) experiences a downward shift as it is bonded to an electronegative oxygen atom. The presence of a signal at δ 6.03 -6.21 corresponds to 1H of CH . This singlet is also shifted downfield as it is bonded to the nitrogen atom .Further the mass spectra of the compounds also confirmed their formation. Anti-microbial screening: In order to find out the sensitivity of the compounds, they were screened for their anti-bacterial activity against S. aureus and E.coli. Invitro anti-bacterial testing was carried out. Agar well diffusion method was used for testing on nutrient agar plates. The subculture was prepared in the sterlised nutrient broth. Into each sterile plate was poured 1520 mL of molten agar. The incubated plates were allowed to stand for 15 minutes and bores were made using a sterile cork borer. The solutions were prepared in different concentrations in µg / ml. DMSO was used as the solvent. The solutions of synthesized compounds were poured in the well. Ampicillin ( 10µg / ml ) was used as standard. The control was run under similar conditions to determine the activity of the blank. The plates were incubated at 37C. Anti-bacterial activity was evaluated by measuring the diameter ( mm) of the zone of

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inhibition after 24 hours. An examination of the data shows that most of the synthesized compounds show appreciable degree of anti-bacterial activity. Data of antibacterial activity: Compound No. IV a IV b IV c IV d IV e IV f IV g IV h IV i IV j IV k IV l IV m IV n IV o IV p Std. Ampicillin

X

Y

H H H H Cl Cl Cl Cl CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3 OCH3 OCH3 OCH3 OCH3

H Cl CH3 OCH3 H Cl CH3 OCH3 H Cl CH3 OCH3 H Cl CH3 OCH3

E. Coli

S. Aureus

14.8 10.2 13.9 9.8 --10.8 Slight 12.2 8.8 14.8 Slight 12.9 9.2 -------14.2 10.6 14.2 11.2 14.4 9.3 12.2 10.2 NT NT 14.6 Slight 11.0 7.8 --------------- ------------25.0 20.0

· Zone of inhibition values in mm · NT =not taken · ------- = inactive. Observation: In order to find out the biological action of the synthesized compounds against the microganisms, they were screened for the anti-bacterial activity against E.coli and S.aureus. 80 to 85% of the compounds showed appreciable degree of activity . All compounds showed a greater degree of activity against E.coli than S.aureus. It was observed that the presence of 'X' or 'Y'= Cl enhances the activity.The presence of the methyl group also shows good activity. The introduction of the methoxy group leads to diminished activity against both the strains. It is broadly concluded that the compounds are more effective against E.coli than S.aureus. Further the presence of the –Cl group leads to enhanced activity. References: · Nathwani D and Woods M J , Drugs , (1993) , 45 , 866. · Nathan C , Nature , (2004) , 431 , 899. · Raviglione M C , Tuberculosis , (2003) , 83 , 4. · WHO Tuberculosis Factsheets , September 2013. · Rowland K , Nature news ,( 2012 ) · D'souza V T and Lipkowitz K B , Chem rev , (1998) , 98 , 1741. · Chen Z , Bradshaw J S and Lee M L , Tetrahedron letters ,( 1998 ), 6831. · Hanessian S , Hocquelet C T and Jankowski C K , syn letters , (2008) , 5 , 715. · I.P , Third edition , (1985) , 337. · Redkar S N , (1987) , Ph.D Thesis , University of Mumbai. · I.P , Third edition , (1985) , 267.

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International J. Res. Vol. 4. No. 2. 82-84, Jan-Jun 2015 ISSN : 2231 - 6124

The Enigma of Existential and Metaphysical Pain in Paulo Coelho's Veronica Decides to Die and Aleph *PreetiVaswani Abstract The paper attempts to explore the enigma of existential and metaphysical pain in two novels of Paulo Coelho – Veronica Decides to Die, and Aleph. The protagonists of his novels – Veronica and Paulo himself, experience pain when they try to go in search of life's meaning and purpose. They encounter various internal and external conflicts, but the pain acts as a means to their growth and development. Where the basic pain of human existence acts as a trigger to set Veronica explore the unknown, Paulo's thirst to achieve sublime peace lands him into making a series of commitments with publishers and writers to visit seven countries in eight weeks with the hope that he would meet someone who would help him achieve spiritual orgasm. There is a significant growth in Veronica from understanding death as a freedom from pain, to understanding life as a purposeful gift of the universal soul. Also, there is a spiritual growth in Paulo where he understands his present through his past. The element of travel plays a major role in facilitating the characters materialize their existential and spiritual quest. The metaphysical pains that they experience are manifest in forms of divine silence, loneliness, a sense of vacuum, estrangement from the self, exploration of unseen areas of the self, waiting, spasms of faithlessness, routine, and the like. To deal with these conflicts, the characters understand the need to bond with the self from within, and with the 'Other', explore their past, cleanse the soul of guilt and sins, forgive those who have wronged them, overcome worldly pleasures that keep them grounded, and experience the universal soul, and thereby understand the real reason of their existence. Keywords: Aleph, Enigma, Existential, Metaphysical, Paulo Coelho, Veronica Decides to Die. Main Text The paper attempts to explore the enigma of existential and metaphysical pain in two novels of Paulo Coelho – Veronica Decides to Die, and Aleph. The protagonists of his novels – Veronica and Paulo himself, experience pain when they try to go in search of life's meaning and purpose. They encounter various internal and external conflicts, but the pain acts as a means to their growth and development. Where the basic pain of human existence acts as a trigger to set Veronica explore the unknown, Paulo's thirst to achieve sublime peace lands him into making a series of commitments with publishers and writers to visit seven countries in eight weeks with the hope that he would meet someone who would help him achieve spiritual orgasm. There is a significant growth in Veronica from understanding death as a freedom from pain, to understanding life as a purposeful gift of the universal soul. Also, there is a spiritual growth in Paulo where he understands his present through his past. Veronika decides to die to escape the basic pains of human existence. She feels like a machine trapped in monotony, and seeks death that can free her of her mechanical existence. Paradoxically, she seeks death to feel more alive. The basic pains of human existence act as a trigger to set her explore the unknown. But the pain that she experiences seems almost as controversial and unknown. She cannot figure what is driving her life in the direction she finds it going, and is overcome by a complete sense of powerlessness. In the midst of life's vagueness, she decides to die on the basis of two reasons – a realization of two inescapable pains of life – old age and helplessness. The first reason: everything in her life was the same and, once her youth was gone, it would be downhill all the way,

with old age beginning to leave irreversible marks, the onset of illness, the departure of friends. She would gain nothing by continuing to live; indeed, likelihood of suffering only increased. The second reason was more philosophical: Veronika read the newspapers, watched TV, and she was aware of what was going on in the world. Everything was wrong, and she had no way of putting things right – that gave her a sense of complete powerlessness. Awareness of her existence and the world around her causes her pain, and she yearns for “eternal oblivion”. She understands death as freedom from pain and from awareness of existing and imminent pain. Moreover, she reasons, everything ends in death. Perhaps she wants to escape the pain of guilt – the guilt of committing suicide – a religious taboo; suicide, by which she would not be ending he pain, but transmitting it to people associated with her – most importantly, her mother. To escape this guilt, she blames the God she does not believe in, for outsourcing the pains of human existence: If God exists, and I truly don't believe he does, he will know that there are limits to human understanding. He was the one who created this confusion in which there is poverty, injustice, greed, and loneliness. He doubtless had the best of intentions, but the results have proved disastrous; if God exists,…he might even apologize for having made us spend time here (Earth). In order to escape the tragedy of a life in which everything repeats itself – where one day is exactly like another – she consumes pills, and plunges into a terrible fear of the unknown. One's pain or/and suffering is/are unique to one's own

