Principles of Classification of Occupations

Principles of Classification of Occupations The two main concept used in occupational classification are the concept of the kind of work performed or ...

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MASCO 2008 Introduction

VII

Principles of Classification of Occupations The two main concept used in occupational classification are the concept of the kind of work performed or job and the concept of skill. Job is defined as a set of tasks and duties performed by one person. A set of jobs whose main tasks and duties are similar is referred to an occupation. In other words, persons who perform similar main tasks are considered doing the same type of work and are classified in the same occupational group, regardless of the level of authority, responsibility or work experience. For instance, chief civil engineer is classified among civil engineers (unit group 2142) and chief accountant among accountants (unit group 2411). Skill is defined as the ability to perform tasks and duties of an occupation and has, for the purpose of the MASCO 08, the following two dimensions; 1) Skill level - which is a function of the complexity and range of tasks and duties involved; and 2) Skill specialization - defined by the field of knowledge required the tools and machinery used, the material worked on or with, as well as the kinds of goods and services provided.

The operational definitions of the four main skill levels are summarized as follows:

Skill Level

Educational Level

First

Primary education

Second

Secondary or post-secondary education; Malaysian Skills Certificate (SKM) Level 1-3

Third

Tertiary education leading to an award not equivalent to a first University Level; Malaysian Skills Certificate (SKM) Level 4, or Malaysian Skills Diploma (DKM) Level 4

Fourth

Tertiary education leading to a University or postgraduate university degree; Malaysian Skills Advanced Diploma (DLKM) Level 5-8

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The use of the educational categories to define the four skill levels does not mean that the skill necessary to perform the tasks and duties of a given occupation can be acquired through formal education. The skills may be, and often are, acquired through informal training and experience. So, when classifying an occupation as for example engineer, it does not mean that the post can only be occupied by a formal, registered engineer, although the activities will correspond quite close to those undertaken by the said engineer. In addition, the focus in on the skills required to carry out the tasks and duties and not on whether a worker having a particular occupation is more or less skilled than another worker in the same occupation. The Major Group of the MASCO 08 can be categorized according to the following four common skill levels:

Skill Level

Educational Level

Major Groups

Fourth

Tertiary education leading to a University or postgraduate university degree; Malaysian Skills Advanced Diploma (DLKM) Level 5-8

2. Professionals

Third

Tertiary education leading to an award not equivalent to a first University Level; Malaysian Skills Certificate (SKM) Level 4, or Malaysian Skills Diploma (DKM) Level 4.

3. Technicians and Associate Professionals

Second

Secondary or post-secondary education; Malaysian Skills Certificate (SKM) Level 1-3

4. Clerical Support Workers

5. Service and Sales Workers 6. Skilled Agricultural, Forestry and Fishery Workers 7. Craft and Related Trades Workers 8. Plant and Machine-operators and Assemblers First

Primary education

9. Elementary Occupations

However, the concept of skill level is not applicable to Major Group 1: Managers and Major Group 0: Armed Forces Occupations. For these two groups, the skill level concept does not reflect the main skill requirements for distinguishing them from other Major Groups.

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MASCO 08 Structure of Classification The occupational classification structure has four main levels, namely, major groups, sub-major groups, minor groups and small unit groups tabulated as follows:

Major Group (1-digit)

Sub-major Groups (2-digit)

Minor Groups (3-digit)

Unit Groups (4-digit)

Small Unit Groups (5-digit)

1

Managers

4

11

37

232

2

Professionals

7

35

119

1,127

3

Technicians and Associate Professionals

5

21

89

696

4

Clerical Support Workers

4

8

29

391

5

Service and Sales Workers

4

13

41

309

6

Skilled Agricultural, Forestry and Fishery Workers

3

9

20

137

7

Craft and Related Trades Workers

5

14

66

524

8

Plant and Machine-operators and Assemblers

3

16

46

639

9

Elementary Occupations

6

11

36

200

0

Armed Forces Occupations

3

6

6

55

44

144

10

489

4,310

In the classification, all occupations are categorized into ten (10) major groups (1-digit). Subsequently, the major groups are divided into 44 sub-major groups (2-digit) which comprise 144 minor groups (3-digit). The minor groups are further sub-divided into 489 unit groups (4digit) and the unit groups are further sub-divided into 4,310 (5-digit).

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A number of occupational titles are classified within each unit group. Occupational titles classified in the same unit group are assigned different sub-codes. The numeral 9 in the last digit of a two-, three-, and four- or five-digit code refers to all other groups. Residual occupational category or miscellaneous group usually has 'not elsewhere classified' at the end.

