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Lubricants for Air Conditioning: How much do you really know

Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Lubricants

Introduction This Paper gives a brief outline of the technology behind refrigeration and A/C lubricants for both commercial and industrial refrigeration and air conditioning systems (AC&R) as well as mobile/vehicle air conditioning (MAC). It has been written with the technician in mind. Its aim is to clear some of the confusion which often exists about what lubricants to use in a given A/C system, to explain the difference between the different oil technologies, and the difference between a good oil and one traded on price alone. In the relatively recent past, lubrication was much simpler.

The Automotive industry was obliged to act early following

Mineral oil did the trick for most lubrication jobs, and most

EU Directive 2006/40/EC which banned refrigerants with a

lubricants were refined mineral oils with various additive

Global Warming Potential above 150 in newly type-approved

packs tuned to the particular application. Today, engineering

vehicles from January 2011. R134a (GWP =1,430) can no

standards and technologies are more demanding by far, and

longer be used in new models. After flirting with CO2, the

they require more technically accomplished and demanding

Automotive industry settled on the mildly flammable HFO-

lubrication than straight mineral oils can deliver.

1234yf (GWP=4) as its refrigerant of choice. A new class of

In the air conditioning and refrigeration space, mineral oils

refrigerant, this hydrogenated fluorinated olefin is a “near

were the norm until the 1987 Montreal Protocol led to the

drop-in replacement” for R134a, which means there is no

eventual banning of traditional CFC and HCFC refrigerants.

need for any major changes to components or assembly

This was mainly because of their high - and in the case of

lines for the VMs. However, a complicated 5-stage

CFCs very high - ozone depleting potential (ODP). They also

production process means R1234yf is very expensive –

had high Global Warming Potential (GWP). R12 refrigerant

many times the cost of R134a. Newly developed specialised

(CFC-12) with its ODP of 1.0, GWP of 10,500 and a life time

double end-capped PAG oils, such as AircoLube HFO-PAG,

of 100 years, was very harmful to the environment.

are also much more expensive to produce than standard

New refrigerants had to be developed which had significantly less damaging effects, and during the Nineties and

PAG oils used today. HFO-PAG can be used in R134a, but the old PAGs cannot be used in R1234yf.

Noughties HFC-134, or R134a, became the most widely used refrigerant for air conditioning applications, and the only one specified for automotive A/C. HFCs such as R134a do not mix nicely with mineral oils; they need specialised synthetic lubricants. However, it does not stop there. R134a has a ODP rating of 0, but its GWP number is still way too high at 1430. Hence the move towards zero or near zero GWP refrigerants such as CO2 and HFO-1234. CO2, operates under extremely high pressures with higher bearing loads, and R1234yf is very fussy about its lubricant choice. Enter the new era of high performing technical synthetic lubricants.

The R1234yf molecule

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Environmental impact of common refrigerants

So what are refrigerant lubricants for? different because they are subjected to continual bumps

The main job of AC&R lubricants is to lubricate the moving

and vibrations, so the mechanical joints and pipework need

parts of the refrigerant compressor. Clearly the lubricant

to retain some flexibility. Hence the o rings and flexible hoses

shares its home with the refrigerant, which means they must

found in MAC systems, which also need lubrication to keep

be mutually compatible and they must be willing and able

them in good conditioning and reduce leakage through

to mix it with each other. Good compatibility and good

elastomer degradation. The diagram illustrates a typical

miscibility.

MAC circuit, showing the main components. In static systems the components and pipework can usually be fixed solidly and the joints brazed. Mobile systems are

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1 6

2 5

4

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1

Compressor

5

Evaporator

High Pressure Vapour

2

Condenser

6

Blower Fan

High Pressure Liquid

3

Condenser Fan

7

Accumulator

Low Pressure Vapour

4

Orifice Tube

Low Pressure Liquid

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Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Lubricants

The most important characteristics of refrigeration oils are: • Type (e.g. POE/PAG/AB/MO/PAO) see descriptions on the next page • Viscosity

• TAN • Pour point

• Moisture content

What are the different lubricant technologies? Mineral oil (MO)

