MI 2013

preparation book entitled ‘Buku Jagoan: Langsung Lulus UASBN SD / MI 2013’ which is bought from the biggest book store in Indonesia. The book is chose...

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Grammatical Errors in Intisari Pelajaran Bahasa Inggris 2013 from Buku Jagoan: Langsung Lulus UASBN SD /MI 20133

Murniati Universitas Bunda Mulia [email protected]

ABSTRACT There a lot of prediction test books sold in the bookstores in Indonesia. Before doing the national final test, the students may study first from the summary provided in those prediction test books. If the lessons are incorrect, such as containing grammatical errors, most probably, the results of the test are not good. Unfortunately, this happens not because the students’ ability but because of the lessons provided themselves. This research aims to find the grammatical errors found in the summary of English lessons in Buku Jagoan: Langsung Lulus UASBN SD /MI 2013. There are four kinds of errors which are going to be observed, namely the omission, additions, misformation, and misordering. In this research, all sentences provided in the summary are going to be analyzed. The errors will be identified and classified; then, the correction is made. The result of the research has shown that the four kinds of errors have been found in the summary of English lessons in Buku Jagoan: Langsung Lulus UASBN SD /MI 2013.

Keywords: grammatical errors, omission, additions, misformation, misordering

1. Background of the Study There are a lot of UASBN preparation books for elementary schools which are sold in the bookstores in Indonesia. In order to complete the books, the publishers of the books usually include a summary of all English lessons.

3

This journal entry was previously presented as annual research of Universitas Bunda Mulia with the same title and by the same researcher.

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The writers who write the summary are usually Indonesia people. It must be noted that in Indonesia, English functions as a foreign language. It means that, perhaps, they do not have a native speaker intuition. As a result, Bahasa Indonesia may affect the English produced by the people who construct the English sentences found in the summary of the lessons. In the end, errors may be found in the book. When the summary of the English lessons itself is not correct, both the validity and reliability of the test are questioned. The test items may be incorrect. In addition, the answer keys will also be incorrect. In short, the UASBN books cannot be used, not to mention that it can be sold and delivered to the students.

1.1 Statement of Problems There are two main problems in this research, they are (1) What errors can be found in the summary of English lessons in Buku Jagoan: Langsung Lulus UASBN SD /MI 2013 and (2) What are the best alternative corrections of those errors? The main problems are divided into four sub problems. They are as follows. 1. What are the grammatical errors due to the omission? 2. What are the grammatical errors due to the additions? 3. What are the grammatical errors due to the misformation? 4. What are the grammatical errors due to the misordering?

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1.2 Objective of the Study The objective of the study is to find the grammatical errors found in the summary of English lessons in Buku Jagoan: Langsung Lulus UASBN SD /MI 2013. Not only does the errors are identified are classified, the corrections are also made.

1.3 Scope and Limitation of the Study The English lesson summary which are analyzed are taken from UASBN preparation book entitled ‘Buku Jagoan: Langsung Lulus UASBN SD / MI 2013’ which is bought from the biggest book store in Indonesia. The book is chosen since it is one of the most salable books in the bookstore. Moreover, there is an additional note on the cover stating that Garansi!!! Uang Kembali kalau tidak lulus. Providing that another book is analyzed, the result may be different from the result of this research.

1.4 Significance of the Study There are two major significance of this study. First, the significance is for the institution. It is expected that the result of the study, along with other results of research can later make a research which is in accordance with the road map of the research in the institution. Second, in a general term, all of English teachers in Indonesia are expected to learn from the errors made in the book, so that they will not make the same errors while teaching English.

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2. Literature Review According to Harmer (2007:96), errors are ‘mistakes that students make because they have not learnt some language correctly’. It may happen due to the lack of the English knowledge. Therefore, further explanation is needed in order to correct the errors. Errors itself can be categorized into several categories, such as the linguistic category and into the surface strategy taxonomy which see the grammatical errors from the point of grammatical points. Regarding the surface strategy taxonomy, Dulay et al. (1982: 150) has divided grammatical errors into the following categories: (1) omission, (2) additions, (3) misformation, and (4) misordering. Omission may happen due to the lack of knowledge. It usually happens at the early stages of learning English. On the other hands, misformation, misordering, or overuse usually occur in the higher stages. It happens due to the ‘overuse’ of the English language. Next, from the grammatical point of view, according to Winterowd & Murray (1985:x-xiii) the errors can be classified into two general points; the grammar and usages, and the mechanics. The errors in grammar and usages can be categorized into nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, interjections, sentence patterns phrases, clauses, and complete and incomplete sentences. In addition, the errors of mechanics cover the punctuation and classification.

