LIVELIHOOD AND

LIVELIHOOD AND EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES IN NAGALAND - SECTORAL ISSUES ... has used whatever numbers are available from the periodic NSS surveys to try...

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LIVELIHOOD AND EMPLOYMENT

OPPORTUNITIES IN NAGALAND - SECTORAL ISSUES A Thematic Report

2009

GOI - UNDP PROJECT

Strengthening of State Plans for Human Development

Government of Nagaland Department of Planning and Coordination Nagaland - Kohima 797 001

Livelihood And Employment Opportunities In Nagaland - Sectoral Issues

A Thematic Report Authored by: Ms. Hekani Jakhalu Director, YouthNet

Shri. Temjen Toy (IAS) Commissioner & Secretary Government of Nagaland

Shri. Atoho Jakhalu

Fellow, Cambridge Commonwealth Society.

© Department of Planning and Coordination Government of Nagaland All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form or by any means without the prior permission from the publishers.

Published by Department of Planning and Coordination Government of Nagaland

First Published : 2011

Price : ` 350 Photographs : M Doulo

While every care has been taken to present accurate data, oversights may have occured. Please convey errors, if any to the Department of Planning and Coordination, Government of Nagaland Designed, Typset and Printed by

artworks Nagaland tm

Foreword With a rapidly growing population, young people form a large proportion of the State’s population. However, this huge pool of human resource is grossly under utilised due to non existence of private sector players to absorb the manpower combined with shortage of vocational training institutes to impart skills to match the demands of the labour market. While, human development is about creating an environment where people develop their full potential and lead productive, creative lives in accordance to their needs and interest. The State Government has therefore been exploring all possibilities for drawing up strategies to facilitate the creation of employment opportunities in different sectors within and outside the State. This UNDP-Planning Commission, Government of India supported thematic report “Livelihood and Employment Opportunities” complements the efforts of the State Government. It outlines the available livelihood options, the deficiencies, opportunities and potential areas required to be harnessed for sustainable employment. Despite the paucity of data, with the guidance of Professor Manoj Pant, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi the authors led by Smt. Hekani Jakhalu, Director, YouthNet, Shri. Temjen Toy, IAS, Commissioner & Secretary, P& AR & Public Works Department and Shri. Atoho Jakhalu, Fellow, Cambridge Commonwealth Society have ably documented this report. There is an urgent need to create livelihood opportunities for all. I hope the inputs of the report will be useful for planners, the youth, NGOs for creating and enhancing livelihood linkages and options.

Alemtemshi Jamir, IAS

Additional Chief Secretary & Development Commissioner Government of Nagaland

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Acknowledgement The thematic report ‘Livelihood and Employment Opportunities in Nagaland: Sectoral Issues’ is an outcome of the inputs, efforts and support of many people. The project team acknowledges and express gratitude to them. The authors Ms. Hekani Jakhalu, Director, YouthNet, Shri. Temjen Toy (IAS), Commissioner & Secretary, Government of Nagaland and Shri. Atoho Jakhalu, Fellow, Cambridge Commonwealth Society for the research and for documenting the report. Prof. Manoj Pant, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, the lead author for his patience, technical expertise and guidance. Shri. Alemtemshi Jamir, IAS, Additional Chief Secretary & Development Commissioner and State Coordinator of the project, for conceptual development of the theme and framework, for creating the enabling environment, and for his unflinching support and guidance till the end. State Empowered Committee headed by Shri. Lalthara, IAS, Chief Secretary, Government of Nagaland and Peer Committee members for providing direction and for their valuable suggestions. Ms. Kevilezoü Savino, Freelance Journalist, Shri. Visielie Kezo, Officer on Special Duty, Department of Finance, Government of Nagaland and Shri. Tiatemsu Gyi, Freelance Journalist for editing the report. The officers of Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Shri. I.Chuba Jamir, Deputy Director, Shri. Haisuing Haikum, Deputy Director, Shri. Charles N. Kikon, Statistical Officer, Smt. Theyieneinuo Belho, Assistant Director and Ms. Vikeyielienuo Chielie, Statistical Officer for conducting the survey and for generating data. Ms. Kevimhietuoü Sorhie and Shri. Bendangtoshi, United Nations Volunteers, the officers and staff of the Planning and Coordination Department, Shri. Anungba Pongen, Assistant Development Commissioner, Smt. Amenla Sashi, Smt. Shikali Wotsa, Ms. Khrienguü Thevo, Ms. Vikehieno Zhasa for providing the logistic back up and for ceaselessly co-ordinating and working late hours to materialize the report. Last but not the least we are thankful to the United Nations Development Programme and the Planning Commission, Government of India for the technical and financial support, without which the publication of this report would not have been possible.

Kevileno Angami, IES

Officer on Special Duty & Nodal Officer for SSPHD Planning and Coordination, Government of Nagaland

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Abbreviations BPL CBRC CFC CIC CSC DIMUL FDA FFDA GDP ICT ILRI KOMUL MAP MoU MTPD NABARD NeGP NEOPA NEPED NGO NHBM NKVIS NMTTC NPPC NREGA NSS NSWAN PLCP PPP RIDF SARS SEZ SFURTI ST SHG STD SUBACS TRIFED VDB YES

: Below Poverty Line : China Bamboo Research Centre : Common Facility Centre : Community Information Centre : Common Service Centre : Dimapur District Cooperative Milk Producers Union Limited : Forest Development Agency : Fish Farmers Development Agency : Gross Domestic Product : Information Communication Technologies : International Livestock Research Institute : Kohima District Milk Producers Union : Medicinal and Aromatic Plants : Memorandum of Understanding : Metric Tons Per Day : National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development : National e-Governance Plan : Nagaland Essential Oil Producers Association : Nagaland Empowerment of People through Economic Development : Non Government Organization : Nagaland Honey & Bee Mission : Nagaland Khadi and Village Industries Sangh : Nagaland Mini Tool Room and Training Centre : Nagaland Pulp and Paper Company : National Rural Employment Guarantee Act : National Sample Survey : Naga State-Wide Area Network : Potential Linked Credit Plans : Private Public Partnership : Rural Infrastructure Development Fund : State Agriculture Research Station : Special Economic Zone : Scheme of Funds for Regeneration of Traditional Industries : Scheduled Tribes : Self Help Group : Subscriber Trunk Dialing : Sustainable Development of Sugarcane based Cropping System : Tribal Cooperative Marketing Development Federation of India : Village Development Boards : Youth Employment Summit

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Contents Foreword iii Acknowledgements v Abbreviations vii Preface xi Executive Summary xiii Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1. Livelihood, Employment and Climate Change 2 1.2. Background to the Report 3 1.3. Structure of the Report 4 Chapter 2 EMPLOYMENT TRENDS IN NAGALAND 2.1. Occupational Categories 8 2.2. Principal Status and Industry 12 Chapter 3

EMPLOYMENT AND LIVELIHOOD - A PROFILE 3.1. A Profile of Livelihood and Employment Status in Nagaland 3.2. Interventions of Livelihood and Employment Opportunities in the State: Key Agencies and Initiatives

16 17

Chapter 4 SECTORAL ISSUES 4.1. Agriculture 22 4.2. Horticulture 27 4.3. Floriculture 28 4.4. Medicinal and Aromatic plants 28 4.5. Livestock 29 4.6. Fisheries 32 4.7. Forestry 32 4.8. Industry 33 4.9. Tourism 34 4.10. Information and Communication Technology 35 4.11. Others Areas of Employment and Livelihood 36 Chapter 5 THE WAY FORWARD 5.1. Marketing Agencies and Infrastructure 42 5.2. Micro Credit Facilities 43 5.3. Bridging the Rural - Urban Divide 44

5.4. Bridging the Macro-Micro Links 45 5.5. Initiating and Promoting Equal Partnership and Participation between Stakeholders 45 5.6. Youth Empowerment towards Strengthening Capabilities 48 Chapter 6 CONCLUSION 53 BIBLIOGRAPHY 54 LIST OF TABLES Table No. 2.1. Unemployment In Nagaland Table No. 2.2. Usual Principal Status - Unemployment Rate Among The Rural Youth in 1999-2000 Table No. 2.3. Usual Principal Status - Unemployment Rate Among The Rural Youth in 2004-2005 Table No. 2.4. Usual Principal Status - Unemployment Rate Among The Urban Youth in 1999-2000 Table No. 2.5. Usual Principal Status- Unemployment Rate Among The Urban Youth in 2004-2005 Table No. 5.1. Role of Stake Holders and Facilitators

