Rajasthan Rural Livelihood Project

A Abbreviations A/V ΠAudio Visual AAY ΠAntyodaya Ann Yojna ANC ΠAnte Natal Checkups ANM ΠAuxiliary Nurse Midwife BPL ΠBelow Poverty Line...

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Rajasthan Rural Livelihood Project

DPIP Districts

Prepared by: State Project Support Unit-RRLP Panchayat and Rural Development Department Government of Rajasthan, Jaipur

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Abbreviations A/V – Audio Visual AAY – Antyodaya Ann Yojna ANC – Ante Natal Checkups ANM – Auxiliary Nurse Midwife BPL – Below Poverty Line CBO – Community Based Organization CC Road – Cement Concrete Road CEO – Chief Executive Officers CEO-JP - Chief Executive Officers – Janpad Panchayat CEO-ZP - Chief Executive Officers – Zila Panchayat CHC – Community Health Center CIG – Common Interest Group Deptt.- Department DPSU – District Project Support Unit DRDA – District Rural Development Agency EAS – Employment Assurance Scheme EC – Executive Committee EPVG – Extremely Poor and Vulnerable Group FAO – Food and Agriculture Organization FGD – Focused Group Discussion GB – General Body GDP – Gross Domestic Product GEN - General GoR – Government of Rajasthan HDI – Human Development Index HH – House Hold HQ – Head Quarters

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IAY – Indira Awaas Yojna ICDS – Integrated Child Development Scheme IEC – Information Education and Communication IFAD – International Fund for Agriculture Development IMR – Infant Mortality Rate IRDP – Integrated Rural Development Program IT – Information Technology JFM – Joint Forest Management JRY – Jawahar Rozgar Yojna KCC – Kisan Credit Card Kg - Kilogram Km, KM - Kilometers M&E – Monitoring and Evaluation M&L – Monitoring and Learning MADA – Modified Area development Approach MDM – Mid-Day- Meal MFF – Microfinance Federation MFI – Micro Finance Institution MMR – Maternal Mortality Rate NABARD – National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development NFBS – National Family Benefit Scheme NGO – Non-Government Organization NH – National Highway NOAP – National Old Age Pension NREGS – National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme NRHM – National Rural Health Mission NSDP – Net State Domestic Product NSS – National Sample Survey NTFP – Non-Timber Forest Produce pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms, if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine. Get yours now!

OBC – Other Backward Class P&RD – Panchayat and Rural Development PDS – Public Distribution System PFT – Project Facilitation Team PHC – Primary Health Center PHED – Public Health and Engineering Department PMGSY – Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojna PRA – Participatory Rural Appraisal PRI – Panchyati Raj Institution PTG – Primitive Tribal Group RCH – Reproductive and Child Health RGWM – Rajiv Gandhi Watershed Mission RLEGP – Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Program RRB – Regional Rural Bank SC – Scheduled Caste SDP – State Domestic Product SEZ – Special Economic Zone SGDP – State Gross Domestic Product SGRY- Sampoorna Grameen Rozgar Yojna SGSY- Swarnajayanti Grameen Swarozgar Yojna SHC – Sub-Health Center SHG – Self Help Group SHG LP – Self Help Group Livelihood Plan SPMU – State Project Management Unit SSA – Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan ST – Scheduled Tribe TDP – Tribal Development Plan TSC – Total Sanitation Campaign TSP – Tribal Sub-Plan pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms, if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine. Get yours now!

TV – Tele Vision UNDP – United Nations Development Program VDC – Village Development Committee CRP – Village Resource Person WCD –Watershed development Committee WDC – Women and Child Development Department

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Acknowledgements

The Tribal Development Framework Study for the Rajasthan Rural Livelihood Project was undertaken in sample project districts of the project. This report is a collaborative effort. We are grateful to the Government of Rajasthan and its department of Rural Development & Panchayati Raj for sponsoring this study. We are grateful to Shri. C.S. Rajan, Principal Secretary, Department of Rural Development, Government of Rajasthan for involving the Institute in this exercise. We would also extend our gratitude to Ms. Punam, Project Director, RRLP-Rajasthan for her help. Mr. S.M. Adeel Abbas- Social Development Specialist of RRLP- Rajasthan for his contribution and support in conduct of study. We would also like to thank the World Bank for support specially Mr. Amarinder Singh and Mr. Varun Singh for their support and contributions. We would also like to appreciate the help provided to us by the SPMU unit of Government of Rajasthan headed by the Project Director of RRLP. It is our duty to appreciate the contribution of the District- level and Block- level officers of the six districts. We would like to specially thank and acknowledge the time and contribution of the village community of all the twenty-four villages. Their suggestions and discussions were of immense importance for the study. We are also grateful to participants of district and state consultations for comments and suggestions. Last but not the least we appreciate the support and contribution of the research staff of IDSGopal Singh, Shyam Singh, Kamna Khurana, Rakesh Pareekh, Jitendra Singh, Surendra Singh and Ahish Acharya.

Varsha Joshi Surjit Singh Mohanakumar S

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Executive Summary Rajasthan has 7.10 lakh scheduled tribe (ST) population (12%) as per the 2001 census, of which nearly 95 percent reside in rural areas. Though the tribal population is scattered throughout the state, a major portion is concentrated in southern part of the state viz., entire districts of Banswara and Dungarpur, the tehsils of Kherwara, Jhadol, Kotra, Salumber, Sarada, Dhariyawad and 81 villages of Girwa panchayat samiti of Udaipur district, Partapgarh and Arnod tehsils of Chittorgarh district and Abu Road block of Sirohi district. Five districts viz., Udaipur, Banswara, Dungarpur, Jaipur and Chittorgarh account for more than half (54.50%) of the total ST population in Rajasthan. The major tribes residing in these areas are Bhil, Meena, Damor, Patelias, Saharaiyas, and Gharasia. Sahariya, a primitive tribal group, residing in part of Baran, Kota, Dungarpur and Sawai Madhopur districts, is among the most backward tribal groups. The economy of tribals continues to be predominately agriculture with small landholding and irrigated area. These communities have higher incidence of illiteracy, malnourishment and poverty, and face social and geographic isolation. The region lacks productive land, irrigation facilities, industrialization and skill building opportunities. The social assessment commissioned by the SPMU has highlighted the fact that the tribals in the project districts are amongst the poorest and marginalized communities. Thus, deliberate and proactive measures, combined with relevant government programs on tribal development are required, to ensure that benefits actually accrue to them. This sizable presence of tribal community requires a specific strategy to ensure their inclusion in the project interventions and processes. This Tribal Development Framework (TDF) for the RRLP has been prepared on the basis of the learning from DPIP, the Social Assessment study, and through an inclusive and participatory consultative process in the tribal districts. Objectives. The objective of the TDF is to ensure prioritized and targeted identification, inclusion, mobilization, capacity and institution building of the tribal communities throughout the project cycle and across all project components. It supports informed and continuous consultations; tribal representation and participation in the community institutions supported by the project; targeting of credit and livelihood assistance to the tribal SHGs; tribal focused prioritization, development and financing of microcredit and livelihood plans; and building of skills and capacities of the tribals for livelihood development and employment. The overall objective is to design and implement project implementation processes and mechanisms that are socially, culturally and economically compatible with the uniqueness of the Tribal Communities in Rajasthan, and support their social and economic empowerment. The TDF will foster respect for the dignity, human rights and cultural uniqueness of the Tribal Communities in the project villages of Rajasthan. TDF Strategy. The overall strategy of TDF is based on the following principles.      

Protection of social, economic and cultural interests of tribal communities in project areas and elsewhere in the state Facilitating informed consultations and broad community support for the project among the tribal communities Targeted identification and phased mobilization and capacity building of the tribal community institutions Promoting participation and representation of tribals in all community institutions, and their committees Forming exclusive tribal women’s SHGs, CDOs, PFT AFs and POs Ensuring representation and benefits flow to tribal SHGs from CDO and PFT Area federations

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  

 

Building skills and capacities of the Tribal SHGs for livelihood development and assured employment Financing demand-driven Micro credit & Livelihood Plan and value chain based support for key livelihood activities in the tribal areas Support to activities/sectors where tribal communities are able to participate effectively, especially relating to land, water, forest and livestock resource to ensure food security and sustainable surplus. Establishing linkage with public resources and legal provisions related to tribal development and welfare Monitoring of Tribal inclusion, participation and livelihood development through disaggregated M & E System.

Key Actions. The following key actions are envisaged as part of the TDF. Engagement of Tribal Inclusion Coordinator. The project will engage a tribal inclusion coordinator, based in Udaipur. The tribal inclusion coordinator will work under the supervision and guidance of the Social Development Coordinator of the SPMU, and be directly responsible for implementing the TDF actions in the tribal dominated south Rajasthan districts. Targeted Allocation of Resources for designated tribal areas. In the recognized Scheduled Areas, MADA Pockets, MADA Clusters and Sahariya Development Area, the project will have special allocation of financial and human resources, and focused and relatively intense project engagement. In the other project districts and blocks, where tribal population is scattered, the ‘social inclusion mechanisms’ of the project will ensure adequate representation of the STs in all project supported interventions. Tribal focused community mobilization. The block selection will prioritize any scheduled Areas, MADA Pockets and Clusters, Sahariya Development Area, any other blocks with high concentration of tribal population. Mobilizing tribal participation and representation in community Institutions. The project will work toward saturation coverage and inclusion of all identified ST households in community institutions. The community mobilization process in tribal areas will involve pre-group formation consultations in ST settlements. Based on local affinities and community preferences, the project will support formation of exclusive Tribal SHGs, especially wherever the tribal population is more than 30% in a village. Group Formation in tribal areas will be given more time and greater technical support to ensure participatory, consultative and demand-driven processes. Capacity building of tribal leadership and institutions. Focused training and handholding assistance will be provided to tribal community institutions, with respect to institutional functioning, concept of SHGs, savings and credit, book keeping and accounting, benefits of meetings and federating for sustainable livelihood activities and enterprises. They will also be supported in becoming office bearers and members of the executive and thematic subcommittees, and in advocating the interests of their ST members. Technical and handholding assistance on Community Investment Funds. The community investment support, through its various funds, will be based on preparation and approval of priority, microcredit and livelihood plans prepared by the SHGs. The priority plan of SHGs for startup fund will based on credit needs of the ST and other vulnerable households and will be prepared after internal consultations pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms, if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine. Get yours now!

among the SHG members. All Livelihood Plans will be screened by the PFTs and audited by the DPMUs to ensure that no sub-projects adversely affect the tribal livelihoods and their community interests. The various community investment funds will support up gradation, development and strengthening of indigenous knowledge and skills of the STs through innovations. Partnership Development. The institution building of tribal SHGs will make the poor creditworthy and eligible for bank linkage. At least 70% of the tribal SHGs will be linked to the Banks. Consultations between Banks and tribal SHGs and CDOs will be held, and capacity building of Executive Committee of tribal Community Institutions to engage with Bankers will be undertaken. Capacity building of tribal SHGs and CDOs in value addition and technology adoption through SSOs working in forestry, pasture land, dairying, handicrafts and other major livelihoods in the tribal areas will be undertaken. Convergence. The Project will support improved delivery of entitlements and welfare schemes of State and Central Government applicable in the tribal areas. This will involve convergence with government departments of tribal area development, forest, rural development, NREGA, DWCD etc. on implementation of tribal focused schemes and programmes in the project villages. Value Chain Development. Value chains will be based on assessment of sustainable livelihoods challenges and priorities in tribal areas and support of tribal livelihoods through value chain development and asset creation, based on local context and tribal communities’ skills and interests. At least 50 percent of tribal SHG members are expected to benefit from value chain interventions either through POs or directly. Innovation & Research. At least 10% of the total outlay will be allocated for innovative action research projects specifically targeting social and economic empowerment of the STs. These could relate to enhancing ST women’s participation in NREGA, innovative benefit sharing models of JFMC, community based natural resource development projects, pilots on promotion of tribal handicrafts etc. Skill development and employment promotion. Preference will be given to tribal youth, from the poor households endorsed by gram sabha. At least 50% of the youth supported or skill building and employment should be tribal in the tribal areas and at least 30% in other project areas. Identification of skills and employment sectors will be based on consultation with tribal youth, NGOs, RMOL and other agencies working with promotion of employment in tribal areas. Climate Change Adaptation. Adaptation pilot projects will promote and support augmentation and managed utilization of natural resources in the tribal areas. Location of pilot projects in climate sensitive tribal contexts, including drought prone areas, deserts, forest areas or traditional migration routes will be considered. Project Implementation Support. Empowered Committee. The project empowered committee will include representation from the departments of social justice and empowerment, women and child development, tribal development, the tribal research institute, Udaipur among others. Some of the leading NGOs of the state, especially those working in tribal areas, could also be included. Staffing. The TDF will be anchored by a senior staff positioned at the project HQ, SPMU reporting directly to the Project Director. At the divisional HQ level, 1 tribal inclusion coordinator will be placed pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms, if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine. Get yours now!

(for the division comprising southern tribal districts) to supervise, guide, support, facilitate and monitor TDF recommendations and expectations. The tribal coordinator, under the guidance of the Gender & Social Development Coordinator at the SPMU will be responsible for overall coordination, implementation, monitoring and reporting of the TDF in the tribal areas. The SPMU based Social Development Coordinator will perform the same function in other districts. The Social Development & Capacity Building staff in DPMUs and the PFT team will implement the key actions of the TDF with the support of the CRPs. Recruitment and HR Policy. The state governments’ reservation policy on STs will apply to all recruitment in SPMU, DPMU and PFT. A special recruitment drive to attract and employ suitably qualified ST candidates will be continued. Relevant relaxation in selection criterion will be introduced. One of the key selection criteria for the Tribal Inclusion Coordinator, the DPMs and the PFTs in the tribal areas will be sensitivity and demonstrable work experience of working with tribal communities in the state and within the country. Staff Capacity Building on Tribal inclusion and TDF. All project staff and partner agencies (SSOs, Banks, partnering NGOs and government departments) will undergo orientation and induction training which will include sensitization on the tribal exclusion and development issues in the project area. The divisional, district and PFT staff will undergo more intensive training through a specially designed module which will draw on the social assessment and tribal studies, TDF, PIP, COM, GAP and the ‘social action, accountability and empowerment module’ that will be designed for the community institutions. Additional Thematic Training on legal and welfare provisions for tribal areas, tribal livelihoods and inclusion strategies will be provided through external resources. Grievance Redressal. The PFT will support the participatory monitoring sub-committee of the CDO for handling complaints. Apart from this, contact numbers and official addresses will be displayed for lodging complaints and grievance redressal. A telephone hotline number will also be provided for filing complaints. The project will comply with the Right to Information Act, 2005. Budget. The TDF forms an integral part of RRLP; hence the budgets for the above interventions are not estimated separately. The required budgets for implementing the TDF will be part of the Annual Plans and Budgets of the DPMUs with larger allocations for Udaipur, Dungarpur, Chittorgarh, and Baran, district which have significant Tribal population for institution building, capacity building and livelihood investments. This will be reflected in the Micro-Credit Plans prepared by the target households, SHGs and VOs in the tribal areas. Since the project is aimed to cover, the poorest of the poor, 80% of the poor tribal families are expected to be covered under the project. Monitoring, Evaluation and Learning. For the purpose of M&E of the TDF, basic data relating to village wise information on tribal population, infrastructure facilities, land, land utilization, irrigation, artisans, wage labour, migration, cropping pattern, livelihoods, etc would be recorded in the village registers kept with the PFTs. The project interventions planned in the village as part of the Annual Plan and the project interventions actually implemented will also be captured in the MIS. The data collection would be the responsibility of the Cluster and village level project staff under the overall supervision and monitoring by the DPMU. Thematic studies on tribal development carried out throughout project cycle. A semi annual audit by an external agency will be done. The key monitoring indicators would be number of ST households identified in participatory process mobilized in SHGs; number of tribal SHGs, CDOs, AFs, and POs formed; development of tribal focused IEC materials; number of STs as office bearers, committee members etc. pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms, if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine. Get yours now!