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2.1 Analyzing the Grammatical Errors According to Gass & Selinker (2008:103), there are some steps to be followed while analyzing the grammatical errors. First, all of the data are collected. It means first of all, the source of the data is decided. At the same time, the sampling technique is also decided. It can be either population or sampling. Next, all of the data is analyzed to find the grammatical errors in general. After that, those errors are classified into several categories. It could be linguistic category or surface strategy taxonomy, for example. Each errors and each category must be quantified in order to find the most common error. The fifth step is analyzing the source. This step will enrich a research since the probable reasons why the errors occur should be presented. The last step is remediating. All steps above are a bit useless if the correction of the grammatical errors is not presented. In short, there are six steps of analyzing the grammatical errors which outcome is to propose a good text which contains no grammatical errors.

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3. Research Method

3.1 Research Objects The objects of this study is the books entitled ‘Buku Jagoan: Langsung Lulus UASBN SD / MI 2013’ . Following the previous research, in this research, only the grammatical points presented in the summary of the books are going to be observed. All of the data found are analyzed.

3.2 Data Gathering Method The methods in data gathering can be seen in the following figure. Deciding the source of the data (the books)

Deciding the parts of the data to be analyzed (Which part of the book to be analyzed)

Deciding the sampling method (population)

Deciding the parts of grammatical errors (surface strategy taxonomy and grammatical points) Figure 3.1 Methods of data gathering

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3.3. Data Analysis Method

After all of the data are gained, below is the methods of analyzing the data. Collecting the data

Identifying errors

Classifying errors

Quantifying errors

Analyzing the possible source

Remediating Figure 3.1 Methods of analyzing the data

In short, after all of the data are analyzed, a production of English grammar summary is presented in this research.

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4. Data Analysis In this chapter, the errors are classified into its linguistic category and into the surface strategy taxonomy, in this case the grammatical points. The errors are found in 101 sentences. It means 26% of the sentences contain grammatical errors. Each error is classified twice. First based on the surface strategy taxonomy, later in this chapter, it is classified into its grammatical points.

4.1 Surface Strategy Taxonomy Based on the surface strategy taxonomy, the grammatical errors are classified into the misinformation, omission, addition, and misordering. The four surface strategy taxonomy of the grammatical errors can be found in the data. The detail can be found in the table below. Classification Misinformation Omission Addition Misordering

Total 52 +3 23 22 4

Percentage 52.9% 22.1% 21.2% 3.8%

Table 4.1 Surface strategy of grammatical errors

From the table above, it can be seen that the most grammatical errors occurred due to the misinformation with 52.9%. It is followed by omission with 22.1%. Not too different from omission, the grammatical errors which are due to the addition is 21.2%. Last, the grammatical errors which are about the misordering are not as many as others. It takes only 3.8% from the overall errors. The misinformation mainly happens because of the wrong usages of the grammatical points such as the preposition, countable and uncountable nouns, Journal of English Language and Culture - Vol.4 No. 2 June 2014

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articles, tenses, singular and plural nouns, pronouns, gerunds, parts of speech, and conjunctions. An example can be seen in the sentence ‘I go with the plane’. When a person says that, it means that that person is flying outside the plane. When the person wants to express that he or she is flying, inside the plane, the correct preposition is ‘by’. The most acceptable sentence is ‘I go by plane’. That grammatical error of misinformation may happen since in Bahasa Indonesia, it can be said that ‘Saya terbang dengan pesawat’. The word ‘dengan’ can literally be translated into with’. In fact, in English, the most appropriate preposition is ‘by’. In this case, the misinformation occurs due to the literal translation from Bahasa Indonesia into English. The detail data of other grammatical errors of misinformation can be seen in the table below. The proposed correct sentences are also provided in the table below.

No 1

Sentence

Page

Classification

7

Misinformation

14

Misinformation

3

I go with plane Do not cruel with your friends! She was afraid with darkness.

14

Misinformation

4

I walk with my foot.

18

Misinformation

5

Mother cooks a sup.