8 9 9 10 10 47

LIST OF FIGURES Figure 2.1. Job Structure in Nagaland 1981 Census 11 Figure 2.2. Job Structure in Nagaland 1991 Census 11 Figure 2.3. Job Structure in Nagaland 2001 Census 11 Figure 2.4. Distribution Of Workers By Principal Status And Industry - Rural 12 Figure 2.5. Distribution Of Workers By Principal Status And Industry - Urban 12 Figure 5.1. Rural-Urban Linkages 44 Figure 5.2. Roadmap: Addressing Livelihood and Employment Opportunities in the State 46 LIST OF BOXES Box 4.1. Credit Plans of NABARD 23 Box 4.2. Towards Attaining ‘White Revolution’ 31 Box 4.3. Some Key Activities in the Bamboo Sector Supported by the National Mission Bamboo Application Amongst Others 36 Box 5.1. Rural & Urban Linkage: The Key Potential to Unleash Livelihood and Employment Generation 45

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Preface As in any other State of India, the principal problem in Nagaland is one of creating gainful employment and livelihood. Years of insurgency has left the State now looking to rehabilitate its youth and move them away from the path of violence. In one sense Nagaland is like any other State in that about 70 percent of its population is rural based. In addition, the agricultural sector accounts for about 33 percent of GDP. Hence any strategy of creating gainful employment must begin with agriculture. In this study the authors have faced the almost intractable problem of lack of any reliable statistics on employment. The Central Government too has usually employed the numbers as available for Assam as being applicable to Nagaland. The study has used whatever numbers are available from the periodic NSS surveys to try to quantify employment trends. After looking at sectoral trends the authors then look at the aspirations of the youth as given by a detailed survey of various districts. As the study brings out, it is imperative to move people out of subsistence farming into non-land based commercial occupations like dairy farming, animal husbandry, horticulture. The principal constraint to all these developments are marketing and intra State connectivity. In addition, small farmers need micro credit via NGOs and nonbanking financial intermediaries as large banks are unable to reach them. Perhaps this is where a start must be made before looking at issues of raising agricultural productivity. In any case, farmers are unlikely to accept new technology till they can market their outputs. In the urban areas, the State must look at creating employment for the educated youth. Here, the scope lies not in organized large industries but self employment in sectors like ICT, tourism etc. The critical constraint here is access to credit, especially via micro credit. It is also necessary to orient the educational system to cater to such self employment. The study also points to the need to look at rural-urban linkages as both form part of the same supply chain.

Prof. Manoj Pant

Jawaharlal Nehru University Lead Author and Coordinator, Thematic Studies

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Executive Summary This study presents a thematic report in the context of employment and livelihood issues in Nagaland. The report was prepared with an objective to make assessment and address the current scenario of employment and livelihood in Nagaland. It examines potentials and opportunities across various sectors largely reflecting the aspirations of the people, in meeting the demands to absorb the burgeoning population into gainful employment in the State. The report also attempts to present some policy recommendations. The report is based on available secondary data as also primary data derived from the two State level consultations and a series of eleven district level consultations, conducted by YouthNet Nagaland, under the Global banner of Youth Employment Summit (YES) Campaign. This was in partnership with various student union bodies and NGOs and funded by the Government of Nagaland from April 2007 till May 2008. While employment since the 1980s has not shown much progress, the unemployment rate post 1999 till 2005 shows an interesting trend in the urban and rural sector. There was an overall increase in unemployment rate in the rural sector where unemployment for men doubled while that of the female remained steady. While the unemployment rate in the urban sector remained relatively steady with the unemployment rate for males sharply declining and increasing for females, there appears to be emerging possibilities in various sectors such as agriculture that employs about 70 percent of the population, and related sectors such as horticulture, livestock and service industry amongst others. However, to unleash these livelihood and employment opportunities, development of infrastructure and capabilities- be it social, financial or institutional, remains critical. It is also equally critical to address gender, regional and sectoral balance with a holistic approach towards sustainable development in the State. Lack of detailed and reliable data on employment however makes it difficult to draw any quantitative inferences. Nonetheless, wherever possible, attempt has been made to substantiate the aspirations drawn out of the consultation on the basis of available documented evidence.

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1

Introduction

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“Unchecked climate change will be an environmental and economic catastrophe but above all it will be a human tragedy.” Achim Steiner,

Executive Director, United Nations Environment Programme

1.1. Livelihood, Employment and Climate Change The impact of climate change on the economic livelihood and employment, and its linkages with development dynamics is a matter of increasing concern world wide, at the local, regional and global level. Climate change and subsequent changes in the environment result in aggravated irreversible changes in ecosystem and loss of biodiversity. It affects all aspects of life such as food and water supplies, patterns and influence zones of diseases, and also the way we produce and consume which directly and indirectly have an impact on the pattern of livelihood and employment. It is hard to predict how these impacts will be distributed, as impacts on the economy might not bring about immediate, visible changes in employment as a whole. Nonetheless, adverse effects are possible, and as such one cannot afford to neglect them. It is therefore vital not to overlook the ‘unseen and unfelt’ consequence of climate change effect but to take into account and incorporate the emerging vulnerabilities of climate change into the State development strategy across all sectors and stages of development process. A process of ‘sustainable development’ that essentially is economically sound, socially equitable and environmentally responsible.

1.2. Background to the Report Employment as conventionally understood accounts for only a ‘small fraction’ of work. Therefore attention to livelihood opportunities is preferable, encompassing all forms of activities through a series of comprehensive multidimensional strategies as generation of livelihood opportunities is an essential ingredient of any strategy for sustainable human development. This report attempts to reflect on the level of unemployment, its composition, growth in employment opportunities in Nagaland, which essentially are the critical indicators of the process of development. Along the way, gaps and potential would be identified which could enhance livelihood opportunities that directly capture the economic attainments and hence the level of well-being of individuals in the State. This thematic report ‘Livelihood and Employment Opportunities’ has drawn strongly on the findings and recommendations of two State level consultations and a series of eleven district level consultations, conducted by YouthNet Nagaland, under the global banner of YES Campaign, in partnership with various student union bodies and the NGOs funded by the Government of Nagaland, from April 2007 till May 2008. Engaging with the Naga youth, these consultations initiated a systematic and methodical thinking process for creating employment and drew together plans, concepts, beliefs, and thoughts into a “Bank of Ideas” which would aid the Government and other stakeholders in the planning process for employment generation and develop programmes and policies that will enhance employment opportunities in general and the youth in particular. The envisioning process was under three thematic areas of consultation: i. Building an entrepreneurial culture, ii. Natural resources and livelihood, and iii. Promoting youth employment through Information Communication Technology (ICT).

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1.3. Structure of the Report This report looks across livelihood and employment sectors, both at the macro and micro level and also at its rural-urban dimensions. It reviews and highlights the major sectors and its trends in employment and livelihood opportunities. The report concludes by setting out ways and strategies, and enabling capability to increase employment and livelihood opportunities across all sectors and stakeholders. Lack of data and unreliability of data on employment makes it difficult to draw any strong quantitative inferences. However, wherever possible, attempt has been made to substantiate the aspirations drawn out of the consultation against the documented evidence.

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Employment Trends In Nagaland

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2.1. Occupational Categories There has been a steady rise in the population of Nagaland from 3.69 lakhs in 1961 to 19.89 lakhs in 2001 reflecting an alarming decennial growth rate of population as high as 64.41 percent in 20011. By 2020 it is estimated to reach an astounding level of 50.02 lakhs2. This exponential increase in population during the last four decades reflects a huge challenge to absorb the population in gainful employment in the coming years. Employment figures in Nagaland as of National Sample Survey (NSS) 61st Round, Report No. 515(61/10/1) released in 2006 indicated that in the rural sector, as much as 60 percent i.e. 596 per 1000 distribution of household by household type were self employed in agriculture with 126 in non-agriculture based activity. Agriculture labour household accounted for about a mere 5 percent of the share. In the urban sector about 44 percent of the population accounted for regular wage earners or salaried while about 43 percent of the population were self employed and casual labour was about 34 percent. Unemployment rate in Nagaland has been steadily increasing from 0.3 percent in 1983 to 2.4 percent in 1993 to 3.5 percent in 20003. Table No. 2.1. Unemployment In Nagaland (Percent Of Labour Force) 1983

1993-1994

1999-2000

0.3

2.4

3.5

Source: National Sample Survey Organization, 38th, 50th and 55th Rounds on Employment and Unemployment in India; Census of India, 1991 and 2001.