Polyalfaoleifin (PAO) - ‘mineral synthetic oils’

Mineral oil-based fluids still represent the majority of the

PAOs are hydrocarbon polymers manufactured by the

wider market for lubricants in general, but that is changing.

catalytic oligomerization of linear alpha olefins like alpha-

MOs have got about as far as they can get. Technological

decene. If you understood that mouthful, you are probably

advances in engines, gearboxes, industrial equipment and

a chemist. They are considered high-performance lubricants

machinery now also demand the benefits offered by the

and provide a high viscosity index and hydrolytic stability.

constantly improving performance capabilities of synthetic

PAOs based oils are commonly used in passenger car motor

lubricants. In AC&R, synthetics are required for most of the

oils as well as in numerous specific industrial applications.

newer environmentally friendly refrigerants. For the purpose

They are also used as lubricants in certain static refrigeration

of this Paper, the most important synthetic lubricant types

applications. PAO based oils are generally less expensive

are: polyalkylene glycols (PAG), polyol esters (POE),

than other synthetic lubricants.

polyalfolefin (PAO), and Alkyl benzene (AB). I will take these in reverse order.

PAOs have very low hygroscopicity. This cuts the risk of introducing moisture into a system when oil is added.

Alkylbenzene (AB) – the first synthetic oil to be

However, unlike PAG it does not absorb water which means

used in AC&R

that any water in the system remains free (see PAG oils

Alkylbenzene is an excellent lubricant choice for stationary

below). PAO has been successfully used commercially in

refrigeration systems, including those with HCFC, HFC and

the mobile A/C aftermarket as a “universal” refrigerant oil

NH3 (ammoinia) refrigerants. They are miscible with mineral

in ISO 68 grade. However, no vehicle manufacturer

oils (which they can replace) and all classes of synthetic

has approved the use of PAO as an A/C lubricant.

refrigeration lubricants.

Polyol ester (POE) – a fully synthetic lubricant

ABs usually have refrigerant miscibility advantages over

Polyol ester lubricants have become a primary technology

mineral oils, maximising oil return to the compressor and

for commercial and industrial HFC systems. They offer

minimising oil retention in the system's low temperature

excellent miscibility with HFCs and other refrigerants, high

regions.

inherent lubricity over a wide temperature range and good

Alkybenzenes have excellent chemical stability, low pour

chemical stability with system components. However, care

points and floc points, and their superior thermal and

is required using POE with respect to water ingress, because

oxidative stability offer major advantages over traditional

of the potential formation of acidic species by reaction of

mineral lubricants for ammonia applications at a better

POE with water.

cost performance than other synthetics.

POEs are manufactured by reacting alcohol and acids to form polyoIesters and water, and the water is then separated out from the polyoIesters. However, this reaction is reversible.

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Therefore, although POE is less hygroscopic than PAG, in

PAGs offer exceptionally high performance in HFCs like

the presence of a significant amount of water, ester oil can

R134a, as they have excellent refrigerant miscibility and

undergo the natural reverse reaction and revert back to the

lubricity. Good quality PAGs tend to have better

acids and alcohols. (PAGs are not subject to that chemistry).

hydrodynamic and boundary lubrication properties than

In extreme cases, such acid formation could lead to capillary

lubricants such as POE. A high kinematic viscosity index

tube blockage, corrosion, and chemical degradation of the

ensures maintained lubrication at high temperatures, and

POE lubricant. However, this rarely happens in well

PAGs are chemically stable with system components, even

maintained systems, and the starting moisture content of

at high temperatures. Energy efficiency benefits may also

POEs should normally be just <50ppm.

be apparent at system start up.