I. The Scheduled Tribes in Rajasthan: A Brief Introduction I.1

Introduction

The state of Rajasthan is the largest state of the Republic of India by area with 3,42,239 sq. kms spread occupying 10.4% of the country’s total geographical area. As per the 2001 Census, nearly 56.51 million, that is 5.5% of the nation’s total population live in this state. The state is surrounded by Pakistan to the west, Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh to the south, Uttar Pradesh to the northeast, and Punjab to the north. The main geographic features - the Thar Desert and the Aravalli range which runs through the state from southwest to northeast—almost from one end to the other—for more than 850 kms give it certain unique geographical features. On the administration side, the state has 33 districts, 249 blocks with 41,353 villages and the pink city Jaipur serves as the state capital.. Poverty and social structure are uniquely intertwined in the state. Demographically, the state has little over 17 % of total population being those belonging to the Scheduled Castes and over 12% belonging to the Scheduled Tribes. As per 2002 BPL survey, the state has a population of 15.28% to its total population recorded as those living below poverty line, less than the national average at 26.10. Moreover, as per the World Bank’s 1997 India Poverty Assessment Report the state’s rural poverty was reported as 47.5% as against the national average of 36.7% in the country. Though, regional imbalance in growth and development is significant in the state of Rajasthan. The state has high concentration of poor in the resource-poor regions – largely occupied by the Scheduled Tribes. Among various causes, such regions have lacked severely in productive land, irrigation facilities, industrialization, skills and higher incidences of illiteracy. Though various anti-poverty initiatives have been implemented by the government of India (GoI) and the state government, the results have been dismal on account of various reasons, mainly poor targeting and inefficient management. With this background, the DPIP was implemented in seven districts of Rajasthan during the period 2000–2007 with an objective of improving the status of the rural poor through increased income, improved standard of living, and improved social status. This tribal development strategy document is recognition by the state government of the fact that benefits from programs and schemes intended for the tribal do not reach them automatically. Thus, deliberate, strategic measures and proactive regimes have to combine with relevant programs in order to ensure that benefits actually accrue to the vulnerable sections such as the tribals. Accordingly, this document sets out an agenda of action for the DPIP and identifies measures and provisions intended to protect and enhance the participation of and benefit to the tribal communities in the selected project districts. The Social assessment commissioned by the SPMU has highlighted the fact that the tribals in the project districts are amongst the poorest and marginalized communities. Further, the assessment has analyzed the special predicament of these communities and possibilities of interventions in their favour within the framework of the project. This document further delineates the broad principles and programmatic intervention with specific activities, institutional arrangement for their implementation, monitoring and budget.

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This Tribal Development Framework (TDF) for the RRLP has been prepared on the basis of the learning acquired from the experiences of the DPIP, various documentation works undertaken during the same phase and the report and recommendations of the Social Assessment commissioned and carried out by the SPMU,RRLP. The TDF, like the Social assessment, adopted the inclusive and participatory consultative processes and it has ‘Informed Consent’ of all key stakeholders including the tribal communities, civil society and media besides various line departments of the Government of Rajasthan. Under the Disclosure Policy, the Social Assessment report and the Tribal Development Framework has been disclosed and discussed with the key stakeholders as mentioned above. During the Social assessment, village level consultations were conducted in all cases social and resource maps were developed through inclusive and participatory processes. Out of the 24 villages studied for the purpose, XX villages had a tribal population of more than 50% of the total population. Further, three consultations with the key stakeholders including the representatives of tribal communities were organized – two at district levels and one at state level in Jaipur. This TDF document has incorporated all suggestions and recommendations made during the two consultations. Further, as per the Communication Strategy of the project, all such documents will be put on the project website to reach out to all concerned and interested people. I.2

The Context of the Tribal Communities in Rajasthan: An Overview

Rajasthan has 7.10 lakh scheduled tribe population as the 2001 census. It registered a growth rate of 29.6 percent during 1991-2001, a 1.2 percent higher growth than the total population. Scheduled tribes in the state are overwhelmingly rural; 94.6 percent reside in rural areas. The constitution (Scheduled Tribes) Order, 1950, (SRO.510, dated 6th September, 1950 has included the following clan names under Scheduled Tribes in Rajasthan. The important tribal groups are: Bhil, Bhil Garasia Dholi Bhilm Dungri Garasia, Mewasi Bhil, Rawal Bhil, Tadvi Bhil, Bhagalia, Bhilala, Pawra, Vasava, Vasave; Bhil Mina; Darnor, Damaria; Dhanka, Tadvi, Tetaria, Valvi; Garasia (excluding Rajput Garasia); Kathodi, Katkari, Dhor Kathodi, Dhor Katkari, Son Katkari; Kokna, Kokni, Kukna;Koli Dhor, Tokre Koli, Kolcha, Kolgha; Mina; Naikdam Nayaka, Cholivala, Nayaka, Kapadia, Nayaka, Mota Nayaka, Nana Nayaka; Patelia and Seharia, Schriam Sahariya amongst others. I.3 Scheduled Areas in Rajasthan : The President of India order G.O.114 dated 12th February, 1981 declared following Scheduled Areas in Rajasthan: (i) Banswara; (2) Dungarpur district; (3) the Tehsils of Phalasia, Kherwara, Kotra, Sarada, Salumbar and Lasadia; (4) 81 villages of Girwa Tehsil in 21 Panchayats; (5A) Pratapgarh Tehsil in Chittorgarh district and (6) Abu Road block of Abu Road Tehsil in Sirohi district. Of 12 Tribes scheduled for the State, Mina is the most populous tribe, having a population of 3,799,971 constituting 53.5 percent of the total ST population closely followed by Bhil (2,805,948). Those two sub- clans together accounted for 93 percent of the total Tribe population in the state in 2001. Other STs viz., Garasia, Damor, Dhanka and Saharia jointly constituted 6.6 percent of the total ST population. Bhil Mina, Naikda, Kathodi, Patelia, Kokna and Koli Dhor along with the generic tribes constituted the residual 0.3 percent of the total tribal population in Rajasthan. Koli Dhor is the smallest in the lot with population strength of 100 persons, followed by Kokna 405 persons, Patelia 1,045 persons and Kathodi 2,922 persons. In the above exhaustive list of different clan and sub clan groups, relative size of several sub-clans is very insignificant. Similarly, the relative social status, exposure to the mainstream community, representation in state apparatus especially in bureaucracy and state force do vary significantly across groups. A geographical distribution of ST in Rajasthan is presented in table 1.2. It is found that five districts in Rajasthan, viz., Udaipur, Banswara, Dungarpur, Jaipur and Chittorgarh account for more than half (54.50%) of the total ST population in Rajasthan and the first ten districts in the state account for about 3/4th of the total tribal population (2001 census. District wise Population of SCHEDULED TRIBES (Census - 2001) pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms, if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine. Get yours now!

Total Population S.No.District Name 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26

Persons

Male

Scheduled Tribes Female

Persons

Male

Ajmer 2181670 1129920 1051750 52634 27346 Alwar 2992592 1586752 1405840 239905 127707 Banswara 1501589 760686 740903 1085272 547277 Baran 1021653 535137 486516 216869 113058 Barmer 1964835 1038247 926588 118688 62938 Bharatpur 2101142 1133425 967717 47077 25195 Bhilwara 2013789 1026650 987139 180556 93089 Bikaner 1674271 886075 788196 5945 3272 Bundi 962620 504818 457802 194851 102678 Chittorgarh 1803524 918063 885461 388311 197416 Churu 1923878 987781 936097 10063 5339 Dausa 1317063 693438 623625 353187 186464 Dholpur 983258 538103 445155 47612 25954 Dungarpur 1107643 547791 559852 721487 355748 Ganganagar 1789423 955378 834045 14744 7948 Hanumangarh 1518005 801486 716519 10029 5367 Jaipur 5251071 2768203 2482868 412864 217546 Jaisalmer 508247 279101 229146 27834 14890 Jalore 1448940 737880 711060 126799 66610 Jhalawar 1180323 612804 567519 141861 74014 Jhunjhunu 1913689 983526 930163 36794 19054 Jodhpur 2886505 1513890 1372615 79540 41450 Kota 1568525 827128 741397 151969 80616 Nagaur 2775058 1424967 1350091 6497 3503 Pali 1820251 918856 901395 105814 54928 Rajsamand 987024 493459 493565 129198 65657 Sawai 27 1117057 591307 525750 241078 128446 Madhopur 28 Karauli 1209665 651998 557667 270630 145962 29 Sikar 2287788 1172753 1115035 62512 32493 30 Sirohi 851107 437949 413158 210763 107905 31 Tonk 1211671 626436 585235 145891 76159 32 Udaipur 2633312 1336004 1297308 1260432 634953 Total : Rajasthan 56507188 29420011 27087177 7097706 3650982 Source: http://sje.rajasthan.gov.in/About%20Deptt/About_districtpopu.htm

25288 112198 537995 103811 55750 21882 87467 2673 92173 190895 4724 166723 21658 365739 6796 4662 195318 12944 60189 67847 17740 38090 71353 2994 50886 63541

ST %age to Total Population 2.41 8.02 72.27 21.23 6.04 2.24 8.97 0.36 20.24 21.53 0.52 26.82 4.84 65.14 0.82 0.66 7.86 5.48 8.75 12.02 1.92 2.76 9.69 0.23 5.81 13.09

112632

21.58

124668 30019 102858 69732 625479 3446724

22.37 2.73 24.76 12.04 47.86 12.56

Female

For the Social Assessment Study, Bikaner (11), Banswara (31), Chittorgarh (20), Baran (25), Karauli (17) and Rajsamand (29) have been selected – the numbers in the brackets shows their ranking in the state in terms of HDI. Following are the main development indicators that highlight the problems and challenges facing the tribal communities in the state including the 17 project districts. Health

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Table 3.3 presents development indicators representing the general socio-economic development of the tribal population in project area. An inverse association could be observed between the proportion of STs in the total population of districts and their human development index. For instance, HDI for the least developed eight districts counted from the bottom of districts ranked by descending order. Human Development Index is lower tribal dominated districts in Rajasthan. For instance, out of 17 districts the least developed are Dungarpur, Banswara, Dholpur and Sawai Madhopur and these districts share the common characteristics of tribal population dominated Health Index Health index is an important indicator of human development. The more developed a region is, higher is the value for health index and vice versa. Health index for the state is 0.588 in 2008. However, the health index for tribal dominated districts is much lower than the state average of 0.558. For instance, the health index for tribal predominant district viz., Dungarpur is 0.282, Banswara is 0.309 and other tribal predominant districts fall around between 0.2 and 0.4 (Table 3.3). Infant Mortality Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) shows the number of death reported out of 1000 live births reported a year. IMR is considered to be an important indicator of health status of a region. IMR in tribal communities would be much lower than the mainstream population. Table 3.3 shows the IMR for project area for the year 2008. It is important to note that IMR is less for tribal predominant districts such Dungarpur, Banswara and Dholpur as compared to Bikaner. Child Mortality Rate Child Mortality Rate refers to number of reported death per 1000 children below the age group 1-5. Child mortality is the highest for Bikaner district which is not tribal predominant. It is worth mentioning in this context that the CMR is not high for tribal predominant districts in Rajasthan in relation to non-tribal predominant districts (Table 3.3). Literacy Rate Effective literacy rate (table 3.3) is the lowest (45.30%) in tribal dominated districts viz., Banswara. Other districts with relatively less effective literacy rates are Dholpur and Tonk. The district with highest literacy rate is Kota, where the proportion of tribal in the total population is one of the lowest. Table 3.3: General Development Indicators in Project Area District

Literacy Rate 2006

Health

Income

HDI

Education

IMR

CMR

Index

Kota

81.75

0.682

0.803

(2) 0.787

0.875

78

113

Bikaner

60

0.863

0.756

(3) 0.779

0.718

55

75

Baran *

65.05

0.571

0.624

(12) 0.653

0.763

89

132

Bundi

59

0.561

0.663

(13) 0.649

0.722

86

127

Bhilwara

53.8

0.396

0.818

(15) 0.633

0.685

102

156

Jhalawar

61.85

0.588

0.52

(16) 0.614

0.735

83

112

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Churu

75.7

0.759

0.226

(18) 0.606

0.832

65

91

Udaipur

65.1

0.413

0.611

(20) 0.595

0.761

101

153

Rajsamand *

59.5

0.44

0.571

(22) 0.578

0.724

95

142

Dausa *

63.9

0.591

0.38

(23) 0.576

0.757

80

116

Tonk

54

0.443

0.582

(24) 0.571

0.688

98

149

Karauli

65.7

0.568

0.364

(25) 0.566

0.767

84

123

S Madhopur

59.7

0.484

0.474

(26) 0.561

0.725

93

139

Chittorgarh

56.7

0.383

0.585

(27) 0.558

0.705

101

154

Dholpur

64.15

0.504

0.23

(30) 0.497

0.758

90

134

Banswara

45.3

0.309

0.335

(31) 0.425

0.63

106

163

Dungarpur

47.8

0.282

0.304

(32) 0.409

0.64

106

162

Source: Compiled from Human Development Report, Rajasthan, 2008. Literacy and Educational Level The age adjusted literacy rate for the general population in Rajasthan was 60.40 percent with 75.70 percent male and 43.90 percent female respectively in 2001. The scheduled tribes of the state have a literacy rate of 44.7 percent, of which male literacy is 62.10 percent and female literacy is 26.20 percent during the same reference year. Although the male literacy rate has gone up from 33.30 percent in 1991 to 62.1 percent, which is higher than the national average of 59.2 percent, female literacy among tribal women in Rajasthan is still lower than the national average. Among larger groups, Dhanka and Mina have attained a higher literacy rate than all STs at the national level. On the contrary, Damor, Bhil, Seharia and Garasia have lower literacy rate than those of national as well as State averages. So far as the levels of education are concerned, a little more than half (50.8%) of the literate persons are either without any educational level or have attained below primary level of education. The primary level literates constitute 24.2 percent followed by literates up to middle level (13.2%). The persons educated up to metric/ secondary/higher secondary constituted about 9 percent while only 2.5 percent are graduates. Those with higher technical qualification among STs are as small as 0.1 percent. There has been an increase in the drop out rate after the primary education. The proportion of matriculates is one fourth of those educated up to primary level. Graduates constituted approximately one third of the matriculates and major tribes have shown the similar trend in respect of the level of education (Statement3). Little more than half of the total 20 lakh tribal children in the age group 5 -14 go to school. It is noted that around 9.2 lakh (46%) children of this age group are not attending school. Mina, the numerically largest tribe have 62 percent children in the corresponding age group attend school. Dhanka have the highest percentage of school going children in the same age group. Bhil, Seharia, Garasia lag behind as they have less than half of the total children in the corresponding age-group attend school. Table 3.4: Sex Ratio of Scheduled Tribes in Rajasthan by Project Area- 2001 pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms, if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine. Get yours now!

Districts

Sex Ratio

Udaipur

985

Banswara

983

Dungarpur

1028

Chittorgarh

967

Dausa *

894

Karauli *

854

Sawai Madhopur

877

Baran *

918

Bundi

898

Bhilwara

940

Kota

885

Tonk

916

Jhalawar

917

Rajsamand *

968

Dholpur

834

Churu

885

Bikaner

817

Source: Census of India, 2001.