The unemployment rate post 1999-2000 shows an interesting trend for both male and female in rural and urban sectors, particularly in the age group of 15-29 years4. There was an increase in unemployment rate in the rural sector from 10 percent in 19992000 to 14.9 percent in 2004-2005. While unemployment for men increased doubly from 9.9 percent to 20.8 percent, that of the women remained steady from 10 percent in 1999-2000 to 9.5 percent in 2004-2005. Census of India 2001 Statistical Abstract; CSO/NEC Secretariat 3 National Sample Survey Organization, 38th, 50th and 55th Rounds on Employment and Unemployment in India; Census of India, 1991 and 2001 4 National Sample Survey Organization, Employment and Unemployment Situation in India, 1999-2000 and 2004-2005 1 2

Table No. 2.2. Usual Principal Status - Unemployment Rate Among The Rural In 1999- 2000 In Age Group Of 15-29 Years (Percent) Male

Female

Total

Age Groups

15 19

20 24

25 29

15 29

15 19

20 24

25 29

15 29

15 19

20 24

25 29

15 29

Unemployment Rate

2.9

15.3

8.3

9.9

9.2

14.5

5.3

10

5.3

15

7.6

10

Source:

Employment and Unemployment Situation in India, 1999-2000 and 2004-2005, Report No. 458 & 515, National Sample Survey Organization

Table No. 2.3. Usual Principal Status - Unemployment Rate Among The Rural Youth In 2004-2005 In Age Group Of 15-29 Years (Percent) Male

Female

Total

Age Group

15 19

20 24

25 29

15 29

15 19

20 24

25 29

15 29

15 19

20 24

25 29

15 29

Unemployment Rate

8.2

26.9

19.2

20.8

8.1

15

4.1

9.5

7.8

20.1

12.4

14.9

Source: Employment and Unemployment Situation in India, 1999-2000 and 2004-2005, Report No. 458 & 515, National Sample Survey Organization

While the overall unemployment rate in the urban sector remained steady from 28.3 percent in 1999-2000 to 27.7 percent in 2004-2005, the unemployment rate for males declined sharply from 30.8 percent in 1999-2000 to 19.7 percent in 2004-2005 but increased steeply for females from 23.3 percent in 1999-2000 to 35.5 percent in 20042005.

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Table No. 2.4. Usual Principal Status - Unemployment Rate Among The Urban Youth In 1999-2000 In Age Group Of 15-29 Years (Percent) Male

Female

Total

Age Group

15 19

20 24

25 29

15 29

15 19

20 24

25 29

15 29

15 19

20 24

25 29

15 29

Unemployment Rate

0

34

30.8

31

10

55.5

10.6

23.3

0

41

24.6

28.3

Source: Employment and Unemployment Situation in India, 1999-2000 and 2004-2005, Report No. 458 & 515, National Sample Survey Organization.

Table No. 2.5. Usual Principal Status- Unemployment Rate Among The Urban Youth In 2004-2005 In Age Group Of 15-29 Years (Percent) Male

Female

Total

Age Group

15 19

20 24

25 29

15 29

15 19

20 24

25 29

15 29

15 19

20 24

25 29

15 29

Unemployment Rate

0

33.2

19.7

2.1

0

55.2

23.7

35.5

0

43.4

21.4

27.7

Source: Employment and Unemployment Situation in India, 1999-2000 and 2004-05, Report No. 458 & 515, National Sample Survey Organization.

The Census Department has classified the entire population into three main occupational categories: main workers, marginal workers and non-workers. In 1981, the total main workers constituted 48 percent of the total population, 1 percent were marginal workers and 51 percent were non-workers. In 1991, the proportion of the main workers was 42 percent, the marginal workers 2 percent and the non-workers 56 percent. In 2001, the proportion of main workers further decreased to 36 percent, marginal workers went up to 7 percent, and the proportion of non-workers stood at 57 percent.

Figure 2.1. Job Structure In Nagaland 1981 Census

Figure 2.2. Job Structure In Nagaland 1991 Census

Figure 2.3. Job Structure In Nagaland 2001 Census

As given in figure 2.1, 2.2 and 2.3, the total expansion of main workers during 19811991 has been slow, being only 38.87 percent, which is 3.89 percent per annum. The main expansion of main workers during 1991-2001 has shown similar growth i.e. 38.51 percent growth of 3.85 percent per annum. The principal growth is in the number of marginal workers who are the most insecure in terms of guaranteed employment.

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2.2. Principal Status and Industry As per available data of the NSS 55th Round Report No. 455(55/10/1) of the National Sample Survey Organization during 1999-2000, the principal status by broad industry division, employment figures per 1000 distribution of usually working persons in the rural sector, agriculture continued to dominate with 746, followed by public administration at 174, with 35 in trade hotel or restaurant, 17 in transport and almost negligible figures in finance and business. Understandably, the picture in the urban sector is drastically different with agriculture at 58 and public administration offering major employment at 695, followed by trade or hotel at 110, 56 for construction, 48 for manufacturing and 22 for finance or business. Figure 2.4. Distribution Of Workers By Principal Status And Industry - Rural

Source: National Sample Survey Report No. 455, Employment and Unemployment in India, 1999-2000 in Key Results

Figure 2.5. Distribution of Workers by Principal Status and Industry -Urban

Source: National Sample Survey Report No. 455, Employment and Unemployment in India, 1999-2000 in Key Results

In terms of self employment in the rural areas 565 per thousand are involved in the agriculture sector and 8 per thousand in non-agriculture sector, with 25 as agricultural labourers, 305 accounting for the remaining. In the urban areas self-employment accounts for 305 per thousand households, while 518 per thousand are regular wage earners, 45 are casual labourers and 132 accounting for others. Self employment based options in urban areas relate mostly to simple food business and diverse merchandising business largely in the service sector. This covers repair and servicing of a wide range of objects starting from house hold implements and covering even hitech computers and other complex electronic gadgets. It also includes typical modern services such as STD booths, tasks related to booking tickets, payment of bills and arranging for licenses and permissions.

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Employment and Livelihood - A Profile

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3.1. A Profile of Livelihood and Employment Status in Nagaland An examination of the status and dynamics of key livelihood sectors in Nagaland reinforces concerns regarding the sustainability of growth rates and prospects of the State reaching the ‘take off’ stage where high growth translates into a qualitatively higher level of economic and social development. These sectors include agriculture, animal husbandry, mining & quarrying, forest based livelihoods and non-farm activities. The picture that emerges is a conundrum of sorts. Nagaland’s young demographic profile has made the State favourably placed in terms of manpower availability. However it does not have the capacity to absorb this vibrant workforce. The severity of unemployment is increasing by the year because of high growth rate of the State’s decennial population which stands at 64.41 percent (2001), coupled with high rate of output from universities and colleges and compounded by lack of adequate employment opportunities. Hence, the problem of unemployment and its resultant effects is growing exponentially. The State is predominantly rural with 82.26 percent of the population living in villages. The main economic activity is agriculture, with a very small proportion engaged in the rearing of livestock, weaving, black smithy and handicrafts. The State does not have any major industry and almost the entire urban population depends on the Government services for employment and livelihood. As of 31st March 2005 figures of the Government of Nagaland’s Employment Review, there are about 1033 organized sector units, of which 844 are in the public sector, providing employment of approximately 67,848 in 2004, increasing to 68,207 in 2005 with percentage change of (+) 0.5. The 189 private sector units providing employment to approximately 3456 persons in 2004 increased to 4101 in 2005, a percentage change of (+) 18.6. The Government workforce, both regular salaried employees and fixed pay employees was 1,02,225 (One lakh two thousand two hundred and twenty five) during 2006-2007. The workforce increased by 2369 to 1,04,594 (One lakh four thousand five hundred and ninety four) approximately during 2007-2008.

3.2. Interventions of Livelihood and Employment Opportunities in the State: Key Agencies and Initiatives (a) National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) In a report released in 2007, under the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) in Nagaland, 28,000 households demanded employment where all of them were provided employment in the State. NREGA, which was initially launched in one district of Nagaland has now been extended to four more districts during 2007-2008. The average number of households which are provided employment in a district of the State is 27,800, while the national average is 91,685 households. An amount of ` 4.30 crore was released to the State during 2006-2007. The Act provides that 1/3rd of the employment provided should be to women. In the State 29.95 percent person days of employment has been provided to women and 100 percent to members of Scheduled Tribes (ST). (b) Chief Minister’s Corpus Fund Through the Chief Minister’s Corpus Fund, several initiatives have been undertaken by the State Government for employment generation and capacity building where more than 5000 beneficiaries have directly benefited. During 2008-2009, in order to supplement the working capital requirements of potential entrepreneurs and to enhance the capacities of the youth to make them self reliant, a corpus fund of ` 20 crore was earmarked. (c) Nagaland Empowerment of People through Economic Development (neped) Another such initiative providing a sustainable basis for livelihood options and economic development is the Nagaland Empowerment of People through Economic Development (NEPED) project. It is an investment project, which work closely and directly with 104 selected Village Development Boards (VDBs). The credit mechanism is being operated by the VDBs, which function as a grassroot credit institution. This project was an attempt to shift focus of the VDBs from that of external grant reliant functions to that of self-reliant credit based approach.

