Part 1 The principles BOIOU~~

43.6 Sous vide (vacuum cooking/packaging) technology 43.7 Edible films 4.4 The influence of 'scalping' on food 44.1 Thc limonene controversy 4.4.2 The...

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664.07 SHE

SIK, The Swedish Institute for Box 5401, S-402 29, GGteborg,

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t Manager, Eden Vale, Dale Northern Foods PIC,Warrington Nr. Northwich, Cheshire, CW8

Science Division, School Bank University, B O I O U ~ ~

Part 1 - The principles 1 Scientific principles of shelf Life evaluation

3

R.P. SINGH

ng, Haverhill, ~uffolk, C B ~ Foodmarkets Limited, Business Park, whit.

=ring, Department of Biolo-

sident, Research and Tech-

1.1 introduction 1.2 m j o r modes of food deterioration 12.1 Physical changes 12.2 Chemical changes 1.2.3 Microbiological changes 1.3 Evaluation of lood qualit? 1.3.1 Reaction kinetics 1.3.2 Determination of kinetic parameters 1.33 Shell life plots 1.4 useolsenson to monitor shell lile of foods 1.4.1 critical temperature indicators 1.4.2 Partial history indicators 1.4.3 Full history indicators 1.5 Conclusions References

2 The methodology of shell life determination M.J. ELLIS ~ tof shelf ~ life~procedures ~ ~into ta total i qualit? ~ system ~ 2.1 ~ ~ d and shelf life 2.2 ~ o legislation 2.3 oms of quality deterioration during storage 2.4 procedures lordirect determination and monitoring or shell life 2.5 ~ ~ t h ~ d o l for o g accelerated y estimation of shelf 2.6 T ~ importance C of shelf lile to quality and distribution 2.7 Canclusians References

3 The principles and practice of shelf Life prediction for microorganisms S.J. WALKER 3.1 3.2

Introduction Development of predictive models 3.2.1 Experimental design 3.2.2 Data colleclion

3 3 4 4 6

7 9 15 16 18 19 20 21 24 24

27 27 29 30 32 36 37 38 39

40 40 41 41 41

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Vlll

CON

CONTENTS

Part 2 - The practice

3 2 . 3 Modelling 3 2 . 4 Model validation 32.5 Obtaining predictions 3.3 Uses of models 3.3.1 Product formulation and reformulation 3.3.2 Process design 3.3.3 HACCP 3.3.4 Time-temperature prohles 3.3.5 Training and education 3.4 Limitations of models 3.5 The future References

6 Delicatessen salads and chilled I

products

T.F. BROCKLEHURST 6.1 Introduction 6.2 products - their characteristi 6.3 specific factors aflecting shelf life 63.1 Delicatessen salads 6 3.2 PreDared fruit and VegeU 6.4 ~ e t e r m i n a t ; ~of " shelf life 6.4.1 Delicatessen salads 6.4.2 prepared fruit and 6.5 current developmenls and the h 6 5 . 1 Delicatessen salads 6 5 . 2 Prepared fruit and vcgd References ~

4 Packaging and food quality

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U. STOLLMAN, F. JOHANSSON and A. LEUFVEN 41 4.2

Introduction Plastics packaging materials for food 4.2.1 Polyolefinr 4.2.2 Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) 4.2.3 Polyvinylidene chloride (PVdC) 4.2.4 Ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH) 4.2.5 Polystyrene (PS) 42.6 Polyamides (nylons) 4.2.7 Polyesters 4.2.8 Polycarbonates (PC) 4.2.9 Lamination and coertrurion 4.3 Some packaging systems and recent developments 4.3.1 Trends in food packaging 4.3.2 Silica-coated films 4 3 . 3 Aclivc packaging technologies 4.3.4 Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) 4 3 . 5 Asepticjultra-high temperature (UHT) packaging 43.6 Sous vide (vacuum cooking/packaging) technology 4 3 . 7 Edible films 4.4 The influence of 'scalping' on food 4 4 . 1 Thc limonene controversy 4.4.2 The influence of pulp content on scalping 4.4.3 Comparison of instrumental and sensory analysis 4.4.4 Influence of scalping on barrier and mechantcal properties 4.4.5 Methods of suppressing scalping 4.5 Flavour transfer problems in refillable PET bottles 4.6 Conclurionr References

5 Preservation technology and shelf life of fish and fish products D.M. GIBSON 5 1 Introduction 5.2 Properties and spoilage of fish 5.3 Conventionally preserved fish and fish products 5.4 Modern Lechnologies 5.5 Sensory quality and safety 5.6 Conclusions Bibliography

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7 Chilled yogurt and other dnid

M. LEWIS and R.H. DALEt

lntroduction products, product gTouP and 7.2.1 Product groups 7.2.2 product charactsri~tics ~ ~ ~ tafiecting d r s shelf life 7.3.1 Raw materials 73.2 Processing