Work Participation Rate (WPR) and Workers Distribution The relative size of the farm dependent population comprising cultivators and agricultural laborers represent the availability non-farm development, which is again an indicator of development. In advanced societies, farm dependent population is less than 10 percent whereas about 60 percent of the people in India still dependent on agriculture and allied activities for livelihood which contribute less than 1/4th to the National Income. It in turn implies that the very dependence on farm sector assures a living standard much below from those in non-farm sector. The farm dependent population in Rajasthan is on a higher side (66%) as compared to the national average. Among SCs and STs, dependence on farm sector is still much higher and within that ST population dependence on agriculture is as high as 83 percent in India. Against the backdrop that one should perceive the issues of STs’ occupational status in Rajasthan. It is a general observation that a higher work participation rate is a positive sign of advancement and a higher stage of development. On the contrary, a low women participation rate represents a better valued women human capital in the society. Like other development indicators, WPR for STs in Rajasthan is on a lower side (47.6%) as compared to general population (60.40%). The WPR for male is (50%), which is pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms, if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine. Get yours now!

comparable to general population but for female STs, it is only (44.9%). WPR is significantly higher than the general population indicating the distress entry into the labour market and low educational standards of women. The work participation rate of the ST population in Rajasthan is lower than the national average (49.1%). The male work participation rate declined from 51.8 percent to 50.1 percent whereas female WPR increased from 40.6 percent to 44.9 percent during 1991-2001. Among total workers, 66.8 percent are main workers, which is almost equal to the level recorded for all STs at the national level (68.9%). On a sub-group wise basis, Bhil (48.4%) and Mina (47%) have recorded a WPR lower than the national average whereas Damor (55.2%) and Garasia (49.4%) have a higher WPR than the national average. Damor tribe also have the highest female WPR (54.5%) followed by Garasia (47.1%) and other tribes. Workforce Composition of STs Farm dependent workforce in the general category, as noted earlier, in Rajasthan was 65.90 percent in 2001 whereas the same for STs is as high as 83.1 percent. Agriculture is the main stay of economic activity of the tribes of Rajasthan. While 69 percent of the total workers (3.34 million) are cultivators, which are significantly higher than the state average for general population, 14.1 percent of them are agricultural laborers (table 3.5). Table 3.5: Distribution of Main Workers by Category- Scheduled Tribes (2001) District

Cultivators

Agricultural Labor

Total Farm Dependent

Household

Other Workers

Industry

Workers Banswara

90.52

3.46

93.98

0.44

5.58

Baran

70.33

21.71

92.04

0.47

7.49

Sawai Madhopur 90.41

1.16

91.57

0.52

7.92

Chittorgarh

80.67

10.85

91.52

0.21

8.27

Dausa

89.47

1.02

90.49

0.28

9.23

Jhalawar

75.32

13.21

88.53

0.39

11.08

Tonk

82.68

4.65

87.33

0.45

12.22

Karauli

86.13

1.06

87.19

0.67

12.14

Bundi

77.63

6.49

84.12

0.39

15.49

Dungarpur

73.24

6.45

79.69

0.85

19.46

Udaipur

70.43

6.28

76.71

0.48

22.81

Bhilwara

68.01

8.41

76.42

1.09

22.49

Dholpur

66.78

0.69

67.48

0.30

32.23

Kota

54.22

8.85

63.07

0.72

36.21

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Churu

56.04

3.18

59.22

0.25

40.53

Rajsamand

33.19

15.58

48.77

0.99

50.24

Bikaner

21.17

10.52

31.69

1.50

66.81

Rajasthan

74.77

6.95

81.72

0.58

17.70

Source; Primary Census Abstract, 2001. Other Workers constituted 16.3 percent and workers in Household Industry accounted for only 0.7 percent. Expectedly, majority of the workers are cultivators among Mina, Damor, Bhil and Garasia tribes whereas Seharia have maximum proportion of agricultural laborers followed by cultivators. Table 3.5 shows the workforce composition of the tribal population in Rajasthan by districts. It is found that districts with higher proportion of ST workers have also got a higher proportion of farm dependent population and low percentage of industry workers. In the total workforce size of 23.76 million workers in Rajasthan, 73.40 percent are main workers and 26.60 percent are marginal workers. Total workers include both main and marginal workers. In the total workers, 55.30 percent are cultivators and 10.60 percent are agricultural laborers. Of a total female workforce of 18.05 million, 48.10 percent are cultivators and 7.20 percent are agricultural laborers. Availability of Electricity in Tribal Areas Electrification of villages in the project is as shown in the table below. By March end 2006, Southern tribal districts are lagging far behind in electrification compared to state average and other project districts too (table 3.6).

Table 3.6: Electrification in Project Area Districts

Villages 1991

Electrified % 2006

Banswara

1431

865

60.45

Baran

1070

1018

95.14

Sawai Madhopur

714

665

93.14

Chittorgarh

2172

2027

93.32

Dausa

1009

1009

100.0

Jhalawar

1448

1344

92.82

Tonk

1019

955

93.72

Karauli

750

649

86.53

Bundi

826

770

93.22

Dungarpur

846

748

88.42

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Udaipur

2212

1726

78.03

Bhilwara

1565

1516

96.87

Dholpur

551

516

93.65

Kota

811

815

100.49

Churu

926

931

100.54

Rajsamand

967

836

86.45

Bikaner

580

375

64.66

Rajasthan

37889

34815

91.89

Source: Rajasthan Statistical Abstract, 2009. Traditional Lands Tribals traditionally depended on forests for livelihood. The maximum forest area is in Udaipur which has 14.1 percent state forest area (table 3.8). It is followed by Chittorgarh and Baran. Some tribes in Chittorgarh and Udaipur were granted land by the ruling class. However, the state policies have over the excluded the tribals from forest on which they depended for minor produce. Table 3.8: Forest Area (sq kms) Districts

Forest Area %

Banswara

1236.67

3.79

Baran

2231.71

6.84

Jhalawar

1338.76

4.10

Bhilwara

794.18

2.43

Rajsamand

396.58

1.22

Chittorgarh

2766.53

8.48

Udaipur

4587.42

14.06

Dungarpur

694.98

2.13

Churu

71.22

0.22

Dholpur

638.45

1.96

Karauli

1935.21

5.93

Dausa

282.63

0.87

S. Madhopur

858.98

2.63

Kota

1316.33

4.03

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Bundi

1524.15

4.67

Tonk

331.94

1.02

Bikaner

1248.73

3.83

Rajasthan

32627.95 100

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II. Tribal Development : Current Implementation Framework II.1

Legal and Policy Framework for Tribal Communities in Rajasthan

The Constitution of India makes special provisions for tribal. It lists out predominantly tribal areas in Section 1 of Schedule 244 that are referred to as Scheduled Areas. Similarly Schedule 342 gives statewise list of communities to be designated as Scheduled Tribes. Tribal Area Development Department: The Secretary, Tribal Area Development Department, in the state is the overall in charge of the Department. He is assisted by a Dy Secretary, Dy. Director and Accounts Officer at the State Level. But ITDP’s are not directly dealt with by Officers at State Level. They are dealt through office of Commissioner, TAD, located at Udaipur, who is assisted by Additional Commissioner and a team of Officers drawn from different disciplines. ITDP’s are headed by an Officer of State Civil Services and he is assisted by Dy. District Education Officer, besides subordinate staff II.2

Designation of Tribal Areas as TSP, MADA and Clusters: Tribal Sub Plan

The formal launching of Tribal Sub-Plan for the state of Rajasthan dates back to 5th Five Year Plan. The State has adopted the approach of TSP for Development of Tribal’s. Under TSP all the schemes for Tribals are being implemented through following programmes.

S.No

Name of Programme

1

Integrated Tribal Development Programme (ITDP)

2

Modified Area Development Agency(MADA)

3

MADA Cluster Development Programme

4

Sehariya Primitive Tribe Development

5

Scattered Tribal development programme

TSP in Rajasthan is sponsored by the Centre as well as the State government. The central government, under the TSP, has implemented the Tribal Regional Development Program (TRDP). The TRDP had two components; (i) Creation of infrastructure like road, forest, irrigation facilities, health and education for tribals; (ii) Generation of livelihood for tribals, which included animal husbandry, agriculture and horticulture and capacity building for self-employment. Schedule V Area- has been constituted with assimilation of 23 tehsils of Five districts of southern Rajasthan with concentration of ST population. 2001 census, the total population of the area is 45.14 lacs of which ST population Stands at 30.93 lacs. District Banswara & Dungarpur Districts are completely covered, whereas seven tehsils of Udaipur and 81 & 52 villages of girvah Gokunda tehsils respectively. Pratapgarh, Arnod, Dharivad Blocks of Pratapgarh Districts and Abu road of Sirohi Districts. The Major Tribes which reside in the area are Bhil, Meena, Damor and Gharasia.

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In pursuance of article 244, the President of India declared the areas of Dungarpur, Banswara, and Pratapgarh as scheduled areas. Later on tribal sub plan area was chalked out of adjoining tehsils where tribal population was more than 50%. Scheduled area in the State extends over the entire districts of Banswara and Dungarpur, six tehsils and 81 villages of Udaipur district, two tehsils of Chittorgarh district and one block of Sirohi district. Details of which are as follows:S.No.

District

Block

No. of

Total area

Villages

(Sq. kms.)

Population

Total

Scheduled Tribes

1.

Dungarpur

5

850

3565.34

874544

575805

2.

Banswara

8

1462

5076.95

1155600

849050

3.

Udaipur

7

1517

7853.13

1128494

777030

4.

Chittorgarh

2

527

2153.90

280057

145092

5.

Sirohi

1

81

859.11

80611

54734

Total

23

4437

19508.43

3519311

2401711

II.3

Modified Area Development Approach- (MADA)

MADA is constituted of tribal dominated and contiguous villages with a total population of 10000 and above but with a tribal concentration of more than 50 percent in the total population of the villages.. Under MADA programme, 44 MADA pockets have been formed in 18 districts, which has 3606 villages. As per 2001 census MADA area has a total population of 28.51 lacs out of which 15.72 lac is ST population. Meena tribe is in majority in this area. The aim of the programme is an integrated development of STs. MADA provides assistance in areas of agriculture, animal husbandry, education, cooperatives, health and employment generation. Under The National Schemes for Financial Development Corporation (NSFCC) STs are given 50 percent subsidy for milch animals, land development, carpet making, and hosiery and fishery programs. There are enabling schemes for the tribals in the BPL category too. BPL schemes for tribals are given to those living in clusters or groups and the schemes included 50 percent subsidy for pump sets, wells, shop keeping, improved agricultural implements and auto-rickshaw. In addition to it, the schemes could cover any provision to improve the livelihood of the tribal people. The distribution of capital assets such as milch animals, auto-rickshaw and other tools for livelihood, as under the former IRDP scheme, have envisaged that the development issues of tribal community are no way different from the rest of the world. It is in total negation of the reality at the grass root level because such programs are envisaged by the state apparatus whose thought process are governed by their own construction on development paradigms. II.4

MADA- Clusters

MADA Clusters are constituted where the population is 5000 or more or which has 50% ST population. The State has 11 MADA Clusters in eight districts with 161 villages. MADA cluster has a population of 1.04 lac and the ST population is .57 lacs, which is 54.72 %. The districts covered by MADA Cluster programmes are Ajmer, Rajsamand, Jhalawar, Baran, Bharatpur, Bundi, Kota, Sawai Madhopur.

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The only primitive Tribal group in the state are Sehariyas. Sehariyas reside in two Blocks of Baran District namely Shahbad and Kishanganj. The area of two blocks has be catagorised as Sehariya Vikas shetra for development of the sehariya community. Table: Sehariya Population in Baran District District Tehsil

Total Population

Baran

135218 Kishanganj

Baran

II.5

Shahbad

108146

Population ST

% ST

46416

34

36812

34.04

Scattered ST programme Area

Apart from Tribal Sub Plan area, MADA, MADA Cluster and Sehariya shetra significant tribal population is scattered in several districts of Rajasthan. 22.91 ST are scattered in 30 Districts of Rajasthan. II.6

Tribal Area Development Plan

Tribal Area Development Plan (TAD) in the tribal regions of the state has following broad objectives as set in the first five year plan : (i) to narrow the gap between the levels of development in the tribal are and other parts of the state and (ii) to improve the quality of life of the tribal and tribal communities. Though the tribal population is scattered throughout the state, a major portion is concentrated in southern part of the state viz., entire districts of Banswara and Dungarpur, the tehsils of Kherwara, Jhadol, Kotra, Salumber, Sarada, Dhariyawad and 81 villages of Girwa panchayat samiti of Udaipur district, Partapgarh and Arnod tehsils of Chittorgarh district and Abu Road block of Sirohi district. Departmental Development Schemes for Tribal Development in Rajasthan (Rs. lakh) S. Area Year 2008-09 Year 2009-10 Budget Expenditure Budget Expenditure No Allotted Provision Dec. 09 A

State Plan

1

Maharashtra Pattern

a

Scheduled Area

5454.78

5757.84

6113.23

3258.01

b

MADA Area

844.55

761.54

988.82

350.00

c

MADA Cluster Area

12.44

4.22

12.44

1.19

d

Scattered Tribes plan area

473.29

465.63

318.62

108.93

e

Sahariya Area

603.36

415.57

571.20

346.94

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Maharashtra Pattern Total

7388.42

7404.80

8004.31

4065.07

11.89

33.00

3.23

2

TRI Operating

3

Special Central Assistance

a

Scheduled Area

2024.31

1848.22

2145.00

612.07

b

MADA Area

1217.47

867.26

1160.00

518.27

c

MADA Cluster Area

41.99

14.99

42.00

14.85

d

Scattered Tribes plan area

1616.60

948.04

1642.34

515.87

e

Sahariya Development 109.66 Project Area

57.85

109.66

22.69

Total : Special Central 5010.03 Assistance

3736.36

5099.00

1683.75

4

Constitution 275 (1)

Ordinance

a

Scheduled Area

2294.83

2406.50

b

MADA Area

708.86

320.57

c

Sahariya Area

3315.00

122.72

166.89 63.45

Total: Ordinance 275 (1)

3003.69

2849.79

3315.00

1652.01

State Plan Total :

15402.14

14002.84

16451.31

7404.06

11.90

33.00

3.23

93.90

1842.20

330.33

105.80

1875.20

333.56

14108.64

18326.51

7737.62

B

Central Sponsored Plan

a

TRI Schemes

b

Other Schemes Central Total :

1171.49

Sponsored Plan 1171.49

Grand Total

II.7

1421.67

16573.63

Legal Framework:

Following widespread cases of atrocities against members of Scheduled Castes and Tribes, the Center has passed Prevention of Atrocities (SC and ST) Act. This Act stipulates stringent punishment to those who commit atrocities against any tribal.