The following example depicts the finer details of several occupations: Group

Title

Code

Major Group

Professionals

2

Sub-Major Group

Sciences and Engineering Professionals

Minor Group

Physical and Earth Sciences Professionals

Unit Group

Chemists

2113

Chemist

21131

Chemist-Rubber/Organic

21132

Chemist-Corrosion

21133

Chemist-Physical

21134

21 211

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Notes on Some Particular Occupations Supervisory occupations, as well as those of a foreman, which are mainly concerned with the control of the professional or technical quality of the work done, are classified together with the jobs whose tasks they supervise. However, if the main tasks and duties of a job consist of planning, organizing and directing the daily work activities of a group of subordinate workers, the occupation should be considered as a managerial occupation and classified in the appropriate group belonging either to Sub-major Group 12: Administrative and Commercial Managers or 13 : Production and Specialized Services Mangers. Only in large enterprises, with many levels of decision making, where between the supervisor and the operators there is at least one other supervisory level, and at the same time there is one or more levels between the supervisor and the management, supervisors may be grouped in Sub-major Group 31: Physical and Engineering Associate Professionals. Working proprietors are not listed as a special group, but classified according to their activities. A shop owner, who spends most of the behind, the counter, helping customers, should be classified under Sub-major Group 52: Sales Workers. If however his/her activities consist mainly of managing resources, finance and personnel, he/she should be classified under Sub-Major Group 12: Administrative and Commercial Managers. Occupations mainly concerned with on-job training by continuous observation, assessment and guidance are classified with the occupations whose workers they instruct, in a particular trade, craft or machine- operating task. Apprentices and trainees are classified according to the tasks and duties actually performed, and not according to their future occupation. Job titles with prefix are referring to posts in public sector (eg; Engineer, civil J41). Job titles with non-prefix (except military, under group 0) are referring to posts in private sector (eg; Engineer, civil). Difference job titles in both public and private sector do not distinguish the task in code referred.

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Summary of Major Groups 1.

MANAGERS

Managers determine, formulate, direct or advise on government policies, as well as those of special-interest organizations, formulate laws, public rules and regulations, represent governments and act on their behalf, oversee the interpretation and implementation of government policies and legislation, or plan, direct and co-ordinate the policies and activities of enterprises or organizations, or their internal departments or sections. Reference to skill level has not been made in defining the scope of this major group.

2.

PROFESSIONALS

Professionals increase the existing stock of knowledge, apply scientific or artistic concepts and theories, teach about the foregoing in a systematic manner, or engage in any combination of these three activities. Most occupations in this major group require skills at the fourth skill level.

3.

TECHNICIANS AND ASSOCIATE PROFESSIONALS

Technicians and associate professionals perform mostly technical and related tasks connected with research and the application of scientific or artistic concepts and operational methods, and government or business regulations, and teach at certain educational levels. Most occupations in this major group require skills at the third skill level.

4.

CLERICAL SUPPORT WORKERS

Clerical support workers record, organize, store and retrieve information related to the work in question, compute financial, statistical and other numerical data, and perform a number of clientoriented clerical duties especially in connection with money-handling operations, travel arrangements and business information and appointments. Most occupations in this major group require skills at the second skill level.

5.

SERVICES AND SALES WORKERS

Services and sales workers provide personal and protective services related to travel, housekeeping, catering, personal care, or protection against fire and unlawful acts, or they pose as models for artistic creation and display, or demonstrate and sell goods in wholesale or retail shops and similar establishments, as well as at stalls and markets. Most occupations in this major group require skills at the second skill level.

6.

SKILLED AGRICULTURAL, FORESTRY AND FISHERY WORKERS

Skilled agricultural, forestry and fishery workers grow and harvest field or tree and shrub crop, gather wild fruits and plants breed, tend or hunt animals, produce a variety of animal husbandry products, cultivate, conserve and exploit forests, breed or catch fish and cultivate or gather other forms of aquatic life. Most occupations in this major group require skills at the second skill level.

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7.

XIII

CRAFT AND RELATED TRADES WORKERS

Craft and related trades workers apply their specific knowledge and skills in the fields of mining and construction, form metal, erect metal structures, make, fit, maintain and repair machinery, equipment or tools, carry out printing work as well as produce or process foodstuffs, textiles, or wooden, metal and other articles. The work is carried out by hand and by hand-powered and other tools which are used to reduce the amount of physical effort and time required for specific tasks, as well as to improve the quality of the products. The tasks call for an understanding of all stages of the production process, the materials and tools used, and the nature and purpose of the final product. Most occupations in this major group require skills at the second skill level.

8.

PLANT AND MACHINE-OPERATORS AND ASSEMBLERS

Plant and machine-operators and assemblers operate and monitor industrial and agricultural machinery and equipment, drive and operate trains, motor vehicles and mobile machinery and equipment, or assemble products from component parts according to strict specifications and procedures. The work mainly calls for experience with and an understanding of industrial and agricultural machinery and equipment as well as an ability to cope with machine-paced operations and to adapt to technological innovations. Most occupations in this major group require skills at the second skill level.

9.

ELEMENTARY OCCUPATIONS

Elementary occupations perform single and routine tasks which mainly require the use of handheld tools and in some cases considerable physical effort. Most occupations in this major group require skills at the first level.

0.

ARMED FORCES OCCUPATIONS

Members of the armed forces occupations are those personnel who are currently serving in the armed forces and who are not free to accept civilian employment. Included are regular members of the army, navy, air force and other military services. Excluded are person in civilian employment of government establishments concerned with defence issues, police (other than military police), customs inspectors and members of border or other armed civilian services, and members of military reserves not currently on active service. Reference to a skill level has not been used in defining the scope of this major group.