* Asst. Prof. in English, LS Raheja College of Arts and Commerce, Mumbai. E-mail ID: [email protected]

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existence, which can neither be experienced nor understood by the 'Other'. But the 'Other' judges the subject in terms of either belonging to the Crowd, or standing out of the Crowd. Any sense of the subject not being able or not wanting to fit into the common mould is considered deviant or abnormal by the 'Other'. Where the causes of physical pain are diagnosed by a physician, and the causes of mental / psychological pain, by a psychologist or a psychiatrist, the subject understands that both the doctor and the psychiatrist want him/her to come to terms with pain, while simultaneously devising ways and means of mitigating the same. When it is beyond the subject's reach or desire to come to terms with pain, he/she contemplates suicide. Where normalcy would require the subject to struggle for survival, whatever the cost, contemplating suicide is judged abnormal, or a deviation of the commonly tread path. The crowd puts such 'abnormal' people in a mental asylum. Paulo Coelho himself had been admitted in an asylum thrice, by his parents, as they were confused by his unusual desire to be an 'artist' – “something everyone in the family considered a perfect recipe for ending up as a social outcast and dying in poverty”. Veronica too, wakes up to find herself in an asylum with an irreparable damage in her heart as a consequence of the pills. Veronica now has not more than five to seven days of life, and this waiting period for death seems awful to her. She had attempted suicide on reaching the conclusion that her existence had no meaning because every day was the same. Now, she fears she might end up convinced that life was worth living, and that would cause her pointless pain, since she would soon have to leave this world anyway. Philosophy helps one understand life and existence, which is followed by an awareness of the meaning / meaninglessness of existence. This awareness leads one to the second stage – the quest of the Divine through spiritual contemplation. At the end of the first stage, the subject experiences metaphysical pain, where he can go neither forward nor backward. The subject is lost in nothingness or vacuum where neither light nor darkness exists. The subject is neither wise nor ignorant, and is desperate to find an escape from this mysterious pain. Inner peace is what the subject yearns for, and he/she may move in a positive direction – an awareness of the existence of the soul, or may move in a negative direction – plunging into the Unknown, as Veronika attempts. The subject becomes aware of the Soul by leaping from the physical to the metaphysical, where he/she experiences astral travel – a strange feeling of floating in space, connected to the body by a thin, expandable, silvery thread. Coelho describes the nature of such a travel that begins with a “strange, irritating noise that preceded the separation of the body from the spirit, followed by a shock, a rapid loss of consciousness, and then the peace and joy of floating in air, attached to the body by a silvery cord, a cord that could be stretched indefinitely…” And to undertake this journey, one had to concentrate on projecting oneself into space, imagining where exactly he/she wanted to go. Unlike the routes followed by planes – which leave from one place to fly the necessary distance to reach another – an astral journey was made through mysterious tunnels. You imagined yourself in a place, you entered the appropriate tunnel at a terrifying speed, and the other place would appear. The pain that Veronika experiences waiting for death accompanies growth and development. She is now free from the pain of monotony and social conformity, and enjoys the freedom that exists in the world of madness. Neither can the joy of such a freedom nor the pain of depression be understood by doctors. Doctors, who are believed to cure the patient of

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pain and discomfort, are themselves so distance from it. They are, evidently, not expected to experience pain in order to cure it. But the detachment is so wide that the doctor is unable to connect with the patient in the sense that the latter wants him/her to. The seat of depression is in the mind, and its nature is primarily emotional, but the medical practitioner reduces it to nothing more than a physical or environmental imbalance. This adds to the patient's depression, as he finds himself / herself all alone in his/her pain. The doctors said that a recently discovered substance, serotonin, was one of the compounds responsible for how human beings felt. A lack of serotonin impaired one's capacity to concentrate at work, to sleep, to eat and to enjoy life's pleasures. When this substance was completely absent, the person experienced despair, pessimism, a sense of futility, terrible tiredness, anxiety, difficulties in making decisions, and would end up sinking into permanent gloom, which would lead either to compete apathy or to suicide. Other more conservative doctors said that any drastic change in life could trigger depression – moving to another country, losing a loved one, divorce, an increase in the demands of work or family. Some modern studies, based on the number of internments in winter and summer, pointed to the lack of sunlight as one of the causes of depression. People never learn anything by being told, they have to find out for themselves, and they find out through pain. It is pain that helps Veronika discover the hundreds of other selves living inside her, who were interesting, mad, curious, brave, and bold. She experiences the destructive energy leaking out of her body that had, until then, been locked within her by selfcontrol, masks, and socially appropriate behavior. Veronika wants to spend her remaining two or three days of life behaving as inappropriately as she can. It is then that she opens the door to her personal hell and feels utmost hatred for everything and everyone, even her mother, whom she loved most in the world. 'How can I hate someone who only ever gave me love?' thought Veronika, confused, trying to check her feelings. But it was too late, her hatred had been unleashed, she had opened the door to her personal hell. She hated the love she had been given, because it had asked for nothing in return, which was absurd, unreal, against the laws of nature. That love asking for nothing in return had managed to fill her with guilt, with a desire to fulfill another's expectations, even if that meant giving up everything she had dreamed of for herself. It was a love that for years had tried to hide from her the difficulties and the corruption that existed in the world ignoring the fact that, one day, she would have to find this out, and would then be defenseless against them. Paradoxically, it is through pain that she can free herself of pain. It is through hatred, that she can free herself of hatred and allow universal peace to descend into her. Looking up at the sky, she had an indescribable sense of wellbeing, as if the infinite nature of the universe had revealed her own eternity to her. Veronika develops an emotional bond with Eduard, a schizophrenic in the asylum for whom she plays the piano, and who was drawing Veronika back into the world. She expresses her physical freedom to him by disrobing herself and masturbating in front of him. She imagines many men entering her, and experiences multiple orgasms. She wonders why she had always avoided imagining forbidden situations. As Dr. Igor rightly explains in the novel: Each human being is unique, each with their own qualities, instincts, forms of pleasure and desire for adventure. However, society always imposes on us a collective way of