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Forest Rights Act1: The law concerns the rights of forest dwelling communities to land and other resources, denied to them over decades. The act is aimed at giving ownership rights over forestland to traditional forest dwellers. As the act came into force much recently in 2007 the effectiveness and impacts of the act could not be seen or felt in any of the districts where the social assessment was carried out. Gram Sabhas have been assigned important role in the implementation of the provisions of the Act promulgated by the central government and applicable from December,2006. The Gram Sabha would elect Forest Rights Committee who would invite claims on forest land as detailed in sec 3 (1) of the Act. Some of the important rights mentioned are : 1. Right to hold and live in the forest land under individual or common occupation for habitation or self cultivation for livelihood. 2. Community rights. 3. Right of ownership, access to collect, use and dispose of minor forest produce. 4. Rights for conversion of pattas or leases or grants on forest land. 5. Conversion of all forest villages into revenue villages. 6. Right to protect, regenerate or conserve or manage any community forests resource which they have been traditionally protecting. 7. Right of access to biodiversity or community right to intellectual property. 8. Right to in-situ rehabilitation including alternative land where scheduled tribes or traditional forest dwellers have been illegally evicted without receiving legal entitlement to rehabilitation prior to 13th day of Dec 2005. The vesting of forest rights under this Act, with respect to forest land shall be subject to the condition that the scheduled tribes or other traditional forest dwellers had occupied forest land before 13th day of December 2005. The Act grants four types of rights: Title rights - i.e. ownership - to land that is being framed by tribals or forest dwellers as on December 13, 2005, subject to a maximum of 4 hectares; ownership is only for land that is actually being cultivated by the concerned family as on that date, meaning that no new lands are granted ; Use rights - to minor forest produce (also including ownership), to grazing areas, to pastoralist routes, etc.; Relief and development rights - to rehabilitation in case of illegal eviction or forced displacement and to basic amenities, subject to restrictions for forest protection; Forest management rights - to protect forests and wildlife. The implementation status report shows that only around 8000 land deeds have been handed over to the tribals whereas more than 200,000 applications are pending in various district offices of the state. People’s participation under the Rajasthan State Forest Policy, 2009 Participatory approach will be the central to forest management in forest as well as non-forest areas. Following strategies will be made to make it more effective:

1

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No forestry development works in forest or non forest areas will be undertaken without people’s participation, by creation of Joint Forest Management (JFM) Committee comprising of local people in the State.



The State Government shall bring out resolution on JFM time to time based on its evolution and experienced gained by highlighting salient features in consultation with all the stake holders and the Department will bring out working guidelines to facilitate uniformity of practices in subordinate offices. Possibility of framing of rules under provision of Act can be explored.



Joint Forest Management Committee constituted so far can be classified as active, moderately active and less active on the basis of certain pre-determined criteria through periodic monitoring. Those committees are moderately active or less active need to be supported so that they come in the category of active committees.



Alternative livelihood options of forest dependent communities will be given prime importance through formation of Self-help Groups. Skill development of these groups is needed through constant efforts of capacity building and to encourage them to start micro enterprises for income generation by providing them seed money.



Joint Forest Management Committee are to be encouraged to develop a corpus fund from the outside in order to maintain physical assets created in their areas including plantations.



Forest Department should empower women members as well as economic disadvantaged groups of the committee to enable their capacity in decision making process.



Members of the committee will be specially trained in accounts keeping, conflict resolution and silvicultural operations.



For sustainability of JFM, technical, social, economic, managerial and institutional sustainability shall be crucial.



Public Private Partnership in forest areas will be encouraged within the framework approved by GOI through tri-partite agreement between the industry, forest department and JFM committees for undertaking plantations with specific purposes.



Three tiers monitoring at Division level, District level and State level will strengthen JFM in the state. Participation of NGOs is very essential to link Department and community members on common platform.

Research 

The State will promote forestry and allied research that is responsive to the requirements of the stakeholders for quality, productivity and cost effectiveness in the implementation of the Forest Policy:

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Identification of problems for research and their prioritization through periodic dialogue between all stakeholders like managers, NGOs, industries and even villagers before getting them approved by Research Advisory Groups constituted with forest officials, scientists from Research Organizations and representatives of Stakeholders.



Applied and adaptive nature of Research will be given priority by the department. The technologies and management practices developed by other national and international research organizations and found relevant to Rajasthan will be tested and adopted.



The department will make use of the expertise available in various research institutions and departments to undertake forestry research projects. Collaborative research with reputed forestry research institutions shall be encouraged.

Financial Provisions 

Due to inadequate budgetary support, forestry sector of the State face perennial shortage of financial crunches. In order to increase investments in forestry, following steps may be taken.



The sectoral allocation in the annual plan budget of the State Government should be enhanced for effective forest protection, development and management.



Efforts will be made to obtain soft loans from Overseas Development Assistances for implementing various forestry and wild life projects from bilateral/multi-lateral donor agencies.



Efforts will be made to draw more central assistance under centrally sponsored scheme for the implementation of specific forestry, soil conservation and wildlife projects from the Ministry of Environment & Forests, Ministry of Rural Development, Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Tourism, Ministry of Non Conventional Energy Sources, Ministry of Biotechnology etc.



Institutional financing can be availed from NABARD, NOVOD etc to implement projects in RIDF and allied schemes.



NREGA funds will be utilized in a big way for eco-restoration of degraded forest and for the development of large scale soil and moisture conservation structures in forest and wild life areas.



State CAMPA Funds will enable the Department to take up innovative projects in forestry and wildlife out of the money realized out of NPV during diversion of forests under FCA 1980.



Special funds may be sought from Finance Commission for conservation and protection of forests and wildlife.



Corporate investment can be attracted within the framework of guidelines to develop plantations for supplying raw materials to corporate sector through involvement of JFM committees to provide them employment opportunities and also getting sustained income. Funding welfare

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projects for alternate livelihood promotions in and around forest fringe villages can be sponsored also by Corporate Sector under the obligation of Corporate Social Responsibility. 

Donations can be raised from Wildlife tourists, Trusts and Private individuals by forming Societies/ Foundations to develop biodiversity in forests and even eco surcharge charged over and above entry fees in PAs can be ploughed back for development of PAs and welfare of the Protection Staff.



Sponsorships and patronization by Industrial houses, Corporate Offices, Religious Trusts, NGOs of repute like Rotary/Lions, Banks and financial Institutions, Mining Associations, NRIs and nonresidents of Rajasthan can be permitted for forestry and wildlife development.

The Rajasthan Tenancy Act, 1955 : the Rajasthan Tenancy Act. 1955 (as amended from time to time) provides legal protection to tribals against alienation of their land. The Act prohibits transfer of tribal land to non-tribals by sale, gift or bequest. Section 46(a) of the Act forbids letting or subletting of whole or part of the holding by tribal to non-tribal. Section 49(a) prohibits exchanges of land of tribal with that of a non tribal. Under section 183(b) trespasses on agricultural land of tribal are summarily evicted. It was reported that all the cases against the above section of land alienation are illegal. Under Section 175 of the Act both the Khatedar and the person to whom the land is transferred is evicted summarily and land is allotted to other landless tribal farmer. The Rajasthan Relief of Agriculturist Indebtedness Act, 1957 : As regards the legislative, and executive measures taken by the government to liberate the tribals from indebtedness, the Committee were informed by the State Government of Rajasthan that in 1957 the State Government enacted “The Rajasthan Relief of Agricultural Indebtedness Act” for providing relief to scheduled castes and scheduled tribes from their indebtedness. Section 4 of Rajasthan Scheduled Debtors Act, 1970 provides total discharge of the debt including interest of loans to the persons having income less than Rs. 2400/- per annum. Rajasthan Relief of Agricultural Indebtedness Act., 1957 was amended in 1961 and the above provisions of this act were made applicable to Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes from 1.4.62 irrespective of the fact whether they are agriculturist or not. THE RAJASTHAN PANCHAYATI RAJ (MODIFICATION OF PROVISIONS IN THEIR APPLICATION TO THE SCHEDULED AREAS) Act, 1999 *(Act No. 16 of 1999): (a) every village shall have a Gram Sabha consisting of persons whose names are included in the electoral rolls for the Panchayat at the village level; (b) every Gram Sabha shall be competent to safeguard and preserve the traditions and customs of the people, their cultural identify, community resources and the customary mode of dispute resolution; (c)

every Gram Sabha shall (i)

approve the plans, programmes and projects for social and economic development before such plans, programmes and projects are taken up for implementation by the Panchayat;

(ii)

be responsible for identification or selection of persons as beneficiaries under the poverty alleviation and other programmes;

(d) every Panchayat shall be required to obtain from the Gram Sabha a certification of utilisation of funds by that Panchayat for the plans, programmes and projects referred to in clause (c); pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms, if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine. Get yours now!

(e) the reservation of seats in the Scheduled Areas at every Panchayati Raj Institution shall be in proportion to the population of the community in that Panchayati Raj Institution for whom reservation is sought to be given under section 15 and 16 of the Rajasthan Panchayati Raj Act, 1994 (Act No. 13 of 1994); Provided that the reservation for the Scheduled Tribes shall not be less than one-half of the total number of seats; Provided further that all seats of Chairpersons of Panchayati Raj Institutions at all levels shall be reserved for the persons belonging to the Scheduled Tribes; (f) the State Government may nominate persons belonging to such Scheduled Tribes as have no representation in a Panchayat Samiti or in a Zila Parishad; Provided that such nomination shall not exceed one-tenth of the total members to be elected in that Panchayati Raj Institution; (g) the Gram Sabha or the Panchayati Raj Institution at such level, as may be prescribed by the State Government, shall be consulted before making the acquisition of land in the Scheduled Areas for development projects and before re-setting or re-habilitating persons affected by such project in the Scheduled Areas, the actual planning and implementation of the projects in the Scheduled Areas shall be co-coordinated at the State level; (h) planning and management of minor water bodies, as may be specified by the State Government, in the Scheduled Areas shall be entrusted to Panchayati Raj Institution at such level as may be prescribed; (i)

no prospecting license or mining lease for minor minerals in the Scheduled Areas shall be granted to any person or body of persons without obtaining prior recommendation of the Gram Sabha or the Panchayati Raj Institution at such level and in such manner as may be prescribed;

(j)

no concession for the exploitation of minor minerals by auction in the Scheduled Areas shall be granted without obtaining the recommendation of the Gram Sabha or the Panchayati Raj Institution at such level and in such manner as may be prescribed;

(k)

the Panchayati Raj Institution at appropriate level, or Gram Sabha as may be prescribed, in a Scheduled Area, shall have (i)

the power to enforce prohibition or to regulate or restrict the sale and consumption of any intoxicant subject to such rules as may be made by the State Government in this behalf;

(ii)

the ownership of minor forest produce subject to such rules as may be prescribed by the State Government as to control and management of minor forest produce;

(iii)

the power to prevent alienation of land in the Scheduled Areas an to take appropriate action in accordance with laws in force in the State, to restore any unlawfully alienated land of a Scheduled Tribe;

(iv)

the power to manage village market by whatever name called subject to such rules as may be made by the State Government in this behalf;

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(v)

the power to exercise control over money landing to the members of Scheduled Tribes;

(vi)

the power to exercise control over institutions and functionaries in all social sectors to the extent and in the manner to be specified by the State Government from time to time;

(vii)

the power to control over local plan and resources or such plans including tribal sub-plan to the extent and in the manner to be specified by the State Government from time to time.

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III. Development Schemes for Tribal Areas in Rajasthan Rajasthan has a total population of 565.07 lacs (Census 2001). The population of Scheduled Tribes is 70.97 lacs or 12.56% of total population. The tribals in the State are of varied ethnic composition and cultural patterns comprising the Bhil, Damor, Meena, Garasia, Kathodi and Saharia is only primitive tribe. The first three tribes are concentrated mainly in Banswara, Dungarpur, Southern half of Udaipur district and parts of Pratapgarh, the fourth in Sirohi district and the Saharia in parts of Baran district. The State Government has adopted a multi-pronged approach for socio-economic development of scheduled tribes in the state. Key initiations for social empowerment through educational development, economic empowerment through income and employment enhancing avenues have been taken. The State Government is further keen to take innovative policy interventions to enable Tribal people to share the benefit of growth in more equitable manner. State Government will ensure that the flow of funds for Tribal development steadily increases in coming years. In spite of running special programmes and providing adequate funds for various Tribal and Area Development Programmes, it is observed that socio -economic conditions of some Tribal Groups and families of Scheduled and Saharia areas are still poor and require more attention. State Government has taken following policy decisions to provide more opportunities to the Tribal Youth of these groups and families living in these areas. • All facilities of the State Government applicable to BPL families have been extended to Kathodi tribe and Saharia families living in Shahbad & Kishanganj tehsils of Baran district. • Norms for infrastructural facilities applicable in the Scheduled area has been extended to Saharia area of Shahbad & Kishanganj tehsils of Baran district. • Special 45% reservation provision for tribal of scheduled area has been made for all posts other than state services in scheduled area. Similarly 25% reservation has been made for Saharia's in Saharia Project area. • In pursuance of the special reservation provisions for Tribals of Scheduled & Saharia area, 45% & 25% reservation has been provided for Scheduled & Saharia area respectively for STC & NTT Training. 45% reservation provisions for Tribals of Scheduled area has been provided for admission in B.Ed. colleges of Scheduled area. III.1

Government of Rajasthan’s strategy for TRIBAL DEVELOPMENT

The Government has spent crores of rupees on various schemes of tribal development during last five decades. This massive fund flow has helped in building up infrastructure facilities like irrigation dams, road network, electrification, health and education in the tribal areas of Rajasthan. All these have affected the living standards and quality of life of the people. The focus of the plan was on improving the economic status of tribals and providing basic infrastructure facilities in the tribal areas. The strategy also specifically aimed at improving the living environment of the tribals by giving them better social and civic amenities and facilities. The desired goal of tribal development is still ahead. The literacy rate among the tribals is lower than other group of society. Brightest boys and girls' remains satisfied with the peripheral opportunities like teacher, patwari, panchayat secretary, nurse/ male-nurse etc. These students can get better opportunity by pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms, if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine. Get yours now!

appearing in various competitive examinations. Benefits of health services are yet to be discernible on infant mortality & birth rates or on the problem of malnutrition. OBJECTIVES The objectives of the Eleventh Plan are: • Reduction in the incidences of poverty and unemployment and thereby reduction in income inequalities. • Human resource development of the scheduled tribes by providing economic & health services and development of the confidence among people through intensive educational efforts. • Development and strengthening of infrastructure base for further economic exploitation of the resources (physical and human both) in tribal areas. • Providing physical & financial security against all types of exploitation. STRATEGY The strategy to achieve these objectives has a blend of area based and individual based approach. The efforts will be to strengthen and develop vibrant socio-economic infrastructure on the one hand and on the other to provide better means of livelihood to those who still live on inadequate economic base. THRUST AREA Human resources development through education and vocational training receive the importance. Women education will be given a special importance because the literacy level of tribal women is very low. • The economy of tribal had continued to predominately rest on agriculture. As the size of land holding in scheduled area is small, the percentage of irrigated area to cultivated area is low and traditional farm technique is being used by this area, the productivity of agriculture produced is low. Thus priority will be given to irrigation sector and electrification of wells. • To diversify economic activities in non-farm sector, vocational education be given and loan/ subsidy will be provided to self employment in non-farm activities. The Scheduled Tribe and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act 2006 & Rules 2008 The Scheduled Tribe and other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act 2006 has come into force from 31.12.07. The rules made under this act have come into force from 1.1.2008. The objective of this act and rules is to recognize and vest both individual and community forest rights on forest land to forest dwelling scheduled tribe, other traditional forest dwellers and ST pastoralist communities. The State Level Monitoring Committee, District Level Committee, Sub-divisional Level Committee were constituted vide orders of Administrative Reforms Department dated 26.4.08, 14.3.08 and 14.3.08 respectively. Gram Sabhas were conducted from 8th April to 17th April, 2008. Forest Rights Committees have been constituted in all 4718 revenue villages in scheduled area and 5493 Gram Panchayats out of 8211 Gram panchayats in area other then scheduled area. So far, 34535 total claims have been received by gram sabhas out of which 8947 claims have been forwarded to sub divisional level committees by gram sabhas. Sub divisional level committees have forwarded 2704 claims to district level committees & rejected 226 claims. District level committees have approved 2045 claims & rejected 4 claims. pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms, if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine. Get yours now!

