•Assessment of loss through sedimentation by the year 2025 ... •Provisions may be made for the other items ... Strategy •Repairs and...

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Planning and Maintenance of Lift Irrigation Systems. Neeru Chettu. Cascading of MI Tanks Prof. N Chalamaiah FIE, MBA, LLB My Ph D is in WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING I have worked in APSIDC from Feb 1975 to June 2003 to retire as Chief Engineer A P Well Project Retired as Principal in Rishi M S Institute of Engineering & Technology for Women in 2015 Presently working on NATURAL FARMING

Irrigation in India ■India is the seventh largest country in the world ■Geographical area 329 M ha ■Population above 1300 Million (2nd biggest after China) ■Available cultivable area 199 M ha ■Ultimate irrigation potential 142 M ha ■Major & medium irrigation projects 58 M ha ■Minor irrigation projects 84 M ha ■Irrigation potential created up to year 2K 91 M ha

INTRODUCTION • Globally, fresh water at a tune of 3,240 M km3 is being utilized. • Of this, 69% is being used in agriculture sector, 8% in domestic, 23% in industrial and other sector. • In India, around 88% water is being used in agriculture sector, covering around 85Mha area under irrigation

Surface water & Ground water • Average annual surface water flows 1952.87x103 MCM (CWC) • Total utilizable water resource through conventional schemes 690.30x103 MCM (NWDA) • Possible additional utilization through inter-basin transfer 200 to 250x103 MCM • Assessment of loss through sedimentation by the year 2025 49.50x103 MCM • Replenishable ground water Resources as per CGWD 431.90x103 MCM • Utilizable ground water resources 395.60x103 MCM (CGWD)

National Water Policy (Sept.1987) water allocation priorities should be as follows • Drinking water, • Irrigation, • Hydropower, • Navigation, • Industrial and other uses

Irrigation in Andhra Pradesh (Combined AP) • Geographical area 27.44 M ha • Cropped area 13.19 M ha. • Forests 6.15 M ha Irrigation under different sources during 1996-97 in ha S No.


Irrigated Area in Million ha.











Other Sources





• Agricultural Dependency of working Population: 62.36% • Cultivators: 14.47% • Area: 162,975 (4.96% of the Country) • Agricultural workers: 47.89% • House hold Industry: 2.87% th 8 largest state • Literacy: 67.41% Population: 49,577,103 • Forest: 21.80% (4.097% of the country) • Barren Uncultivable \land:8.36 Urbanisation: 29.47% • Cultivable waste land: 2.44% • Non-Agri. Use+ 12.37% Decadal growth rate: • Net area Sown: 40.95% 33.35% • Total land holdings: 76.21 lakh • Average land holdings:1.06 Ha

Boundaries -• Rivers of A P • East: Bay of Bengal Major, Medium & Minor rivers • N-East: Odessa State number around 40 • North: Chhattisgarh • Coastal Districts:9 • West: Telangana Srikakulam, Vijayanagaram, &Karnataka states Visakhapatnam, EG, WG, • South: Tamilnadu Krishna, Guntur, Prakasam • Rivers in AP and Nellore Godavari, Krishna Land Locked Districts: Pennar and Vamsdhara areChittoor, Kurnool YSR Kadapa major rivers and Anantapuram in the Rayalseema Region

WHY LIFT IRRIGATION? • When it is not possible to convey water to irrigate the elevated land, Lift Irrigation is mandatory. • WHAT IS THE UNAVOIDABLE ELEMENT IN LIFT IRRIGATION? • It is the power to Lift Water! • WHAT TYPE OF POWER? • Which ever is economically viable!

Importance of Lift irrigation

• To cope up with increased demands of food grains • Most of the favorable sites for construction of major & medium flow irrigation projects are exhausted • The only altenative left for supply of water to higher elevation (upland area) is through lift • Several small and big LI and GW schemes have been constructed & many more are in the pipeline • It is necessary, to irrigate the vast upland areas to provide food for the growing population and for the survival of the rural masses

• • • • •

Factors favoring the taking up of LIS Environmentalist movements against taking up of major & medium irrigation projects involving, huge areas of submergence, rehabilitation problems, annihilation of rare species of flora and fauna High gestation periods of flow Irrigation Schemes & low gestation periods of LIS Aspirations of the public in demanding quick results Comparatively higher cost of FIS (200% to 300% higher than that required for LIS). No submergence of cultivable lands under LIS. Requirement of land acquisition is very small(1 to 2%)

Disadvantages of LIS

• Requirement of scarce power (electricity)

• High maintenance costs of E&M equipment

Phases in lift irrigation schemes (LIS) There are 3 phases in LIS 1. Investigation 2. Execution and 3. Maintenance

INVESTIGATION • Investigation Starts with feasibility study. • Ends up with the Detailed Investigation and Preparation of D P R

Feasibility study or Preliminary Investigation Starts with the proposal initiated by the stake holders or their leadership. 1. Collect and look through the topo-sheets of the proposed area. 2. Identify the area and the source of water 3. Finalize an appointment with the stake holders to inspect that area •

Meet and interact with the stake holders • Conduct a PRA with the stake holders • Enquire about the present cropping pattern and their average incomes, their proposals for the future crops, suitability of the soils for the proposed crops and marketability of the produce • Bring out information about the availability of water throughout the base period of the proposed crops

AVAILABILITY OF WATER • Take a transact walk to and along the source • Probe and ascertain from the stake holders about the availability of water in the source through out the base period of the crop. • Select the most probable head work sites to suit the criteria in the next slide. • In the case of Major perennial rivers, reservoirs and Irrigation canals the flow data will be available with the concerned department which will be ascertained by the competent authority at the time of according HC.

