Peat Ecosystem Rehabilitation Project
TABLE OF CONTENTS 1
HOW WE MANAGE FIRE Desa Siaga Api Programme
3-5 Section 2
WHY PEATLANDS MATTER
• Indonesia’s Carbon Dioxide Emissions
• Opportunity to Reduce CO 2 Emissions
Community Involvement and
Programmes in PT AMNL
• PT AMNL Conservation Area
6-8 Section 3
18-20 Section 6 CLIPPINGS
PEAT REHABILITATION PROJECT
In The News: Our Fire-fighting Efforts
• What is Peat Rehabilitation and
and Community Engagement
Reforestation? • Why Do We Need to Rehabilitate Peatlands? • Stages in a Rehabilitation Project
Section 1 2
Introduction Fires on carbon-rich peatlands in Indonesia are the primary cause of massive smoke pollution commonly referred to as “haze”. It is estimated that 90 percent of haze is caused by fires on peat areas which release three to six times more particulate matter than fires on other types of soil .
In 2015, prolonged dry conditions caused by a powerful El Niño weather phenomenon led to fires burning out of control on peat areas and other land, resulting in the worst haze pollution to hit Indonesia and its neighbours since 1997. Haze worsens health problems such as respiratory ailments; causes low visibility that hinders transportation; disrupts daily lives; prevents children from going to school and contributes to economic slowdown. According to the World Bank, more than 2.6 million ha of forest, peat and other land were damaged by fires across the archipelago from June to October 2015. It also estimates that
Indonesia’s economy alone suffered a loss of more than USD16 billion due to the fires and haze. In light of this, the Indonesian Government has set up a Peat Restoration Agency and banned the clearance and conversion of peatlands across the country. Many of our own employees and the communities surrounding our plantations are adversely affected by the haze. Recognising this, we adhere strictly to our Zero Burning Policy which has been in place since 1997, and we continue to invest in the long-term prevention, management and suppression of fires. As part of
these efforts, in November 2015, we launched the Peat Ecosystem Rehabilitation Project at PT Agro Lestari Mandiri (PT AMNL) in West Kalimantan. Its primary aim is to prevent future haze-causing peat fires and is in line with the Indonesian Government’s focus on revitalising and protecting peat areas.
Section 2 Why Peatlands Matter Indonesia’s Carbon Dioxide Emissions Opportunity to Reduce CO 2 Emissions from Peatlands PT AMNL Conservation Area
Why Peatlands Matter
Indonesia’s Carbon Dioxide Emissions
Opportunity to Reduce CO2 Emissions from Peatlands
Human activities produce carbon dioxide (CO2). Prior to the 2015 haze crisis, Indonesia was ranked the world’s fifth biggest producer of greenhouse gas emissions . The main contributors of emissions are the transportation and energy sectors and the degradation of peatlands.
Peatland makes up 12 percent of the Indonesian land area (22.5 Mha). Peatland is a unique ecosystem formed through the accumulation of partially decayed vegetation or organic matter in waterlogged and acidic conditions over thousands of years.
The forestry and agricultural sectors in Indonesia have the potential to deliver more than 80 percent of Indonesia’s emission reductions. Peatland conservation is a significant part of that opportunity given the potential for peatlands in Indonesia to release 700MtCO2e into the atmosphere if developed.
Peat decomposition as a result of drainage for agriculture produces continuous emissions, while peatland fires contribute infrequent emissions and rapid peat decomposition. Peatland is particularly flammable when it is drained and dried after the vegetation is cleared. Fire is traditionally used to clear land as burning increases the pH level
of the soil which is too acidic to grow crops. Once started, peat fires can smoulder for weeks or months underground. Prolonged dry seasons and decreased rainfall especially during an El Niño period, causes a sharp increase in emissions as a result of rapid decomposition through peatland fires. Lower water tables during the dry season expose larger carbon stocks to aerobic conditions, increasing decomposition and peat subsidence. Emissions from peatlands are expected to reach 1.2 Gt CO2e in 2030 through the continued
World Resources Institute. Forests and Landscapes in Indonesia http://www.wri.org/our-work/ project/forests-and-landscapes-indonesia/climate-change-indonesia 
Hooijer, etal. Current and future CO2 emissions from drained peatlands in Southeast Asia. Biogeosciences, 7, 1505– 1514, 2010. http://www.biogeosciences.net/7/1505/2010/bg-7-1505-2010.pdf
Section 2 5
PT AMNL Conservation Area
development and drainage of peatlands under a business as usual scenario. Indonesia is the single largest emitter of CO2 from ongoing peat decomposition in the world, with Kalimantan being the largest emitter in the country. CO2 emissions from the peat sector can be reduced by stopping deforestation and forest degradation, re-wetting and rehabilitating the peatland, as well as through fire management.