Southern Rajasthan Rural Livelihood Development Project Despite rapid decline in poverty, the absolute numbers of poor families still stand at more than 2 million as per State BPL Census 2002. Majority of these families require direct support and credit through government intervention. Financial institutions on their own are not coming forward to meet the credit needs of these families. The only programme for credit provision for BPL families is SGSY and at the current rate of coverage it will cover only 3 lacs families in coming 10 years. The State Rural Development Department and Panchayati Raj Department has formulated a project “Southern Rajasthan Rural Livelihood Development Project” of worth Rs. 1675 crores for external aid from European Economic Community. Total number of 3.62 lacs BPL families of 45 blocks of 4 Tribal Area District is proposed to be covered under this project. Proposal of Rural Development is in active consideration for external assistance. The European Economic Community provides external aid in form of grant assistance. PLAN 2009-10 1. State Plan (TRI) Tribal Research & Training Institute (TRI) was established to conduct research and evaluation studies of various development programmes/schemes launched by Govt. of India and Govt. of Rajasthan for the welfare of the tribes and suggest future needs in respect of these programmes. It also aims at promoting scientific thinking among the Tribes in various aspects of tribal life i.e. Socio-economic, educational development, Art & culture of tribes. An amount of Rs. 33.00 lacs has been proposed as state matching share for running of TRIs schemes. 2. Maharashtra Pattern: Maharashtra Pattern was adopted in Rajasthan on 31st Dec. 1999. Thereafter, the modified form of Maharashtra Pattern was implemented from 15th Feb. 2000. In Maharashtra Pattern there is a lump sum allocation to Tribal Area Development Department for Tribal Sub Plan which is equal to 8% of total divisible plan ceiling of the State(Percentage of population of Scheduled Area to the State population is 8%). TAD Department gets detailed proposals from various departments for activities to be implemented by the departments under Maharashtra Pattern. The TAD Department decides the priorities for development programmes and sanctions are also being issued by TAD department. An anticipated expenditure of Rs. 7400.00 lacs is likely to be incurred during year 2008-09. A provision of Rs. 6104.31 lacs has been proposed for Annual Plan 2009-10 for various development schemes in Maharashtra pattern. 3. Special Central Assistance An outlay of Rs. 5099.00 lacs has been proposed for the annual plan 2009-10 under SCA. Out of Rs. 5099.00 lakhs, Rs. 5004.78 lakhs for committed items and Rs.94.22 lacs for new items. Major Schemes under SCA : An amount of Rs. 300.00 lacs has been proposed for construction of 30 lift irrigation scheme, Rs. 1927.40 lacs for construction of 193 anicuts, Rs. 344.81 lacs has been proposed for distribution of 991 group/ individual diesel/ electric pump sets. An amount of Rs.83.13 lacs has been proposed for deepening of 1385 wells by blasting. 1500 tribals will be benefited under self employment scheme for which Rs. 154.50 lacs has been proposed. An outlay of Rs. 80.00 lacs has been proposed for milch cattle to benefit 320 tribals under vocational training and self employment programme an amount pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms, if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine. Get yours now!

of Rs. 175.01 lacs has been proposed to benefit 700 tribal. An outlay of Rs. 55.80 lakhs has been proposed for group power thresher to benefit 139 tribal. A new scheme, Rajasthan State Certificate Course in IT has been proposed for which Rs. 110.40 lakhs has been proposed to benefit 4800 tribals. In Rajasthan clusters are selected for implementation of schemes (i.e. clusters for agriculture development, clusters for horticulture development, cluster for irrigation development etc.) Jhadol area has been selected for horticulture development, sericulture & mushroom production. For comprehensive village development scheme, villages are selected on cluster approach. Article 275(1) An outlay of Rs.3315.00 lakhs has been proposed for the year 2009-10 under article 275(1) for various infrastructure development schemes, running of 7 residential schools and management information system. Items of infrastructure developments will be decided at the time of discussion with authority of tribal affairs GOI. Rs. 490.00 lacs are kept for running of 7 residential schools. Programmes during 2009-10 Following programmes are proposed to be under taken during year 2009-10: • Education is a sector that impinges on every aspect of tribal development. Efforts will be made to expand educational facilities to improve the quality of education and to provide financial assistance as an incentive to increase retention of children in schools. • To decrease dropout rate and to ensure retention after enrolment, financial assistance is being provided to meet part of the cost involved in carrying education. • Hostels are being run to provide lodging & boarding facilities to those students who reside in far-flung areas. Department provides free residential facility, meal, books, dresses, stationary, coaching, educational tours to inmates of hostels. It is proposed to increase no. of hostels by 7. Capacity of hostels is proposed to increase by 450 during 2009-10. One public school for tribal students will be started during 2009-10. • Construction of a new hostel for university students will be started during 2009-10. • To prepare the tribal youth for national and international sports meets, separate hostels are being run. All the educational facilities are given as general type of hostels but these students get special food & nutrition. These students get training for archery & athletics by experts of sports council. • To provide quality education to the tribal students 13 model residential schools will be running. • To increase enrolment rate, 180 Maa Bari centres for non enrolled children in Saharia area were started. In these centres children of 6 to 12 years age group are being provided primary education along with free school dress and mid day meal facility. After education for 2 years in these centres, they can easily be shifted to regular schools for continuing their education. 5400 Saharia children are getting education through these centres. It is proposed to establish 27 new Maa Bari centres in Saharia Area in year 200910. This scheme is extended to scheduled area where it is proposed to run 150 Maa bari centres (4500 children) in Scheduled Area. • ST youths will be given training for General Nursing and Midwifes. • To meet the increasing demand of manpower in hotel & tourism, 40 ST youths will be given training for food craft. • For development of skill among ST youths (757 youths), special batches of ITI courses will be conducted. The scheme of providing O-level computer training to ST youths will continue. • Irrigation is also an important priority sector for tribal development. During 2009-10 it as proposed to construct 193 anicuts and 30 lifts. Similarly, 1385 wells are proposed to be deepened during the year 2009-10. 991 pump sets are also proposed to be distributed to tribal cultivators. pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms, if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine. Get yours now!

• Two milch animals to 320 families outside scheduled area for generating additional income by selling milk and milk products. • To prevent the Antyoday & BPL families from the diseases caused by deficiency of iodine, 1 Kg iodized salt per family per month will be distributed free of cost. • A programme is being implemented to identify TB patients in remote area to ensure their complete treatment.

III.2

Details of the main schemes which are being implemented in the State are as under:

Anuprati Yojna This scheme envisages financial assistance of Rs. 1.00 Lac to the candidates of SC/ST appearing in All India Civil Services Examinations after qualifying Preliminary Examination. Now under this scheme the candidates of SC and ST category qualifying for admission in IIMs, IITs and Medical Colleges of National level will also be benefitted. A sum of Rs. 50,000/- will be provided after the candidate gets admission into such colleges. Further, the students of SC/ST who are getting 60% or above marks in 10+2 scheme would be provided Rs. 10,000/- as incentive money after producing a certificate of admission into Government Engineering/ Medical Colleges. In the case of State Civil Service, financial assistance of Rs. 45000/- is provided to candidates of Scheduled Caste. An expenditure of Rs. 350.00 lacs is likely to be incurred in the year 2008-09 and an amount of Rs. 400.00 Lac is proposed in the Annual Plan 2009-10 under this Scheme. Pannadhai Jeevan Amrit Yojna (Jan Shree Bima Yojna ) This Scheme provides free life insurance coverage to head of BPL families (22.23 lacs BPL families exist in the State). This scheme has been started w.e.f. 14.8.2006 through LIC. This is a group insurance scheme. An assistance of Rs. 30,000 is payable on death of head of the family. Apart from compensation due to death, scholarship to two children of insured persons who studying in classes 9th to 12th are paid @ Rs. 100/- per month. The State Government has paid premium of Rs. 22.23 crores to the LIC @ Rs. 100/- per family. During the year 2008-09 an expenditure of Rs. 1693.10 lacs is likely to be incurred on this scheme; an amount of Rs. 1800.00 lac is proposed for beneficiaries under the scheme in Annual plan 2009-10. College level Hostel for Women Girls’ hostels are being operated for SC/ST College going girls at Divisional head quarters. An expenditure of Rs. 220.40 lacs is likely to be incurred in the year 2008-09 and Rs. 180.00 lacs is proposed in Annual Plan 2009-10. The following table provides information on selected development schemes on implementation for tribal areas in Rajasthan during the year 2009-10. Table 3.9: Ongoing Development Schemes for Tribals in Rajasthan S. No .

Schemes

Purpose

Amount Rs.

1

Anuprati Yojna

Pre Civil service examination assistance

Rs.100000/ student

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Rs.50000/ student Admission in IIMs, IITs and Medical Colleges Rs.10000/ student Students secured 60% and above Marks in 12th standard 2

Palanhar Yojna

Destitute Children up to 5 year of age

Rs.500/ Month

Rs.675/ Month After school admission and for clothes, shoes etc 3

Wiswas Yojna

Disabled person having annual income of Rs.24000, Rs.50000 provided financial assistance for self employment activities

Now modified and the annual income limit will be Rs.50000 and assistance increased 4

Polio Campus

Rs.2000/ Year

Rs.100000

Correction Polio Correction Campus scheme organized at Rs.75.00 lakh different places, During the Year 2008-09

During the Year amount proposed Rs.90.00 lakh 5

Residential School for Children of Migratory Communities

Residential School Education for Animal Breeder Rs.254.19 lakh (Raika & Rebaris) of Western Rajasthan. The School will provide quality education to their children with free boarding and lodging facilities

During the year 2008-09 for Building Rs.348.62 lakh For year 2009-10 Rs.200.00 lakh 6

Incentive on Grant for Encourage widow’s remarriage remarriage of Widow

Rs.15000/ woman

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7

Marriage of Disabled

Disabled person having annual income Rs.12000 are Rs.20000 provided financial Assistance for marriage

Now annual income raised up to Rs.50000 and Rs.25000 assistance increased 8

Astha Yojna

Two or more disabled persons in one family are Rs.5.00 lakh provided facilities to BPL such as free medical treatment, wheat at BPL rates during the year 200809

Proposed in Annual Plan 2009-10 Rs.20.00 lakh 9

Residential School To provided education a residential school Rs.390.48 lakh for Children of construction amount sanctioned Beggars and those engaged in other undesirable During the year 2008-09 children have started living occupations Rs.44.07 lakh and amount expenditure

10

Old Age Homes

Old age homes set up by Govt. and NGO in Public Rs.15.00 lakh Private partnership mode and 1000 sq. yard land free of cost along with construction amount

For running of these homes Rs. per person per month 11

Rs.675.

Pannadhai Jeevan Free LIC coverage to BPL families. This is a group Rs.30000 Amrit Yojna (Jan insurance scheme and assistance payable on death of Shree Bima Yojna) head of the family

And after death scholarship to two children of insured person who studying in classes 9th to 12th are Rs.100/ month paid 12

College level Hostel Girls hostel for SC/ST college for Women expenditure in year 2008-09

going

girls Rs.220.40 lakh

Proposed in year 2009-10

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Rs.180.00 lakh 13

De-addiction Program

This program through NGO in the district having Rs.18.70 lakh this problem namely Kota, Baran and Jhalawar. The program includes identification, counseling and treatment expenditure in year 2008-09

Proposed in Annual Plan 209-10 Rs.25.00 lakh 14

Working Hostel

15

Training of Manual Trained in various trades like cutting and tailoring, Rs.58.49 lakh Scavengers Namda, Aara-tari, plumbing and electrical to take up self employment activities by “SULABH” International, trained 225 scavengers expenditure of this year

16

Pre-Metric Pre-Metric Scholarship to Students, 75% amount Rs.225.00 lakh Scholarship to provided by GOI and 25% by State Govt. Students belonging to Minority Community Provision for 2009-10

17

Observation Homes Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Rs.200.00 lakh and Kishore Grih Act 2000 and amended 2006, establishment of under J.J. Act, 2000 JJB/CWC/Homes in each district, proposed in year 2009-10

18

Prime Minister’s 15 Juvenile Justice Homes at all districts. Working Point Program for women hostels in 13 districts Minorities through the Minorities relevant finance and development corporation in the state.

III.3

Women’s To provide shelter, rehabilitation through training and self employment, 10 hostel at district level will be set up for working women

DPIP – Phase I : Key Learning

DPIP- Lessons Learned There are many lessons to be learnt in the processes and outcomes. There are many grey areas where added efforts and more systematic approach to issues would have led to better performance. All stakeholders had something to learn because all were found wanting. Any intervention of such a magnitude is bound to have varied experiences for different stakeholders. Project Implementation Related: It appears that enroute modifications were necessary to achieve better results. State has its limitations and civil society involvement can go to an extent; their capacities in terms of manpower and interventions are limited too. Panchayati Raj Institutions can only keep checks pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms, if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine. Get yours now!

and balances as the rural communities are increasingly at crossroads to share limited gains that accrue from such interventions. There is a need to have a re-look at the tendering procedure for groups. The DPIP-1 procedure had a danger of corruption creeping in and lot did too. Not for all trades/ activities/ assets tenders can be obtained. Overnight fake traders appeared to provide three quotations at the sale points especially in case of dairy. This calls for simple procedures of purchase. A committee comprising of all stakeholders should do the purchasing. It could be at block level or even at lower level. A representative of DPMU should be involved. Circulars should be simple and few. There have been instances where more problems were created than solving them. Clarity is must of procedures for better results. Top down approach can never work in such projects. This reflects on planning of the project because everything is set somewhere else and in the name of the process things were implemented. To deliver the same outcome different routes are possible. There is need for after-the- project institutional support, which was not built in. For instance, credit and market support. There should be proper monitoring at the district level using trained staff and personnel. Follow ups were missing. Physical verification of assets should be periodically done. DPMU staff should be especially trained and have minimum 3 years tenure and their evaluation should also be done. There was lack of strategic vision and planning. In fact capabilities do not exist with people involved. DPIP-1 faltered at the planning stage and then staff’s capability was in question. Selection of staff should be carefully done. Many stakeholders found the staff to be insensitive to the requirements of the project. The approach of giver and taken should be avoided. There had been tendency to have recommendations, but hardly any action taken on them. It was because it is not part of the project- no flexibility for implementers to do it. No effort was made for removal of social exclusion, which had impact on outcomes. It should be kept in mind that social exclusion cannot be eradicated with such short duration projects. Capacity Building: Capacity building component had been weak, greater thinking and dedication is required. The whole training procedure was not result oriented, but more of a formality. Periodic trainings programs should be planned; one- time training does not help much. Training has to be better designed with clear policy and action plan. Poor have limited capacity to realize fuller gains from such interventions. Sustainability of assets and skills would go a long way in future to help poor get out poverty. Clusters and Synergies: Clusters need to be formed to help create demands and service supply channels. Such programs need to synergize with other on-going activities in the village. DPIP should have been meshed with programs like NREGA to create infrastructure that can be used by CIGs. Systems needs to made simple that can be easily adopted. Group Formation: The group formation process appeared to be more ad-hoc, rather than reflecting sound group formation theory and processes. Not all NGOs had equal capacity to form groups that were to be income generating ones in the end. It must be recognized that poor are not a homogeneous group. Any planning and intervention must keep this in focus.