Conti. • The HFL as available with the official records may ascertained with the local elders. • In the case of major rivers stability of the water course during the Linear flows has to be ascertained & established and considered for locating the HW site. • It is desirable to locate the intake structure at a place where there is flow even in lean flow conditions and preferably where good foundations are available.

RECONNAISSANCE Collect the ayacut map from the stake holders Finalize the best feasible HW site Finalize the best feasible Cistern site Think of the best feasible alignment of the pipe line. Take up transact walk to delivery cistern along the proposed pipeline alignment. • This will also provide An idea to the Engineer about the nature of the ayacut and suitability of proposed crops to the ayacut. • • • • •

SELECTION OF INTAKE SITE • Where the stream flow is in a curve, the concave side of the of reach shall be selected for the intake. • If it is inevitable to locate the intake on the oxbow side of the stream course, necessary river training measures relevant to the site situation shall be proposed. • Lowest Water Levels at the HW site may be ascertained with the Local Elders

PRELIMINARY SURVEY • Having identified the HW site, Enquire the stake holders to locate the highest point in the LIS ayacut from where the water can irrigate the entire ayacut (delivery cistern). • Take the required levels at the HW site, LS of the pipe line connecting the highest point to be irrigated in the ayacut. • Present crops in the ayacut and the proposed crops after supply of water may discussed and ascertained with the beneficiaries

PRELIMINARY DESIGNS • With the proposed cropping pattern as discussed with the beneficiaries, finalize the duty & discharge • With the proposed ayacut, number of hours of pumping and finalized duty, calculate the discharge. • The diameter of the intake pipeline is calculated (v< 1.2 m/sec) • With the hydraulic particulars collected from the HW site during the preliminary survey finalize the type of pump set. (centrifugal /VT). • Finalize the type of HW (Jack well cum pump house or sump well & pump house)

DESIGN OF THE PIPE LINE • Fix the Delivery level of the Pipe in the Cistern • Fix the diameter of the pressure main for the required discharge. • Draw the L S of the pipeline alignment, L S of the (central line) pipe line. • Finalize the design of the pipeline (gravity main/pressure main) and the classification of the pipes and the material of the pipes.

DESIGN OF PUMPSETS • Based on the minimum water level, HFL, delivery level and the frictional losses in the pipeline finalize the HP and number of pump sets. • Depending upon the HP the number of pump sets may be fixed at (1+1) to (4+1) • Ascertain the distance of the available (suitable) power line to the HW site from the competent authority of APTRANSCO

PRELIMINARY ESTIMATE • Preliminary abstract estimates may be prepared for the pipelines & Jack well. • Provisions may be made for the other items in the estimate based on the detailed estimates of the resent years. • LS provisions may be made where ever necessary.

WATER RATE & ECONOMIC VIABILITY • Water rate may be calculated based on the actual cost price of electricity. • The Benefit Cost ratio, Internal Rate of Return and Economic Rate of Return shall be with in the stipulated limits. • Water rate without the interest and depreciation be with in 5% of the gross return on the proposed crop. • The economic viability of the LIS can be established based on the above criteria.

The objective of detailed investigation is minimization of capital cost subject to certain constraints:

• • • •

Assured irrigation to entire command area Dependable high performance B/C ratio to be with in the limits The proposal of the scheme to be bankable

DPR • First take up contour Survey • On the contour map propose the HW Site, Delivery point, Intake point, Gravity mains and Pressure mains, Open min channels and other distributaries system along with CM & CD works. • Take up the detailed survey of all the above proposals. • Prepare the DPR as per present standards and requirements.

NEERU - CHETTU The Vision of the Hon'ble Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh is to prepare the state as 'drought proof' state within 5 years and is aimed to eradicate of poverty and reducing economic inequalities by better Water Conservation. The Government of Andhra Pradesh has taken up Water Conservation Mission Neeru Chettu Sub-Mission under Primary Sector Mission with a vision to make the State a drought proof State and to eradicate the poverty and to reduce economic inequalities by better "water conservation and sustainable management".

Conti. • Neeru Chettu is interdepartmental convergence activity among "water conserving departments viz., Irrigation, Rural Development, Ground water, Forest, APSAC and water utilizing departments viz., Agriculture, Horticulture, Fisheries, Animal Husbandry, RWS, Municipal Administration and Urban Development". • The present ground water table has gone below 1000 feet in certain parts of the state which an alarming situation and drought prone. As a remedial measure to improve the ground water table, water conservation works are to be initiated immediately.