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(D) NATIONAL BANK FOR AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT (NABARD) NABARD as an apex institution, since its inception on July 12, 1982 has been contributing significantly to the cause of agriculture and rural development as an active partner of the State Government and the banking system. Their intervention for development of agriculture and allied sector and overall economic development of rural people has been remarkable. The agriculture sectors that need to be focused for credit dispensation by the banks as identified by NABARD in 2009-2010 include horticulture, animal husbandry, minor irrigation, land development and the fishery sector.

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Sectoral Issues

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4.1. AGRICULTURE (A) POTENTIAL FOR LIVELIHOOD & EMPLOYMENT In Nagaland, the agriculture sector employs about 70 percent of the State’s population and its share to the State Domestic Product is about 33 percent. There is convincing evidence as to why examining this sector is a good starting point for finding solutions to livelihood security and employment stability. Agriculture also has the greatest dominance of female employment in the poorest regions of the world. Nagaland has 40 percent of women work force employed in the agriculture sector. Therefore a focus on this sector can contribute to greater gender equality. As agriculture is the mainstay of the State’s economy, it continues to be the main source of livelihood and employment for majority of the population, particularly in the rural areas where almost 82 percent of the population live. In order to achieve the growth rate of 10 percent envisaged in the 11th Five Year Plan, agriculture sector would have to grow at 4 percent during the current five year plan period. Efforts are required to increase the growth rate, wherein lies opportunities for employment to maintain the tempo of growth in agriculture sector. Added to the development of agricultural sector for economic development as a whole, the sector can significantly contribute to livelihood security, employment and reduction of poverty. The current status of poverty in Nagaland is 40 percent in the rural areas and 20 percent in the urban areas. Agricultural growth has been highest in Nagaland at 10 percent during 2006-2007. This is much higher than the National average of 2 percent, which implies a tremendous potential for livelihood and employment opportunities in agricultural and horticultural based food processing industry.

(B) RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN AGRICULTURE SECTOR Progress has been made since the publication of State Human Development Report 2004, which distinctly identified the need to address infrastructure development and agriculture technology towards strengthening the agriculture sector for generation of livelihood and employment opportunities. In line with the spirit and aspiration of the agriculture policy vision “ Food for all by 2020”, during 2008-2009, the food grain production is anticipated to go beyond its target of 510.045 lakh metric tonnes to the tune of 515.30 lakh metric tonnes over 2007-2008 food grain production of 479.720 lakh metric tones. This indicates an increase by 7.41 percent. During 2004 - 2005, food grain production was 405.5 lakh metric tonnes. (C) LIVELIHOOD AND EMPLOYMENT : KEY AGENCIES AND INITIATIVES IN THE STATE (i) NABARD: Since its inception on July 12, 1982, NABARD has contributed significantly to agriculture and rural development through its credit linked plans and credit facility. Box 4.1. Credit Plans Of Nabard NABARD has in place credit planning exercises for Nagaland for the year 2009 -2010 with Rs. 210.31 crore as projected credit placement. NABARD has Potential Linked Credit Plans (PLPs) for all 11 districts of the State. The focused agriculture sectors for credit dispensation in 2009-2010 include horticulture, animal husbandry, minor irrigation, land development, and fishery sector. NABARD has sanctioned ` 441.44 crore under Rural Infrastructure Development Fund (RIDF) for 485 projects and so far 218 Rural Infrastructure Projects have been completed while many projects are in the implementation stage. NABARD has disbursed ` 196.58 crore to the State Government for rural infrastructure development under Rural Infrastructure Development Fund (RIDF). These projects will result in creation of an irrigation potential of 7037 hectare, rural roads of 1128 km, 2 bridges, integrated land development of 12575 hectare and production of 31 mega watt electricity.

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(ii) Key Programmes In Agriculture Sector Are: • • • •

Sustainable Development of Sugarcane based Cropping System (SUBACS) Pulses Development Programme Oilseeds Development Programme Maize Development Programme

(iii) Women In Agriculture: A women specific programme was launched during 2007-2008 as the ‘Women in Agriculture’ covering 10 Self Help Groups (SHGs) from each district of Mokokchung, Phek, Peren and Kohima for a period of three years. (iv) State Agriculture Research Station (Sars): SARS is a premier research centre for Agriculture Research in the State established in Yisemyong, Mokokchung. Major research activities taken up at the Research Station are maintenance and preservation of crop germplasm, agro-forestry, tea husbandry, soil chemistry laboratory, watershed model, biodiversity unit, agro- meteorology, training and extension, crop research, fishery, aromatic and medicinal plants, library and jhum improvement projects. The technologies developed and standardized at SARS are being transferred to the field and have benefited the farmers. (v) Tea Development: Tea cultivation in Nagaland of late has become a reality and there is much enthusiasm among planters after various studies revealed that the land is suitable for quality tea production. In 2001, the State Government and Tea Board officials pointed out that tea cultivation can be a suitable alternative to jhum (slash and burn) cultivation in Nagaland and the abandoned jhum land can be transformed into eco-friendly tea plantations. As per statistics available with the State Agriculture Department, about 800 acres of land in Mon and 300 acres in Mokokchung district have been brought under tea cultivation and the per hectare production of tea in some estates in Nagaland were more than that in Assam.

However, there is only one tea factory in the State located in Mokokchung district, where the factory is fed by plantations of small tea growers of neighbouring districts like Zunheboto and Wokha besides Mokokchung, while the major bulk of the green leaf are exported to Assam at a low price. Efforts are being made to bring all potential areas under tea plantation so that enough green leaf can be produced to make it viable for setting a factory under Private Public Partnership (PPP) mode. Tea nurseries have been raised on PPP basis in four districts of Mokokchung, Wokha, Dimapur and Kohima with a target of 1 lakh saplings each. (D) JHUM CULTIVATION IN NAGALAND: POTENTIAL OF ALTERNATIVES OR UPGRADED JHUM TO GENERATE EMPLOYMENT Subsistence farming families in Nagaland subjected to endemic poverty, lack of access to arable lands and lack of alternative employment opportunities, continue to survive by clearing the forests to plant their crops. According to the 2004 State Human Development Report for Nagaland, 90 percent of area under agricultural cultivation in Nagaland is under Jhum cultivation, with a rapid decline in Jhum cycle, which is a major concern in terms of environmental and economic sustainability. The very nature of Jhum and its unique system interwoven into the heterogeneous socio-culture and economic element of the Nagas continue to undermine any attempt to improvise/ upgrade or find alternatives for livelihood. In an effort to revive better practices and alternatives to Jhum such as terrace cultivation the Government has adopted a scheme known as Jhum Intensification and Extension of Cropping Phase, drawing from the relative successes of on-farm field trials by NEPED. This scheme promotes planting of fast growing tree species having multipurpose and economic value during the fallow period. Other important activities include planting of wild sun flower to improve soil fertility and construction of terraces for establishment of settled farming amongst others. Under this scheme about 1500 hectares were covered during 2008-2009. Under popular consensus, besides various social and institutional barriers and constraints, agro-forestry continues to be considered a viable alternative to jhum cultivation. Agro-forestry by its nature offers considerable potential to meet environmental, economic and social requirements, where a sustainable approach to

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land use in which trees and crops, with or without livestock are integrated into the same area of land. Agro-forestry projects have the potential to become business ventures while being environmentally and culturally appropriate. The development of commercial activities in agro-forestry would enable communities to generate employment, local income, in some cases locally produced goods and services, e.g. timber for house building to improve living standards. However, more research and development is required to integrate sustainable and productive agroforestry within the Naga farming systems. (E) ORGANIC FARMING Since the State Human Development Report, 2004 which highlighted the huge potential for organic farming as a new area of livelihood and employment option and emphasized on the need for proper organic certification, significant progress has been made. The Annual Administrative Report of the Department of Agriculture, Nagaland for the year 2008, asserted that the farming practices in Nagaland are organic by default but are yet to be organic by design. They are organic by default because the nutrient requirements of crops in traditional agricultural system of the Nagas depends only on natural resources i.e. biomass. Nagaland is one of the lowest consumers of chemical fertilizers in the country at 1.5 kg per hectare which is negligible by any standards. In 1990-1991 it was 6 kg per hectare of net sown area which decreased to 4 kg per hectare during 2000-2001. Since 2006, the State Department of Agriculture has been implementing various programmes in the State which include training of field functionaries and farmers on organic farming, demonstration on organic inputs and setting up of five Model Organic Farms located at Medziphema, Kohima, Wokha, Yisemyong and Pfütsero under National Project on Organic Farming, Government of India. During 2008-2009, Organic Certificate was awarded to the Tuensang Organic Farmers by the SGS India Pvt. Ltd. benefiting 32 villages in Shamator and Chessore circle comprising 3423 farmers covering 3002 hectares for crops such as kholar, maize, ginger, large cardamom, passion fruit and chilli. While under the Organic Growers Group Certification, a National Project on Organic farming, the process for certification in all the 11 districts is in progress consisting of 16,500 farmers covering 5610 hectares.