In PT AMNL, GAR manages a conservation area exceeding 2,600 ha. Around mid-2015, GAR conducted a field survey, which showed that there were three vegetation types in the area: peat swamp forest, dry lowland forest and freshwater swamp. More than 300 species of plants and 170 species of wildlife (birds, mammals, reptiles, and fishes) were found in the survey area. More than 85 percent of the plots
Forest Climate Center. Fact sheet – Indonesia Greenhouse Gas Emission Cost Curve. 27 August 2009. http://forestclimatecenter.org/files/2009-08-27% 20Fact% 20Sheet% 20% 20Indonesia% 20Greenhouse% 20Gas% 20Emission% 20Cost% 20Curve% 20by% 20Indonesia %20National%20Council%20on%20Climate%20Change.pdf
surveyed have biomass of over 100 t/ha. Unfortunately reassessment of the area via satellite imaging after the dry season in late 2015 indicated that almost all remaining forest cover has been affected by fires. GAR decided to take immediate steps to rehabilitate the area in order to help prevent the recurrence of fires and avoid emissions in the future.
Section 3 Peat Rehabilitation Project What is Peat Rehabilitation and Reforestation? Why Do We Need to Rehabilitate Peatlands? Stages in a Rehabilitation Project
Section 3 7
Peat Rehabilitation Project What is Peat Rehabilitation and Reforestation?
Why Do We Need to Rehabilitate Peatlands?
efforts to help the forest recover some of its original characteristics or properties; often by replacing some of the trees and vegetation lost through logging or other forms of damage.
Reforestation: efforts to plant trees – usually of commercial species – in areas where trees have been mostly lost or removed, such as alang-alang grasslands.
To reduce vulnerability to fires To improve the quality of the forest after disturbance/ damage To improve the productivity of the forest after disturbance To improve the forest as a habitat for birds and other animals To reintroduce species lost by forest disturbance To improve the microclimate within the forest after disturbance To reduce soil erosion and improve hydrology
GAR began work with third-party technical experts on the first rehabilitation stage in December 2015. Public consultations engaged the local community to involve them in the conservation effort. GAR also engaged the local government to obtain their support and participation.
Section 3 8
Stages in a Rehabilitation Project
Determine status/condition of the area
Engage the community
Restore hydrology of peat area
for rehabilitation by carrying out conservation area and biodiversity surveys.
in the rehabilitation project and conservation efforts.
by controlling drainage canals and maintaining a high water table.
Select important native species
Collect seeds and seedlings
to restore as much species diversity as possible as well as the physical appearance of the forest stand. Wildlife food plants such as Ficus and Artocarpus will also be included.
for building stock of plants for planting out in the area.
of selected species.
Section 4 How We Manage Fire Long-term Prevention Desa Siaga Api Programme
How We Manage Fire GAR’s Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for fire management requires a wide range of measures to prevent fires in our plantations. More than 10,000 Emergency Response Team personnel have been trained and are stationed across all our plantations, ready to be deployed in a fire emergency.
We have set up a Fire Command Post at HQ in Jakarta to coordinate fire management and suppression with the teams on the ground.
On the ground, we have been:
Keeping the peat areas moist by re-wetting the areas with water from rivers and ponds which were constructed for that purpose.
Preparing Emergency Response Teams consisting of about 30 to 40 personnel per team to handle fire suppression.
Preparing water reservoirs around conservation areas to ensure adequate supply of water during a fire.
Stationing fire engines at the plantation.
Ensuring adequate number of portable pumps to be used for fire suppression.
Using high-capacity pumps to pump water from the nearest river/ stream to put out fires.
Increasing the frequency of fire-monitoring patrols and involving the community in fire monitoring.
Carrying out coordinated fire suppression with local authorities. A police report is also lodged for every incident.
Transferring 6-tonne water container tanks to areas that are burning.
Section 4 11
Long-term Prevention To prevent fires in the long run, GAR is stepping up efforts to encourage the community to stop using fire to clear land. We have consistently engaged farmers and the community to advocate no-burning.
We plan to launch programmes that offer the community sustainable alternatives when clearing land. Such programmes will involve building up community awareness and involving the community in fire management and prevention.
We also plan to align our CSR objectives to focus on poverty alleviation to help tackle the economic causes of fire.
Desa Siaga Api Programme In the first quarter of 2016, GAR will carry out pilot Desa Siaga Api programmes. This is an initiative that shifts the focus from response and suppression to fire prevention. The programme is aimed at creating fire-free villages through collaboration with communities, enforcement agencies and NGOs. The objective is to prevent fires in a five kilometre area around GAR concessions.
