MALAYSIA AND THE UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE (UNFCCC) – THE PARIS AGREEMENT The Paris Agreement (PA) which is a Multilateral Environmental Agreement (MEA) under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) aims to strengthen the global response to climate change threats, in the context of sustainable development and efforts to eradicate poverty. The PA underpins the principle of Common But Differentiated Responsibilities (CBDR) that binds all Parties to share the common obligation to address environmental destruction but denies equal responsibility of all states with regard to environmental protection, since developed countries would have an unfair economic advantage as they do not face the same restrictions like developing countries. All Parties are required to implement and report on their mitigation, adaptation, voluntary cooperation and Communication, Education and Public Awareness (CEPA) efforts to UNFCCC. The additional obligation for developed countries include providing financial support and developing transparency framework in assisting developing countries’ in mitigation and adaptation efforts.
Figure 1: Annual Emissions of Top 10 GHG Emitters in 2011 Source: World Resources Institute http://www.wri.org/sites/default/files/uploads/absolute_emissions.png
Under the PA, Malaysia has committed to reduce Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions by 45% by 2030 in relation to our 2005 GDP. This target was set with 35% on unconditional basis and 10% on conditional basis upon receipt of climate finance funding, technology transfer and capacity building from developed countries. In addition, Malaysia also committed to maintain at least 50% level of forest & tree conservation.
The main GHG emission contributors in Malaysia are the energy industries, transport, manufacturing industries and industrial processes, waste and the agriculture sector.
* Notes: 1 Gg = 1,000,000,000g = 1,000,000kg = 1 k tonne Figure 2: Key Sources of GHG Emissions in Malaysia Source: BUR to the UNFCCC, NRE, 2015.
The Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (NRE) is the coordinating agency tasked to submit the Biennial Update Report (BUR) and National Communications (NC) that outline Malaysia’s GHG emission reduction efforts and Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC) achievement every 2 years (BUR) and 4 years (NC) to the UNFCCC. Thus far, Malaysia (led by NRE) has participated in the Conference of Parties (COP) and Mid-Sessional Meetings under UNFCCC to discuss on the global work in progress related to the implementation of the agreement. Malaysia has aligned herself in the G77 and China group of developing countries. MITI has been actively involved in the thematic consultation involving international trade and industry under topics such as the impact of response measures, technology development and transfer as well as international aviation and maritime transport that has bearing to international trade. In November 2017, the Malaysian delegation participated in the 23rd Conference of the Parties in Bonn, Germany. The head of delegation, NRE Minister, YB Datuk Seri Dr. Haji Wan Junaidi bin Tuanku Jaafar informed that Malaysia is firmly on track to achieve its GHG reduction target by 2030 with the following initiatives/programmes: a) Green Technology Master Plan 2017-2030 - To transform Malaysia into a lowcarbon and resource efficient economy through the implementation of Green Catalyst Projects that would reduce 40% carbon intensity by 2020.
b) Energy Efficiency Action Plan - Aims to reduce emissions of 13.113 million tonnes CO2 equivalent for year 2030. c) Transportation Sector - The launching of the Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) phase one has successfully removed 9.9 million cars in 2017 and estimated to remove additional 62-89 million cars between 2020-2030. d) Low Carbon Cities Framework – To introduce a carbon reduction blueprint within the local authorities and developers in making decisions on greener solutions.
*Notes: 1 k tonne = 1,000, 000kg = 1,000,000,000g = 1 Gg
Figure 3: Potential Emission Reduction with Mitigation Action Source: BUR to the UNFCCC, NRE, 2015.
MITI as a member of Malaysia’s Steering Committee for Climate Change will continue to enhance cooperation with NRE in creating awareness among the industry and review existing policies/ acts that could enhance industry’s compliance to the UNFCCC and PA commitments. MITI also aspires to continue participation in the UNFCCC, to keep abreast with the latest development on climate change progress and industry adaptation.
Prepared by: Trade and Industry Related Emerging Issues Division Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) 11 December 2017