Management of dyspepsia and of

Management of aspirin/NSAID -associated dyspepsia If dyspepsia (or ulcer) • Stop drug (endoscopy if alarm symptoms) • Treat with PPI, not immediate H...

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Management of dyspepsia and of Helicobacter pylori infection Nottingham

The University of

John Atherton Wolfson Digestive Diseases Centre University of Nottingham, UK

Community management of dyspepsia • Scottish SIGN guidelines – Published 2003

• UK NICE guidelines – Published 2004

• (UK cancer screening guidelines – Published 2005)

Prevalence and economic importance of dyspepsia • Prevalence 25-40 %, of which • 50% self medicate • 25% consult their G.P. • 5% of G.P. consultations are for dyspepsia • Prescribed drugs and endoscopies cost £600M in 2000 • OTC indigestion remedies sold for £100M in 2002

Main causes of dyspepsia Diseases outside the upper GI tract Prevalence UK (endsocopies 1980-2000)

Reflux oesophagitis Duodenal ulcer Gastric ulcer Gastric carcinoma Oesophageal carcinoma

12% (rising) 10% (falling) 6% (falling) 1% (falling) 0.5% (rising)

Non-erosive GORD Functional (non-ulcer) dyspepsia

First approach to dyspepsia • Consider possible causes outside upper GI tract – Heart, lung, liver, gall bladder, pancreas, bowel

• Consider drugs and stop if possible – Aspirin/NSAIDs, calcium antagonists, nitrates, theophyllines, etidronate, steroids

Who should be referred for endoscopy ? • Those in whom upper GI cancer is a real possibility • If endoscopy, get maximum information – Avoid acid suppression if possible – If need acid suppression prefer H-2ra to PPI

Alarm symptoms/signs (prompting urgent referral) • • • • • •

GI bleeding (same day referral) Persistent vomiting Weight loss (progressive unintentional) Dysphagia Epigastric mass Anaemia due to possible GI blood loss

• Thus all patients with new-onset dyspepsia should have abdominal examination and FBC

Alarm symptoms/signs (prompting urgent referral) • • • • • • •

GI bleeding (same day referral) Persistent vomiting Weight loss (progressive unintentional) Dysphagia Epigastric mass Anaemia due to possible GI blood loss Worsening dyspepsia if known Barrett’s oesophagus, gastric atrophy, peptic ulcer surgery >20 years ago

Refer if dyspepsia in 55+ year old and • Alarm symptoms/signs (2 week referral) • Unexplained and persistent recent-onset dyspepsia without alarm symptoms – Unexplained means no cause known (and implies no recent endoscopy) – Persistent implies present for a length of time (NICE suggest 4-6 weeks) – Recent-onset implies new – not a recurrent episode

What to do when refer for endoscopy • Get maximum information – Avoid acid suppression if possible – at least for two weeks and preferably for 4 weeks – If need acid suppression prefer H-2ra to PPI

Post-endoscopy, management is easy

Reflux oesophagitis

Action: Proton pump inhibitor and “step down”

Gastric or duodenal ulcer

Action: Take biopsies to test for H. pylori Eradicate H. pylori if biopsies positive Cures ulcer and prevents recurrence

Gastric or duodenal ulcer

Action: If H. pylori negative or result awaited Treat with proton pump inhibitor Stop NSAIDs / aspirin

Gastric adenocarcinoma

Action: Surgery or other appropriate management

Normal endoscopy • Exclude causes outside upper gastrointestinal tract • Treat as “Functional dyspepsia”

New approach to community dyspepsia (SIGN and NICE) • Manage symptoms rather than make a diagnosis (i.e. treat dyspepsia, not its cause) • Avoid endoscopy for dyspepsia ALONE if <55 years (do if “alarm” symptoms or >55) • Empower patients to manage their own symptoms

Management of simple dyspepsia in those aged < 55 years • Stress benign nature of dyspepsia • Lifestyle advice – – – –

Healthy eating Weight reduction Stop smoking Use of antacids

Management of simple dyspepsia in those aged < 55 years Then what next if persistent ?

NICE guideline summary Refer if “alarm symptoms” at any stage Test and treat (Test for H. pylori and treat positives) THEN, IF STILL SYMPTOMATIC PPI for one month THEN Manage recurrent symptoms as functional dyspepsia

or vice versa

How to test ? • Urea breath test – most accurate but most costly

• Stool antigen test – Acceptability ?