POE has been widely and successfully used with electric

PAGs also have the ability to absorb water, but unlike POE,

compressors for over 20 years and its good di-electric

the water is hydrogen-bound to the PAG’s ether linkages,

properties make it the popular choice for MACs with electric

and therefore does not exist freely within the system. This

compressors in hybrid cars and other vehicles with electric

means that absorbed water is completely non-reactive with

compressors. Correctly produced POE based lubricants are

the PAG so there is no possibility of acidic species forming.

also compatible with HFO refrigerants such as R1234yf,

Their hygropscopic character is often wrongly referred to

R1234ze and the newly released R1234zd.

as a disadvantage, but their ability safely to absorb system

Most popular VG ISO grades are 22, 32 46, 68, 85, 100, 170.

moisture can actually be seen as an advantage. PAGs fall into 2 categories: single (or mono) end-capped

Polyaklyene glocol (PAG) – a fully synthetic lubricant PAGs were one of the first synthetic lubricants to be developed and commercialized. Towards the end of the CFC era at the end of the 1980s, polyalkylene glycol was identified by lubricant scientists and automotive companies

(SEC), and double end-capped or di-capped (DEC). Mono end-capped PAGs are often referred to as standard or ordinary PAGs, whereas di-capped are referred to as OEM grade. This is because most compressor manufacturers and VMs exclusively specify di-capped PAGs.

as the best option for working with the then new R134a refrigerant in MAC systems. Conversely, the static AC&R industry went with polyol ester oils because of concerns over PAG’s tendency to absorb moisture from the air.

Speciality PAGs are usually double end capped, and are needed for R1234yf, CO2 and for hybrid electric vehicles. They are specially (and more expensively) formulated from optimised base stocks to create the required miscibility,

PAGs were one of the first synthetic lubricants to be developed and commercialized. Towards the end of the

lubricity, extreme pressure tolerance, and di-electric properties respectively.

CFC era at the end of the 1980s, polyalkylene glycol was identified by lubricant scientists and automotive companies as the best option for working with the then new R134a

The commonly used ISO VG numbers for PAG are 46, 68, 100 and 150.

refrigerant in MAC systems. Conversely, the static AC&R industry went with polyol ester oils because of concerns over PAG’s tendency to absorb moisture from the air.

Water absorption in PAG: the water is bound into the PAG

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Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Lubricants

What are the advantages of double capped PAGs? A standard polyalkylene glycol generally consists of polymer

Di-capped PAGs are more expensive to buy because they

chains with a terminating hydroxyl group at just one end of

are more expensive to make. But in most typical situations,

the molecule which is chemically inactive, whereas a “double

the lubricity of the PAG is just as likely be influenced by

capped” PAG has chemically inactive groups at both ends

the additive package, the quality of the materials from which

of the molecule.

the oil is synthesised, the individual additive package, and

The technical advantages of di-capped PAGs are generally

the quality of processing and packing. So, a di-capped PAG

considered to be:

from one producer can be expected to perform better than

• Better extreme performance and anti-wear properties, especially at higher pressures and temperatures • Better miscibility with R134a • Reduced water absorption

a single capped PAG from the same producer. Most aftermarket service outside the premium main dealers is carried out using single end capped PAGs. What is probably more important than DEC vs SEC is to avoid using very cheap oils. Synthesising oils is not a cheap

• Better chemical, hydrolytic and thermal stability However, single end capped PAGs dominate the automotive aftermarket because: • Price

process, and I have seen so-called PAG oil traded in India at street prices of less than $2 per litre; I would not put this in my car. In the past I have also seen a laboratory report on an oil described as PAG which had a significant mineral oil content. Choose your oil carefully.

It is worth bearing in mind that both DEC and SEC PAGs are

I do however strongly recommend that you use premium

much less hygroscopic than DOT 3 brake fluids. If handled

speciality double end capped PAGs for:

with the same care as brake fluid, the hygroscopic nature of

• R1234yf systems on the newest vehicles, and this must be the specially developed HFO lubricant, as ordinary SEC & DEC PAGs would have major miscibility and compatibility issues and could damage the system.

PAGs will not cause any problems provided the system is not left open to the air during service. Although both DEC and Mono PAGs are very water tolerant, excess water in the

• CO2 systems, which perform at extreme pressures and need very specialist highly additised PAG oils.

system will mar cooling performance. Both single and double capped PAGs have been used commercially in automotive

• Very hot and humid climates, where the AC system is working much harder.