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behaving, and people never stop to wonder why they should behave like that. They just accept it, the way typists accepted the fact that the QWERTY keyboard was the best possible one. And there comes in each one's life, a single magical moment that makes him/her set off in search of his/her own vision of Paradise. But one needs to have patience to wait for the right moment. This is one of the hardest tests on the spiritual road; the second one being the courage not to be disappointed with what one encounters. Veronika survives. And she considers every new day of her life a miracle. It is only the awareness of death that makes one live life more intensely. Where the realization of life's meaninglessness in routine leads man in quest of Eternal Truth, Paulo's very search for wisdom, peace of mind, and an awareness of visible and invisible realities has become routine and pointless in Aleph. Paulo goes through periods of inner conflicts to achieve sublime peace. Spiritual reality is visible to him only in flashes, and he comes to this other world with a feeling of frustration. When he needs God to answer his questions, he faces only silence. This is the nature of metaphysical pain that Paulo experiences. He realizes that material possessions on Earth overpower man and keep him grounded. This gravity makes it difficult for man to make a spiritual leap. Man has to let go, but finds himself in shackles. I am…in a house I now regret having bought, because it has ended up owning me, demanding my presence whenever possible, because it needs someone to look after it, to keep its energy alive. As mentioned in Veronika Decides to Die, waiting for the right moment is another characteristic of metaphysical pain. It seems as absurd and as eternal as waiting for Godot, with no promise of assured results. Even sacred books, revelation, guides, manuals and ceremonies seem absurd and appear to have no lasting effects. In desperation, man begins to read things into situations, looks for signs, and interprets them at his convenience, but to no avail. The pain of yearning for spiritual fulfillment sometimes leaves man with a sense of defeat. He may either go back to life's routine and repetition, like Sisyphus of Camus, that keeps him in a superficially pleasant state, or may persist in his search. His spiritual journey requires him to travel into his long past to realize who he is, but this once again brings upon him further pain the form of guilt (guilt of sins of the past), which troubles his present. Paulo, the protagonist of Aleph makes a series of commitments with publishers and writers, and books the next two months of his life to visiting various countries – crossing the whole of the Russian continent by the Trans-Siberian railway, – meeting various people who are strangers, with the hope that he would meet someone who would help him achieve spiritual orgasm. And, he meets Hilal, from one of his past lives with whom he experiences the Aleph – “I am in the Aleph, the point at which everything is in the same place at the same time.” Paulo understands the need to connect to the 'Other', to experience the great Aleph – the feeling of the universal soul, which can be experienced in two ways – being at the right place, and being at the right place with another person with very strong affinity – which invokes a chain reaction. The element of incompleteness is a part of universal metaphysics that demands continuity and keeps Life going. This can be understood when Paulo says that most encounters and meetings occur because of things that have remained unresolved, and we need a new incarnation in order to finish something that was left incomplete. The Aleph helps Paulo recognize Hilal from his past; Hilal – a Turkish woman who is first violin in an orchestra – a spalla.

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The metaphysical leap requires self-forgiveness – saving the self from the self. A spiritual leap requires an unburdening of the self of hatred and guilt. Paulo had wronged Hilal in one of his previous births, and she forgives him to unburden herself of hatred. The art of peace is unbeatable because no one is fighting against anyone, only themselves. If you conquer yourself, then you will conquer the world… The search for peace is a form of prayer that generates light and heat. Forget about yourself for a while and understand that in that light lies wisdom and in that heat lies compassion. Confrontation and conflict lead to awareness and enlightenment through resolution. We are all here to resolve conflicts, to balance equations, and travel together towards freedom. Travel is an important element in Coelho's novels. The element of travel (including astral travel, travel into the past through the ring of fire exercise, Aleph) plays a major role in facilitating the characters materialize their existential and spiritual quest. The metaphysical pains that they experience are manifest in forms of divine silence, loneliness, a sense of vacuum, estrangement from the self, exploration of unseen areas of the self, waiting, spasms of faithlessness, routine, and the like. To deal with these conflicts, the characters understand the need to bond with the self from within, and with the 'Other', explore their past, cleanse the soul of guilt and sins, forgive those who have wronged them, overcome worldly pleasures that keep them grounded, and experience the universal soul, and thereby understand the real reason of their existence. Endnotes: Coelho, P. (1998), Veronika Decides to Die, Harper Collins Publishers, Margaret Jull Costa (Trans.), Noida, 6. ibid. 7. ibid. 7 ibid. 16 ibid. 41 ibid. 46 ibid. 47 ibid. 47 ibid. 48-49 ibid. 55 ibid. 61 ibid. 62 ibid. 57 ibid. 153 ibid. 166 ibid. 88 Coelho, P. (2011), Aleph, Harper Collins Publishers, Margaret Jull Costa (Trans.), London 4. ibid. 5 – 6. ibid. 79 ibid. 145-149 References: · Coelho, P. (2011), Aleph: Harper Collins Publishers, Margaret Jull Costa (Trans.), London. · Coelho, P. (1998), Veronika Decides to Die, Harper Collins Publishers, Margaret Jull Costa (Trans.), Noida.

International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

International J. Res. Vol. 4. No. 2. 85-87, Jan-Jun 2015 ISSN : 2231 - 6124

Poile Sengupta and the Theatre of Protest *Preeti Bambolkar

Abstract Drama is a reflection of life as we know it. Hence it becomes a very effective tool to gauge the changes in social perspectives. In India, the later decades of the twentieth century have seen comparatively more women producing some very intense work. Most plays written by women during these decades are honest, reflexive, often violent and at times extremely disturbing. They try to seek an answer to the question of power imbalance that is prevalent in our society. In this paper I have tried to analyse current trends in Contemporary Indian Drama in English especially with regard to Women's Drama i.e. plays written by women playwrights, about women and their experiences. I've chosen Poile Sengupta as a representative playwright and analysed her plays for my study. Keywords: Protest, Society, Theatre, Women. Poile Sengupta and the Theatre of Protest. A few years back, I was watching a movie My Big Fat Greek Wedding wherein a mother advises her daughter of marriageable age saying, “....You must always remember, a Man is the head of the family and the woman is the neck. It is the neck that turns the head in the direction it wants to see, whatever it wants seen..” It was at this precise moment that this journey of mine began. A journey to find out the truth behind the words as well as to see if they held true in our world /culture as it is so similar to that of the Greeks. Objective I chose to study Drama as it is the closest art form to life as we know it. And I chose contemporary women playwrights for study so as to be able to gauge the relevance of the words in a world that I am a part of. The objective of this paper is to analyse a new trend in theatre – the Theatre of Protest and showcase its relevance in the plays of Poile Sengupta, one of the foremost contemporary Indian playwrights. Traditionally women have never had, nor were allowed a voice of their own. As the narrator in Poile Sengupta's Mangalam says, “Because a woman has patience, She is not allowed to speak; And she never learns the words.” Society has always considered women as inferiors and has prescribed for them domestic roles within the family as well as the society. Their opinions and points of view have seldom been asked and hardly been encouraged. Over the centuries women have had to overcome numerous social hurdles to be able to express their views. Cultural, traditional and religious restrictions along with poverty and illiteracy have been responsible for subjugation of women. Despite the subservient role designated to them, there has been no dearth of women being represented on stage. Male writers

have often written about women and in many of their works, the central character is a woman. But predictably these women characters are seen primarily in relation to men and are of interest largely in terms of their romantic and sexual relationships. The women playwrights in India have focused on their appearance on stage and have boldly taken steps to represent themselves by breaking all the myths and barriers. Those women writers who have managed to break the glass ceiling not only deal with the topics of love, sexuality and marriage, they deal with other aspects of a woman's life as well. Hence they do not need the male playwrights to represent them on stage anymore. Women playwrights are using drama to reveal their personalities and express their innermost feelings about life as they know it. Their endeavour is to put forth before society their own point of view by staging and characterizing themselves in their plays. They want to consciously or unconsciously establish themselves through a cultural identity. They long for and focus on an ultimate change in the society. Theatre of Protest The new trend that leads Indian English drama today is Women's Theatre. These are plays about women written by women playwrights and are meant for everyone. This trend is proving to be a dramatic force as the playwrights deal with various social issues prevalent in our society and seek a resolution. Despite all odds, women dramatists have written serious social plays showcasing the daily life of women in various spheres of society. Their texts expose the routine struggles, problems and difficulties of the people as tangible realities. The issues raised in these plays, especially the ones related to women's experiences, have a wide range of variety and depth. The plays empower women and enable them to speak out. They have an overlap of art, activism, and social relevance that tries to bring about a real change in women's lives. The plays challenge the established notions of theatre as they are written in an idiom