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Major, Sub-Major, Minor and Unit Group Titles MAJOR GROUP 1 MANAGERS 11 111

CHIEF EXECUTIVES, SENIOR OFFICIALS & LEGISLATORS LEGISLATORS AND SENIOR OFFICIALS

1111 1112

Legislators Senior Government Officials

1113 1114

Traditional Chiefs and Heads of Village Senior Officials of Special-Interest Organizations

112 1120 12 121

MANAGING DIRECTORS AND CHIEF EXECUTIVES Managing Directors and Chief Executives ADMINISTRATIVE AND COMMERCIAL MANAGERS BUSINESS SERVICES AND ADMINISTRATION MANAGERS

1211 1212 1213 1214 1215

Finance Managers Human Resource Managers Policy and Planning Managers Business Services Managers Administrative Managers

1219

Business Services and Administration Managers Not Elsewhere Classified

122 1221 1222 1223 13 131 1311 1312 132 1321 1322 1323

SALES, MARKETING AND DEVELOPMENT MANAGERS Sales and Marketing Managers Advertising and Public Relations Managers Research and Development Managers PRODUCTION AND SPECIALIZED SERVICES MANAGERS PRODUCTION MANAGERS IN AGRICULTURE, FORESTRY AND FISHERIES Agricultural and Forestry Production Managers Aquaculture and Fisheries Production Managers MANUFACTURING, MINING, CONSTRUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION MANAGERS Manufacturing Managers Mining Managers Construction Managers

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1324 133 1330 134

Supply, Distribution and Related Managers INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY SERVICES MANAGERS Information and Communications Technology Services Managers PROFESSIONAL SERVICES MANAGERS

1341 1342 1343 1344

Child Care Services Managers Health Services Managers Aged Care Services Managers Social Welfare Managers

1345 1346 1349

Education Managers Financial and Insurance Services Branch Managers Professional Services Managers Not Elsewhere Classified

14 141

HOSPITALITY, RETAIL AND OTHER SERVICES MANAGERS HOTEL AND RESTAURANT MANAGERS

1411

Hotel Managers

1412

Restaurant Managers

142 1420 143

RETAIL AND WHOLESALE TRADE MANAGERS Retail and Wholesale Trade Managers OTHER SERVICES MANAGERS

1431

Sports, Recreation and Cultural Centre Managers

1432 1433 1434 1435 1439

Personal Care, Cleaning and Related Services Managers Legal Managers Property Managers Safety and Security Managers Services Managers Not Elsewhere Classified

MAJOR GROUP 2 PROFESSIONALS 21 211

SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING PROFESSIONALS PHYSICISTS, CHEMISTS AND RELATED PROFESSIONALS

2111 2112 2113

Physicists and Astronomers Meteorologists and Seismologists Chemists

2114

Geologists and Geophysicists

212 2120

MATHEMATICIANS, ACTUARIES AND STATISTICIANS Mathematicians, Actuaries and Statisticians

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213 2131 2132 2133 2134 214

LIFE SCIENCE PROFESSIONALS Biologists, Botanists, Zoologists and Related Professionals Farming, Forestry and Fisheries Advisers Environmental Protection Professionals Pharmacologists, Pathologists and Related Professionals ENGINEERING PROFESSIONALS (EXCLUDING ELECTROTECHNOLOGY)

2141 2142 2143 2144 2145

Industrial and Production Engineers Civil Engineers Environmental Engineers Mechanical Engineers Chemical Engineers

2146 2149

Mining Engineers, Metallurgists and Related Professionals Engineering Professionals Not Elsewhere Classified

215 2151 2152 2153 216

ELECTROTECHNOLOGY ENGINEERS Electrical Engineers Electronic Engineers Telecommunications Engineers ARCHITECS, PLANNERS, SURVEYORS AND DESIGNERS

2161 2162 2163

Building Architects Landscape Architects Product and Garment Designers

2164 2165 2166

Town and Traffic Planners Cartographers and Surveyors Graphic and Multimedia Designers

217

SHIP, AIRCRAFT AND TRAIN/LOCOMOTIVE CONTROLLERS

2171 2172 2173

Ships Engineers Ships Deck Officers and Pilots Aircraft Pilots and Related Professionals

2174 2175 2179

Air Traffic Controllers Train/Locomotive Controllers Transport Controllers Not Elsewhere Classified

218

MINING, MANUFACTURING AND CONSTRUCTION PROFESSIONALS

2181 2182 2183

Mining Professionals Manufacturing Professionals Construction Professionals

22

HEALTH PROFESSIONALS

221

MEDICAL DOCTORS

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2211 2212 222 2221 2222 223 2230 224 2240 225 2250 226

Generalist Medical Practitioners Specialist Medical Practitioners NURSING AND MIDWIFERY PROFESSIONALS Nursing Professionals Midwifery Professionals TRADITIONAL AND COMPLEMENTARY MEDICINE PROFESSIONALS Traditional and Complementary Medicine Professionals PARAMEDICAL PRACTITIONERS Paramedical Practitioners VETERINARIANS Veterinarians OTHER HEALTH PROFESSIONALS

2261 2262 2263

Dentists Pharmacists Environmental and Occupational Health and Hygiene Professionals

2264 2265 2266

Physiotherapists Dieticians and Nutritionists Audiologist and Speech Therapist

2267 2268 2269

Optometrists and Ophthalmic Opticians Occupational Therapists Health Professionals Not Elsewhere Classified

23 231

TEACHING PROFESSIONALS UNIVERSITY AND HIGHER EDUCATION TEACHERS

2310

University and Higher Education Teachers

232

VOCATIONAL EDUCATION TEACHERS

2320 233 2330 234

Vocational Education Teachers SECONDARY EDUCATION TEACHERS Secondary Education Teachers PRIMARY SCHOOL AND EARLY CHILDHOOD TEACHERS