The key components of the programme includes: 1. Assisting the community with sustainable land-clearing without the use of fire. 2. Offering CSR incentive programmes as No Burn Village Rewards to villages that manage to achieve fire-free goals. 3. Increasing Community Awareness of the dangers of fire and haze to health.
4. Fire Team Empowerment with participation from the community. 5. Air Quality Monitoring to develop a baseline to inform a new air quality monitoring programme.
Section 4 13
From February to November 2016, GAR will monitor and evaluate the villages included in the Desa SIAP Programme. The villages will receive rewards based on their level of success in suppressing fires.
The villages will be categorised into three: 1. DESA SIAGA are villages that remain fire free. They will receive social infrastructure development aid. 2. DESA TANGGAP are villages that are able to extinguish fire in less than 24 hours on a burnt area of less than one hectare.
They will receive social infrastructure development assistance. 3. DESA PEDULI are villages that are able to extinguish fire in less than 24 hours on a burnt area of more than one hectare. They will be placed under supervision.
Section 5 CSR Community Involvement and Programmes in PT AMNL
Community involvement and programmes in PT AMNL
Communities are motivated by economic reasons to clear land using fire, as it is the cheapest way to prepare land for crops.
GAR aims to target these economic causes of fire by improving the livelihoods of the community through CSR programmes. In the long run, the goal is to create zero-burning communities and community-based conservation.
Our CSR activities cover five aspects: Income Generation Infrastructure
GAR aims to build mutually beneficial relationships with local communities. We provide economic opportunities for local businesses, and improve facilities and infrastructure in areas such as transportation, religious activities, culture, education, and more.
In 2014 and 2015, GAR allocated more than Rp 13.5bn for CSR programmes in PT AMNL in activities including:
Increasing and improving access to basic transportation, including maintenance and repair of village roads. Building a mosque at Dusun Tanjung Toba. Building of a mushola (praying room), a madrasa, and a church in Nanga Tayap.
Supporting religious celebrations. Supporting traditional ceremony, sapat tahun in Nanga Tayap. Granting scholarships for students. Providing free computer courses to students in Nanga Tayap.
Partnering with Tzu Chi Foundation to offer free medication for the community, enhancing Integrated Health Service Point (Posyandu) and assisting with the provision of clean water. Providing general health care and respiratory infection treatment in Nanga Tayap, and in partnership with Tzu Chi Foundation, free health care in Simpang Tiga Sembelangaan & Tanjung Medan villages.
As the head of Sembelangaan Hamlet, I really appreciate and support Sinar Mas’ programme to protect the river by replanting plants, especially fruit-producing plants that can be used by the villagers. We’re taught not to poison nor electrocute the fish to catch them. We hope that the villagers will be more involved in reforestation programmes along the river because it will bring sustainable benefits for generations to come.” Bapak Sartimin Head of Sembelangaan Hamlet
Section 5 17
Sinar Mas has done quite a lot of CSR activities that have positively impacted us, but for me (the building of church) is the one most impressive gesture. Worshipping has become convenient for me and for my fellow villagers. We invite all Catholic staff of Sinar Mas to worship with us too, to strengthen the bond between us.” Bapak Musi Resident of Sebuak Hamlet
Praise be to Allah…we are really grateful for the building of the 12 x 23 m multipurpose building because it will be very useful to us. For instance, if we want to celebrate a wedding, hold a social event or organize other activities, we no longer need to use tents. The building can also be used for sports, such as badminton. We hope that from now on, the relationship between the company and us can be even more harmonious.” Bapak Kelik Resident of Sungai Kelik Village
Section 6 Clippings In The News: Our Fire-fighting Efforts and Community Engagement (news clippings)
Section 6 As a good neighbour and corporate citizen GAR has a responsibility to contribute to fire fighting and fire prevention efforts in high risk areas,
especially peatlands. Our commitment to the Peat Ecosystem Rehabilitation Project is driven by that sense of responsibility. Media coverage of these
efforts helps us reach a broader section of the community in which we live and work.
Section 6 20
Golden Agri-Resources Ltd (GAR)
PT Sinar Mas Agro Resources and Technology Tbk (PT SMART Tbk)
108 Pasir Panjang Road, #06-00 Golden Agri Plaza, Singapore 118535
Sinar Mas Land Plaza, Tower II, 30th Floor Jl. MH Thamrin No. 51, Jakarta 10350, Indonesia
t +65 6590 0800 w www.goldenagri.com.sg e [email protected]
+62 21 5033 8899