* Asst. Professor, Rizvi College of Arts Science and Commerce, Mumbai. E-mail id: [email protected]

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unique to women in terms of their language and ways of communication. These plays can thus be grouped under the umbrella of 'Theatre Of Protest' because through these Plays women writers have tried to express their resentment and angst against exploitation based on gender discrimination. As mentioned earlier, these plays do not restrict themselves only to the themes of love, romance or the domestic sphere. They touch upon most aspects of life while analysing the position of women and gently suggest strategies that can be adopted to negotiate social change. In doing so, they seek to review and reform of the comfortably established social norms. As Tutun Mukherjee, eminent Critic and professor at Hyderabad Central University says about these Women Playwrights, “Their plays have no author-defined conclusions, no resolutions, and no happy/sad endings. They do not aim at mental or emotional peace but close in irresolution, just as life's experiences often do. The plays disturb and roil the equilibrium; they provoke and demand response. They try to forge a new kind of audience that will not expect to be entertained but will participate in the dialectics since the issues concerning women and children are of the kind that have invariably been and continue to be side-stepped and neglected by the society.” These new age women dramatists try to define women's theatre against male-dominated ideologies and try to represent the under-represented aspect of sexual abuse in women's lives. They try to analyze women's sexual exploitation in the domestic and public sphere, and sometimes accept women's own complicity in such exploitation. Themes As mentioned earlier, some of the major issues that discourage women from writing plays can be are gender differentiation, religious and cultural restrictions, prevailing prejudices against women, family responsibilities and lack of standard education and economic support. Despite these restraints, a few women playwrights like Dina Mehta, Manjula Padmanabhan, Poile Sengupta and Tripurari Sharma have successfully written internationally acclaimed plays. These plays are linked by a certain commonality of themes and vision. A theme that recurs in most of these plays is that of psychosexual abuse and women's struggle to cope with it in their everyday life. The focus is on the anguish, the pain, and the inferiority that women suffer within the so called protected parameters of their lives. Raju Parghi in his article 'Indian Drama and the Emergence of Indian Women Playwrights: A Brief Survey' claims that plays written by women can be broadly categorized into four broad categories. He says, “The themes of the plays written by women mostly deal with the issues related to women, at the same time they also depict children's world and the issues related to men. The women playwrights are conscious of contemporary issues blended with troubling past memories, expectation of better and blissful future attempt to present balanced views on both society and family. Their multifarious themes can be compressed under four broad categories of plays. The Plays of Relationships include themes like motherhood, intricate

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baffling relationship of men and women, incest and adultery. The Plays of Violence focus on various types of violence as physical, emotional, psychological, and the exploitation of women at home and in profession. The Plays of Resistance present the themes of, voicing against rape, injustice and inequality, poverty illiteracy and gender discrimination. The Plays of Revolution suggests the themes of voice of the voiceless, political issues, religious and superstitious practices conservative values and traditional restrictions.” Poile Sengupta Poile (Ambika) Sengupta who is one of India's leading contemporary playwright in English has written many plays and most of them have been performed in Banglore. She wrote her first play Mangalam in 1993. She followed it up with Inner Laws,(1994), A Pretty Business (1995), Keats was a Tuber (1996), Collages (1998), Alipha, Thus Spake Shoorpanakha, So Said Shakuni (2001) and Samara's Song(2007). Seagull published Mangalam in Body Blows (2000). An anthology of most of her plays called Women Centre stage has been published by Routledge in 2010. In the Preface to this anthology, Women Centre stage, Poile Sengupta says, “...when I write, I do so with the consciousness, the sensibility that is mine. However I've always been troubled about the status of women, and children, who seem to be the worst sufferers in any conflict, whether familial, social or political.” She also claims to enjoy the challenge of fashioning the grammar of an English sentence into what is essentially an 'Indian' syntax. This is especially evident in her play Keats was a Tuber. Poile's first play Mangalam won The Hindu - Madras Players Play-scripts Competition in 1993. In this outstanding play, the invisible is made visible through memories of Mangalam who is dead. The interaction between the characters about the past throws open cupboards full of skeletons. Every memory evoked serves to add flesh and blood to the dead and absent Mangalam. Mangalam is the female character in the play within the play in the first Act, whose death becomes the basis for much of the action. Throughout the first Act, we can feel her 'absent presence', through references to the time of her life when she was alive. At first, we are told that she probably committed suicide by swallowing pills, but we are not given any reason for her having done so. The narrator's commentary provides insights like “Women die many kinds of deaths; men do not know this.”(102). Gradually we learn that she was carrying someone else's child when she got married to Dorai. Her sister Thangam's response to this accusation is, “Did you ever think that it could have been forced upon her?”(122). But Dorai is keen on presenting himself as the victim, until Thangam retorts, “What about that married woman who used to come to the temple everyday and take prasaadam from your father? She took prasaadam from you also, didn't she?”(121). The duplicity of our social standards become evident in Dorai's response. He justifies himself saying, “It's different for a man” (121). While any hints of a woman's unchaste conduct can malign her reputation for life, a similar act on a man's part, is forgivable and can be easily ignored. The shamelessness slandering of her reputation even after her death continues

International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

Poile Sengupta and the Theatre of Protest

between Mangalam's family members, none of whom are really sensitive to her loss. The female voice offstage comments: “Because a woman is strong, she is not to be protected; others violate her, and she must pay for their trespass.”(123). It is at the end of the first Act that we get to know that Mangalam was molested by her own sister Thangam's husband. The Act also ends with the arrival of Dorai's daughter Usha who leaves her husband's house because the oppression there had got the better of her. Domestic space, which is the marker that tradition sets for the preservation of women's chastity has now become a space of sexual violence. Act Two is a comment upon Act One. However the same themes recur here too. In fact, Sengupta uses the same actors in this Act as in the previous one, to depict the ruthless repetition of exploitation, even though in the second Act, 'modernity' has set in. Suresh is a modern-day 'rake' who values only conquest over women. This is why his sister Sumati is led to remark, “…the moment a woman doesn't fit into the category of being a mother or a sister, she's baggage…sexual baggage.”(129). Very soon, Thangam their mother, learns that her husband Sreeni has been having a clandestine extra-marital affair with another woman. Towards the end, just when Thangam has gained courage enough to leave her husband, a sudden terrified scream is heard, which one soon learns, is Sumati's, trying to escape from the advances of her uncle. Another play titled Keats was a tuber was short-listed for the British Council International New Playwriting Prize in 1997. The play revolves around a group of English teachers in a provincial college. It showcases our mindset about English and the way it is generally taught. The play derives its title from the mindless memorizing of inessential facts. The students memorize the line 'Keats was a tuberculosis patient' by breaking it into two meaningless portions: “Keats was a tuber, Keats was a tuber” and “culosis patient, culosis patient….” The memorized line doesn't explain Keats' poetic genius at all. The situation only demonstrates the perfunctory and spiritless teaching that saps the essence from a language and literature. Poile's other works include Inner Laws (1994), which is a spoof on the mother-in-law and daughter-in-law relationship. Her play called A Pretty Business (1995) is a woman centred play. Another play Dream - makers of Calcutta (1998) has a backdrop of football. She wrote Collages too in 1998 after she met a sad and lonely old lady who only wanted somebody to talk to. The result was a play that is bleak and introspective. Samara's Song(1999), is a desolate socio-political reflection on war and violence that destroys civilization. The appealing and very relevant play Alifa (2001) is based on all the impediments thrown in the path of women's empowerment. The play has only two characters, a woman and a man, who are poles apart in terms of distance and temperament; whose paths never cross one another but their narratives in the play certainly do intersect. Poile's Thus Spake Shoorpanakha , So Said Shakuni (2001) is called an ambitious play. When the play begins Shoorpanaka and Shakuni, the two protagonists whose names have been