2341

Primary School Teachers

2342

Early Childhood Educators

235

MUSIC, ARTS AND PERFORMING ARTS TEACHERS

2351

Music Teachers

2352

Arts Teachers

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Performing Arts Teachers

236

LANGUAGE TEACHERS

2360 237 2370 238 2381 239 2391 2392 2393 2399 24 241 2411 2412 2413

Language Teachers RELIGIOUS TEACHERS Religious Teachers SKILL TECHNOLOGY AND TECHNICAL TRAINERS Vocational Training Officers OTHER TEACHING PROFESSIONALS Education Methods Specialists Special Needs Teachers Information Technology Trainers Teaching Professionals Not Elsewhere Classified BUSINESS AND ADMINISTRATION PROFESSIONALS FINANCE PROFESSIONALS Accountants Financial and Investment Advisers Financial Analysts

242

ADMINISTRATION PROFESSIONALS

2421 2422

Management and Organization Analysts Policy Administration Professionals

2423 2424 2425

Personnel and Careers Professionals Training and Staff Development Professionals Administrative Professionals

243

SALES, MARKETING AND PUBLIC RELATIONS PROFESSIONALS

2431 2432 2433 2434

Advertising and Marketing Professionals Public Relations Professionals Technical and Medical Sales Professionals (Excluding ICT) Information and Communications Technology (ICT) Sales Professionals

2435

Sales and Marketing Professionals

244

REGULATORY GOVERNMENT PROFESSIONALS

2441 2442

Customs, Border and Immigration Inspector Professionals Taxation and Excise Officials Professionals

2443 2444 2445 2446

Government Social Benefits Officials Professionals Government Licensing Officials Professionals Police Inspectors and Detectives Professionals Civil Officials Professionals

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2449 25 251

Regulatory Government Professionals Not Elsewhere Classified INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY PROFESSIONALS SOFTWARE AND APPLICATIONS DEVELOPERS AND ANALYSTS

2511

Systems Analysts

2512 2513 2514 2519

Software Developers Web and Multimedia Developers Applications Programmers Software and Applications Developers and Analysts Not Elsewhere Classified

252

DATABASE AND NETWORK PROFESSIONALS

2521 2522

Database Designers and Administrators Systems Administrators

2523 2529

Computer Network Professionals Database and Network Professionals Not Elsewhere Classified

26 261 2611 2612 2619

LEGAL, SOCIAL AND CULTURAL PROFESSIONALS LEGAL PROFESSIONALS Lawyers Judges Legal Professionals Not Elsewhere Classified

262

LIBRARIANS, ARCHIVISTS AND CURATORS

2621 2622

Archivists and Curators Librarians and Related Information Professionals

263

SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS PROFESSIONALS

2631 2632

Economists Sociologists, Anthropologists and Related Professionals

2633 2634 2635 2636

Philosophers, Historians and Political Scientist Psychologists Social Work and Counseling Professionals Religious Professionals

264

AUTHORS, JOURNALISTS AND LINGUISTS

2641 2642

Authors and Related Writers Journalists

2643

Translators, Interpreters and Other Linguists

265

CREATIVE AND PERFORMING ARTISTS

2651

Visual Artists

2652 2653

Musicians, Singers and Composers Dancers and Choreographers

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2654 2655

Film, Stage and Related Directors and Producers Actors

2656 2657 2658 2659

Announcers on Radio, Television and Other Media Clowns, Magicians, Acrobats and Related Professionals Animal Keepers and Trainers Creative and Performing Artists Not Elsewhere Classified

27 271 2711 2712

HOSPITALITY, RETAIL AND OTHER SERVICES PROFESSIONALS HOTEL AND RESTAURANT PROFESSIONALS Hotel, Hospitality and Related Professionals Restaurant and Related Professionals

MAJOR GROUP 3 TECHNICIANS AND ASSOCIATE PROFESSIONALS 31 311

SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING ASSOCIATE PROFESSIONALS PHYSICAL AND ENGINEERING SCIENCE TECHNICIANS

3111

Chemical and Physical Science Technicians

3112 3113 3114 3115 3116

Civil Engineering Technicians Electrical Engineering Technicians Electronics Engineering Technicians Mechanical Engineering Technicians Chemical Engineering Technicians

3117 3118 3119

Mining and Metallurgical Technicians Draughtspersons Physical and Engineering Science Technicians Not Elsewhere Classified

312

MINING, MANUFACTURING AND CONSTRUCTION SUPERVISORS

3121 3122 3123

Mining Supervisors Manufacturing Supervisors Construction Supervisors

3129

Other Supervisors Not Elsewhere Classified

313

PROCESS CONTROL TECHNICIANS

3131

Power Production Plant Operators

3132 3133 3134 3135

Incinerator and Water Treatment Plant Operators Chemical Processing Plant Controllers Petroleum and Natural Gas Refining Plant Operators Metal Production Process Controllers

3139

Process Control Technicians Not Elsewhere Classified

314 3141

LIFE SCIENCE TECHNICIANS AND RELATED ASSOCIATE PROFESSIONALS Life Science Technicians (Excluding Medical)

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3142 3143

Agricultural Technicians Forestry Technicians

3144

Fishery Technicians

315

SHIP, AIRCRAFT AND TRAIN TECHNICIANS

3151 3152 3153 3159

Air Traffic Technicians Ship/Marine Technicians Train/Rel Technicians Transport Technicians Not Elsewhere Classified

316 3160 32 321

SCIENCE NUCLEAR ASSOCIATE PROFESSIONALS Nuclear Research and Development Associate Professionals HEALTH ASSOCIATE PROFESSIONALS MEDICAL AND PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNICIANS

3211

Medical Imaging and Therapeutic Equipment Technicians

3212 3213 3214 3215

Medical and Pathology Laboratory Technicians Pharmaceutical Technicians and Assistants Medical and Dental Prosthetic Technicians Orthotic and Prosthetic Technicians