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Group meetings should be enforced and register be maintained. It should be binding. The size of the group should be flexible and attempt should be to have greater homogeneity within the group. Documentation should be advised to all groups. It can help in error corrections. Subsidy should be reduced (high subsidy unsustainable) and should have regional variations. Poor households at times cannot pay it. First savings should be promoted and it would help in consolidation of the group. Activity Surveys: No where it appeared that skill mapping was done of individuals and market survey was done to facilitate activities. Here facilitating institutions had not performed the required role. Dairy sector is easier than other sectors because for a primary producer the effort ends with sale of milk and there is daily cash flow, which is important, but in other micro-enterprises forward linkages have to be developed and they may also keep changing with changing demand. This task though not easy, is vital. The externalities generated by infrastructure projects should be capitalized on. The flow of inward services should be effectively used. As far as possible, the choice of activity should be left to the CIG members. However, choice- making can be facilitated through increased knowledge/ information, which DPMU can undertake. Market channels should be developed by outside agencies before activity is funded. Poor or no market channels have been a cause of failure. Asset costs should be fully met. Poor are not in a position to buy the whole asset with money provided through the project. For instance, one cannot buy a buffalo with Rs.10000. PRI/ NGO Involvement: Effective involvement of PRIs members is desired from the beginning in selection of the poor people. A core team at the block level should verify the credential and status of the poor as at present 18-20 percent of BPL are not actually BPL. There is a question mark on NGO’s capacity to deliver and scale up. This is because not all NGOs have adequate staff and are not available in each village. DPIP-1 procedures also hindered the performance of NGOs. For instance, in the initial phase lot of time was wasted in-group formation when NGOs were asked to employ personnel on monthly salary basis, but were paid by SMU on piece rate basis. Then opening of account of the CIG was linked to payments. This led to employment of underhand means in many cases and in many cases half hearted effort was made to deliver. Bank Linkage: Bank linkage was poor (only 3600 CIGs could be linked). This again has implication for group formation processes and procedures. Group formation cannot be done in time frame mode, which was part of the project. Flexibility is required. Finally, DPIP did make positive short-term impact on economic and social status of the beneficiaries. It did face problems in the processes that impacted the outcomes to an extent. However, still miles to go before real poor are able to have sustainable livelihoods. The state government has been proactive in launching various policies and schemes that when converged can generate enhanced incomes for the rural poor. State is committed to address poverty and provide livelihood opportunities for rural poor. scale- up the success of DPIP-1 through the adoption rural biased policies, key empowerment components like SHG formation and enhanced skill development for the rural poor, appointment of DPIP Project Director as Project Coordinator and expanding the state-level team of development professionals for the proposed program.

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IV. Social and Livelihood Assessment IV.1 Project Area Background and Socio- Economic aspects of the Scheduled Tribes in RRLP Districts: Udaipur, Banswara and Dungarpur have above 10% ST population among all project districts. Though, including these three, there are many blocks and villages which have significantly high (above 30%) tribal population. Distribution of ST Population in Rajasthan by District (2001) Sl.No.

Total Population Female

Persons

1501589 760686

740903

1085272 547277

537995

ST Major and/or %age to special tribe(s) Total Populati on Bhils 72.27

Baran

1021653 535137

486516

216869

113058

103811

21.23

Bhilwara

2013789 1026650

987139

180556

93089

87467

8.97

Bikaner

1674271 886075

788196

5945

3272

2673

0.36

Bundi

962620

504818

457802

194851

102678

92173

20.24

Chittorgarh 1803524 918063

885461

388311

197416

190895

21.53

Churu

1923878 987781

936097

10063

5339

4724

0.52

Dausa

1317063 693438

623625

353187

186464

166723

26.82

Dholpur

983258

538103

445155

47612

25954

21658

4.84

Dungarpur 1107643 547791

559852

721487

355748

365739

65.14

Jhalawar

1180323 612804

567519

141861

74014

67847

12.02

Kota

1568525 827128

741397

151969

80616

71353

9.69

493459

493565

129198

65657

63541

13.09

1117057 591307

525750

241078

128446

112632

21.58

District Name

Persons

Banswara

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

Rajsamand 987024

14.Sawai Madhopur

Male

Scheduled Tribes Male

Female

Bhils

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15. 16. 17.

Karauli

1209665 651998

557667

270630

145962

124668

22.37

Tonk

1211671 626436

585235

145891

76159

69732

12.04

Udaipur

2633312 1336004

1297308

1260432 634953

625479

47.86

RAJASTHAN 56507188

Mina

Bhils

29420011 27087177 7097706 3650982 3446724 12.56

The fact that the tribal population in RRLP districts is scattered and lower in concentration has important bearing on their social context as well as on the potential for their economic advancement. While economic status of tribal is universally poor, their low proportion in RRLP districts subjects them to social oppression as well. In multi caste settlements, the tribal minority faces social oppression resulting from its position at the bottom of social ladder. The tribal community in tribal majority areas, mainly in certain blocks, does not face this type of social pressure as it is the dominant community in these areas. Under the Social Assessment, both quantitative and qualitative data was obtained from eleven villages across ten districts in Tamil Nadu. Of these villages, while dispersed Tribal population was seen in seven villages, two villages had substantial Tribal population, and one was a Tribal village (Table 4). Participatory Rural Appraisals (PRA) was conducted in these villages to collect qualitative data. Focus Group Discussions (FGD) were held among various social groups in each of these villages to assess their present status, problems and their needs. A total of 3864 households and a population of 16325 individuals were covered. Of the total population surveyed, 17% belonged to the Scheduled Tribes. Of the total population, about 18 per cent households belonged to the Scheduled Tribe communities. IV.2 No. 1

2

3

4

5

6

Villages Surveyed under the Social Assessment: District Banswara

Karauli

Rajsamand

Baran

Chittorgarh

Bikaner

Blocks

ST

Population

%

SC%

OBC%

Kushalgarh

88.7

2.3

2.6

29012

Sajjangarh

85.3

4.1

6.9

28864

Hindaun

16.6

32.4

40.0

51755

Sapotra

37.6

21.8

24.0

50963

Kumbhalgarh

27.1

9.5

18.1

31142

Khamnor

23.3

10.7

27.5

42552

Kishanganj

33.9

13.7

41.0

30967

Shahbad

37.1

16.8

37.3

29135

Pratapgarh

59.9

7.9

21.1

58174

Arnod

67.9

6.2

16.4

27987

Kolayat

1.8

22.6

35.8

43436

Bikaner

1.7

23.0

34.2

87725

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Villages: From each block two villages were selected using ST/SC/OBC population (30% share). From the list having 30 percent ST/SC population, two villages on the top were selected from each block (the villages would be randomly selected). Thus, in all 24 villages were chosen for field survey. Households: In the first step, village listing was done. From within the village, 20 households were selected giving proportion representation to all social and economically deprived sections like scheduled caste households, scheduled tribe households, women headed households, marginal and small farmers, landless, shifting cultivators and minorities. The household survey tried to cover at least 20 percent of the total village population as contact points either through direct administration of schedules or FGDs and individual meetings. Information was collected through structured schedule at the household level and village level. Study Coverage: Based on the sampling approach described elsewhere, the Social Assessment focused on the following districts, blocks, villages and social groups. S.No

District

Block

Villages

Social Groups

1.

Bikaner

Kolayat

Chak-Chani

Rajput, Brahmin, Nayak, Meghwal, Soni and Luhar

Salasar

Meghwal

Barala

Meghwal, Daroga

Bherupa

Meghwal, Nai, Kumhar, and Bhatt

Lasodiya

Bheel, Rawal, Yadav, Dewda, Garasia;

Bikaner

2.

Banswara

Sajjangarh

Pandwal Aukar Bheel, Harijan Kushalgarh

Parnala

Rajput, Harijan, Bheel, Labana

Himmatpura Chamar, Katara, Bheel 3.

Baran

Shahbad

Hattari

Chamar, Bohi, Prajapat, Sahariya, Bheel

Hatwari Kachi, Kalal, Chamar, Muslim, Sahariya Kishanganj

Khalda

Sahariya, Bairwa, Aheri, Meena, Dhakar, Panchal

Rampuriya jagir Bairwa, Sahariya, Kumhar 4.

Rajsamand

Kumbhalgarh

Siya

Meghwal, Harijan

Rajput, Meghwal, Gamati Bheel

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Khamnor

Jardaya

Jogi, Gamati Bheel

Kama

Balai, Luhar, Rajput Gamati Bheel, Brahmin

Kuncholi Gayari, Raigar, Brahmin, Gameti, Meghwal, Paliwal, Rajput, Rangaswami, Luhar 5.

Chittorgarh

Around

Pratapgarh

6.

Karauli

Hindaun

Veerwali

Meena, Meghwal, Aajana

Chamar, Raidas,

Naya Khera

Meena, Thori, Katara

Mohakhampura

Rajput, Kumawat Muslim, Kalal

Jaswantpura

Nayak and Meena

Liloti

Meena, Mahajan, Muslim, Harijan

Daroga, Bheel,

Fazalabad Jangid, Brahmin, Kumhar, Soni, Meena, Harijan Sapotra

IV.3

Govindpura

Meena, Brahmin

Kachroda

Meena, Bairwa, Harijan, Jogi, Khati, Rana & Nai

The major findings from the study included:

(i) Dominant livelihood option: Main occupation: Occupations of the Head: Wage labour is the predominant main occupation2 of the ST Head of the household (70%). It is followed by agriculture (20.4%) and mix of both - this is because holding sizes are very small. The second important occupation is others (mix of agriculture and wage labour) in case of scheduled caste heads while it is agriculture in case of scheduled tribe, general category and OBC households. The third important occupation is domestic work among heads from scheduled caste and general households. Government/ private job is more prevalent among OBC heads. Own business is only important in case of OBC households. This brings out the low level of livelihood diversification existing among the tribal communities.

Table 4.8: Main Occupation of the Head of the ST Household SC OBC General 2

ST

Total

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HHs

%

Wage Labour

115 76.7

Agriculture

4

Domestic Work

11

Others

HHs

%

HHs %

HHs %

HHs %

30

50.8

20 64.5

168 70.0

333 69.4

2.7

9

15.3

4 12.9

49 20.4

66 13.8

7.3

7

11.9

1

3

3.2 5.1

7 9.7

26 5.4

17

11.3

Govt./Pvt. Service

2

1.3

5

8.5

1

3.2

6

2.5

14

2.9

Own Business

1

0.7

5

8.5

1

3.2

2

0.8

9

1.9

Animal Husbandry

0

0.0

0

0.0

1

3.2

0

0.0

1

0.2

All HHs

150 100

59

100

31 100

3

2.9 8

240 100

3.3

31

6.5

480 100

Note: Others- mix of agriculture and wage labour. Agriculture is the major secondary occupation3 (65%) for ST heads of the household. It is followed by wage labour (21.8%) and domestic work (11.1%). The reason for domestic work being important secondary occupation is because there are women heads of the household4 and aged male as heads. (ii) Land holding and irrigation facilities: Land is the most important and significant source of livelihood in the rural Rajasthan – equally so for the tribals living therein. Of the sample households, 81.7 percent have land5 and others are landless. A higher proportion of OBCs and scheduled castes do not possess land though quite a high proportion of scheduled tribe households (81.7%) possess land. Only 14.6 percent households have irrigated holdings, whereas 71.4 percent of such holdings are below 5 bighas and 21.4 percent holdings range between 5 to 10 bighas. This is more or less true across the social groups6. In case of un-irrigated holdings, 17.9 percent of all holdings are irrigated and 71.4 percent are below 5 bighas. And lowest proportion of irrigated holdings is with scheduled caste households when OBCs have maximum proportion of irrigated holdings. Thus, scheduled caste households with land also are more vulnerable amongst other disadvantaged social groups. Table 4.13: Land Ownership Ownership SC Total

OBC

General

ST

3 4

Secondary occupation is that wherein engagement is of less than 180 days. With regard to secondary occupation of family members of selected households, we do not notice much difference from main occupation. However, a greater proportion reported agriculture as secondary occupation and the proportion varies between 10.3% in Karauli and 27.5% in Rajsamand. Animal husbandry, government/ private job and own business is not part of the secondary job profile. What remains is the labour work, which an untrained person can perform. Domestic work also is secondary work for a large proportion. They are again mainly women from the household. There is hardly any gender choice difference as far as secondary occupation is concerned. 5

It is found that 82% of sample households own land and this percentage is as high as 96.3% in Banswara and as low as 68.8% in Baran. 6 The total land with 392 households is 1951 bighas, which amounts to 4.98 bighas per household. The average household holding is highest in Bikaner at 12.31 bighas. Baran follows it with 5.38 bighas, Banswara 3.99 bighas, Karauli 3.97 bighas, Chittorgarh 3.1 bighas and Rajsamand 2.32 bighas. Thus the holding sizes are very small to have high productivity. Given this size of holding the investment on land is also meagre. For instance, only 331 of 1951 bighas (17%) are irrigated from own source. 85.4 percent do not have self-irrigated source land. This situation is more prominent in Bikaner and Banswara. The average own source irrigated land is just 0.84 bighas while other sources irrigated land is 4.08 bighas. pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms, if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine. Get yours now!

HHs

%

HHs

%

HHs

%

HHs

%

HHs

Yes

110

73.3

40

67.8

29

93.5

213

88.8

392

81.7

No

40

26.7

19

32.2

2

6.5

27

11.3

88

18.3

150

100

59

100

31

100

240

100

480

100

Total

%

Irrigated Land Bigha

SC OBC General

ST

HHs

HHs HHs

HHs

< 5

5

5

7

33

50

71.4

5 - 10

0

4

0

11

15

21.4

10 - 15

1

3

1

0

5

7.1

Total

6

12

8

44

70

100

Share in total 5.5 30.0

27.6

20.7

17.9

29

213

392

All HHs

110

40

Total

%

HHs

As regards the source of irrigation, a higher proportion of scheduled tribe households have well as a source of irrigation compared to scheduled caste. The major source of irrigation across social groups is others7. 54 households of the 392 owing land have their own well or tube-well. (iii) Animal husbandry as income source is not significant across social groups. Only 4.8 percent households have dairy as income source. It is mainly a source for general category households. Very few scheduled caste and tribes households have this source. The average income across social groups is: scheduled caste Rs.4571, OBC Rs.5000, general category Rs. 6000 and scheduled tribe Rs.5345 and for all groups Rs.5209. As not many households are into livestock rearing, income from regular sale of animals is low. It is reported only 7.1 percent households. However, this as source of income is reported by one-tenth of scheduled caste households and they sell goat mainly. Even this income for majority is below Rs.2500. The average income across social groups is: scheduled caste Rs.1820, OBC Rs.1667, general category Rs.2250 and scheduled tribe Rs.1929 and all households Rs.1876. (iv) Asset Base : All households, irrespective of their social group, have a house. Though, around 85% of the ST households live either in a kutcha or partially pacca house. Only 9.6% ST households live in pucca houses. The OBCs and General households have mostly either pucca or partially pucca houses. Table 4.10: Status of House Social Groups

7

These households have tiny holding sizes and therefore are not in a position to own source of irrigation. 24% households in Chittorgarh have well as a source followed by 19% in Baran. Tube well is owned in Baran mainly. It is also found that per bighas agriculture income is just Rs.1317.