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derived from two different epics, meet as two fellow travellers at an airport. As they start talking to while away their time the story unfolds. Both reveal their innermost feelings and resentment at being ill-treated by history. Sengupta claimed to take inspiration from a folktale about Shakuni's brothers being imprisoned and killed by the Kauravas. Only Shakuni had survived and had sworn revenge against the Kauravas. Shoorpanakha symbolizes all those women who choose to remain single and express their desire for male companionship without resorting to false modesty. Such women upset our patriarchal set-up and hence society tries to control them or punish them. When so much hatred comes together the world faces another crisis, but finally Shoorpanakha discourages Shakuni from provoking another bloodbath. Conclusion The Indian women playwrights consider drama as mode of expression and representation. They deal with serious domestic, socio-cultural and political issues that are rooted in the mundane and overlooked by others. Drama is also a means for them to expose the monstrous practices and crimes committed by society. They aim to bring about a social change through the awareness of certain realities. They dream of protecting every individual's right to live with freedom and respect irrespective of their gender, caste or creed. The plays belonging to this theatre of women thus be grouped under one umbrella term as 'The Plays of Change'. As Poile herself says through the narrator in Mangalam “As for the women, the gods said Let them be strong, rooted like trees For it is they who shall hold The ends of the world together, And there will be storms And the winds will blow very strong But the women will stay like trees, They will hold the world together .” References: · Kaushik, Minakshi (2012), Struggle and Expression: Selected Plays by Manjula Padmanabhan, Poile Sengupta and Dina Mehta, Galaxy: International Multidisciplinary Research Journal, 1(1). · Mukherjee, Tutun (2005), Ed. Staging Resistance: Plays by Women in Translation, OUP, New Delhi. · Mukherjee, Tutun (2007), Finding a Voice: Forging an Audience: Women Playwrights in English, Muse India (Web-Zine,), Issue 14. · Parghi, Raju(2010), Indian Drama and the Emergence of Indian Women Playwrights: A Brief Survey, Impressions : An e-journal of English Studies, 1(1) · Sengupta, Poile(2010), Women Centerstage : The Dramatist and the Play, Routledge, New Delhi. · Singh, Anita(2009), Feminist Interventions: A Reading of Light's Out, Getting Away with Murder and Mangalam, Muse India, Issue 26.

International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

International J. Res. Vol. 4. No. 2. 88-89, Jan-Jun 2015 ISSN : 2231 - 6124

iSalp AaOr BaaYaa ko saMdBa- maoM kiva p`dIp Language and Technique in the Lyrics of Kavi Pradeep *Ratna Sharma Abstract Kavi Pradeep ,the recipient of Dada Saheb Phalke Award ,is a very well known lyricist all over the world for his contribution to filmy and Non filmy songs. In my research paper I have presented my viewpoint regarding his Art and Language of lyrics. Because of his simple and fluent lyrical approach and his expression of emotions and sentiments, he is regarded as the poet of the people. He has not only used Indian ,rural and Sanskrit words in various places but also applied Arabian, Farsi and English words in his compositions. The other reason of his popularity of lyrics is his immense application of Phrases and Idioms .In his lyrical technique he has implemented images, symbols and metaphors to add to its appeal in my research paper I have tried to express the various factors that Kavi Pradeep has applied in his lyrical works. Keywords: Language and words, Phrases and Idioms ,Symbols, Images , Metaphors

iSalp Sabd AMgao`jaI ko ToknaIk Sabd pr AaQaairt hO ijasaka Aqa- hO “klaa%mak kaya-ivaiQa kI vah rIit jaao saMgaIt ica~klaa maoM p`aPt hÈO”1 ihndI vaRhd kaoSa maoM iSalp sao AiBap`aya haqa sao kao[- vastu tOyaar krnao Aqavaa dstkarI yaa karIgarI maoM hOÈ2 Saaibdk Aqa- maoM iSalp Sabd ivaQaana rIit Aqavaa pwit ko ilae p`[email protected] haota hOÈ kavya ko saMdBa- maoM iSalp sao AiBavyaMjanaa pwit ka baaoQa haota hO È iksaI BaI kavya kRit ko inamaa-Na maoM ijana ]padanaaoM Wara kavya ka ZaMcaa tOyaar ikyaa jaata hO vao saba kavya ko iSalp t%va kho jaato hOMÈ kavya iSalp kivata kI rcanaa%mak p`ikyaa yaa saRjana ivaiQa hO È vastut: klaa ko ivaiBanna t%vaaoM Aqavaa ]pkrNaaoM kI yaaojanaa ka vah ivaQaana ZMga ijasamaoM klaakar kI AnauBaUit AmaUt- sao maUt- hao jaae iSalp hO È kavya ko Antga-t rcanaakar ko pasa AnauBaUityaaoM ka AmaUt- $p haota hO ¸ At: jaba vah ApnaI AnauBaUityaaoM kI AmaUt-ta kao maUtta p`dana krta hO tba ]sao iSalp ko ]pkrNaaoM kI AavaSyakta haotI hO È iSalp ko maaQyama sao hI kiva maanasa maoM ]maD,tI GaumaD,tI hu[- AnauBaUityaaM [email protected] ka maaga- patI hO È kiva p`dIp ko gaItaoM kI saMvaodnaa kao jaba hma saUxmata sao prKto AaOr [nakI [email protected] kI sahjata kao AnauBaUt krto hOM tba ]nako gaItaoM ka iSalp na tao Aaraoipt lagata hO na hI banaavaTI p`tIt haota hO bailk ]nako sarla sahjapUNa- [email protected]%va kI trh bahut hI svaaBaaivak saa lagata hO È BaaYaa p`yaaoga kiva p`dIp ko gaItaoM kI BaaYaa saamaanya baaolacaala kI BaaYaa hO È ]nhaoMnao ApnaI BaaYaa maoM tdBava¸ t%sama¸ ]dU- va farsaI ko SabdaoM ka bahut p`yaaoga ikyaa hO È ]nako gaItaoM maoM BaarI Barkma SabdaoM ka p`yaaoga na haokr sarla evaM sahja SabdaoM ka p`yaaoga huAa hO È jaao BaI Sabd Aae hOM vao gaItaoM kI saMvaodnaa AaOr AnauBaUityaaoM kao [email protected] krnao maoM saxama hO È ]nhoM ApnaI baataoM kao khnao ko ilae ijasa p`kar ko SabdaoM kI AavaSyakta pD,I vaOsao hI SabdaoM ka p`yaaoga Apnao gaItaoM mao ikyaa hO È ]nako ijasa p`kar ko gait AaOr Baava hOM vaOsao hI SabdaoM ka p`yaaoga hO È jaOsao 1.Aaja hO inamaM~Na sanasana hvaaAaoM maoM 2.}pr gagana ivaSaala naIcao gahra patala baIca maoM QartI vaah maoro maailak tUnao ikyaa kmaala inamaM~Na¸ ivaSaala¸ patala¸ QartI ko [email protected] sama`aT¸ ivaraT¸ kaoiT kaoiT¸ p`aNa¸ AmaRt¸ sa%ya¸ )dya Aaid jaOsao t%sama SabdaoM ka p`yaaoga ikyaa hO È p`aya: p`%yaok kiva yah p`ya%na krta hO ik vah t%sama SabdaoM kao sarla $p maoM p`yaaoga maoM laae È p`dIp jaI nao BaI eosaa hI ikyaa hO [sa karNa ]nakI BaaYaa maoM sahjata Aa ga[- hO È jaOsa 1.Balao BaI idna Aato jagat maoM bauro idna BaI Aato