322 3221 3222 323 3230 324 3240 325

NURSING AND MIDWIFERY ASSOCIATE PROFESSIONALS Nursing Associate Professionals Midwifery Associate Professionals TRADITIONAL AND COMPLEMENTARY MEDICINE ASSOCIATE PROFESSIONALS Traditional and Complementary Medicine Associate Professionals VETERINARY TECHNICIANS AND ASSISTANTS Veterinary Technicians and Assistants OTHER HEALTH ASSOCIATE PROFESSIONALS

3251 3252 3253 3254

Dental Assistants and Therapists Medical Records and Health Information Technicians Community Health Workers Dispensing Opticians

3255 3256 3257 3258 3259

Physiotherapy Technicians and Assistants Medical Assistants Environmental and Occupational Health Inspectors and Associates Ambulance Workers Health Associate Professionals Not Elsewhere Classified

XXI

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33 331

BUSINESS AND ADMINISTRATIONS ASSOCIATE PROFESSIONALS FINANCIAL AND MATHEMATICAL ASSOCIATE PROFESSIONALS

3311

Securities and Finance Dealers and Brokers

3312 3313 3314 3315

Credit and Loans Officers Accounting Associate Professionals Statistical, Mathematical and Actuarial Associate Professionals Valuers and Loss Assessors

332

SALES AND PURCHASING AGENTS AND BROKERS

3321 3322

Insurance Representatives Commercial Sales Representatives

3323 3324

Buyers Trade Brokers

333

BUSINESS SERVICES AGENTS

3331 3332 3333 3334

Clearing and Forwarding Agents Conference and Event Planners Employment Agents and Contractors Real Estate and Property Agents

3339

Business Services Agents Not Elsewhere Classified

334

ADMINISTRATIVE AND SPECIALIZED SECRETARIES

3341

Office Supervisors

3342 3343 3344 3349

Legal Secretaries Administrative and Executive Secretaries Medical Secretaries Administrative and Specialized Secretaries Not Elsewhere Classified

335

REGULATORY GOVERNMENT ASSOCIATE PROFESSIONALS

3351 3352

Customs and Border Inspectors Taxation and Excise Officials

3353 3354 3355 3356 3359

Government Social Benefits Officials Government Licensing Officials Police Inspectors and Detectives Civil Defence Associate Professionals Regulatory Government Associate Professionals Not Elsewhere Classified

34 341

LEGAL, SOCIAL, CULTURAL AND RELATED ASSOCIATE PROFESSIONALS LEGAL, SOCIAL, AND RELIGOUS ASSOCIATE PROFESSIONALS

3411 3412

Legal and Related Associate Professionals Social Work Associate Professionals

3413

Religious Associate Professionals

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342 3421 3422 3423 343

SPORTS, SELF DEFENCE AND FITNESS ASSOCIATE PROFESSIONALS Athletes and Sports Players Sports Coaches, Instructors and Officials Fitness and Recreation Instructors and Program Leaders ARTISTIC, CULTURAL AND CULINARY ASSOCIATE PROFESSIONALS

3431 3432 3433

Photographers Interior Designers and Decorators Gallery, Museum and Library Technicians

3434 3435

Chefs Other Artistic and Cultural Associate Professionals

35

INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNICIANS

351

INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY OPERATIONS AND USER SUPPORT TECHNICIANS

3511 3512 3513

Information and Communications Technology Operations Technicians Information and Communications Technology User Support Technicians Computer Network and Systems Technicians

3514

Web Technicians

352

TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND BROADCASTING TECHNICIANS

3521

Broadcasting and Audio-Visual Technicians

3522

Telecommunications Engineering Technicians

MAJOR GROUP 4 CLERICAL SUPPORT WORKERS 41 411 4110 412 4120 413

OFFICE CLERKS GENERAL OFFICE CLERKS General Office Clerks SECRETARIES (GENERAL) Secretaries (General) KEYBOARD OPERATORS

4131

Typist and Word Processor Operators

4132

Data Entry Clerks

42 421 4211 4212

CUSTOMER SERVICES CLERKS TELLERS, MONEY COLLECTORS AND RELATED CLERKS Bank Tellers and Related Clerks Bookmakers, Croupiers and Related Gaming Workers

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4213 4214

Pawnbrokers and Money-Lenders Debt-Collectors and Related Workers

422

CLIENT INFORMATION WORKERS

4221 4222

Travel Consultants and Clerks Contact/Call Centre Information Clerks

4223 4224 4225 4226 4227

Telephone Switchboard Operators Hotel Receptionists Enquiry Clerks Receptionists (General) Survey and Market Research Interviewers

4229

Client Information Workers Not Elsewhere Classified

43 431

NUMERICAL AND MATERIAL RECORDING CLERKS NUMERICAL CLERKS

4311

Accounting and Bookkeeping Clerks

4312 4313

Statistical, Finance and Insurance Clerks Payroll Clerks

432 4321 4322 4323

MATERIAL - RECORDING AND TRANSPORTATION CLERKS Stock Clerks Production Clerks Transportation Clerks

44

OTHER CLERICAL SUPPORT WORKERS

441

OTHER CLERICAL SUPPORT WORKERS

4411 4412 4413

Library Clerks Mail Carriers and Sorting Clerks Coding, Proof-Reading and Related Clerks

4414 4415 4416 4419

Scribes and Related Workers Filing and Copying Clerks Personnel Clerks Clerical Support Workers Not Elsewhere Classified