While much needs to be done some progress has been made. Kholar produced from the belt of Tuensang district is being certified as ‘organic’ by the Certification Authority. Another significant achievement is obtaining Geographical Indication Registration in 2008 for Naga King Chilli, the hottest chilli in the world.

4.2. HORTICULTURE Aspirations, as emerged out of the YES consultation in horticulture sector, essentially reflected the need and importance of generating mass awareness of potential in horticulture and other agro based sectors with emphasis on commercial farming. Horticulture is considered to be the most suitable farming enterprise in the State. The total area available under horticultural crops is 6299 hectares and a further area of around 4000 hectares is being brought under horticulture farming. Although considerable progress has been made in the horticulture sector, various segments of marketing network such as processing, transport and other post-production activities is yet to be developed. Activities in these sectors can potentially generate employment and entrepreneurship opportunities. Presently most of the product is marketed in the local markets leading to a huge volume of surplus and wastage. The Government of India accords top priority to preservation and processing of fruits and vegetables and has introduced several schemes of assistance for fruit and vegetable processing. Of late, organic horticultural products have been given significant attention, as it commands a premium which would translate into better income for farmers. There is an ongoing effort to access necessary certification. The State Department of Horticulture has entered into a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with the International Competence Centre for Organic Agriculture, October, 2008, to draw up a comprehensive project for development of organic horticultural crops in the State. Under this initiative an initial area of 250 hectares under Dimapur and Peren districts was earmarked for development under organic farming in the year 2008-2009. Recognizing the importance for institutional support for development of horticulture in the Northeast, the Government of India approved the establishment of a Central Institute of Horticulture at Medziphema, Nagaland in January 2006, with a financial outlay of ` 20 crore spread over a period of five years.

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Horticulture in Nagaland is a non-traditional activity, which has been given a major thrust under the Government of India scheme of Integrated Development of Horticulture in the North East (TM-NE) since 2001. Under this scheme, the Department is working on area expansion for various horticulture crops all over the 11 districts of the State and which would benefit 5515 beneficiaries spread over about 400 villages. In line with the centrally sponsored scheme, the State has been crop zoned on the basis of climatic conditions. Cultivation of focused crops like banana, pineapple, passion fruit, oranges, large cardamom, ginger, turmeric, Naga chili, medicinal and aromatic plants, coconut and cashew nut has been taken up on a commercial scale. Thus, the Horticulture sector in Nagaland continues to offer a vast and promising potential for livelihood improvement and employment generation.

4.3. Floriculture Nagaland started commercial floriculture only since 2005 under the Horticulture Technology Mission implemented by the Department of Horticulture, Government of Nagaland. Moving on the path of self-reliance and in an effort to encourage the youth, Nagaland has undertaken a new venture - rose cultivation. The cultivation of roses on commercial scale started in 2004-2005. Over 500 square meters of area have been set aside for its cultivation under the supervision of the State’s Department of Horticulture with technical know how from private companies. With over 20 Self Help Groups (SHGs) undertaking rose cultivation projects, today floriculture is one of the fastest revenue earning industries in the State with a gross sale of flowers crossing ` 10 crores during the last few years. The progress of business in the flower sector has been very rapid. The first shipment of Fresh Naga roses was exported to Dubai in February 2007. Thus substantial employment has been generated in the State and a good number of youth earn their livelihood from the flower industry on a permanent basis.

4.4. MEDICINAL AND AROMATIC PLANTS Due to favourable agro climatic conditions medicinal herbs and plants are abundantly available in hilly regions of the State. As per the YES consultation, aspiration of the youth under this sector was to have an in depth study of traditional medicine by ethno botanists and to facilitate transfer of knowledge to farmers and encourage plantation of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (MAP). Scientific harnessing of this potential in private sector has the ability to yield substantial livelihood and employment opportunities.

Currently in progress is the MAP Project a special SGSY scheme funded under the Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India for cultivation of medicinal & aromatic plants (i.e., citronella, lemongrass, patchouli & geranium) and distillation of oil. In the year 2007-2008, 120 Self Help Groups (SHGs) were assisted with 1320 working members for cultivation and distillation of oil and 760 acres of land were brought under plantation of citronella, lemongrass and patchouli. Nagaland Essential Oil Producers Association (NEOPA) has been constituted with its headquarters in Dimapur to assist and protect the interest of all members from cultivation and to the disposal of oils.

4.5. LIVESTOCK Studying the market and enhancing livestock rearing to meet local needs as well as meat processing infrastructure were the aspirations that primarily emerged out of the YES consultation. And sure enough, livestock rearing continues to be another key economic factor of Nagaland which includes fishery, animal husbandry, cattle farming, piggery and poultry. During the end of the 10th Plan, production was worth ` 230 crores. As per sample survey report of 2007-2008, the State produced only 60.9 percent of the Net Domestic Product. The balance 39.10 percent, which is about ` 220 crores in monetary terms is imported from outside the State. Import of meat and meat products not only increases the cost of food but also results in outflow of resources. In the absence of any organized industry in the State, Animal Husbandry and Dairy alone can absorb a large fraction of unemployed youth in the State. The approach of mass production of animal husbandry products in the State through ‘people’s participation’ has been adopted so as to attain self sufficiency in the production of meat, milk and eggs. In addition, efforts for revival and improvement of the traditional ‘backyard livestock and poultry’ farming are being made. Production through ‘cluster approach’ to ensure effective monitoring and success of schemes and marketing are of primary importance as it will result in surplus commodity for value addition. The ongoing efforts to promote livestock production are highlighted in the State Human Development Report, 2004. (A) PIGGERY Due to considerable demand for pork, the Department of Veterinary and Animal Husbandry is giving priority to piggery development in the 11th Five Year Plan. The Department, under NABARD, RIDF-XII, is strengthening 9 existing State Pig Breeding Farms. An amount of ` 450.00 lakhs was earmarked under Negotiated Loan during LIVELIHOOD AND EMPLOYMENT OPPURTUNITIES IN NAGALAND:SECTORAL ISSUES -

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2008-2009 to complete the farms at Medziphema, Wokha, Akuluto, Sathazu and Lerie as well as to initiate work in 4 more farms at Merangkong, Tuensang, Phek and Jalukie. A private public partnership venture to set up a Pig Breeding Farm with the British Pig Association, United Kingdom is in the pipeline. Producing 6000 crossbreed piglets is targeted to be achieved by the Pig Breeding Farms for distribution to farmers in 2008-2009. In addition, the Nagaland pig production and marketing project started in the year 2008, is being funded by the National Agricultural Innovation Project with contribution from the International Fund for Agricultural Development. It aims to develop sustainable solutions to livelihood improvement and employment generation. In 2008 the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) has also started a project with the Indian Council of Agricultural Research and the School of Agricultural Science and Rural Development, Nagaland University, to research and to increase the production and marketing of pigs in selected villages in Mon district. (B) POULTRY Currently many educated unemployed youth are taking up poultry farming as a viable profitable commercial project. The Department of Veterinary and Animal Husbandry is looking into massive production of quality chicks during the 11th Five Year Plan. Under the 11th Five Year Plan, with the assistance of the Government of India, the Baghty Duck Farm has been strengthened and upgraded to help in providing quality chicks to poultry farmers, women groups, to people below poverty line (BPL) and entrepreneurs. (C) MILK “Milk Culture” is a rising phenomena amongst Nagas with the introduction of KOMUL (Kohima District Milk Producers Union Limited) milk and milk products. Though still in its infancy, the dairy industry in Nagaland has made its presence felt by supplying milk not only to consumers in the State, but also to Assam. Milk production has recorded a growth rate of 8.5 percent per annum over the past two decades from 30,000 tonnes during 1987 to 81,000 tonnes during 2007. With the setting up of milk chilling plants and pasteurization plants in places like Dimapur, Kohima, Mokokchung, Pfütsero and Wokha, Naga farmers have now taken up milk production as a serious business. And women are taking the lead in rearing cows in urban and semi-urban areas.