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House Type

SC HHs

%

OBC HHs

General %

HHs

ST %

Total

HHs

HHs

%

Pucca

24 16.0

12

20.3

11

35.5

9.6

70

14.6

Kachacha

79 52.7

23

39.0

13

41.9 150 62.5

265

55.2

Pucca+Kachacha

47 31.3

24

40.7

7

22.6

67 27.9

145

30.2

150 100

59

100

31

100

240 100

480

100

Total HHs

23

%

In terms of other household assets, such as television, radio, cycle and cattle the STs have less than the General and the OBCs. (v) Income and savings : As livelihood activities are not diversified, the income levels are bound to be low. The survey suggests that across the social groups, the variance in average income is small with the OBC households’ annual earning at Rs. 31558, General at Rs. 29334, STs at Rs. 28727 and the SC households reportedly having only Rs. 20829. Though, specific data is not available but focused group discussions and consultations revealed that few households have savings as most are under debt for one or the other reason. Most women among the BPL households from various social groups but belonging to the SHGs have some savings but not enough to be used for any productive enterprise. (vi) Debt: Majority of households (63.7%) have debt of Rs.20,000 or less. A higher proportion of scheduled caste and tribe households have debt compared to other social groups. As regards the size of debt, a much higher proportion of general and OBC households have debt amounting to Rs.40000 and above compared to scheduled tribe and caste households. On the other extreme, one fourth of scheduled caste households and two-fifth of scheduled tribe households have debt of Rs.10000 or less compared to 11 and 18 percent OBC and general category households respectively. This means that far greater number of general category and OBC households have high value debt whereas more number (percentage) of STs and SCs are under debt. Across social groups, social function expenditure is the major purpose (35.8% households) of taking loans. It is followed by agriculture, medical, housing, domestic use and animal husbandry. Education has not yet become important purpose, may be it is valued low in priority or cost is not much. Medical treatment is necessary expenses and so household do borrow for medicines. Fixed asset investment is low on priority. Top four purposes of loan by District Bikaner

Medical (37%), social functions, business and animal husbandry

Banswara

Agriculture (66.7%), social functions, house and animal husbandry

Chittorgarh

Social Functions (48.3%), agriculture, house and medical

Baran

Agriculture (29.4%), domestic use, medical and social functions

Karauli

Social functions (44.4%), agriculture, animal husbandry and house

Rajsamand

Social functions (41.4%), house, domestic use and medical

Sources of Loan: The traditional moneylender is source for 52.7 percent of households and across social groups this proportion is: scheduled caste 46.3 percent, OBC 66.7 percent, general category 45.5 percent and scheduled tribe 55 percent. This means that moneylender is the important source for loan for all soial pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms, if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine. Get yours now!

groups – a little more for the STs. The availability of alternative money lenders to the STs is limited compared to other social groups. Less than 20% of the loan requirements are met by any form of regular and commercial banking system. This shows that informal sources still dominate despite financial inclusion being promoted in villages8. The facts on social exclusion and exploitation come out when interest rate charged among various social groups is reviewed. The survey reveals that most often the poor households get loans on interest ranging between 24-36% per annum. But, most often the SCs and the STs have to mortgage ornaments or land to seek services of the moneylenders. Access to Credit: The state has a bank network of 4057 branches (2007) comprising of commercial banks (2508), regional banks or RRBs (1015), and cooperative banks (534). There are 43 commercial banks, 6 RRBs and two cooperative banks operating in the state. There are 5255 primary agricultural societies (PACS) in the state with a membership of 4244432. For a lakh of population there are 7.15 bank offices, just below the national average. In 2007, per capita bank deposit stood at Rs.11057 while nationally it was Rs.23748. A bank office serves 13807 persons. However, the average rural population served per office is 21430 (includes all banks). Besides, in 14 districts it is above the state average. Rajasthan suffers from low population density that makes serves availability a costly affair. This increases the distances for the clients and leads to limited access of the poor to banking. As a result, the average savings and credit per capita is also low9. (vii) Migration: It is found that 17.1 percent households have at least one member migrating10 - mostly being seasonal in nature. Among the STs, 17 % migrate for exploiting livelihood opportunities mostly outside Rajasthan. Migration among the OBCs and the General category social groups was found to be significantly low compared to the SCs and the STs. Migration for less than 100 days in a year is more among the SCs and the STs compared to the OBCs and the General – probably more because of stress reasons than choice factors. Around 80% of the ST migrants earn less than Rs. 20,000 whereas, more than 80% General earn more than Rs. 20,000 during one cycle of seasonal migration. (viii) Social Capital: Tribal communities enjoy traditional leadership. However, the SHG movement is still very weak in the Tribal areas. There are many reasons for this. The current SHG programmes have not fully tapped/involved tribal communities due to the nature of the project which has focused on credits, savings and thrifts through a rigorous book-keeping and accounting systems (through registers) which are not familiar with tribal ways and approaches. Also, other major issues identified related to lack of information in a simple and demystified form to the Tribal Community on SHGs. The lack of daily source of income and the ability to save on a weekly basis are some of the major reasons for limited progress with SHGs in Tribal areas.

8

See for additional information, Surjit Singh (2010), “Micro-Finance and Agriculture: Issues and Direction” paper prepared for NABARD. 9 Surjit Singh, 2006, “Institutional Finance in Rajasthan: Some Recent Trends and Concerns” in eds. R. Parthasarathy and Sudarshan Iyenger New Development Paradigms and Challenges for Western and Central India, Concept Publishers, New Delhi. Also see, CMR, 2008, Rajasthan Micro Finance Report 2007, Jaipur. 10

The proportion of such households varies between a low of 1.3% in Chittorgarh and a high of 53.8% in Banswara. It appears that migration is sizeable, thus in Banswara and Rajsamand. What is the nature of this migration? The nature migration is seasonal and most migrates to within the district in Bikaner while majority go outside the state in Banswara, outside the district in Chittorgarh and Baran, both outside the district and state in Karauli. Outside the state is the preferred destination for majority in Rajsamand. pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms, if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine. Get yours now!

The status of SHGs in tribal dominated areas is virtually a non-existent entity. Moreover, during the interaction with the tribal community, it could be made out that most of the women have not heard about it. Formation of new SGHs and rejuvenation of the existing ones are an uphill but an inevitable task to be accomplished. The major share in SHGs is of women and Child Department, though the quantity of such groups is very poor. The concentration of SHGs is also in the southern Rajasthan. As on March 31, Rajasthan had 192479 SHGs-bank linked and has total savings of Rs.138.38 crore. Most SHGs are bank linked with commercial banks (86665) followed by regional rural banks (59625) and cooperative banks (46189), SBBJ, Punjab National Bank of Baroda are the major banks linking SHGs in Rajasthan. As per CMR 2007 report estimated SHGs are as follows (Table 3.7). IV.4

SHGs in Tribal districts

Districts Banswara

ICDS/DWCD SGSY 5375 2875

Churu

2750

875

3625

1250

8500

Dholpur

1125

445

1875

305

3750

Karauli

1750

930

320

3000

Dausa

2250

875

250

7375

Sawaimadhopur

3000

500

Baran

3750

500

3625

750

8625

Jhalawar

6875

875

4125

750

12625

Kota

5125

875

250

6250

Bundi

2875

375

Tonk

4875

625

Bhilwara

8000

1500

Rajasamand

2500

1000

Chittorgarh

6625

1250

375

8250

Udaipur

5625

2750

1750

10125

Dungarpur

3125

3625

1250

8000

Bikaner

4250

1000

625

5875

Project Districts

69875

20875

24250

9375

124375

Sample Districts

17678

6358

6928

2248

33053

4000

DPIP Others Total 500 8750

3500

3250 3750

500

9750

500

10000

3250

6750

Note: These are estimates figures. Source: Estimated from CMR, 2008, Status of Micro Finance in Rajasthan. pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms, if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine. Get yours now!

IV.5 summarily, the following table captures major issues highlighted by the Social Assessment: Issue Type

Comments

Social

There is social differentiation between scheduled tribe, scheduled caste and general category of poor. Scheduled caste face greater exclusion compared to scheduled tribes or OBCs.

Human Capital

There are inter-district differentiations too. Even scheduled tribes are not homogeneous group. For instance, Sahariyas, Garasia and Bheel are different. This means there has to be district specific variations built into the project. The level and quality of human capital is also low. Scheduled caste and tribe are worse of than general and OBC categories. There are gender differences in human capital and caste groupings.

Social Capital

Education is low on the priority list of these households as jobs are not available with poor quality of education in village schools The social capital is also poor in the selected districts as emerging from the village level information. Not all villages have caste/ jati panchayats. Only scheduled tribes have tribal head who take decisions on community issues.

Land

Holding sizes are very small and have limitations to productivity improvement. In Bikaner villages, land is sandy and has low productivity. In tribal districts land is uneven and needs investment. Irrigation is poor or non-existent.

Incomes

Income from agriculture is meager and leaves huge income gap for majority of households. That is why most households venture into wage labor or migrate. Income sources are not diversified that leaves households with limited options to come out of poverty situation. Agriculture and wage labour are major income sources for majority of households. Most of the households are below $2 poverty level.

MGNREGA

MGNREGA has become a major source of income. All households have been issued job cards and people do know much about the scheme. Community understands the possible repercussions in terms of wage labor and asset creation. However, NREGA itself has limitation in terms of 100 days of employment and not all households in the sample completed 100 days of employment under MGNREGA. The MGNREGA wages also are much below the minimum wage of Rs.100. There is discrimination at times adopted by Sarpanch in allocation of work. General category households participates relatively less than other social groups. The participation in MGNREGA is mainly of women of the household with no skills at all.

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Credit

There is demand for credit across the households and districts, which presently is being met by moneylenders, relatives and friends. There is a space for microfinance institutions like SHGs and MFIs. Not many households have interface with micro-finance institutions like SHGs. Wherever, SHGs are found, most are defunct too, especially created by government departments. These ICDS/ DRDA group are of very poor quality. These groups are poorly formed. It also emerges that social function needs are important for households, which are being fulfilled through moneylender at high interest rates and mortgaging of meager asset. Micro-finance interventions can play an important role. One needs to be careful, as today pure SHGs are hard to find after SGSY polluting the whole movement. In Rajasthan, most NGOs converted their SHGs into SGSY groups with all built in problems. Credit did flow in but livelihood did not. Interest rates are high for moneylender’s loan. MFI interest rates are also not low. Here there are two issues- one using micro-finance for poverty alleviation and second considering micro-finance as a business. Today it is mainly the later than the former. Poverty cannot be eradicated with 24 percent rate of interest even if collateral is not taken. In the SHG movement savings are the collaterals.

Migration

Financial inclusion concept has to go beyond opening accounts. Today, accounts in bank and post offices are opened because of operational needs of programs. It should be voluntary. Bankers even with these accounts would not provide loans for livelihood activities. The programs should form part of state level bankers committee. Migration is part of livelihood strategy of these households. But having low or no skills most work as wage laborers. This is more so in tribal villages of Baran. Seasonal migration is high but returns are low from migration.

MGNREGA has helped in reduction in migration, but male still migrate as MGNREGA provides employment for less than 100 days and poor family have to fend for 265 days for employment. Traditional Artisan The survey did not capture large number of traditional artisan population amongst Activities the sample households. This means there is limitation to upgrade skills and diversify existing skills for better incomes. The capacity building component of the project needs to be carefully designed. There does not exists demand for variety of products due to low- income levels. Animal Husbandry Dairy does not form major activity outside agriculture. If the project intends to promote dairy sector in the project area, then issues of fodder and water requires additional attention. Dairy sector has scope because it has daily cash flow component but should use existing dairy sector linkages. There are cultural factors also attached to dairy sector.

Agriculture

Goat and cow form major livestock wealth of households and households have shown tendency to borrow to purchase these animals. The project should build on this carefully unlike DPIP phase 1. It is largely subsistence agriculture with large number of farmers not having

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irrigation facilities.

Women

A major livelihood option is marred by lack of irrigation, electricity and quality seed. Wheat, gram, urad, jawar, pulse are mostly produced and consumed. Women work is largely domestic work besides participation in MGNREGA. Activities like spinning and even other so-called women related activities hardly exist. This leaves limited scope for interventions. This is further exposed by the fact that income of the women has been used primarily for domestic work, medicines, education and festivals. A positive issue that emerges out of analysis is that opinion of women is given some weight in household decision-making. The project should capitalize on this women empowerment in the project area.

Food & Nutrition

Exclusion

Government Programs

Local Institutions

Women get lower wage in agriculture and other sectors. The society is by and large patriarchal. Women help in collecting NTFP, agriculture operation apart from domestic drudgery etc. Severe unawareness is found in women towards hygiene. Though they are aware of some schemes pertaining to them and children, but the awareness about the right towards equal wages, education and decision making was not satisfactory at all. The food intake appears to be reasonable with lunch and dinner constituting roti & dal or sabji. However, July- August are food shortage months. This is vital information. However, nutrition issues are vital. To keep food nutrition intact, cooking practices should form part of awareness campaign. There is exclusion of poor in terms of not all children taking food at the school. A strategy has to be built to facilitate improvement in this situation. There is grazing land exclusion and the project should address this issue. It is also linked to land encroachment. There is social exclusion in terms of marriages etc. Awareness component has to be built in the project to overcome this problem. Of all the government programs, two programs have largely benefited the poorMGNREGA and Indira Awas Yojna. The reason is that both provide direct benefits Convergence is required of all departments involved in rural development works. At present even in MGNREGA convergence is not being tried. The project should try to achieve convergence between RKVY and NREGA as both are based on village level planning. Panchayati Raj Institutions are responsible to coordinate in implementation of some very important programs and schemes in the village like. NREGS, SGSY etc. In most of the sampled villages the PRIs either seems out of reach of the poor and the ultra poor. More so the power was also centralized with the dominant communities. There were still some development work seen in the villages but people reported the discriminatory behavior of the Sarpanch (the chair person of the village panchayat) towards the SC and the ST communities. In all the villages Sarpanch did show some interest in involving poor in initiating MGNREGS work. PRI is an important institution, but poor and the poorest have limited role and say in such bodies in the sample villages. It appears that poor have been participating in local institutions with varied success. There are two issues- one is level of

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participation and second is level of acceptability as regards the decision-making are concerned. The analysis shows results, which are not mainstreamed ones. Jati/ tribal institutions tough exist represent the elite within the groups. However, they ca n be used for social mobilization. Anganwaris are functional, but people are not happy.

Debt Awareness Levels

ANM is a useful functionary. School infrastructure is available in most villages, but quality of education is poor. Poor in these villages have been borrowing and there is large outstanding debt. Right now moneylender is an important source of borrowing. Most villagers are not aware of most schemes and cannot obtain benefits there from.

DPIP-1

Most households who benefited from DPIP- 1 have not kept the asset intact though in some cases goat and other animals are being reared even today. Livelihood could not be sustained of DPIP-1. Public Distribution The institution is not able to deliver well. Some real poor are missing from BPL System (PDS) list. The preferred grains are sometimes not available for as much as 6 months. Most important, poor do not have enough income to buy grains/ kerosene when it is available. Here, also local moneylender is a source of leakage as he gives cash and purchases the PDS grain. This is more so in Baran villages. School Primary schools were found in all the villages and are doing well. Although middle schools do face understaffing problem. Attendance of girls is reasonable in comparison to the boys. There are many other factors affecting the attendance and enrolment in the schools. Not all children from SC and ST families go to schools. Forest The selected villages had a considerable tribal population and close proximity with the thin forests. Community excels in symbiotic coexistence with the forest. Degrading forest wealth due to unorganized extraction of forest produce has negatively impacted upon the NTFP activity of tribals. Exclusion from forest is a major issue Marriage & other Ceremony

This involves huge expenses and leads to indebtedness. Customs vary between scheduled caste and tribe populations. There is NATA pratha among tribals. Women have no inhibition in leaving the husband and children behind and move out with another man. This more so in Baran district.

Banks

Banks and especially the Regional Rural Banks RRBs and cooperatives have a very crucial role to play towards the economic development of the poor. However, bankers have always excluded and discriminated between their customers as a result the poor and the ultra poor are not very hopeful towards the banks finance, and the moneylender are still as indispensable as ever.

Self Help Group

In all the sample villages not all people either know or were part of some SHG. SHGs were more visible in Bikaner and Rajsamand villages. NGOs, government and others promoted these. Most SHGs were either not properly functional or were dormant. Loans taken from SHGs were for dairy.