MAJOR GROUP 5 SERVICE AND SALES WORKERS 51 511

PERSONAL SERVICES WORKERS TRAVEL ATTENDANTS, CONDUCTORS AND TRAVEL GUIDES

5111

Travel Attendants and Travel Stewards

5112 5113

Transport Conductors Travel Guides

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512 5120 513

COOKS Cooks WAITERS AND BARTENDERS

5131

Waiters and Waitress

5132

Bartenders

514 5141 5142 515 5151 5152 5153 516

HAIRDRESSERS, BEAUTICIANS AND RELATED WORKERS Hairdressers Beauticians and Related Workers BUILDING AND HOUSEKEEPING SUPERVISORS Cleaning and Housekeeping Supervisors in Offices, Hotels and Other Establishments Domestic Housekeepers Building Caretakers OTHER PERSONAL SERVICES WORKERS

5161 5162 5163

Astrologers, Fortune-Tellers and Related Workers Companions and Valets Undertakers and Embalmers

5164 5165 5169

Pet Groomers and Animal Care Workers Driving Instructors Personal Services Workers Not Elsewhere Classified

52 521 5211 5212 522 5221 5222 5223 523 5230

SALES WORKERS STREET AND MARKET SALESPERSONS Stall and Market Salespersons Street Food Salespersons SHOP SALESPERSONS Shop Keepers Shop Supervisors Shop Sales Assistants CASHIERS AND TICKET CLERKS Cashiers and Ticket Clerks

524

OTHER SALES WORKERS

5241 5242 5243

Fashion and Other Models Sales Demonstrators Door To Door Salespersons

5244 5245 5246

Contact Centre Salespersons Service Station and Pump Attendants Food Service Counter Attendants

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5249 53 531 5311 5312 532 5321 5322 5329

XXVI

Sales Workers Not Elsewhere Classified EDUCATION AND SOCIAL SERVICES WORKERS CHILD CARE WORKERS AND TEACHERS AIDE Child Care Workers Teachers Aide PERSONAL CARE WORKERS IN MEDICAL CENTER Health Care Assistants Home-Based Personal Care Workers Personal Care Workers in Medical Services Center Not Elsewhere Classified

54

PROTECTIVE SERVICES WORKERS

541

PROTECTIVE SERVICES WORKERS

5411 5412 5413 5414 5415

Fire-Fighters Police Officers Prison Guards Security Guards Immigration/Custom Officers and Assistant

5419

Protective Services Workers Not Elsewhere Classified

MAJOR GROUP 6 SKILLED AGRICULTURAL, FORESTRY, LIVESTOCK AND FISHERY WORKERS 61 611

MARKET-ORIENTED SKILLED AGRICULTURAL AND LIVESTOCK WORKERS MARKET GARDENERS AND CROP GROWERS

6111 6112 6113 6114

Field Crop Growers Shrub Crop Growers Gardeners, Horticultural and Nursery Growers Mixed Crop Growers

6115

Vegetable Growers

612

ANIMAL PRODUCERS, LIVESTOCK FARMERS AND ANIMAL PRODUCT PRODUCERS

6121 6122 6123 6129

Livestock and Dairy Producers Aves Producers Fishery Producers and Farmers Animal Producers Not Elsewhere Classified

613

MIXED CROP AND ANIMAL PRODUCERS

6130

Mixed Crop and Animal Producers

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62

621

MARKET-ORIENTED SKILLED FORESTRY, FISHERY AND HUNTING WORKERS FORESTRY AND RELATED WORKERS

6211

Forestry and Related Workers

6212

Charcoal Burners and Related Workers

622

FISHERY WORKERS, HUNTERS AND TRAPPERS

6221

Aquaculture Workers

6222 6223 6224

Inland and Coastal Waters Fishery Workers Deep-Sea Fishery Workers Hunters and Trappers

63 631 6310 632 6320 633 6330 634 6340

SUBSISTENCE FARMERS, FISHERMAN, HUNTERS AND GATHERERS SUBSISTENCE CROP FARMERS Subsistence Crop Farmers SUBSISTENCE LIVESTOCK FARMERS Subsistence Livestock Farmers SUBSISTENCE MIXED CROP AND LIVESTOCK FARMERS Subsistence Mixed Crop and Livestock Farmers SUBSISTENCE FISHERS, HUNTERS, TRAPPERS AND GATHERERS Subsistence Fishers, Hunters, Trappers and Gatherers

MAJOR GROUP 7 CRAFT AND RELATED TRADES WORKERS 71 711

BUILDING AND RELATED TRADES WORKERS, EXCLUDING ELECTRICIANS BUILDING FRAME AND RELATED TRADES WORKERS

7111 7112

House Builders Bricklayers and Related Workers

7113 7114 7115 7119

Stonemasons, Stone Cutters, Splitters and Carvers Concrete Placers, Concrete Finishers and Related Workers Carpenters and Joiners Building Frame and Related Trades Workers Not Elsewhere Classified

712

BUILDING FINISHERS AND RELATED TRADES WORKERS

7121 7122 7123

Roofers Floor Layers and Tile Setters Plasterers

7124

Insulation Workers

XXVII

MASCO 2008 Introduction

7125 7126

Glaziers Plumbers and Pipe Fitters

7127

Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Mechanics

713 7131 7132

PAINTERS, BUILDING STRUCTURE CLEANERS AND RELATED TRADES WORKERS Painters and Related Workers Spray Painters and Varnishers