21

Misinformation

6

This is a jam.

21

Misinformation

7

That is a cheese.

21

Misinformation

8

This is a meat.

21

Misinformation

9

That is a sugar.

21

Misinformation

2

Proposed Correct Sentences I go by plane Do not cruel to your friends! She was afraid of darkness. I walk on my foot. Mother cooks a bowl of soup. This is a jar of jam. That is a slice of cheese. This is a kilo of meat. That is a block of sugar.

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10

This is a salt.

21

Misinformation

This is a spoon of salt.

11

That is a eraser.

27

Misinformation

That is an eraser.

12

It is a eraser.

33

Misinformation

It is an eraser.

13

Rudi wear a hat

5

Misinformation

Rudi wears a hat

14

Andi sit on the chair

6

Misinformation

15

18

Misinformation

15

Misinformation

17

Anna have long finger They must be smart student. The meal cost a few dollars

31

Misinformation

Andi sits on the chair Anna has a long finger They must be smart students. The meal costs a few dollars

18

It great

55

Misinformation

19

5

Misinformation

7

Misinformation

21

They uniform are blue Its rain, I must take an umbrella. If you drink milk every day it will always be healthy.

14

Misinformation

It is great Their uniform are blue It is raining, I must take an umbrella. If you drink milk every day, you will always be healthy.

22

She’s hair is beauty.

17

Misinformation

her hair is beautiful.

23

That is a socks

6

Misinformation

That is a sock

24

That is a forks

7

Misinformation

That is a fork

25

This is my eyes.

17

Misinformation

This is my eye.

26

This is my hands.

18

Misinformation

This is my hand.

27

This is your knees.

18

Misinformation

28

This is my trouser

19

Misinformation

This is your knee. These are my trousers

29

This is my shorts.

19

Misinformation

These are my shorts

30

That is my socks.

19

Misinformation

These are my socks

16

20

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31

20

Misinformation

32

That is my shoes. I have a dream last night

8

Misinformation

These are my shoes I had a dream last night

33

Rudi learn to draw

9

Misinformation

Rudi learns to draw

34

Susi cry so sad

10

Misinformation

Susi cries sadly

35

That dog is bark

11

Misinformation

36

11

Misinformation

8

Misinformation

38

A cat scratch my hands You must take a bath before sleep My father was tired because of work

13

Misinformation

That dog is barking A cat is scratching my hands You must take a bath before sleeping My father was tired because of working

39

Ears for hear.

18

Misinformation

40

Would you mind finish my homework for me, please?

48

Misinformation

41

Ani has a fat body.

14

Misinformation

14

Misinformation

14

Misinformation

Ani is fat I was not strong enough to lift up this table. He is too weak to walk another 10 km.

14

Misinformation

I feel hungry when the day began to noon.

10

Misinformation

10

Misinformation

47

Susi cry so sad All the students are applause I don’t want to live in poor

13

Misinformation

Susi cries sadly All the students give an applause I don’t want to live poorly

48

My father is anger

15

Misinformation

My father is angry

49

She’s hair is beauty.

17

Misinformation

She’s hair is beautiful

50

Please sit polite!

44

Misinformation

Please sit politely!

37

42 43

44 45 46

I was not strong up this table. He looks weak in finishing his task. My stomach feels hungry when the day began to noon.

Ears are for hearing. Would you mind finishing my homework for me, please?

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51

Don’t noise!

54

Misinformation

52

Our flag is red white

25

Misinformation

Don’t be noisy! Our flag is red and white

Total

52 +3 4.2. Grammatical errors due to misinformation

As mentioned earlier, there are 23 sentences which contain grammatical errors due to omission. It means that the sentences are incomplete. The incomplete sentences actually need articles, prepositions, adverbs of time, and auxiliary verbs. The example of the omission due to the lack of the article is: ‘I stand in front of class.’ This sentence needs an article ‘the’. An article is needed to modify a noun. The correct sentence should be ‘I stand in front of the class.’ The error might happen since in Bahasa Indonesia, there is no article such as ‘the’. Another grammatical error of omission can be found in a sentence ‘Susi heard a scary sound’ which can be found on page 8. The verb shows that a past activity. In English, a time signal is important to be used with a past tense. Otherwise, a present perfect must be used. The correct proposed sentence is, of course, by adding a time signal, such as ‘Susi heard a scary sound last night’. Other grammatical errors due to the omission as well as the proposed correct sentences can be seen in the following table.