A/C systems since 1992.

Which oils to use for HFO R1234ze and R1234yf These two hydrofluoroolefin (HFO) refrigerants come

technology. This called for slightly different chemistry

from more or less the same chemistry. R1234ze (1,3,3,3-

in the form of R1234yf (2,3,3,3-Tetrafluoropropene), and

Tetrafluoropropene) has achieved adoption in some static

more expensive chemical processing. Standard PAGs are

AC&R applications, including a number of supermarket

not adequately compatible with R1234yf, so the oil also

installations, and will also be used as an R134a replacement

must undergo additional manufacturing processes with

blowing agent for foam and aerosol applications. Senior

more complex additive packages tailored to the task.

chemists at the two HFO refrigerant producers Du Pont and

A premium grade double end-capped PAG specially made

Honeywell confirmed to me some time ago that polyol ester

for the R1234yf is required. The good news is that these

lubricant technology is the recommended choice for

specialist HFO PAGs are backward compatible, which

R1234ze and R1234zd.

means they can also be used with R134a.

However, the automotive industry wanted a near drop in replacement for R134a and to stick with PAG oil

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Which oils to use for Hybrid electric cars The issue with electric compressors is that the oil can

Hygroscopic characteristics of different oils

contact live electrical parts, so the oil should be as non-

The graph shows typical moisture absorption into the three

conductive as possible. The industry is most comfortable

respective oils over time when left in an open container.

with POE based oils. They have been successfully used

Read the sections on PAGs and POE for more information.

for over 20 years to lubricate electric compressors in

It illustrates the care with which PAGs and POEs should be

refrigerators.

treated. It does not show free water which may form in the

A Hybrid safe PAG is available with a manufactured moisture

open container of a mineral oil. See also the section on our

content of <300ppm and comparable dielectric properties,

Moisture Barrier Treated containers.

but it meets market resistance because of entrenched perceptions. Lubricant quality – acid value, water content, residual catalyst content – is most important.

Typical hygroscopicity of PAG, POE, MO lubricants

Which oils to use for CO2 systems This natural refrigerant operates under very high discharge pressures – 120 bar or more - and requires a lubricant which keeps calm under pressure. Mineral oils and alkybenzenes are not recommended. POE and dicapped PAG based oils are commonly specified, as they have good miscibility with CO2 and good lubricating properties. However, under CO2 dilution POEs can suffer a dramatic reduction in lubricant viscosity. Extreme Pressure (EP) PAGs remain unaffected and do not show a decrease in viscosity under CO2 dilution, thereby retaining their good anti-wear properties at high pressures.

The increasing importance of using the right quality and the right quantity of lubricant and refrigerant in vehicle air conditioners. The gram (or margin) strategy is how VMs are trimming weight

In future, technicians will need to be more precise about both

from new vehicles gram by gram, component by component,

the quantity and quality of refrigerant and oil in the system,

in order to improve energy efficiency and cut CO2 emissions.

because too much oil reduces performance, and too little oil

The air conditioner cannot escape this process. Already, the

can lead to component damage. Equally, with less lubricant

present generation of cars is being equipped with smaller

in the system, the quality and lubricity of the oil becomes

volumes of refrigerant and lubricant than in the past. The very

more important to cooling performance.

high cost of R1234yf is another good reason to make less gas

Whenever possible, each time an air conditioner is serviced,

work harder.

all the refrigerant and all the oil should be completely

Most new cars typically contain rather less than 500 grams of

removed. The correct amounts and proportions of refrigerant

refrigerant and 120 grams or less of lubricant – less than half

and lubricant (as recommended by the VM) can then be

what is was 15 or 20 years ago. Some systems have as little

re-charged into the system. This can make a huge difference

as 75 grams of oil. We expect this trend to continue as the

to cooling performance, as I have witnessed in the tropical

pressure to reduce vehicle weight intensifies.

climes of South East Asia.