7133

Building Structure Cleaners

72 721 7211 7212 7213 7214 7215 722

METAL, MACHINERY AND RELATED TRADES WORKERS SHEET AND STRUCTURAL METAL WORKERS, MOULDERS AND WELDERS AND RELATED WORKERS Metal Moulders and Coremakers Welders and Flame Cutters Sheet-Metal Workers Structural Metal-Preparers and Erectors Riggers and Cable Splicers BLACKSMITHS, TOOLMAKERS AND RELATED TRADES WORKERS

7221

Blacksmiths, Hammersmiths and Forging-Press Workers

7222 7223 7224

Toolmakers and Related Workers Metal Working Machine Tool Setters and Operators Metal Polishers, Wheel Grinders and Tool Sharpeners

723

MACHINERY MECHANICS AND REPAIRERS

7231 7232 7233

Motor Vehicle Mechanics and Repairers Aircraft Engine Mechanics and Repairers Agricultural and Industrial Machinery Mechanics and Repairers

7234

Bicycle and Related Repairers

73 731

HANDICRAFT AND PRINTING WORKERS HANDICRAFT WORKERS

7311

Precision Instrument Makers and Repairers

7312 7313 7314 7315 7316

Musical Instrument Makers and Tuners Jewellery and Precious-Metal Workers Potters and Related Workers Glass Makers, Cutters, Grinders and Finishers Sign Writers, Decorative Painters, Engravers and Inscribers

7317 7318 7319

Handicraft Workers of Wood, Basketry and Related Materials Handicraft Workers of Textile, Leather and Related Materials Handicraft Workers Not Elsewhere Classified

XXVIII

MASCO 2008 Introduction

732 7321 7322 7323 7324 74 741

PRINTING TRADES WORKERS Pre-Press Technicians Printers Print Finishing and Binding Workers Printing and Photo Engravers and Inscribers ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC TRADES WORKERS ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT INSTALLERS AND REPAIRERS

7411 7412

Building and Related Electricians Electrical Mechanics and Fitters

7413

Electrical Line Installers and Repairers

742 7421 7422 75 751

ELECTRONICS AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS INSTALLERS AND REPAIRERS Electronics Mechanics and Servicers Information and Communications Technology Installers and Services FOOD PROCESSING, WOOD WORKING, GARMENT AND OTHER CRAFT AND RELATED TRADES WORKERS FOOD PROCESSING AND RELATED TRADES WORKERS

7511 7512 7513 7514 7515

Butchers, Fishmongers and Related Food Preparers Bakers, Pastry-Cooks and Confectionery Makers Dairy-Products Makers Fruit, Vegetable and Related Preservers Food and Beverage Tasters and Graders

7516

Tobacco Preparers and Tobacco Products Makers

752

WOOD TREATERS, CABINET-MAKERS AND RELATED TRADES WORKERS

7521 7522 7523

Wood Treaters Cabinet-Makers and Related Workers Woodworking-Machine Tool Setters and Operators

753

GARMENT AND RELATED TRADES WORKERS

7531 7532 7533 7534

Tailors, Dressmakers, Furriers and Hatters Garment and Related Pattern-Makers and Cutters Shoemakers and Related Workers Upholsterers and Related Workers

7535

Pelt Dressers, Tanners and Fellmongers

754 7541 7542 7543 7544 7549

OTHER CRAFT AND RELATED WORKERS Underwater Divers Shotfirers and Blasters Product Graders and Testers (Excluding Foods and Beverages) Fumigators, Pest and Weed Controllers Craft and Related Trades Workers Not Elsewhere Classified

XXIX

MASCO 2008 Introduction

MAJOR GROUP 8 PLANT AND MACHINE OPERATORS AND ASSEMBLERS 81 811

STATIONARY PLANT AND MACHINE OPERATORS MINING AND MINERAL PROCESSING PLANT OPERATORS

8111 8112 8113

Miners and Quarry Workers Mineral and Stone Processing Plant Operators Well Drillers and Borers and Related Workers

8114

Cement, Stone and Other Mineral Products Machine Operators

812

METAL PROCESSING AND FINISHING PLANT OPERATORS

8121

Metal Processing Plant Operators

8122

Metal Finishing, Plating and Coating Machine Operators

813 8131

CHEMICAL AND PHOTOGRAPHIC PRODUCTS PLANT AND MACHINE OPERATORS Chemical Product Plant and Machine Operators

8132

Photographic Products Machine Operators

814 8141 8142 8143 815

RUBBER, PLASTIC AND PAPER PRODUCTS MACHINE OPERATORS Rubber Products Machine Operators Plastic Products Machine Operators Paper Products Machine Operators TEXTILE, FUR AND LEATHER PRODUCTS MACHINE OPERATORS

8151 8152 8153 8154

Fiber Preparing, Spinning and Winding Machine Operators Weaving and Knitting Machine Operators Sewing Machine Operators Bleaching, Dyeing and Fabric Cleaning Machine Operators

8155 8156 8157 8159

Fur and Leather Preparing Machine Operators Shoemaking and Related Machine Operators Laundry Machine Operators Textile, Fur and Leather Products Machine Operators Not Elsewhere Classified

816 8160 817 8171 8172 8173 818 8181

FOOD AND RELATED PRODUCTS MACHINE OPERATORS Food and Related Products Machine Operators WOOD PROCESSING AND PAPERMAKING PLANT OPERATORS Pulp and Papermaking Plant Operators Wood Processing Plant Operators Wood Products Machine Operators OTHER STATIONARY PLANT AND MACHINE OPERATORS Glass and Ceramics Plant Operators