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7.3.5

Consumer storage

Bibliography

g Modified-atmosphere-pack

meat products

R.C. EBURNE and G. 72

8.1 8.2

Introduction Meat product groups 2nd 8.2.1 App"mnce 8.2.2 Flavour 8.2.3 Texture 8.3 Factors aKecting shelf life 8.3.1 Intrinsic facton 8.3.2 Extrinsic factors 8.4 Determination of shelf life -.a 4...1 Procedures 8.4.2 Temperatux 8.4.3 Test frequency

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CONTENTS

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8.4.4 Storage atmosphere 8.4.5 Sample numbers 8.4.6 Sensory analysis 8.4.7 Laboratory analysis 8.4.8 Microbiological examination 8.5 Current trends 8.5.1 Microbiological safety and quality 8.5.2 Packaging and packaging techniques 8.5.3 Quality and safcty managemenl References

0 . 3 . Packaging materials 10.3.4 Environmental factors 10.3.5 Legal standards 10.4 shelf life determination ~ ~- Flavour ~ loss calculalio~ ~ d ReferenceS

I

Chocolate confectionery

A.V. MARTIN I 1.1 Introduction

9 Ambient packaged cakes H.P. JONES 9.1 9.2 9.3

Introduction Product classification Equilibrium relative humidity and mould-free shelf life

9.4.1 Sponge cakes Fruil cakes 9.4.2 9.4.3 Plain cakes 9 4 . 4 C h a o l a l e coated cakes 9.4.5 Fruil pies 9 4 . 6 Pastries 9 4 . 7 Product characteristics - a summary 9.5 Factors affecting shelf life 9.5.1 Microbiological spoilage 9.5.2 Crumb staling 9.5.3 Rancidity 9.5.4 Crystallisation of sugars 9.5.5 Syneresis of jams and jellies 9.5.6 Colour fade, change and transfer 9.5.7 OK-flavours and odours other than rancidity 9.5.8 Chocolate bloom 9.5.9 Structural weakness 9.5.10 Moisture migration 9.6 ERH CALC 9.7 The determination of producl shelf life 9.7.1 Product data 9.7.2 External faclors 9.8 Shelf lice determination 98.1 Product development aclivities 9.8.2 An example - a white chocolate mini sponge roll 9.9 Current developments 9.9.1 Shelf life extension 9.9.2 Shorter lead time to markel References

10 Potato crisps and savoury snacks

I 1.2.2 Fats 11.2.3 Sugar 11.3 Manufacture o f c h ~ l a t e 11.3.1 Mixing 11.3.2 Refining 11.3.3 Conchlng 11.3.4 Tempenna I 1.3.5 uss of chocolate 11.4 TYPS of chowlate c o n f a 11.4.1 Moulded blocks 1.I ..4.2~ Filled bbcks I 1.4.3 Count lines 11.4.4 Assortmen11.4.5 Straight lines 11.4.6 White chowlate 11.5 ~ t t ~ i b ~oft emilk s chocob 11.5.t T e l t u x 11.5.2 Flavow 11.6 causes of deterioration 11.6.1 Product factors 11.6.2 ~nvironmmtalfa 11.7 Control of shelf life by P 11.7.1 Heat 11.7.2 Moisture 11.7.3 O X Y P 11.7.4 Taint/lOss of flav 11.7.5 Light 11.8 Determination of shelf li 11.8.1 shelf life of new 11.8.2 Types of test 11.8.3 Results of kapi I 1.9 Packaging materials I 1.9.1 Robinson tcsf I 1.9.2 Gar liquid chm 11.9.3 Aroma index 11.9.4 General Bibliography

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A. REILLY and C.M.D. MAN 10.1 Introduction 10.2 The product group 10.3 Factors affecting shelf life of potato crisps and savoury snacks 10.31 The oil^ 10.3.2 The process

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12 Ready-to-eat brenkfurt

J.A.K. HOWARTH

I

CONTENTS 10.3.3 Packaging materials 10.3.4 Environmental ractors 10.3.5 Legal standards 10.4 Shelf life determination Appendix - Flavour loss calculalions References

11 Chocolate confectionery A.V. MARTIN

ahelf life

Mddity

Wngc roll

"VoUrY snacks

11.1 Introduction 11.2 Composition of chocolate 112.1 Cocoa liquor 11.2.2 Fats 11.2.3 Sugar 11.3 Manufacture of chocalate 11.31 Mixing 113.2 Refining 113.3 Canching 113.4 Tempering 11.3.5 User af chacolare 11.4 Types of chocolale confectionery 11.4.1 Moulded blocks 11.4.2 Filled blocks 11.4.3 Count lines 11.4.4 Assortments 11.4.5 Straight lines 11.4.6 White chocolate 11.5 Attributes of milk chocolate 11.5.1 Texture 11.5.2 Flavour 11.6 Causes of deterioration in quality 116.1 Product factors 11.6.2 Environmental factors 11.7 Control of shelf life by packaging 117.1 Heal 117.2 Moisture 117.3 Oxygen 117.4 Taint/loss of flavour 117.5 Light 11.8 Determination of shelf lift 11.81 Shelf life of new products 11.8.2 Types of test 11.8.3 Results of keeping test - scoring system 11.9 Packaging materials - taint testing 11.9.1 Robinson test 11.9.2 Gas liquid chromatography (GLC) 11.9.3 Aroma index 11.9.4 General Bibliography