No 1 2 3

Sentence Baby sprawl when he tired. I listen a radio Susi heard a scary sound

Page 9

Classification Omission, Misinformation

6

Omission

8

Omission

Proposed Correct Sentences The Baby sprawls when he is tired. I listen to a radio Susi heard a scary sound last night

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9

Ana smiled sweetly He rolling when he fighting with his friends A dog tried to bite a bone

10

Rudi absent from his school because he sick.

14

Omission

My father drove a car yesterday. I had to walk to school when I was young My dad and I went fishing on the lake this morning. Ana smiled sweetly just now. He is rolling when he is fighting with his friends A dog tried to bite a bone yesterday Rudi is absent from his school because he is sick.

11

Ears for hear.

18

Omission

Ears are for hearing

12

5

Omission

13

That is eraser Teacher writes on the blackboard.

6

Omission

That is an eraser The teacher writes on the blackboard.

14

I drink glass of milk

7

Omission

15

I stand in front of class

9

Omission

9

Omission

9

Omission

11

Omission

14

Omission

14

Omission

29

Omission

13

Omission

4

My father drove a car

8

Omission

5

I had to walk to school

9

Omission

6

My dad and I went fishing on the lake.

9

Omission

10

Omission

10

Omission

11

Omission

7

8

21

Children are running catch the ball Baby sprawl when he tired. Teacher talks with Andi The teachers would be angry if students are not discipline. You are cute girl that I know. There is egg in the basket

22

If you lazy in learning, you will stupid

16 17 18

19 20

I drink a glass of milk I stand in front of the class The Children are running to catch the ball The Baby sprawls when he is tired. The teacher talks to Andi The teachers would be angry if the students are not discipline. You are a cute girl that I know. There is an egg in the basket If you are lazy in learning, you will be stupid

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23

Be a person that kind

13

Omission

Be a person that is kind

Total

23 4.3. Grammatical errors due to omission

Next, not only are the sentences incomplete, they also have some unimportant additions which make them grammatically incorrect. It means that there is a word, a letter, or more than one letters or words which are added to the sentence which resulted in the incorrect sentences due to the grammatical errors. An example of addition can be seen on page 12. A grammatical error is detected in a sentence ‘That child is looks ugly’. The word ‘looks’ is a verb. It does not need an auxiliary verb ‘is’ in the sentence. A proposed correct sentence is ‘That child looks ugly’. Other grammatical errors due to the addition can be seen in the following table. The proposed correct sentences which are free from the grammatical errors are also presented in the table below.

No 1

Sentence I eat a snack.

7

I don’t like a lemon tea. I don’t like a juice I have much drink a coffee this morning I have many drink a coffee this morning You can join with us for play games That child is looks ugly

8

Do it your homework!

2 3 4 5 6

Page

Classification

Proposed Correct Sentences

21

Addition

I eat snack.

21 22

Addition Addition

30

Addition

30

Addition

57

Addition

I don’t like lemon tea. I don’t like juice I drank much coffee this morning I drank much coffee this morning You can join us for the games

12

Addition

That child looks ugly

44

Addition

Do your homework!

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9

11

I eat for breakfast Baby crawl with slowly You must drink of milk everyday

8

Addition

9

Addition

10

Addition

I have breakfast The baby crawls slowly You must drink milk everyday

12

How about with your friend, Anna?

15

Addition

How about your friend, Anna?

45

Addition

57

Addition

Out of this room! You can join us for the games

12

Addition

That child looks ugly.

16

Addition

9

Addition

57

Addition

15

Addition

My mother is healthy The children are running to catch the ball I want you to play badminton My new bag is expensive

35

Addition

Good morning

21

Good morning too. But next year I should have graduated from this elementary school.

42

Addition

But next year I should graduate from this elementary school.

22

See you too.

42

Addition

See you

10

13 14 15 16

17 18 19 20

Out of from this room! You can join with us for play games That child is looks ugly. My mother is to be healthy Children are running catch the ball I want you play badminton My new bag is expensive price.