kD,vao maIzo fla krma ko yahaM saBaI pato 2.pla pla laokr AMgara[yao kaOna pla pla laokr AMgara[pUnama kI caaMdnaI [saI p`kar Konaa¸ naidyaa¸ saUrja¸ JaKaolaa¸ ihMDaolaa Aaid Anaiganat AaMcailak SabdaoM ka P`ayaaoga BaI ]nhaoMnao ikyaa hO È jaao ]nako gaItaoM maoM Aa%maIyata ka Baava BaI laata hO È p`dIp jaI nao ]dU- AaOr farsaI ko SabdaoM ka bahutayat p`yaaoga ikyaa hO È ]naka ek p`isaw gaIt hO hma laaeM hOM tUfaM sao ikSa,tI inakala ko [sa doSa kao rKnaa maoro baccaaoM saMBaala ko khnao ka Aqa- yah hO ik ]nhaoMnao ek Aaor t%sama SabdavalaI dUsarI Aaor ]dUR- farsaI SabdavalaI ka p`yaaoga krko Apnao gaItaoM kI BaaYaa kao sahjata p`dana kIÈ tdBava AaOr ga`amaINa SabdaoM ka p`yaaoga krko laaok jaIvana ko p`it Apnao Anauraga AaOr Aasqaa kao BaI [email protected] ikyaa hO È [sa karNa vao janakiva ko $p maoM AiQak phcaanao gaeÈ ]nhaoMnao Aama AadmaI kI maanaisakta kao doKto hue Apnao gaItaoM maoM ]saI BaaYaa ka p`yaaoga ikyaa AaOr KUba sarahnaa pa[- È [email protected] AaOr mauhaivaro [email protected] AaOr mauhaivaro janajaIvana maoM rcao basao haoto hOM È kao[- BaI kiva gaItkar janamaanasa ka icatora haota hO È vah janata kI BaavanaaAaoM AaOr ]sakI maanyataAaoM kao mauhaivaro AaOr [email protected] maoM khkr ApnaI kivata kao jaIvana ko inakT laanao ka p`ya%na krta hO È p`dIp jaI nao Apnao gaItaoM maoM mauhaivaro ka p`yaaoga baD,I sahjata sao ikyaa hO È jaOsao hvaa maoM iklao banaanaa¸ idla pr p%qar rKnaa¸ KUna kI haolaI Kolanaa Aaid¸ 'caar caaMd laganaa' jaOsao mauhaivaro ka saundr p`yaaoga p`stut hO gaa rhI hO ijandgaI hr trf bahar maoM iksailae caar caaMd laga gae hOM toro maoro Pyaar maoM [sailae p`dIp jaI ko gaItaoM maoM [email protected] ka p`yaaoga BaI bahut hO È jaOsao saaMca kao AaMca nahIM ¸kaMTao ka taja phnanaa Aaid È ek ]dahrNa p`stut hO ApnaI najar maoM tuma @yaa hao¸ yao mana ko trajaU pr taolaao È p`dIp jaI nao Sabd Qvaina ko maaQyama sao Apnao gaItaoM maoM ek ivaiSaYT p`kar ka vaatavarNa tOyaar ikyaa hO È ]nhaonao rNanaa%mak¸ AnaukrNaa%mak AaOr vyaMjak tInaaoM p`kar ko SabdaoM ka p`yaaoga ikyaa hO È AnaukrNaa%mak Qvaina ka ek ]dahrNa hO na jaanao ikQar Aaja maorI naava calaI ro

*HOD and Associate Professor, Department of Hindi, Guru Nanak Khalsa College, Mumbai. Email Id: [email protected]

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International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