• Serology – Near patient tests are inaccurate – Best serum-based ELISAs are accurate – Advantage of being less affected by PPIs and concurrent antibiotics

How to treat H. pylori • One week triple therapy – Full dose PPI bd e.g. omeprazole 20mg bd – Clarithromycin 500mg bd – Amoxycillin 1g bd (or Metronidazole 400mg bd)

• Measures to improve close compliance – Combination packs – Patient information on importance and side effects

Second line treatment • • • •

PPI e.g. omeprazole 20mg bd DeNol (bismuth subcitrate) i qds Tetracycline HCl 500mg qds Metronidazole 400mg tds

Third line treatment • Referral to John Atherton • Usually endoscopy + H. pylori culture/abio sens • Treat according to sensitivities

Retesting after treatment • Usually unnecessary if treatment for uninvestigated dyspepsia • If needed, do urea breath test or stool antigen test NOT SEROLOGY – Avoid antibiotics and bismuth for 4 weeks and PPIs for 2-4 weeks before test

NICE guideline summary Refer if “alarm symptoms” at any stage Test and treat (Test for H. pylori and treat positives) THEN, IF STILL SYMPTOMATIC PPI for one month THEN Manage recurrent symptoms as functional dyspepsia

or vice versa

Management of functional dyspepsia • • • • • • •

Reassurance and explanation Lifestyle advice H. pylori testing and eradication ? Acid suppression ? Prokinetics ? Cytoprotectives ? Anti-depressants ?

Management of aspirin/NSAID -associated dyspepsia • Reduce problem by rational prescribing • Consider testing for and treating H. pylori in patients likely to need recurrent courses of potent NSAIDS – Prevents ulcers (7% vs 26%) and probably symptomatic ulcers (2% vs 13%) where no previous dypepsia Chan, Lancet 1997;350:975

Management of aspirin/NSAID -associated dyspepsia • Reduce problem by rational prescribing • Consider testing for and treating H. pylori in patients likely to need recurrent courses of potent NSAIDS – Prevents complicated ulcers (4% vs 27%) in patients with previous dyspepsia…….but PPIs better Chan, Lancet 2003;359:9-13

Management of aspirin/NSAID -associated dyspepsia If dyspepsia (or ulcer) • Stop drug (endoscopy if alarm symptoms) • Treat with PPI, not immediate H. pylori eradication • Test for and treat H. pylori if likely to need recurrent NSAIDs or continuous aspirin • Reduce relapse with future NSAIDs/aspirin by co-prescribing a PPI

Should we treat H. pylori in patients on long term PPIs ? • H. pylori treatment slows development of atrophy and intestinal metaplasia • No evidence that H. pylori treatment prevents gastric cancer in this group. • PPIs are more effective in some people if H. pylori positive • Treatment can have side effects • Risk-benefit too unclear to recommend treatment in all

Dyspepsia management summary Endoscopy-guided approach • Needed ONLY if “alarm” symptoms or unexplained, persistent, recentonset dyspepsia in patients 55+ years

Simple dyspepsia in < 55 year old – Two options 1. Test and treat approach • Equivalent or better for simple dyspepsia in the community • Less costly • Most clearcut benefit where H. pylori prevalence high

Simple dyspepsia in < 55 year old – Two options 2. PPI course approach • May be best where prevalence of H. pylori is low • This will include younger patients

Simple dyspepsia in < 55 year old • Try both options • If continuing symptoms – reassure – Manage as functional dyspepsia

• Re-assess on yearly basis • Referral always an option if inadequate response to therapy or if you are worried

Further reading • NICE guidelines on Managing dyspepsia in adults in primary care at http://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/index.jsp?action=byID&o=10950

• Mason JM, Delaney B, Moayyedi P, Thomas M, Walt R. Managing dyspepsia without alarm signs in primary care: new national guidance for England and Wales. Aliment Pharmacol Therap 2005;21:1135-43 • Malfertheiner P and the European Helicobacter study group. Current concepts in the management of Helicobacter pylori infection: the Maastricht III consensus report. Gut 2007;56:772-781