Total

22 4.4. Grammatical errors due to addition

Last, there are also grammatical errors due to the misordering. The misordering is basically about the position of each part of speech in the sentences. In English, the adjective can directly put before the noun which is modified. In Bahasa Indonesia, that order is not accepted. Journal of English Language and Culture - Vol.4 No. 2 June 2014

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No 1 2

3 4

Sentence My father has beard bushy. That’s ants are in there. I have many drink cups of coffee this morning I have much drink a coffee this morning

18

Misordering

Proposed Correct Sentences My father has bushy beard.

29

Misordering

There are ants

Misinformation, Misordering Misinformation, Misordering

I drank much coffee this morning I drank much coffee this morning

Page

30 30

Classification

Total

4 4.5. Grammatical errors due to misordering

4.2 Grammatical Errors After the grammatical errors are classified based on the surface strategy taxonomy, the following are categorized according to their grammatical points. The results, in short can be seen in the table below. No

Grammar points

Total Number

Percentage

1.

Article

24

23.8%

2.

Tenses

19

18.9%

3.

Pronoun

11

10.9%

4.

Singular -plural

9

8.9%

5.

Dangling sentence

9

8.9%

6.

Subject-verb agreement

9

8.9%

7.

Part of speech

8

7.9%

8.

Gerund / to infinitives

6

5.9%

9.

Pronoun

5

4.9%

10.

Conjunction

1

0.9%

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4.6. Surface Strategy of Grammatical Errors

As can be seen in the table above, the most common error is about article with 23.8%. There are 5 sentences which do not use appropriate articles at the beginning of the sentences. For example, in the sentence ‘Teacher writes on the blackboard’. Even though the noun ‘teacher’ is put at the beginning of the sentence, an article is still needed. The correction is ‘The teacher writes on the blackboard’. Other grammatical errors about articles in English occur in the middle of the sentence, such as in the sentence ‘I eat a snack’. Since ‘snack’ is an uncountable noun, in this case, no article is needed. The proposed correct sentence is ‘I eat snack’. Other grammatical errors about article can be seen in the table below.

No 1

Article

Page

Types of Error

5

Omission

2

That is eraser Teacher writes on the blackboard.

6

Omission

3

I drink glass of milk

7

Omission

4

I stand in front of class

9

Omission

9

Omission

9

Omission

6

Children are running catch the ball Baby sprawl when he tired.

7

Teacher talks with Andi

11

Omission

8

The teachers would be angry if students are not discipline. You are cute girl that I know.

14

Omission

14

Omission

5

9

Correction That is an eraser The teacher writes on the blackboard. I drink a glass of milk I stand in front of the class The Children are running to catch the ball The Baby sprawls when he is tired. The teacher talks to Andi The teachers would be angry if the students are not discipline. You are a cute girl that I know.

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10

I eat a snack.

21

11

Mother cooks a sup.

21

12

I don’t like a lemon tea.

21

13

This is a jam.

21

14

That is a cheese.

21

15

This is a meat.

21

16

That is a sugar.

21

17

This is a salt.

21

Misinformation This is a jar of jam. That is a slice of Misinformation cheese. This is a kilo of Misinformation meat. That is a block of Misinformation sugar. This is a spoon of Misinformation salt.

18

I don’t like a juice

22

Addition

19

That is a eraser.

27

20

29

22

There is egg in the basket I have much drink a coffee this morning I have many drink a coffee this morning

30

Misinformation That is an eraser. There is an egg in Omission the basket I drank much coffee Addition this morning I drank much coffee Addition this morning

23

It is a eraser.

33

Misinformation It is an eraser.

24

You can join with us for play games

21

30

57

Addition

I eat snack. Mother cooks a Misinformation bowl of soup. I don’t like lemon Addition tea.

Addition

I don’t like juice

You can join us for the games

4.7. Grammatical Errors due to the articles

In English, a subject in a sentence must agree with the verb. A sentence ‘Rudi wear a hat’ is incorrect. In present simple tenses, when the subject is third person singular, then the verb must have an ‘s’ ending. The correct sentence must be ‘Rudi wears a hat’. Other errors regarding the tenses can be seen in the table below.

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No Subject Verb Agreement

Page

Types of Error

Correction

1

Rudi wear a hat

5

Misinformation

2

Andi sit on the chair

6

Misinformation

3

That child is looks ugly

12

Addition

4

If you lazy in learning, you will stupid

13

Omission

5

Be a person that kind

13

Omission

6

18

Misinformation

7

Anna have long finger They must be smart student.