Further efforts are being made to focus in bringing about self sufficiency in milk by strengthening the existing Dairy Co-operatives Societies, Milk Processing/Chilling Plants in all the district headquarters and selected milk shed areas for providing marketing avenues to the rural producers. Box 4.2. Towards Attaining ‘White Revolution’

Traditionally, Nagas were never inclined to rearing cattle for production of milk. Now toned milk and other milk products in poly packs and cups under brand names KOMUL and DIMUL are sold not only in Nagaland, but also in the neighbouring districts of Assam. The Department is now focusing on bringing about a ‘white revolution’ during the 11th Five Year Plan by consolidating on-going programmes like Integrated Dairy Development programme, Clean Milk Production and assistance to co-operative societies. The Central Dairy Plant at 7th Mile owned by the Dimapur District Cooperative Milk Producers Union Limited (DIMUL) receives over 3,000 litres of milk from farmers for processing, packaging and marketing. DIMUL, which has now 45 dairy co-operative societies with 1,800 members producing 10.33 lakh litres of milk registered a net profit of over ` 2.43 lakh during 2007 2008. DIMUL marketed 13.13 lakh litres of toned milk besides selling cupped lassi, dahi, ice cream, ghee and cattle feed during the year 2007-08. The Kikhruru Dairy Co-operative Society of Chumukedima near Dimapur was adjudged the best society for supplying over 1.23 lakh litres of milk during the year.

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4.6. FISHERIES Nagaland is endowed with rich and unique natural resources which provide immense potential for aquaculture development. In spite of the available resources, aquaculture has not made much impact in the State so far. The meagre production of the State is still far from being self sufficient and this can be attributed to a number of constraints such as lack of adequate funds, lack of professional support and non-availability of critical inputs. In spite of the constraints, the Department is making serious efforts to assist, guide and educate the people about the importance of fishery development and sustainable fisheries. Besides extension and training to provide technical know how of intensive fish farming in the State and to facilitate employment and livelihood opportunities, development efforts of the Fishery Department to promote and increase aquaculture is underway through Natural Water Resources and Revival of Riverine Fisheries. Package of assistance is provided through systematic exploitation of naturally available resources such as streams, rivers, swamps to augment fish production in the State and by provision of assistance to fishermen under Fish Farmers Development Agency (FFDA). Under this project, incentives to promote intensive aquaculture are provided in the State. It also includes setting up of hatchery units by private farmers. At present, Doyang reservoir having a total water area of 2258 hectares is a fishery asset for the State. Lakes and reservoirs in the State have a total area of about 3528 hectares.

4.7. FORESTRY Forestry sector in the State has been one of the main source of providing livelihood and revenue. However, of late rapid increase in population, insufficient infrastructure, diversion of forest area for developmental activities, inadequate public awareness about forest functions and its administrations have led to deforestation. People of the State practice shifting cultivation and are intricately associated with forests for their livelihood and hence, for survival. Therefore productivity of forests has to be increased to meet essential needs like fuel wood, fodder, minor forest produces and small timber for rural areas. Investment potential exists for setting up of farms for production and promotion of non-wood timber products.

At present forest plantation is taken up mostly as a micro project. The Forest Development Agency (FDA) has been set up so as to integrate forest development and rural employment. Many central schemes have been operational through FDA by forming the Village Forest Committees. Funds received from the National Afforestation and Eco-Development Board by FDA is directly given to the Village Forest Committees for implementation of the afforestation schemes.

4.8. INDUSTRY Industrialization is an integral part of any development. However, the remoteness of the State along with poor infrastructure like road linkages and acute shortage of power, special land laws that restrict transfer of land to outside investor continue to be major challenges. Despite the prevailing constraints, efforts for improvement are being made in some areas in the State. The Paper Mill in Tuli is the most significant, having been reopened after a gap of 15 years. The Nagaland Pulp & Paper Company Ltd. (NPPC), Tuli, with an enhanced capacity from 100 metric tonnes per day (MTPD) to 200 MTPD (white writing paper) is expected to be commissioned, infusing an amount of about ` 600.00 crores, with a requirement of about 3 lakh tonnes of bamboo annually. With the commissioning of the Mill, it is expected that both direct and indirect employment along with wealth generation will take place. There has also been creation of infrastructure for the growth of industries and service enterprises in the State like the Industrial Growth Centre, the Export Promotion Industrial Park, approved by the Government of India for conversion into Agro Specific Special Economic Zone (SEZ) and the Nagaland Mini Tool Room & Training Centre (NMTTC) in Dimapur. In the year 2006-2007 a Public Private Partnership basis, the Department of Industries privatized the Government Fruit & Vegetable Processing Plant in Dimapur was privatized and leased to M/s North East Pure Beverages (P) Dimapur.

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4.9. TOURISM Tourism is considered a booming sector for unexplored Nagaland. Nagas by virtue of their existence are placed amongst the most scenic and natural environment. The YES consultation revealed that the youths aspire to showcase the State through promotion of eco-tourism, rural tourism, adventure sports, trekking, outdoor camping. Enthusiasm of the youths can be nurtured and capitalized by utilizing them as organizers, managers, tourist guides, caterers, hiring (sports gears/equipments) and restauranteurs. The consultation also recognized the need to enhance infrastructure and to provide linkages in the rural areas. With the distinction of being located within the eighteen bio-diversity hotspots of the world, with rich flora and fauna, both wild and cultivated, Nagaland is an ideal place for trekking, jungle camping and offers limitless exploration potentials for a plethora of medicinal herbs and plants. The conceptualizing and materialization of the Naga Heritage Village at Kisama, the annual Hornbill Festival, the Tourist Village at Tuophema and adoption of Khonoma as the first Green Village in the country has generated livelihood and employment opportunities in the tourism sector. The concept of rural paying guest accommodation packaged together with adventure, cultural and eco-tourism is fast catching up in Nagaland. The participatory rural tourism, where the Naga villagers have a say from the planning, execution and implementation of the projects has made tourism an attractive option and a sustainable proposition for gainful employment. Further, in consonance with the Nagaland Communitisation of Public Institution and Services Act 2002 a sum of ` 150 lakhs is earmarked for communitisation of rural tourism. The 9th Hornbill Festival 2008 was celebrated with 274 foreign tourists and 31,942 domestic tourists which shows enormous potential for the growth of service sector related employment opportunities.

4.10. INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY In the emerging age of technology it is increasingly vital to bridge the digital divide to create new opportunities, through asset development (natural capital, social capital, human capital, physical capital and financial capital) in education, health, agriculture, organizational development and community capacity building. The availability of these tools and its application will greatly employment and livelihood. Information Communication Technology (ICT) was one of the three thematic areas of consultation, whereby it looked into promoting employment through ICT. The aspirations on ICT were based on the need, importance and role of ICT towards efficiency and advancement of employment and livelihood opportunities in the State. Building the capacity of young people to use ICT continues to be a developmental imperative as the youth are amongst the most enthusiastic and ingenious users of technology. Though the ICT sector in Nagaland is in its nascent stage, it has huge potential for growth. In order to realize this potential, the state Government in partnership with private sectors is in the process of creating infrastructure, strengthening connectivity and implementing various IT projects, some of which are: •

Nagaland State-Wide Area Network (Naga SWAN): A project under National e-Governance Plan (NeGP) was launched in 2008-2009 for provision of a State-wide information highway connecting the State capital up to the block level with 2mbps network connectivity.



Common Service Centres (CSC): From 2008 onwards, the Common Service Centres (CSC) have been integrated with Community Information Centres (CIC). The CSC is a mission Mode Project under the NeGP. CSCs are envisioned as the front-end delivery points for Government, private and social sector services to the rural citizens. This project has been approved by the Government of India under which 220 CSCs are to be established in over 1317 villages on a Private Public Partnership basis (which is almost 1 CSC per 6 villages). A total amount of ` 43 lakhs has been sanctioned till date.



State Data Centre (SDC): This is another project under NeGP approved in 2008-2009, by the Government of India to consolidate services, applications and infrastructure, and to provide efficient electronic delivery of G2G (Government to Government) , G2C (Government to Citizen) and G2B (Government to Business Enterprises) services. These services can be rendered by the State through a common delivery platform supported by core connectivity infrastructure such as SWAN and Common Service Centre. The connectivity can be extended up to villages.

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4.11. OTHER AREAS OF EMPLOYMENT AND LIVELIHOOD Other areas of employment and livelihood as emerged out of the YES Consultation are briefly discussed: (A) BAMBOO Bamboo is found extensively in Nagaland.  About 5 percent of the growing stock of bamboo of the country is in Nagaland covering about 4,48,000 hectares. It occurs as a predominant plant in parts of the districts of Dimapur, Peren, Mon and Mokokchung and is found mixed with other forest species in all the districts. With a view to promote and develop Bamboo and its potentials as a major economic activity in the State, both as a resource and as an enterprise, the Government adopted the Nagaland Bamboo Policy in March 2004. NATIONAL MISSION ON BAMBOO APPLICATIONS The provision of employment opportunity has been accorded the highest priority in the agenda of the Government of India and in the National Common Minimum Programme (NCMP), where the National Mission on Bamboo Applications is  one of the key initiatives of the Department of Science & Technology for the 10th Five Year Plan. The National Mission on Bamboo Applications has been tasked with creating the basis for enlarging the bamboo sector, supporting the efforts of the Government of India towards augmenting economic opportunity, income and employment. Box 4.3. Some Key Activities In The Bamboo Sector Supported By The National Mission Bamboo Application Amongst Others •

Nagaland Foods Pvt. Ltd: A bamboo shoot processing unit has been established with National Mission on Bamboo Applications (NMBA) support at the Industrial Estate, Ganesh Nagar, Dimapur, It commenced commercial production in July 2005. 