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Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Lubricants

Packaging and processing of lubricants Received wisdom can be defined as “knowledge or information

Hermetic dispensing containers AC lubricants and UV leak test fluids

that people generally believe is true, although in fact it is often false”. Received wisdom holds that synthetic oils like PAGs and POEs should always be packaged in metal containers. The thinking behind this is that moisture cannot pass through metal, but like all rigid rules and standards, received wisdom can be a block to innovation when followed blindly. Now, there is nothing wrong with metal containers, apart from the fact that they are very easily dented during transport, are more expensive than polymer containers, and may also be liable to internal condensation after the first opening. There is also no guarantee that the oil was not compromised before being put in the metal container. At Primalec, we used to receive regular complaints from customers that the metal cans and bottles had arrived dented at their destination. That is what led us to our new MBT polymer containers for all liquids in packs up to 5 litres. MBT stands for moisture barrier treated. This high-energy process increases the density of the container surfaces inside and out,

When you buy a hygroscopic oil in a container and use only

reducing permeability, increasing chemical resistance and

part of the contents, the remaining space is filled with air.

giving excellent surface barrier properties.

Unless you do this in impossibly dry atmospheric conditions,

So we now package our AC&R lubricants (and our Glo-Leak

moisture will also enter the bottle. The oil will absorb that

tracer fluids) in these special MBT polymer containers, ranging

moisture, even though the cap is quickly re-fitted.

in size from 30ml up to 5 litres. Before we fill them the pre-

A unique and patented Concertina cartridge system allows

treated containers are purged with oxygen free nitrogen, then

part of the contents to be used without allowing air to enter

filled with the lubricant and sealed. These combined processes

the container, thanks to the collapsing bellows form and a

dramatically improve the shelf life, as illustrated in the graph,

one way valve built into the cartridge neck.

and they do not get dented in transit.

One version is for direct application under pressure using

When all is said and done, the quality of the oil itself and the

an injector tool, but larger cartridges are also available

conditions under which the oils are filled are more important

with special fittings for MAC service machines. These are

than whether the bottles are in metal or non-metallic containers.

designed to replace the oil and dye bottles supplied with the machine. Two big advantages of this system are

Comparision of moisture ingress over time Untreated bottles against mosture barrier treated

1 Oil (or Glo-Leak fluid) remains sealed in the hermetic container. 2 You can easily switch from a standard PAG46 oil to a Hybrid safe lubricant, just by swapping the cartridge over, with no fear of contamination. 3 When empty, the cartridge is disposed of, so there is no risk of the contamination that occurs with refillable bottles.

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Premium additised lubricants and lubricant enhancers: What are they? There are several products on the market which are sold

What are the claims? • Faster cool down on hot days - up to 15% quicker

as A/C Boosters or lubricant enhancers. I can only speak for the ones I have actually seen working in tests in

• Cabin air stays cooler, less humid - up to 15% cooler

Singapore, including ICE-32 and Primalec’s own ExtraCool

• Use less energy to keep cool - faster refrigerant flow, more efficent heat exchange

AC. The chemistry and functionality of these two products is very similar.

• Longer compressor life - better lubricity, lower friction, less wear, longer life • Reduced leakage - conditions hoses, seals and o-rings

How does ExtraCool work? After a period of time, the internal surfaces of the pipework

ExtraCool also improves heat transfer by minimising lubricant

and heat exchangers in any AC system will accumulate oily,

migration on the heat exchange surfaces of the evaporator

gummy deposits. This impedes heat exchange, and can also

and condenser. By eliminating the energy-robbing barriers

restrict the flow of refrigerant, which reduces its cooling

caused by stagnant oil and carbon deposits, the system

capacity. The net result is that the AC works harder and uses

requires less energy and cools more efficiently. This means

more energy for less cooling.

faster cooling down when the car starts on a hot day, and

ExtraCool AC cleans this build up from all internal metal

cooler vent temperatures while you drive.

surfaces and creates a lasting elastrohydrodynamic barrier

We tested this product in the tropical heat of Singapore.

lubricant on the surfaces of all metal parts of the air

The air vent temperature difference before and after injecting

conditioner, including the compressor. This stops any new

in the ExtraCool were impressive, even without any other

build up on the surfaces, reduces heat caused by friction,

service actions.

gives a smoother surface for less drag, and speeds up

ExtraCool A/C is available as a concentrated additive or as a

refrigerant flow. It also suppresses foaming and creates

high performance lubricant, in both hermetic cartridges and in

a greater load bearing shield. This diagram compares

MBT bottles.

failure load of standard oils and for the Extra Cool and ICE 32 using the standard Falex test.