XXX

MASCO 2008 Introduction

8182 8183

Steam Engine and Boiler Operators Packing, Bottling and Labelling Machine Operators

8184 8189

Glass and Ceramics Kiln and Related Machine Operators Stationary Plant and Machine Operators Not Elsewhere Classified

819 8191 8192

PRINTING, BINDING AND PAPER PRODUCTS MACHINE OPERATORS Printing Machine Operators Bookbinding Machine Operators

82

ASSEMBLERS

821

ASSEMBLERS

8211

Mechanical Machinery Assemblers

8212 8213 8219

Electrical and Electronics Equipment Assemblers Leather, Metal, Rubber and Plastic Products Assemblers Assemblers Not Elsewhere Classified

822 8221 83 831 8311 8312 832 8321 8322 833

METAL AND MINERALS PRODUCTS MACHINE OPERATORS Machine-Tool Setter-Operators DRIVERS AND MOBILE PLANT OPERATORS LOCOMOTIVE ENGINE DRIVERS AND RELATED WORKERS Locomotive Engine Drivers Railway Brake, Signal and Switch Operators CAR, VAN AND MOTORCYLE DRIVERS Motorcycle Drivers Car, Taxi and Van Drivers HEAVY TRUCK AND BUS DRIVERS

8331 8332

Bus and Tram Drivers Heavy Truck and Lorry Drivers

834

MOBILE PLANT OPERATORS

8341 8342 8343

Mobile Farm and Forestry Plant Operators Earthmoving and Related Plant Operators Crane, Hoist and Related Plant Operators

8344

Lifting Truck Operators

835 8350

SHIPS DECK CREWS AND RELATED WORKERS Ships Deck Crews and Related Workers

MAJOR GROUP 9 ELEMENTARY OCCUPATIONS

XXXI

MASCO 2008 Introduction

91 911

CLEANERS AND HELPERS DOMESTIC, HOTEL AND OFFICE CLEANERS AND HELPERS

9111

Domestic Cleaners and Helpers

9112

Cleaners and Helpers in Offices, Hotel and Other Establishment

912 9121 9122 9123 9129

VEHICLE, WINDOW, LAUNDRY AND OTHER HAND CLEANING WORKERS Hand Laundryman and Ironers Vehicle Cleaners Window Cleaners Other Cleaning Workers

92

AGRICULTURAL, FORESTRY, FARMING AND FISHERY LABOURERS

921

AGRICULTURAL, FORESTRY, FARMING AND FISHERY LABOURERS

9211 9212 9213

Crop Farm Labourers Livestock Farm Labourers Mixed Crop and Livestock Farm Labourers

9214 9215 9216

Garden and Horticultural Labourers Forestry Labourers Fishery and Aquaculture Labourers

93 931

MINING, CONSTRUCTION, MANUFACTURING AND TRANSPORTATION LABOURERS MINING AND CONSTRUCTION LABOURERS

9311 9312

Mining and Quarrying Labourers Civil Engineering Labourers

9313

Building Construction Labourers

932 9321 9322 9329 933

MANUFACTURING LABOURERS Hand Packers Rubber Processing Workers Manufacturing Labourers Not Elsewhere Classified TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE LABOURERS

9331 9332 9333

Hand and Pedal Vehicle Drivers Machinery and Animal – Drawn Vehicles Drivers Freight Handlers

9334 9335

Shelf Fillers Storage Labourers

94

FOOD PREPARATION ASSISTANT

941

FOOD PREPARATION ASSISTANT

9411 9412

XXXII

Fast Food Preparers Kitchen Helpers

MASCO 2008 Introduction

95 951 9510 952 9520 96 961 9611 9612 9613 962

STREET AND RELATED SALES AND SERVICES WORKERS STREET AND RELATED SERVICES WORKERS Street and Related Services Workers STREET VENDORS (EXCLUDING FOOD) Street Vendors (Excluding Food) REFUSE WORKERS AND OTHER ELEMENTARY WORKERS REFUSE WORKERS Garbage Collectors Refuse Sorters Sweepers and Related Labourers OTHER ELEMENTARY WORKERS

9621 9622

Messengers, Package Deliverers and Luggage Porters Odd Job Persons

9623 9624 9625 9629

Meter Readers and Vending-Machine Collectors Water and Firewood Collectors Attendants Elementary Workers Not Elsewhere Classified

MAJOR GROUP 0 ARMED FORCES OCCUPATIONS 01 011 0110 012 0120 02 021

THE MALAYSIAN ARMY THE MALAYSIAN ARMY COMMISSIONED OFFICERS The Malaysian Army Commissioned Officers THE MALAYSIAN ARMY OTHER RANKS The Malaysian Army Other Ranks ROYAL MALAYSIAN NAVY ROYAL MALAYSIAN NAVY COMMISSIONED OFFICERS

0210

Royal Malaysian Navy Commissioned Officers

022

ROYAL MALAYSIAN NAVY OTHER RANKS

0220

Royal Malaysian Navy Other Ranks

03

ROYAL MALAYSIAN AIR FORCE

XXXIII

MASCO 2008 Introduction

031 0310 032 0320

ROYAL MALAYSIAN AIR FORCE COMMISSIONED OFFICERS Royal Malaysian Air Force Commissioned Officers ROYAL MALAYSIAN AIR FORCE OTHER RANKS Royal Malaysian Air Force Other Ranks

XXXIV