Three charcoal kilns, designed for batch operation (2 tpd) were established  at Dimapur Common Facility Centre(CFC) in December 2005. Another two kilns have been established at Dunki village, 30 km from Dimapur. In 2006, and additional programme of 50 kilns was taken up in collaboration with the Nagaland Bamboo Development Agency.



Multi-stage project is being taken up in collaboration with the Nagaland Bamboo Development Agency (NBDA) and the China Bamboo Research Centre (CBRC), Zhongzhu for further research and development.

(B) APICULTURE Beekeeping is one of the strategies accorded high priority by the Government of Nagaland in order to diversify the farm sub-sector with the objective of creating more employment opportunities. Out of the State’s total geographical area of 16,579 sq. km, the total bee surface foraging area available is estimated at 13,493 sq. km. Thus the State has the potential to keep about 54 lakhs bee colonies which can produce about 65,000 metric tonne of honey annually. These can generate an income of Rs. 975 crores per annum, besides providing substantial employment opportunity through beekeeping and honey enterprise. The State Government launched the Nagaland Honey & Bee Mission (NHBM) during 2007-2008. The strategy of the Mission is to promote and develop scientific and sustainable beekeeping industry focused on 3 major areas viz. capacity building & research undertakings, apiculture development and promotion, and industry service and marketing. The programmes will be approached in a mission mode for which Nagaland Honey Mission Team has been constituted with members drawn from various State Government Departments. Capacity building programmes such as ‘Skill Upgradation and Capacity Building for honey gatherers’, sponsored and actively monitored by the Tribal Cooperative Marketing Development Federation of India (TRIFED) were organized. Apart from the officially registered 360 trainees including members of 20 SHGs, there were 45 trainees from across 12 villages in different districts who attended the courses without formal registration.

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(C) HANDICRAFT AND HANDLOOM Handicrafts and handloom sector in Nagaland has vast employment and livelihood potential for growth due to availability of abundant skilled labour and raw materials, as well as the rich cultural traditions of its people. These are important cottage capacity industries, mainly managed by cooperative societies. The Nagaland Handloom and Handicrafts Development Corporation Ltd. in Dimapur is the State owned Corporation, which is responsible for promotion and marketing of handloom and handicraft products. The Balvijay Sewa Kendra, recently constructed by Nagaland Khadi and Village Industries Sangh (NKVIS) at Dhansiripar village for training and production of Silk Khadi would help in creating jobs and increase the income of the family. From the one crore Scheme of Funds for Regeneration of Traditional Industries (SFURTI) project which aims to provide employment for local youths especially living in interior areas, 75 percent of the amount is being doled out by the centre and the balance amount is provided from the State’s coffers.

(D) CONSTRUCTION In a study conducted by the Directorate of Evaluation, Government of Nagaland in 2007, growth of construction industry has propelled employment opportunities in Nagaland. However, these services are predominated by the non-Nagas. Construction sector with 4099 persons engaged in construction activity yielded total annual earning of ` 22 crores and an annual per capita earning of ` 53402 during 2007. There is also the loading and unloading sector with people earning their livelihood through loading and unloading of goods in the railway station, bus stations and godowns. The annual income of this group of people is estimated at ` 33 crores with an annual average per capita income of ` 82192. These two sectors alone account for revenue income of ` 55 crores per year. Employment in the above two sectors does not require any specific training or education or skill but only requires hands on training, physical ability and willingness to work. Hence, herein lie another huge potential of employment opportunities to absorb and engage the increasing work force within the construction sector. In spite of abundance of stones, there is lack of sufficient stone crushing units and poor road linkages hamper transportation to other towns. Stones from district like Wokha and Zunheboto are in high demand. Skill enhancement programme in stone carving, cutting and designing would enhance the scope for employment in this area. LIVELIHOOD AND EMPLOYMENT OPPURTUNITIES IN NAGALAND:SECTORAL ISSUES -

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5

The Way Forward

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Key Interventions 5.1. MARKETING AGENCIES AND INFRASTRUCTURE To meet the livelihood and employment aspirations across all the sectors essentially necessitates a range of interventions such as: •

capacity building.



financial and technical support to infrastructure development (such as establishing storage facilities, marketing sheds and market linkages and networks).



introduction of modern technology for mass production to meet market demands, partnership and links with companies for technical support like installation and running of agro based machineries.



generate mass awareness on potentials in horticulture and agri-allied sector with focus on commercial farming.



setting up of mini fruit or vegetable processing units.



build capacity of youths to educate farmers on use of modern technology, market trends and business management.



study market and enhance livestock rearing and breeding to meet local needs such as piggery, poultry and fishery.



skill building on networking to enable youth to liaise between farmers and the market.



baseline research on market trends (consumers and suppliers).



emphasis on advertisement.

Emerging explicitly out of the consultation, there is need for marketing agencies and infrastructure which is perhaps the most essential element towards fulfilling the aspiration of the Naga people. Marketing is still at its infancy in Nagaland and there is a need for further intensive training to hone the skills of the Agricultural Production Marketing Committee (APMC) members who are currently drawn from village committees. Progressive farmers in various pockets of the State have time and again raised concerns at the deficient marketing channels. At present, to erase marketing roadblocks, the Department of Agriculture has taken up feasibility studies to set up

marketing terminals in Dimapur and Tuli under Mokokchung district. The marketing terminals, once operational, are expected to substantially ease the marketing glitches in sectors like floriculture, handloom and handicraft, horticultural and agricultural produce. With organic farming gaining currency and progressive farmers across various vegetable villages doing well, the Department of Agriculture is also proposing the installment of medium and small capacity cold storages in all districts.

5.2. MICRO CREDIT FACILITIES Aspirations of revolutionizing and commercializing agriculture and allied sectors, and creating self employment opportunities in the agriculture and allied sectors, in handloom and handicraft, in agriculture processing and other small scale industries by promoting entrepreneurship, will remain a distant dream without putting into place adequate credit infrastructure. The Credit-Deposit Ratio in Nagaland is one of the lowest in the country and currently hovers around 25 percent, against the national average of 60 percent. Generally the micro-finance movement relies mainly on Self Help Groups (SHGs) linked to banks thinly spread in the rural areas where out of 52 Rural Development (RD) Blocks in the State, as many as 21 RD Blocks, covering 421 villages, are still without any banking facilities. This constrains people in availing the benefits of this facility. At present, the NEPED project initiative, where the credit mechanism is being operated by the Village Development Boards (VDBs) provides easy access of credit for the SHGs. Further assistance from the Planning Commission and other financial institutions, particularly NABARD, to support micro credit facilities are crucial for improving the prospects of livelihood specially in rural areas. However, prior research and development is recommended in order to understand money utilization pattern of the micro-financed beneficiaries, their attitude and repayment pattern.

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5.3. BRIDGING THE RURAL - URBAN DIVIDE The rural-urban divide can be bridged through infrastructure development and better marketing facilities. By harnessing the entrepreneurial capacity of both rural and urban human resources, without displacing either of them. Instead of seeing the rural and urban as distinct and separate entities, it is essential to capitalize on the understanding the complex synergies between them. Policy makers need to focus less on sectors and more on systems. This would imply seeing the rural to urban as a network of interconnections. In particular, food and agricultural systems highlight the complexities of rural-urban livelihoods. For instance, rural farmers sell their produce at both rural and urban markets and there are constant flows of people and goods to and from rural and urban centres. It is important to use the rural-urban lens to understand how rural and urban livelihoods are intimately connected. Policy makers need to understand these connections systematically, in order to capture how best to forge policy interventions aimed at livelihood and employment generation. Figure 5.1. Rural-Urban Linkages

RURAL

URBAN

A S

Agriculture

P I

Horticulture/ Floriculture

Agriculture Marketing Marketing Agency & Infrastructure

R A

Non-Farm/ Livestock

T I

Cottage/ Handicraft

O N S

Private Entrepreneurship

Capacity Building/ Training & Micro Credit Finance

C O

Industry Agro-Based Processing

N S U

Industry Sugar, Paper etc

M E

Marketing outlet Handicraft/Cottage Industries

R S

Box 5.1. Rural & Urban Linkage: The Key Potential To Unleash Livelihood And Employment Generation The primary intervention and area of thrust would be setting up Marketing Agencies and Infrastructures and Micro-Credit Finance to allow easy flow of resources, for both onward processing and marketing and rural capacity building. The idea to capitalize on the rural-urban linkage not only promotes upliftment in the rural areas, but also unleashes a vast potential of employment generation both in the rural and urban sector. Essentially this means ‘production employment’ in the rural sector and ‘post production employment’ in the urban sector.