Language and Technique in the Lyrics of Kavi Pradeep

na jaanao ikQar Aaja maorI naava calaI ro calaI ro calaI ro maorI naava calaI ro kao[- kho yahaM calaI kao[- kho vahaM calaI kao[- kho yahaM calaI kao[- kho vahaM calaI mana nao kha ipyaa ko gaaMva calaI ro ….È p`tIka%mak Aayaama p`tIk kivataAaoM maoM BaavabaaoQa kao $paiyat krnao mao ApnaI mah%vapUNa- BaUimaka ka inavaa-h krto hOM È kivata ka mah%vapUNa- AMga BaI haoto hOM È [nsaa[@laaopIiDyaa iba`Toinaka maoM p`tIk ko sambanQa maoM kha gayaa hO “ kao[- eosaa dRSya pdaqa- jaao mana maoM [email protected] AaOr Ap`maoya vastu kI AnauBaUit ijasamaoM sahcairt Baavanaa kI [sa AnauBaUit kao ]%pnna krnao kI [email protected] hao È”3 jahaM tk p`dIp jaI ko gaItaoM maoM p`tIkaoM kI baat hO ]nhMaonao Apnao Aasapasa fOlao hue pirvaoSa sao p`tIk ilae hOM È jaba vah doSagaIt ilaKto hMOtao saOwaMitk evaM saaMskRitk vaga- ko p`tIkaoM ka p`yaaoga krto hOM È saOwaMitk p`tIkaoM maoM rajanaOitk¸daSa-inak AaOr vaO&ainak p`tIk Aato hOM È daSa-inak p`tIk ka ]dahrNa hO sauK duK daonaaoM rhto ijasamaoM jaIvana hO vaao gaaMva È kBaI QaUp kBaI CaMva kBaI QaUp kBaI CaMva ÈÈ [sa ]dahrNa maoM 'jaIvana' kao ek eosaa gaaMva maanaa gayaa hO ijasamaoM QaUp AaOr CaMva ko samaana duK sauK ka Aanaa jaanaa lagaa rhta hO È yahaM jaIvana kI daSa-inakta pirlaixat haotI hO È vahIM vaO&ainak p`tIk ka ek saundr ]dahrNa hO eTmabamaaoM ko jaaor po eoMzI hO yao duinayaa È baa$d ko ek Zor po baOzI hO yao duinayaa ÈÈ jaba saaMskRitk vaga- ko p`tIk kI baat krto hOM tao ]sako Antga-t Qaaima-k ¸ paOraiMNak AaOr eoithaisak saBaI p`kar ko p`tIk Aato hOM È [sa p`kar ko p`tIk mana:isqait ivacaarQaara Aqavaa BaavadSaa kI saaMkoitk [email protected] krto hOM È p`dIp jaI nao maanava jaait kI rxaa pr hmaoSaa bala idyaa È doSa kI saurxaa ]nakI sabasao baDI icanta qaI È eoithaisak p`tIk ka ]dahrNa 'AaAao baccaaoM tumhoM idKaeM' sao lao sakto hOM doKao maulk marazaoM ka yao iSavaajaI ka Daolaa qaa È maugalaaoM kI takt kao ijasanao tlavaaraoM po taolaa qaa ÈÈ p`dIp jaI nao Qaaima-k iflmaaoM maoM Qaaima-k gaIt ilaKo vahaM Qaaima-k p`tIk doKo jaa sakto hOM PaaOraiNak p`tIk ka ]dahrNa p`stut hO baaolaI hr hr mahadova kI baccaa baaolaa qaa ÈÈ ibamba ivaQaana p`%yaok klaakar ApnaI saaOndya- caotnaa ka Avagaahna ijana ]pkrNaaoM sao krta hO ]samaoM ibamba ivaQaana ka mah%vapUNa- sqaana hO È'ibamba' kao [maoja ka ihndI $paMtrNa maanaa jaata hO @yaaoMik ibamba khIM na khIM ica~a%mak Baava AaMKao ko saamanao ]pisqat krto hOM È' [maoja'ka kaoSagat Aqa- hO “maUt-$p p`dana krnaa ica~baw krnaa p`itcCaidt krnaa p`itibaimbat krnaa È”4klpnaa ko saharo Aa%ma saMvaogaaoM kao kma sao kma SabdaoM maoM p`stut kr donaa hI ibamba ivaQaana hOÈ kiva p`dIp nao ApnaI baataoM kao saUxmata sao p`kT krnao ko ilae AaOr ApnaI saMvaodnaaAaoM kao gahra[- sao [email protected] krnao ko ilae ibambaaoM ka sahara ilayaa hO È ]nako gaItaoM maoM vastu ivamba AlaMkRt ibamba maanasa ibamba Pyaa-Pt maa~a maoM idKa[- doto hOM È vastu ibamba maoM vastu yaa vaNyavyaapar kao ica~a%mak SaOlaI maoM p`stut krto hOM È ]nhaonao Apnao gaItaoM maoM vastu ibamba ko maaQyama sao ApnaI AnauBaUityaaoM kao sarla evaM sahja SabdaoM maoM [email protected] ikyaa hO haonao lagaa hO mauJao yao javaanaI ka Aba Asar JaukI jaae najar doKao Clak pDI hO maoro $p kI gaagar JaukI jaae najar hao JaukI jaae najar..ȳ naaistk¸ iflma 1954´ P`adIp jaI ko gaItaoM maoM AlaMkRt ibambaaoM ka p`yaaoga Pyaa-Pt maa~a maoM huAa hO È vao [sako saharo p`kRit ko saundr dRSya ]pisqat krto hOM

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yao baadla ka ]D,naKTaolaa ijasao doK hmaara mana Daolaa ica~a%mak ibamba ka [sasao AcCa ]dahrNa hao hI nahI sakta jahaM p`dIp jaI 'AaAao baccao tumhoM idKaeM ' gaIt maoM pUro BaartvaYa- ka maanaica~ ]pisqat krto hOM ]
g§X^© g§Ho$ V: 1. Aa@safaoD- iDkSanarI Aaf [MgailaSa ¸ pR.1258 2. vaRhdihndI kaoSa¸ pR.1334 3. [nsaa[@laaopIiDyaa ivaT/ainaka ¸KND 26¸PaR.284 4. Aa@safaoD- [MgailaSa iDkSanarI¸ vaalyaUma 1¸pR.958 5. saBaI gaIt ihndI kivata kaoSa pr AaQaairt kivata kaoSa.k^ama

International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

Nadeem Ahmed Ansari

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International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan & Urdu Journalism

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International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

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International J. Res. Vol. 4. No. 1. 92-90, July-Dec 2014 ISSN : 2231 - 6124

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan & Urdu Journalism * Nadeem Ahmed Ansari Abstract Sir Syed Ahmed Khan (17 October 1817 to 27 March 1898) commonly known as ''Sir Syed''. He was not only a Muslim philosopher and social activist of nineteenth century but also a multifacated personality devoted to upliftment of Indian Muslims educationally, economically and socially. His main objective was to change their mindset with regard to British rule and outdated cultural values. Reformation was the keyword for him.To achieve this goal he decided to use the might of his pen through the means of journalism. Although his journalistic writings were loaded with social and educational objectives, his style is never dry and dogmatic. He uses anecdotes, sayings and proverbs to make the reader comfortable about his reformative ideas.Sir syed benefitied himself from the prose writings of his predecessors like Ghalib but ultimately crafted his own style which helped develope the form of essay writing in urdu. This was achieved through the publication of ''The Mohammedan Social Reformer" (Tahzeeb ul Akhlaq) which he edited and published for so many years. Keywords: Multifaceted,Uplift,Benefited,Which helped to develop,Tahzeeb-ul-Akhlaq.

*M.A, Journalist.Email:Nadeemaamil@gmail.com

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International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

About the College The Rizvi Education Society was founded by Dr. Akhtar Hasan Rizvi in the year 1982, who set his heart on the realization of a dream “The Establishment of a Mini University”, catering to diverse educational interest and aspirations. Rizvi College of Arts, Science & Commerce was established in the year 1985-86. Today Rizvi Education Society's Empire has expanded to unimaginable dimensions. There are 22 Rizvi institutes in all, not only in Mumbai but also in Jaunpur andAllahabad. “Humanize, Equalize, Spiritualize” is the motto of the college. Besides, our President Dr. Akhtar Hasan Rizvi 's mission is education for all, in which he has succeeded in fulfilling his deep desire to promote the needy students who are not able to pursue higher education especially those belonging to the Muslim Minority Community. Our college has completed more than 28 years from its inception. The college has committed itself to provide quality education to all strata and become a centre of excellence in the process of facilitating effective teaching and learning. The college has grown tremendously and has earned a distinction of high repute in the realm of higher education. The college has skillfully formulated long term as well as short term plans for academic, curricular, co-curricular, extra-curricular and extension activities in accordance with the tenets of the holistic development of students. University of Mumbai conferred on us the prestigious “Guru Nanak Trophy” for securing maximum points in sports competitions among 770 colleges for the year 2009-2010, 2010-2011, 2011-2012, 2012-2013and 2013-2014. We also received the “Best Liked College Award” among all the colleges in India with a Cash Prize of Rs. 5 Lac from V channel and Face book sponsored by Nokia. We are permanently affiliated to the University of Mumbai and recognized by UGC. The College offers three years Bachelor Degree in Arts, Science & Commerce in Aided Section, and two years Master degree in Commerce (M.Com). We also offer other Bachelor Degree programs in Unaided Section like B.Com. (Accounting & Finance), Bachelor of Management Studies (B.M.S), Bachelor of Mass Media (B.M.M) & Bachelor of Banking and Insurance (BBI). We also have three year integrated courses of B.Sc. (Computer Science) and B.Sc. (IT) in the Science Section. The College is a Research centre for Commence, Botany, Zoology and Chemistry recognized by University Of Mumbai. We are also study centre of M. Sc. (IT) and MCA of IDOL, University of Mumbai.