12 Ready-to-eat breakfast cereals J.A.K. H O W A R T H 12.1 Introduction 12.2 The products

xii

CONTENTS 12.2.1 Uncoated cereals 12.2.2 Coated products 122.3 Products with added components 122.4 Muesli products 12.2.5 New products 12.3 Factors afecting shell life 12.31 Raw materials 12.3.2 Processing 12.3.3 Packaging materials 12.3.4 Climate and storage conditions 12.4 Determination of shell life 12.4.1 Initial delemination of shelf life 12.4.2 Shelflilc testing 12.4.3 Examplc l - Flaked/puHed product 124.4 Example 2 - Cereal with added components 12.4.5 Example 3 - Coated products, e . g extruded, coated cereal 12.4.6 Monitoring activities 12.5 Conclusions Relerences

13 The storage of thermally processed foods in containers other than cans M.R. GODDARD 13.1 Introduction and background 13.2 Product groups and their characteristia 13.3 Specific raclors arecling shelf life 13.31 Enzymic activity 133.2 Chemical changes 133.3 Physical breakdown 13.3.4 Olher ractors influencing shelf life 13 4 Deleminadon o l shell lire 134.1 Storage protocol 13.4.2 Sensory analysis 13.5 An example - pasta shapes in savoury tomato sauce 13.5.1 Protocol 13.52 QDAiL~klngtesting 13.5.3 Interpretation of results References

14 Ambient-stable sauces and pickles A.A. JONES and C.M.D. MAN 14.1 Introduction 14.2 The products 142.1 Sauces 142.2 Pickles and other related products 14.3 Factors aHectine.shelf life 14.3.1 Raw materials 14.3.2 Composition and formulalion 14.3.3 Availability of oxygen 14.3.4 Processing 143.5 Paekaging 14.3.6 Consumer use 14.4 Challenge testing and the use of mathemal~calmodels 14.4.1 Challenge testing

144.2 Mathematical models 14.5 Shell lire avaluation 14.51 shell lilc determination 14.5.2 A rocked example 14.6 Current developments 14.6.1 Alternative ingredients 146.2 New techniques in she1 14.7 Conclusion Relerences 239 240 240 24 1 245 247 250 254 254 254

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15 Frozen foods

H. SYMONS 15.1

many industries? 15.1.I Speed of freezing 151.2 ice cream/quick fro%% 15.2 Stability o l lrozen roods 152.1 MicroorgamsmS 15.2.2 Ice mobility 15.2.3 physiw-chemical I 5 7 4. Time-temperature to 15.2.5 Product quality, PI 15.2.6 Glassy state 15.2.7 Know your prodxt 152.8 Objective tests I 5.2.9 Accelerated testing 15.2.10 lust notieeable diR 152.11 Qla(4)o) product characteristics 15.3.1. Fruits and vegetablcl 15.3.2 Sealood 15.3.3 Meat I> r 2 A, R n k-~., r v, aroducts 15.3.5 Prepared products 15.4 The wld chain 15.41 Temperature 15.42 Time-temperatun 15.4.3 Control o l time in Relerences HOW

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Index

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CONTENTS

t

14.4.2 Mathematical models 14.5 Shelf life evaluation 14.5.1 Shelf life determination 14.5.2 A worked example 14.6 Current developments 14.6.1 Alternative ingredients and packaging 14.6.2 New techniques in shelf life determinations 14.7 Canclusion References

15 Frozen foods H. SYMONS

components cxfded, coated cereal

containers other

15.1 How many industries? 15.1.1 Speed of freezing lS.l.2 Ice cream/quick frozen faods/frazen foods 15.2 Stability of frozen faads l5.2.l Microorganisms 15.22 Ice mobility 15.23 Physico-ehemical reactions 15.2.4 Time-lemperature tolerance ('ITT) 15.2.5 Product quality, processing and packaging (PPP) lactors 15.2.6 Glassy state your product 15.2.7 ~ n a w 152.8 Objective tests 15.2.9 Accelerated testing 152.10 Just noticeable diRerence 15.2.11 Qcn(qcn) 15.3 Product charactenstics 153.1' Fruits and vegetables 153.2 Seafood 15.33 Meal 153.4 Bakery products 15.3.5 Prepared praduets 15.4 The cold chain 154.1 Temperature monitoring 154.2 Time-temperature indicators 15.4.3 Control of time in storage References

Index