Falex lubricity analysis

Oil R Refrigerant

Oil Oil

Oil

Refrigerant

Oil

ExtraCool Molecule

Oil

Oil

Oil

Surface walls of heat exchanger

Surface walls of heat exchanger Surface walls of heat exchanger

Oil layers attach to heat exchanger surface which impedes heat transfer

Activated polar ExtraCool molecules displace oil molecules, facilitating better heat transfer

Primalec offers one of the most comprehensive ranges of compressor lubricants for air conditioning. © Copyright Richard Doran March 2015 No reproduction in whole or in part without the author’s consent

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Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Lubricants

Automotive A/C lubricant application chart Refrigerant types

Compressor types

Lubricant name

Lubricant basis

Specific applications and notes

ISO VG

R134a

Belt driven

Airco-Lube PAGz

PAG - polyalkylene glycol, single end capped

Automotive A/C aftermarket refills and top ups. Use this for price sensitive applications.

46 100 150

AC2173 AC2174 AC2175

250ml, 1 litre

R134a

Belt driven

Airco Glo-Lube PAGz

PAG - polyalkylene glycol, pre-treated with Glo-LeakUV

Use to top up a system previously treated with UV dye, or after a full flush.

46 100 150

AC2183G AC2184G AC2185G

250ml, 1 litre

R134a

Belt driven

Extra Cool HP-PAG

PAG - polyalkylene glycol with High Performance additives

A high performance premium lubricant for use in all Automotive R134a systems for better cooling and better lubrication.

46 100 150

AC53046 AC53100 AC53150

60, 250, 275ml

R134a

Electric

HYB-46

PAG - speciality double end capped, low moisture

Use on R134a charged vehicles with electric compressors.

46

AC52046

250ml

R134a

Electric

HYB-11

POE - polyol ester

Use on R134a charged vehicles with electric compressors.

68

AC2177

60, 250, 275ml

R1234yf R134a

Belt driven Electric

MRL-85

POE - polyol ester

This premium lubricant may be used as a "universal" oil in all mobile A/Cs, including R1234yf and electric compressors, where the specified oil ISO VG is up to 100.

85

AC54085

250ml, 1 litre

R1234yf R134a

Belt driven

HFO1234yf

PAG - speciality double end capped modified for R1234yf

This premium lubricant is specifically formulated for R1234yf, but is also excellent for R134a. Ordinary PAGs must not be used in R1234yf systems.

46 100

AC55046 AC55100

60, 250, 275ml

CO2

-

EP-PAG Refrigeration lubricant for CO2

-

Extreme Pressure PAG, specifically for use in CO2 applications. The extreme pressure and anti-wear capabilities of this Speciality PAG are far superior to POE.

46 68 100

AC56046 AC56068 AC56100

250ml

R12➞R134a

Belt driven

Airco-Lube Retro A/C

POE - polyol ester

Use this when retro-fitting or restoring pre-1993 vehicles from R12 to R134a.

100

AC2176

250ml

R134a

Belt driven

Airco-Lube PAO

PAO - polyaflaolefin

Sometimes used as a “universal” oil for Mobile AC. Not miscible with refrigerant, non-hygroscopic, and has no VM endorsements. Also available with Glo-LeakUV.

AC2188 AC2188G

250ml, 1 litre

Any

Any

Airco-Lube VPO

MO - Mineral oil

Suitable for all vacuum pumps whose makers specify oils with these VGs.