5.4. BRIDGING THE MACRO-MICRO LINKS The employment and livelihood approach and strategy should focus on development activity that bridges the gap that is generally focused at either the macro or the micro level. There is need for high level policy formulation and planning, based on lessons learnt and insights gained at the local level. This will simultaneously give local people a stake in policy and increase overall effectiveness. Much macro policy is formulated in isolation from the people it is intended for. Indeed, understanding the effects of policies on people, and people on policies are remarkably limited. Both these areas will need to be better understood if the full value of the livelihood approach is to be realized.

5.5. INITIATING AND PROMOTING EQUAL PARTNERSHIP AND PARTICIPATION BETWEEN STAKEHOLDERS Initiating a Government, rural-urban unemployed and NGO effort towards creating sustainable livelihood and employment capabilities/opportunities, the State consultation revealed that the concept of investment and development in the Nagaland context continues to reflect aspirations, solely at the local level. The governmental institution was perceived to be the regulator and provider of services and a major driver of investment, implementation of any process, and activity of development. External investment by corporate houses and multinationals in the private sector remains elusive, which is why the role of the third sector, non governmental organization becomes imperative to bridge the gap between the stakeholders in strengthening and channelizing rational LIVELIHOOD AND EMPLOYMENT OPPURTUNITIES IN NAGALAND:SECTORAL ISSUES -

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policies and allocated funds. Equal participation and involvement of the stakeholders; Government, unemployed, educated/uneducated youths and NGOs is necessary for achieving the objective of establishing and addressing the unemployment issue effectively across all sections of the society. Previous consultative initiatives of the State Government, like the ‘Imagine Nagaland’, acknowledged that expectation of the youth were creation of employment opportunities and urban infrastructure (SHDR 2004). It also identified the need for change from the individual level to the community and further to the larger development of the State. Extracts; ‘The trickling down concept of development has been effectively abandoned and it is hoped that there would be a bubbling up from the grassroots, that is equitable and suitable to the unique context of Nagaland’. The root cause of unemployment lies in the weak economy and poor development of the State. Therefore, unemployment can be addressed only when Government accepts accountability, citizens are proactive towards their responsibilities and rights and recognize and capitalize on the available existing opportunities, and the NGOs contribute towards creating that enabling environment. A brief roadmap represented in the figure below can be adapted as a pathway to addressing livelihood and employment opportunities in the State.

Figure 5.2. Roadmap : Addressing Livelihood And Employment Opportunities In The State

UNEMPLOYED

Involve in developing self employment opportunities and become self reliant NGOs

GOVERNMENT

Mentorship

Financial Assistance, infrastructure

Monitoring and Evaluation

Stengthening of educational institution

Training and Capacity Building

Financial, marketing and management assistance

EMPLOYMENT

Table No. 5.1. Role Of Stake Holders And Facilitators Role of the Unemployed Youth

Role of Government

Role Of Ngos

Initiate and develop self – employment opportunities and become self reliant.

Financial assistance and establishing linkages with banks and financial institutions

Provide informal advice and guidance on planning and documentation

Participation in developmental initiatives

Infrastructure development

Build network and inkages

Strengthening educational and training institutions

Assist and monitor Government funding for development programmes

Identify and set priorities for employment in the respective locality

Participate in formulation of policies for livelihood and employment

Knowledge and information sharing on various schemes and provisions

Training and capacity building

Assist in design and implementation of programmes

Marketing and management assistance

Situation and impact assessment, monitoring and evaluation of projects implemented

Encourage development of positive attitude mongst peers

Resource management

Identify and document best practices and knowledge sharing

Share aspirations and experiences and empower people

Capacity and skill building

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5.6. YOUTH EMPOWERMENT TOWARDS STRENGTHENING CAPABILITIES Since the youth primarily represent workforce, to enable productivity and change, to supplement efforts of the Government the Youth and NGOs should work towards partnership with the Government to address employment issue. The National Youth Policy 1988, stated that ‘Maximum participation by non-governmental institutions, public and private, will be encouraged and in fact sought the mobilization of youth in specific areas of national development’. • Develop a State policy on youth with focus on youth involvement, youth development and youth employment. • Review the education system, incorporate activities for knowledge and skill development, entrepreneurship and personality development as part of the curricula. • Involve the youth in designing developmental plans and policies of the State to generate a sense of ownership and accountability on the part of the youth in economic and social development of the State. • Government should focus on Information Communication Technology (ICT) to reach out to the youth and community on development strategy and policies of the State. • Create awareness about the existing schemes, loans, grants, aid and programmes for youth employment. • Invite technical experts to train local youths within the State on project implementation, monitoring and evaluation. • Poor infrastructure like road, power, communication and industry is often the dead-end for any progressive venture. Therefore, focusing on this area as a priority of the State can address employment and economic development to a large extent.

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6

Conclusion

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On a more positive note, a wide array of employment and livelihood opportunities exists in Nagaland. With personal will, community will and political will through the interventions of the Government and through adoption of a holistic approach much can be attained and achieved. While a set of recommendation for a way forward has been presented in the earlier chapter, it remains vital to develop strategies upon existing strengths and integrate it within the framework of ideas, such as establishing linkage; intensive industrial activities within the area of interest. Such activities can potentially create desirable impact on rural or urban livelihoods and employment opportunities. Not all industries are so linkage intensive. A cement industry creates far fewer jobs than say a sugar mill, which necessitates farmers to cultivate sugarcane which in turn creates livelihood. The seed industry is a potential source of livelihood since the production and processing of all seeds is highly labour intensive. Accessibility to micro-credit continues to be amongst the bottlenecks in realizing productive livelihood and employment opportunities and needs to be addressed with urgency and priority. Non farm self employment options that involve production and marketing of goods and services, and setting up of micro-enterprises show promising prospects. These potentials need to be tapped with provision of adequate infrastructure capacity. The tertiary sector also has huge potential for employment and livelihood generation in the non-farm sector. However, it is vital to encourage innovations using the productive capacity of the poor and unemployed in the State.

The emerging new class of the rural unemployed primary or secondary education and perhaps college degrees. Such youngsters are unwilling to go back to the farm. They can neither find employment they feel they deserve in the non-farm sector. This has led to gradual accumulation of the educated rural youth and is expanding exponentially. Integrating this work force in the livelihood and employment development strategy is imperative and is an emerging challenge. Towards this end, the Government needs to consider expansion of training and support programmes for self employment and entrepreneurship for the educated youth.

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Bibliography Annual Administrative Report 2007-2008, 2008-2009, Department of Agriculture, Government of Nagaland. ________________, Department of Information Technology & Technical Education, Government of Nagaland. _______________, Department of Veterinary &Animal Husbandry, Government of Nagaland. ________________, Department of Industries & Commerce, Government of Nagaland. ________________, Department of Tourism, Government of Nagaland. ________________, Department of Forests, Ecology, Environment & Wildlife, Government of Nagaland. Employment Review, State Employment Market Information (SEMI) Unit. Government of Nagaland, Directorate of Employment & Craftsmen Training, 2000- 2006. Evaluation Study on “Employment Opportunities Forgone By Nagas and Employment of Non-Nagas in the State, Directorate of Evaluation, Government of Nagaland Publication No.52 Kikhi Kedilezo, Educated Unemployed Youth in Nagaland: A Sociological Study, Akansha Publishing House, 2006 North Eastern Region Vision 2020, Ministry of Development of North Eastern Region (DoNER), 2008 Nagaland Empowerment of People through Economic Development (NEPED) and International Institute of rural Reconstruction (IIRR), 1999. Building upon Traditional Agriculture in Nagaland, India. Nagaland Empowerment of People through Economic Development (NEPED) 2006.Adding Value to Shifting Cultivation in Nagaland, India, Nagaland Environmental Protection and Economic Development, Nagaland, India and International Institute of Rural Reconstruction, Silang, avite, 4118, Philippines. The Voices-Uncensored-Nagaland State Youth Consultation on Employment, YouthNet 2008 United Nation Development Programme, Nagaland State Human Development Report 2004 INTERNET SOURCES http://www.nagauniv.org.in/menu/vcdesk/CII.pdf http://www.ide.go.jp/English/Publish/Download/Jrp/pdf/133_9.pdf http://agringl.nic.in/ http://www.planningcommission.nic.in/plans/planrel/52ndc/Nagaland.pdf

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