15

Misinformation

8

The meal cost a few dollars

31

Misinformation

Rudi wears a hat Andi sits on the chair That child looks ugly If you are lazy in learning, you will be stupid Be a person that is kind Anna has a long finger They must be smart students. The meal costs a few dollars

9

It great

55

Misinformation

It is great

4.8. Grammatical Errors due to the subject verb agreement

One of the parts of speech in English is pronoun. In English, the pronoun is divided into subjective pronoun, objective pronoun, possessive adjectives, possessive pronoun, reflexive pronoun, demonstrative pronoun, interrogative pronoun, indefinite pronoun, relative pronoun, and intensive pronoun. The errors regarding pronoun found in this research are about possessive pronoun and subjective pronoun. The errors about the possessive pronoun can be seen in the sentence ‘They uniform are blue’. Even though the pronoun is at the beginning of the sentence, it is not a subjective pronoun since it modifies a noun. As a result, a possessive pronoun is needed. The correction is ‘Their uniforms are blue’. Other grammatical errors due to the pronoun as well as the corrections can be seen in the following table.

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No Pronoun

2

They uniform are blue Its rain, I must take an umbrella.

3

If you drink milk every day it will always be healthy.

14

Misinformation

Correction Their uniforms are blue It is raining, I must take an umbrella. If you drink milk every day, you will always be healthy.

4

She’s hair is beauty.

17

Misinformation

her hair is beautiful.

5

Do it your homework!

44

Addition

Do your homework!

1

Page

Types of Error

5

Misinformation

7

Misinformation

4.9. Grammatical Errors due to the pronoun

Other grammatical errors happen due the wrong usages of the singular and plural forms. In English, the subject must agree with the verb. When the subject is singular, the verb is also singular and vice versa. A sentence like ‘That is a sock’ is incorrect since the demonstrative pronoun ‘that’ refers to a singular one, while the noun ‘socks’ refers to a plural noun. The correct answer could be ‘That is a sock’ or ‘Those are socks’. Other incorrect singular and plural form can be seen in the table below. No Singular - Plural Form

Page

Types of Error

Correction

1

That is a socks

6

Misinformation

That is a sock

2

That is a forks

7

Misinformation

That is a fork

3

This is my eyes.

17

Misinformation

This is my eye.

4

This is my hands.

18

Misinformation

This is my hand.

5

This is your knees.

18

Misinformation

6

This is my trouser

19

Misinformation

7

This is my shorts.

19

Misinformation

This is your knee. These are my trousers These are my shorts

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8

That is my socks.

19

Misinformation

These are my socks

9

That is my shoes.

20

Misinformation

These are my shoes

4.10. Grammatical Errors due to the singular and plural form

There are many usages of preposition in English, such as preposition of place, time, movement, and preposition after certain verbs which have been common collocation. In this research, the grammatical errors occur in preposition after certain verbs. For example, it is stated on page 7 ‘I go with plane’. It should be ‘I go by plane’. I go with plane means that the person who speaks is actually flying beside the plane. Other errors in preposition can be seen in the table below.

No Preposition

Page

Types of Error

Correction

1

I listen a radio

6

Omission

I listen to a radio

2

I go with plane

7

Misinformation

I go by plane

3

I eat for breakfast

8

Addition

4

9

Addition

10

Addition

14

Misinformation

14

Misinformation

8

Baby crawl with slowly You must drink of milk everyday Do not cruel with your friends! She was afraid with darkness. How about with your friend, Anna?

15

Addition

I have breakfast The baby crawls slowly You must drink milk everyday Do not cruel to your friends! She was afraid of darkness. How about your friend, Anna?

9

I walk with my foot.

18

Misinformation

I walk on my foot.

10

Out of from this room! You can join with us for play games

45

Addition

57

Addition

Out of this room! You can join us for the games

5 6 7

11

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4.11. Grammatical Errors due to the preposition

The next grammatical errors are about tenses. It is a common fact that in Bahasa Indonesia, the verbs are not categorized into tenses. As a result, potential errors may happen due to the tenses. An example of grammatical error due to the tenses can be found on page 11. A sentence like ‘That dog is bark’ is grammatically incorrect since it is not clear which tenses should be used. It could be simple present, to talk about the habit and daily routine, so that the sentence is ‘The dog barks’. On the other hand, it could also be a present continuous tense, to talk about a temporary action. The correct sentence must be ‘The dog is barking’. Other misuses of the tenses can be seen in the following table. No Tenses

Page

Types of Error

1

Susi heard a scary sound

8

Omission

2

My father drove a car

8

Omission

3

I have a dream last night

8

Misinformation

4

Rudi learn to draw

9

Misinformation

5

I had to walk to school

9

Omission

6

My dad and I went fishing on the lake.