68

68 100 46

Lubricant coding

AC2178 AC2179 AC2180

Standard pack sizes

1 litre

Commercial & Industrial AC&R speciality lubricant application chart

9

Refrigerant types

Compatible lubricants

Compressor/ System types

Recommended Lubricant name

Lubricant technology

Specific applications and notes

All HFCs

POE

Piston Screw Centrifugal

POE Refrigeration Lubricant

POE Polyol ester

Polyol ester is the primary technology for commercial and industrial HFC systems. They are recommended for all HFC refrigerants, including: R23, R134a, R404A, R407C, R410A, R410B, R417A, R422, R427, R507. However, despite good miscibility with CO2, we advise not to use POE with CO2 this can result in a dramatic reduction in viscosity, so we advise using our specially formulated EP-PAGs. All of our ester oils are manufactured by the world’s leading producer to the highest specifications.

22 32 46 68 85 100 170 220

HCFCs and MO/AB their interim replacements HCs Propane, MO/AB/PAG Butane, Propylene

Piston Screw Centrifugal

Zerol AB Refrigeration Lubricant

Alkyl benzene

This lubricant range is based on synthetic Alkyl benzene (AB) and has been developed for refrigeration, heat pumps and air conditioning compressors. Its miscibility with hydrofluorocarbon type refrigerants is excellent. They offer a very low floc point, good anti-foaming and good stability at high temperature provides optimum lubrication even under severe conditions.

150 250 350 500

R717 - NH3 (Ammonia); R134a

MO/AB/PAG

Piston Screw Centrifugal

PAG-R717 Refrigeration Lubricant for NH3.

Polyalkylene glycol

CO2

PAG/POE

Piston Screw Centrifugal

EP-PAG double end capped Refrigeration lubricant for CO2

Polyalkylene glycol

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ISO VG

PAG-R717 is a monolin itiatedco polymer of ethylene oxide and propylene oxide, manufactured to a molecular weight corresponding to a viscosity of 52cSt at 40°C. Its components are often used as lubricating oils for gears, hydraulics and compressors. PAG-R717 is also compliant for use in food applications.

These Extreme Pressure PAGs have been developed by world leading tribologists specifically for use in CO2 applications. The extreme pressure and anti-wear properties of this PAG technology are generally superior to POE. Critically, EP-PAGs remain unaffected by the dramatic reduction in viscosity to which POEs may fall victim.

Lubricant coding

Standard pack sizes

AC24022 AC54032 AC54046 AC54068 AC54085 AC54100 AC54170 AC54220

1, 5, 25, 200 litre

1, 5, 25, 200 litre

52

46 68 100

1, 5, 25, 200 litre

AC56046 AC56068 AC56100

1, 5, 25, 200 litre

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Notes

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Glossary CFC

= Chlorofluorocarbon, consisting of chlorine, fluorine, and carbon

ODS

= Ozone-depleting Substance, a compound that contributes to stratospheric ozone depletion

HCFC

= Hydrochlorofluorocarbon, consisting of hydrogen, chlorine, fluorine, and carbon;

GWP

HFC

= Hydrofluorocarbon, consisting of hydrogen, fluorine, and carbon.

= Global warming potential - the ratio of the warming caused by a substance to the warming caused by a similar mass of carbon dioxide. Thus, the GWP of CO is defined to be 1.0

HFO

= Hydrogenated fluorinated olefin, or hydrofluoroolefin

SEC

= Single end capped PAG: just one end of the molecule which is chemically inactive

AB

= Alkylbenzene

DEC

MO

= Mineral oil

= Double end capped PAG: both ends of the molecule are chemically inactive

PAG

= Polyalkylene glycol

MAC

= Mobile Air Conditioner (Conditioning)

PAO

= Polyalfaolefin

POE

= Polyol ester

Lubricity = the measure of the reduction in friction and or wear of a lubricant

ODP

= Ozone-depleting potential - the ratio of the impact on ozone of a chemical compared to the impact of a similar mass of CFC-11 (trichlorofluoromethane). Thus, the ODP of CFC-11 is defined to be 1.0. Thus, a substance with an ODP of 2 is twice as harmful as CFC-11, and one with an ODP of 0.1 is one tenth as harmful as CFC-11. The lower the fraction of 1 the better.

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