Why Neeru-Chettu • Ground water levels are depleted to a depth of 1000 feet below ground level in most of the areas and water levels are to be stabilized and improved. • Need to provide assured water supply to irrigation, drinking and industrial purposes. • Need to provide the lifesaving irrigation to drought prone areas especially Rayalaseema Region by providing mobile sprinklers if required.

Conti. • Need to reduce the gap ayacut under Major, Medium and Minor irrigation projects by providing assured water up to tail end areas. • Need for scientific management of water resources to ensure more crop per drop of water. • Need for increasing the overall green cover in the State and ensure 33% of the forest cover against the current forest cover of 23%

Strategy • Repairs and renovation of existing water harvesting structures and construction of new structures such as check dams, percolation tanks, MI tanks, sub-surface dams and farm ponds thereby increasing the ground water recharge. • Arresting the soil erosion by following the ridge to valley approach. • Repairs, renovation and de-silting of tanks by convergence with NREGA by utilizing State and Central Government funds. These works includes strengthening of Bunds, repairs to supply channels, weirs, sluices and distributary system.

Conti. • Repairs and restoration of defunct LI schemes and construction of new LI schemes. • Development of cascades i.e. chain of tanks to divert water from surplus basin to deficit basin using latest GIS and satellite technology. • Encouraging micro irrigation on large scale and mobile micro irrigation practices in severe water scarce areas. • To take up 7 No.s of prioritized projects pertaining to Major and Medium Irrigation. • To take up the Plantation to increase the green cover and harvest rain water through massive afforestation and soil moisture conservation works and rising of nurseries by the Forest Department.

The following are the achievements under Neeru-Chettu programme up to August 2016 with farmers Participation. • The total quantity of de-silting of tanks done is 1355.75 lakh cum • The impounding capacity of the tanks will be increasing 4.79 TMC and there by the ayacut can be stabilized is 49.293 Acres. • Total Ayacut stabilised by de-silting and taking up construction and as well as repairs to structures is 180791 Acres • Total Quantity of water increased by de-silting and taking up construction and as well as repairs to structures

Achievements of Other departments: • The APSIDC has commissioned and revived 86 Nos of Lift Irrigation Schemes by incurring an expenditure of Rs 111.50 Crores and Stabilised an Ayacut to atune of 73894 Acres. • The Rural Development Department has executed and repaired structures like Check dams, Percolation-tanks, Farm Ponds, etc. and total no of such structures is 126477 No.s and incurred an expenditure of Rs 708.06 Cr. and Stabilised an Ayacut to a tune of 58530 Acres.

Forest Department • A.Under NEERU • The forest department has Achieved the following • Digging of Water Absorption Trenches (WAT) / Peripheral Trench to a tune of 408 Km. • Construction of PTs and CDs taken up for 199 No.s • Repairs to old PT s and old CD s taken up for 656 No.s • A.Under CHETTU • Under CHETTU The Block Plantation is taken up in 3726 Ha area and 13.92 Lakh No.s of nursery raised and 315 Lakh Seedlings distributed • Total expenditure incurred is Rs 26.45 Cr.

Conclusion • The programme of NEERU –CHETTU is a necessity of the present day and started with great vision. • It is the duty of every one of us to starve to reach its targeted objective to meet the expectations of its visionary. • Its success will pave the way for around development of our state as the present crunch for water will be removed and pave way for flawless development of our state and make it Numbe one for the country

CASCADING of IRRIGATION WATER TANKS The cascade system of tanks is a unique and traditional mechanism, believed to have originated over 2,500 years ago, and is used to capture and utilise rainwater. This means that water is available during the dry season, helps avoid floods and supports everyday living. Tanks have been the life line of Telangana owing to the state's geographical positioning. The people of the state are highly dependent on the tanks which are spread across all the 10 districts. The topography and rainfall pattern in Telangana have made tank irrigation an ideal type of irrigation by storing and regulating water flow for agricultural use.

History of Tanks in Telamgana State • Construction of tanks in Telangana has been an age old activity since pre Satavahana era. During the Kakatiya era, the construction of tanks was carried out with utmost technical expertise. • Tanks such as Ramappa, Pakhala, Laknavaram, Ghanapuram, Bayyaram which were built by Kakatiyas resemble seas and they greatly helped agriculture and overall development and prosperity of the Kakatiya kingdom. • The successive Governments successfully ignored the maintenance and development of tanks and allowed them to face extinction by way of siltation, breaches, encroachments etc. With the extinction of tank system, the self-sufficient villages of Telangana have become drought prone areas. • Realizing the importance of reclamation of tanks for growth in the state, the Government of Telangana State has taken up the programme of restoring the minor irrigation sources under the title Mission Kakatiya (Mana Ooru Mana Cheruvu). • The irrigation department has planned to restore all the 46,531 minor irrigation sources in the state in next five years, taking up 20% of the tanks each year.

THE OBJECTIVE OF MISSION KAKATIYA • The objective of Mission Kakatiya is to enhance the development of agriculture based income for small and marginal farmers, by accelerating the development of minor irrigation infrastructure, strengthening community based irrigation management and adopting a comprehensive programme for restoration of tanks.