9

7

Baby sprawl when he tired.

9

Omission Omission, Misinformation

8

Susi cry so sad

10

Misinformation

9

Ana smiled sweetly

10

Omission

10

He rolling when he fighting with his friends

10

Omission

Correction Susi heard a scary sound last night My father drove a car yesterday. I had a dream last night Rudi learns to draw I had to walk to school when I was young My dad and I went fishing on the lake this morning. The Baby sprawls when he is tired. Susi cries sadly Ana smiled sweetly just now. He is rolling when he is fighting with his friends

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11

That dog is bark

11

Misinformation

12

A dog tried to bite a bone

11

Omission

13

A cat scratch my hands

11

Misinformation

14

That child is looks ugly.

12

Addition

15

Rudi absent from his school because he sick.

14

Omission

16

My mother is to be healthy

16

Addition

That dog is barking A dog tried to bite a bone yesterday A cat is scratching my hands That child looks ugly. Rudi is absent from his school because he is sick. My mother is healthy

17

Ears for hear. I have many drink cups of coffee this morning I have much drink a coffee this morning

18

Omission Misinformation, Misordering Misinformation, Misordering

Ears are for hearing I drank much coffee this morning I drank much coffee this morning

18 19

30 30

4.12. Grammatical Errors due to the tenses

Gerund in English is a base form plus the - ing form which functions as subject, object, after preposition, or after certain verbs. On the other hand, there are also infinitives which are followed by the base form of verb. The data has shown that there are some grammatical errors due to the gerund and infinitives. As shown on page 8, ‘You must take a bath before sleep’, the order of the verb ‘sleep’ is after preposition. It must be the gerund. The correct sentence must be ‘You must take a bath before sleeping’. On the other hand, there is also an error due to the infinitive. On page 57, it is stated ‘I want you play badminton’. The word ‘want’ in English is usually followed by to plus a base form. It sentence must be ‘I want you to play badminton’. The detail of the grammatical mistakes due to the gerund or infinitive can be seen in the table below.

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No Gerund / Infinitive You must take a bath 1 before sleep

Page

Types of Error

8

Misinformation

9

Addition

3

Children are running catch the ball My father was tired because of work

13

Misinformation

4

Ears for hear.

18

Misinformation

5

Would you mind finish my homework for me, please?

48

Misinformation

6

I want you play badminton

57

Addition

2

Correction You must take a bath before sleeping The children are running to catch the ball My father was tired because of working Ears are for hearing. Would you mind finishing my homework for me, please? I want you to play badminton

4.13. Grammatical Errors due to the gerund or infinitive

Another grammatical mistake occurs due to the dangling sentence. The sentence seems to be correct. Unfortunately, it is not natural which make it incorrect. For example, on page 14 from the data, it is stated ‘My stomach feels hungry when the day began to noon’. It is not a common expression in English, even though when it is translating into Bahasa Indonesia it makes a good sentence. In English, it is usually said ‘I feel hungry when the day began to noon’. Other grammatical errors due to the dangling sentences can be seen in the following table. No Dangling Sentence 1

2 3

4

Ani has a fat body. I was not strong up this table. He looks weak in finishing his task. My stomach feels hungry when the day began to noon.

Page

Types of Error

Correction

14

Misinformation

14

Misinformation

14

Misinformation

14

Misinformation

Ani is fat I was not strong enough to lift up this table. He is too weak to walk another 10 km. I feel hungry when the day began to noon.

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5

My new bag is expensive price.

15

Addition

My new bag is expensive

6

That’s ants are in there.

29

Misordering

There are ants

7

Good morning too.

35

Addition

8

But next year I should have graduated from this elementary school.

42

Addition

Good morning But next year I should graduate from this elementary school.

9

See you too.