Research Journal Committee

Mr. Amin Mulani Mr. Mohammad Arif

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International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

General Information The aim of journal is to provide a platform for researchers, practitioners, academicians and professional from diverse domains to share innovative research achievements. Journal is dedicated to publish high qual ity research papers providing meaningful insights into any subject area of current interest. International Journal of Research provides a platform for dissemination and publications of your academic work on topics which have substantial inter disciplinary content both Indian as well as global context. It is our pleasure to invite you to contribute research paper/ article to International Journal of Research A blind peer-reviewed, bi- annual journal of Rizvi college of Arts, Science & Commerce, Mumbai. Original research papers, conceptual articles and case studies are invited in the journal, based on current data and supported by primary/secondary sources. Submission of a manuscript implies that the work has not been published, accepted or is under review elsewhere in any other journal or magazines. An undertaking f or the same should be submitted with the research paper. All editorial and administrative correspondence for publication should be addressed to the Dr (Mrs.) Anjum Ara Ahmad, Executive Editor - International Journal of Research, Rizvi College of Arts,

Science & Commerce, Off: Carter Road, Bandra (W), Mumbai - 400 050 (Maharashtra). Email id: executiveeditor.ijr@rizvico llege.edu.in. For details please contact on mobile no +919819825929. Information on pattern on submission of manuscript is available in the "Guidelines for Contributors". The Editors reserve the right to reject / return to the author(s) any manuscript that in their opinion is not suitable for publication in International Journal of Research, without expressly stipulating the reasons for doing so. Under no circumstances will the identity of the reviewer(s) be disclosed to the author(s) or to any other third party not involved in the editorial process. Research Papers/Articles received will immediately be put before the Editorial Committee for initial review. Correspondence and proofs for correction will be sent to the first author unless otherwise specified. The article will be published after receipt of the corrected proofs from the authors. Subscription by each author is compulsory for publishing research papers or articles in this journal. Annual, Lifetime and Institutional subscription details with the order form for obtaining the journal are given separately and the interested persons may avail the same accordingly. Views expressed in the articles are those of the respective authors. In ternational Journal of Research, its Editorial Board, Editor and Publisher (Rizvi College of Arts, Science & Commerce) disclaim the responsibility and liability for any statement of fact or opinion made by the contributors. However, effort is made to acknowledge source material relied upon or referred to, but International Journal of Research does not accept any responsibility for any inadvertent errors & omissions. Copyright © Rizvi Education Society’s Rizvi College of Arts, Science & Commerce, Mumbai. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the Publisher. The authors are required to sign the “Transfer of Copyright” agreement before article is published in the journal. Published by Off Tel Fax Mobile Website Email id

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: Rizvi Education Society’s, Rizvi College of Arts, Science & Commerce : Carter Road, Bandra (W), Mumbai - 400050, India. : +91-22-26480348, +91-22-26041696, : +91-22-26497448 : +91 9819825929 : www.rizvicollege.edu.in, : chiefeditor.ijr@rizvicollege.edu.in, executiveeditor.ijr@rizvicollege.edu.in

International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

Guidelines to the Contributors a) The manuscripts should normally not exceed 2500 words (A 4 Size) pages, margin 1 inch in all sides including figures and tables, typed in 1.5 space in 11 -point - in Times New Roman font. b) A hard copy of the article should be submitted followed by a soft copy of MS word of the same through e-mail. c) The author should declare that the article is the author's original work. The article has not been previously published elsewhere and not currently under consideration for another publication. If excerpts from copyrighted works are included, the author should obtain written permission from the copyright owners and show credit to the sources in the article. The author should also warrant that the article contains no libellous or unlawful statements and does not infringe on the rights of others. We expect no plagiarized material in the research paper submitted to us. If we find that the author/s did not abide to the above guidelines, his work will be disqualified and no further work of the author/s will be ever considered in our journal. d) The cover page of the article should contain: (i) Title of the article (in bold),Title should be short and precise (ii) Name(s) of authors (iii) Professional affiliation (iv)Address of correspondence (v) Contact No and Email. Kindly note the author's name should not be mentioned in any other page. e) Full paper should generally consist (i) Title of the article (Time New Romans 14, in bold) (ii) an Abstract of the paper in about 250 words (Times Roman 11-point, Italics) ,the abstract should be in single paragraph and indicate methods used, significant findings and conclusions in brief (iii)Keywords : 3 to 5 words ,arranged alphabetically and (iv) Main text. f) Main text should have (i) Introduction (highlighting the review of current literature, aims and the objectives of the study) (ii) Research Methodology (or Materials & Methods) (iii) Results & Discussions (iv) Research limitations/implications (if any) (iv) Conclusions and Suggestions (v)Acknowledgements (optional). g) References in the text should be given by surname of the author, no initials: If single author, write author surname and year in parenthesis e.g. Mathur (1987). With dual authorship give both the named e.g. Leeds and Solanki (1970), for three or more use “et.al” e.g. Murthy et. al.(1967). If more than one references in the single year, distinguish between them by use of letters” a, b....”e.g. Olsen(1980a).If multiple references to be quoted , separate them by semi-colons ,e.g. (John(1987);Singh (1990); Rosen (2009)). TheAuthors are supposed to follow Harvard Style of Referencing. h) All Figures (charts, diagrams and line drawings) and Plates (photographic images) should be submitted in electronic form. They should be of clear quality, in black and white and numbered consecutively. Tables and diagrams should be numbered consecutively and included in the text. Sources must be mentioned below the table. The titles must be above the tables/figures/charts. i) The location of endnotes (instead of footnotes) within the text should be indicated by superscript numbers. j) Mathematical expressions should be presented in a way that can be easily edited and printable. k) Please check your manuscript for clarity, grammar, spellings, punctuation, and consistency of references to minimize editorial changes. l) The editorial team has the right to modify or edit the work in order to match the standard and style requirement of the journal. m) References should be in the end arranged alphabetically. Only references cited in the text should be presented in the list of references. For titles in a language other than English, provide an English translation in parentheses. n) The following format should be used for referring books, articles in journals, electronic documents etc: Author surname, Initial (Year), Title of the article, Journal's Name (in Italics), Vol. No (Issue No ), Page Number. Examples are given below For JournalArticle : Ahmad,A. (2011), Estimating discrete parameters:An application to cointegration and unit roots, International Journal of Research, 1 (1), 1-6. For Books Montgomery D. C. and Peck, EA. (1982), Linear Regression Analysis, John Wiley, NewYork For Online Document: Kelkar V. (2009), Towards a New Natural Gas Policy, Economic and Political Weekly, http://epw.in/epw/user/viewabstract,viewed on February 17, 2011. For Edited Volume :Safilios-Rothschild and Constantina B.F.(1982),Female power, autonomy and demographic change in the Third World , In RichardAnker et nl.(1981)(Ed),Women's Roles and Population Trends in the Third World, Peterson and Company, London,117-132. Conference papers: Chandel K.S. (2009), Ethics in Commerce Education, Paper presented at theAnnual International Conference for theAll India ManagementAssociation in Jun , New Delhi, India, 19-22. Unpublished dissertations and theses: Kumar S. (2006), Customer Value: A Comparative Study of Rural and Urban Customers, Thesis, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra.

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International Journal of Research, 4 (2), Jan-Jun 2015

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