42

Addition

See you

4.14. Grammatical Errors due to the dangling sentences

Misusing parts of speech are also categorized as grammatical errors which occur in this research. Parts of speech, such as noun, verb, adverb, and adjective have their own order in a sentence. Sometimes the parts of speech in English, when translated into Bahasa Indonesia, have shifted into different parts of speech. The shifting itself is a potential source of the grammatical errors. As stated on page 10, the sentence ‘Susi cry so sad’ is incorrect. When translating literally into Bahasa Indonesia, it seems correct ‘Susi menangis dengan sedihnya’. In English, it should be ‘Susi cries sadly’. In short, the sentence needs an adverb ‘sadly’ in order to modify the verb ‘cries’. Other grammatical errors due to the parts of speech can be seen in the following table. No Parts of Speech

Page

Types of Error

Correction

10

Misinformation

2

Susi cry so sad All the students are applause

10

Misinformation

3

I don’t want to live in poor

13

Misinformation

Susi cries sadly All the students give an applause I don’t want to live poorly

4

My father is anger

15

Misinformation

My father is angry

1

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5

She’s hair is beauty.

17

Misinformation

6

My father has beard bushy.

18

Misordering

She’s hair is beautiful My father has bushy beard.

7

Please sit polite!

44

Misinformation

Please sit politely!

8

Don’t noise!

54

Misinformation

Don’t be noisy!

4.15. Grammatical Errors due to the parts of speech

There is also one grammatical error due to the incorrect conjunction usages found in this research. One of many usages of conjunction is to join two or more verbs, nouns, adjectives, and adverbs. On page 25 taken from the data, there are two nouns in a sentence with no conjunction. The sentence is ‘Our flag is red white’. In Bahasa Indonesia, it is true that no conjunction needed, but in English, a conjunction ‘and’ is needed. It should be ‘Our flag is red and white’. The detail can be seen in the table below. No Conjunction 1

Our flag is red white

Page

Types of Error

25

Misinformation

Correction Our flag is red and white

4.16. Grammatical Errors due to the conjunction

5. Conclusions and Suggestions 5.1 Conclusions It is true that grammatical points are still found in the English summary found in the UASBN book entitled Buku Jagoan: Langsung Lulus UASBN SD /MI 2013. There are 101 sentences which are incorrect due to the grammatical errors. It means that 26% of the overall sentences are incorrect. The grammatical

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errors found are about articles, tenses, pronouns, singular and plural forms, dangling sentences, subject – verb agreement, parts of speech, gerund and infinitives, and conjunctions. The most grammatical errors are about the English article. The percentage is 23.8%. The least is about the conjunction. Only one sentence contains grammatical points due to the conjunction. The reasons why the most grammatical errors occur are mostly about the literal translation from Bahasa Indonesia into English. The language used in the Grammatical Summary in the book is English, but due to that literal translation, the grammatical points are a bit similar to Bahasa Indonesia which is different from English grammar. Next, the grammatical errors found are also due to the misinformation. Unfortunately, it can be said that the English grammar knowledge of the publisher is not capable enough to construct the English grammar summary to be published. In short, the English summary of the book is not suggested to be used due to the grammatical errors. The errors may lead to the validity and reliability of the result of the test conducted by the students who are using the book as their reference. 5.2 Suggestions There are many people related to this book in which the English grammar is attached. As for the publisher, it is highly suggested that the content of the book including its attachment has already been proof read before it is published. It is also important that the test make or the one who write the book has a good command in English. For the English teacher, it is suggested to be more careful in choosing the English test book. When the book is not reliable and valid, then the

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book cannot be used since the result of the test will also be not reliable and valid. Last, for the parents who whose children are in elementary school, it is highly suggested to be more careful in choosing and buying additional text book since not all books sold in the bookstore are good.

References

Dulay, Heidi C, Marina K. Burt, and Stephen Krashen. 1982. Language Two. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Gass, Susan M., and Larry Selinker. 2008. Second Language Acquistion: An Introductory Course. 3rd ed. Taylor &Francis e-Library: Routledge Harmer, Jeremy. 2007. How to Teach English. Oxford: Pearson Longman. Redaksi PM, 2013. Buku Jagoan: Langsung Lulus UASBN SD/MI 2013. Depok: Pustaka Makmur. Winterowd, Ross and Patricia Y. Murray. 1985. English Writing and Skills. 3rd Course. San Diego: Coronado.

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