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Governance

The survey/discussions find that local institutions like PRIs at the village level have not played the role required of them like planning for projects (RKVY, MGNREGA etc) and even monitoring schools, aaganwadis, health institutions and the like. This is largely because they lack capacity to undertake such tasks. There is always a danger of village elite excluding poor and most vulnerable from decision- making. PRIs had not played any role in SHG formation of poor. There is also lack of transparency even in MGNREGA activities.

Social audit is major instrument of governance. Land Development Land development is a serious issue especially in the tribal areas. Improvement in and water land would increase productivity and hence income. Water is the major deficiency in the region. Steps have to be taken for provisioning of water for irrigation and drinking purposes. Here, water harvesting structures are required to be built for community use with stakes of poor built in them, otherwise exclusion does take place. Formal and Informal Rajasthan was pioneer in panchayati raj institutions prior to 73rd constitutional Grievance and amendment. These were the for conflict management at the local level. The Conflict Resolution character has changed now. At the grass roots level social conflicts are hardly Mechanisms addressed through local institutions like caste panchayats, NGOs etc. The major conflicts relate to land, water, social customs, encroachment of grazing lands, identification as BPL households, work in MGNREGA (certain people do get excluded), access to social and economic infrastructure and so on. There is hardly any local structure that addresses grievances of poor households or marginalized sections. Rajasthan ahs only observed movements of farmers in the olden days and also in the recent years. There have been various movements like right to information, right to work, right to food, domestic workers rights and so on. However, poor have not been able to use right to information effectively for varied reasons. Social audit is in use in rural works especially in MGNREGA. However, the community itself is still not forthcoming in using these grievances redress mechanisms. For land disputes, revenue department plays a role. Most disputes are settled through courts at various levels. At the village, level gram sabha is one mode, but it is out purview of poor and the poorest. In very few cases, grievance has been addressed through it. NGOs might mediate in some cases, but has not played any role of significance in Rajasthan. Women Development Program was one such mechanism that took active participation in eradicating social evils in villages and empowering women. Sathin as an institution did become important at village level under the hierarchical structure. Panchayat/ Gram sabha can become an institution for conflict resolution, but lot needs to be done in this regard. The above can be more specifically mentioned by situating them in the context of the STs in the project districts of Rajasthan: Issues Livelihood

ST context a) Poor productive asset holding

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Governance

Social Capital Skills & Building

Capacity

b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) a) b) c) d) a) b) c) d) a) b)

Poor land occupancy Considered less credit worthy in the institutional front Poor access to institutional credit Earning does not support required family demand No or less availability of supportive / alternative options Borrowing from informal sources in most cases Pay exploitative rate of interest Involvement in enterprising / trading / business is poor Livelihood Poor knowledge & information on livelihood options Poor participation in local decision making Poor understanding of governance importance Poor participation in Governance and governance structures Poor women participation in local governance Relatively poor educational status [in comparison to other] Poor Health and hygiene status Lack of awareness about health & education Poor gender strengthening and dev. integration initiatives Require market driven skills and vocational inputs Gap in Enterprising / trading / business skills

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V. TRIBAL DEVELOPMENT FRAMEWORK (TDF) V.1

Objective

The key objectives are to increase and sustain income of the tribals especially women in the project districts through - social inclusion and community mobilization, building sustainable member based organizations of the tribals, creation of credit linkage between the organizations and financial institutions and other service providers, new livelihood strategies that are adaptable to climate change, and improve access to social security/ protection including food security, fodder security and health risk. In this process TDF is to support the social and economic empowerment of the ST in the project area. The objective of Tribal Inclusion and Development Strategy under Rajasthan Rural Livelihood Project will be to empower the poor Tribal Communities and improve their livelihoods through: (a) Developing and strengthening pro-poor community institutions i.e. self-help groups, CDO, PFT Area Federation and PO’s (b) Ensuring representation and benefits flow from Cluster Development Organizations- CDO and PFT Area federations to Tribals (c) Building skills and capacities of the Tribal’s for livelihood development and assured employment. (d) Financing demand-driven Micro credit & Livelihood Plan and value chain based support for key livelihood activities (e) To develop good practices in social inclusion that will be adopted more widely. Given the context of the STs, care would be taken to evolve and follow a project implementation process that fosters full respect for dignity, human rights and cultural uniqueness of the Tribal Communities; and that all be culturally and socially compatible. District Name Banswara Baran Bhilwara Bikaner Bundi Chittorgarh Churu Dausa Dholpur Dungarpur Jhalawar Kota Rajsamand Sawai Madhopur Karauli Tonk

Total Population Persons Male 1501589 760686 1021653 535137 2013789 1026650 1674271 886075 962620 504818 1803524 918063 1923878 987781 1317063 693438 983258 538103 1107643 547791 1180323 612804 1568525 827128 987024 493459

Female 740903 486516 987139 788196 457802 885461 936097 623625 445155 559852 567519 741397 493565

Scheduled Tribes Persons Male Female 1085272 547277 537995 216869 113058 103811 180556 93089 87467 5945 3272 2673 194851 102678 92173 388311 197416 190895 10063 5339 4724 353187 186464 166723 47612 25954 21658 721487 355748 365739 141861 74014 67847 151969 80616 71353 129198 65657 63541

ST %age to Total Population 72.27 21.23 8.97 0.36 20.24 21.53 0.52 26.82 4.84 65.14 12.02 9.69 13.09

1117057 591307

525750

241078

128446

112632

21.58

1209665 651998 1211671 626436

557667 585235

270630 145891

145962 76159

124668 69732

22.37 12.04

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Udaipur 2633312 1336004 1297308 1260432 634953 625479 47.86 RAJASTHAN 29420011 27087177 7097706 3650982 3446724 12.56 56507188 V.2

PROJECT COVERAGE

The Tribal Development Framework has been developed in regard for the specific context of Districts of Southern Rajasthan and the districts which have been selected by the GoR for implementation. The districts in Southern Rajasthan have a significant Tribal population with four districts having Scheduled Areas. Overall, the project area has just five districts, which have a tribal population less than 10% and the average tribal population in the project area is 22.38%, which require specific strategy for their inclusion & development. In alignment with the state provisions and administrative arrangements, the project will prioritize coverage of STs in its operational area with following special classifications: One classification would have very focused and relatively intense project engagements in all the villages and blocks falling under the Scheduled Areas, MADA, MADA Clusters and Sehariya Development Areas whereas the other would be covering all other areas having tribal population ensuring they are included in all mainstreamed project activities. Classification District

Scheduled Area

Block/Tehsil Village

Total Population

ST Population

(in ‘000)

(in ‘000)

Banswara

8

1462

11.56

8.49

Dungarpur

5

850

8.75

0.58

Chittaurgarh 2

527

2.80

1.45

Udaipur

1517

11.29

7.77

7

MADA Pockets

44 Pockets in 18 districts

3606

28.51

15.72

MADA Clusters

11 Clusters

161

1.04

0.57

Sehariya Vikas Shetra

Baran

2.44

0.84

Tribes

2

Remark

Both are totally under SAs

Location

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Bhils

southern districts of Rajasthan and the surrounding regions of Udaipur and Chittorgarh.

Garasia

Sirohi District in and around Abu Road area in 24 villages which comprises of the “BHAKKAR PATTA”

Minas

north, they inhabit the Jaipur- Sikar belt of Shekhawati, continuing into Alwar in the southwest

Sahariyas

resides in the Shahabad and Kishanganj Panchayat Samiti’s of Baran district, the areas of Kota, Dungarpur and Sawai Madhopur in the southeast of Rajasthan

Damors

Belonging to the Dungarpur and Udaipur districts

Patelia

Patelia Tribe resides in Dungarpur and Banswara District.

V.3

Principles

The major project principles will also be applicable in the TDF implementation that includes: Focus on the marginalized and disadvantaged tribal poor households Specific components to target the most vulnerable and poorest social groups Women will be the priority of project interventions Project implementation and activities will adhere and perpetuate principles of transparency and accountability All project activities will be participatory and ensure appropriate inclusion of the members of the tribal households guided by the principles of the Community driven development (CDD). This is a tribal development framework and not a plan, as it identifies ‘inclusion’ and ‘safeguard’ mechanism to ensure STs are fully included across project cycle and project components. The specific microcredit, livelihood and priority plans will emerge from the community institutions, as they are strengthened and supported. Local specificity on Gender, Tribal and social inclusion priorities and implementation phasing will directly flow from the Area inception reports that each PFT will prepare before commending village interventions. The Area Inception Report will highlight the tribal and gender exclusion issues which will be followed up by the PFTs. The Livelihood Activity Identification exercise will also identify locally relevant and prioritized livelihood plans and value chains. V.4

Plan Components

The RRL Project has following five components 1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

V.6

Institution Building & Social Empowerment Community Investment Support Skill Development & Employment Promotion Climate Change Adaptation Project Implementation Support

Key Elements of the Tribal Inclusion and Development Strategy

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As mentioned above, the RRLP proposes to have a targeted approach to improve livelihoods of the rural people including the Scheduled Tribes in all 17 project districts of the state of Rajasthan, through (a) institution building and social empowerment, (b) community investment support, (c) skill development and employment support and (d) climate change adaptations. Based on findings and recommendations of the Social Assessment including consultations with various key stakeholders, the project will have appropriate strategy and action plan to ensure inclusion of the STs – one of the key marginalized and disadvantaged social group in the project districts. The project will have two pronged strategy guiding action plans for tribal inclusion and developed in (a) denser tribal population areas recognized as Scheduled Areas, MADA Pockets, MADA Clusters and Sahariya Development Area, and (b) Scattered tribal areas across all other project districts. Implementation Strategies for Tribal Inclusion and Development – key focused measures as part of the project cycle: Village level tribal population Major Activity

Scheduled Areas, MADA Scattered Tribal Development Pockets, MADA Clusters and Areas across all other project Sahariya Development Areas districts

Start up activity

Structured dialogue and Tribal situation analysis perspective building with tribal community leaders and change agents

IEC Campaign

Targeted IEC materials (local Folk media campaigns mounted language) with focus on folk practices and culture developed and campaigns mounted through folk media

Institution formation

All PFTs working in these areas are oriented and trained on tribal development and social safeguards

Mobilization

In tribal exclusive villages – at At least 25% of STs belonging least 80 % of BPL households to BPL are included and made (of STs) are included in SHGs part of SHGs

At least one member from PFTs having tribal population oriented and trained on tribal development and social safeguards

At least 50% of the tribal SHGs At least 30% of the tribal SHGs are financed by the first tranche are financed by the first tranche Representation

In SHGs, CDOs/Uthan Sansthans, Federations and Producers’ Organizations/Companies leadership and membership is ensured to be representative of ST population in the given area

Representation of the STs is ensured based on basic democratic principles of their share in the total population or at least as much guaranteed under the Constitutional provisions.

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Appropriate and adequate At least one tribal member representation is mandated in (preferably woman) in all these areas. project based committees/associations created at Block and District level(s). CBO fundsCluster development fund (health risk fund, food security fund and fodder bank); CDO Fund, PO Sectoral Fund & PFT Fund

All fund/fodder bank management to be done by specific committees comprising of tribal representatives elected/nominated by the Gram Sabha

At village and block levels, at least one member from the STs (having at least 2%of population)

Intense hand holding by PFT for strengthening the SHGs to have Bank linkages Village Fund Livelihood (LIF)

To be decided by the Gram Sabha in consultation and advice from the PFT Investment

Skill development employment Institutional Sustainability

Fund Process oriented with intense facilitation from the PFT to ensure the tribal SHGs meet the fund release conditions and Target achievement similar to 8 % of job for rural tribal youth the overall stated Project Objectives to commit and promote 75% inclusion of the poorest (BPL) STs in sustainable federations in the project districts

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V.7 Description of the Tribal Development Framework – according to the Project Components of the RRLP 1.

Building and Social Empowerment

Principles Inclusion and engagement with tribal communities and households in project entry activities

 

Ensure mobilization strategies – IEC, campaigns, training – are developed appreciating local culture and contexts and include local talents to the extent possible



Mobilize SHG formation among tribal communities and households



Ensure adequate and appropriate representation of the STs at GP, PFT, Block and district levels



Institutionalize facilitative and accessible grievance redressal mechanisms for tribal groups

Strategy The project will support and develop inclusive, self-reliant, self-managed and sustainable SHGs and their federations and other institutions and organizations as stated above for livelihood improvement and overall well being of the tribal households. SHGs: As part of the mobilization process, tribal communities will be provided information, rules and regulations, processes and objectives of SHG formation through appropriate mediums and channels including IEC largely based and/or informed by folk culture of the area/region. Further, as the tribal communities will be the core target group(s) in the Scheduled Areas, MADA Pockets, MADA Clusters and the Sahariya Development Areas and specific target groups in other areas they will be provided with additional training on key issues including concept of SHGs, savings, book keeping and accounting, benefits of meetings and federating for sustainable livelihood activities and enterprises. The PFTs and village level para-workers and volunteers engaged with the project and facilitating such processes will be specially oriented and trained on tribal development and social safeguards. The focus of the PFTs during the initial area and village entry will be on holding informed consultations with the government line departments, PRI officials and representatives, NGOs and community leaders, along with an information and rapport building campaign. This process will directly inform the implementation sequence and phasing of the community mobilization and group formation process. This will then lead to a sustained and extensive capacity (organizational, advocacy and livelihoods) and institution building process (CDOs and federations) process which will continue throughout the project. Cluster Development Organization (CDO)/Uthan Sansthan: As mentioned elsewhere the CDOs will be federations of the SHGs registered under a suitable legal framework that allows the organisations to function independently to meet their objectives. The ideal membership of a CDO is 15 SHGs in terms of viability. A CDO may be promoted as soon as 3 SHGs are ready and willing and then keep adding SHGs

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till the ideal size is reached. The SHGs seeking to form/join a CDO may be from the same or adjoining village. All members of the SHGs will constitute the General body of the CDO. An Executive Committee (CDOEC) will be formed with two members from each SHG. The CDO-EC will be decision making body of the CDO. EC will elect four representatives as office bearers for functional purposes including President, Vice President, Secretary and Treasurer. In areas where tribal population is less adequate care would be taken to ensure their representation and every effort will be made by the project to have at least one ST member in the CDO-EC. In ST dominant areas as mentioned above the CDO-EC obviously would comprise of largely ST members. The EC will also be empowered to nominate members for the following committees: a) SHG performance monitoring committee b) Finance Committee c) Social action committee Safeguard Norms. Safeguard norms in membership, office bearing positions and committees for SC, ST women and other vulnerable groups should be emphasized and made part of the TDF and GAP. These include: The safeguard norms for tribal participation in community institution will be: Mobilization - 70% percent of ST households identified in the PIP process mobilised into SHGs Office bearers - 70 percent + of community institutions have 50 percent + ST office bearers in designated tribal areas, and atleast 30% in other areas Committees - 70 percent + SHGs and CDO committees have 50 percent+ committee members from ST in designated tribal areas, and at least 30% in other areas Elections - 70 percent + Community Institutions have elected 50 percent+ STs in tribal areas, and and alteast 30% in other areas Livelihood Plans, Microcredit Plans, Value Chains, Innovation Projects. 70 percent + plans include majority beneficiaries from STs, in the tribal areas.

PFT Area Federation: In order to further aggregate the targeted community, the SHGs of all CDOs in a PFT will be encouraged and facilitated to form a Federation. It is expected that a Federation will have membership of 300 SHGs from 20 CDOs. The process of formation of the Federation may be initiated when the PFT has facilitated at least 100 A Grade SHGs and 10 CDOs. The General Body of the CDO will comprise of all the SHG members. Each CDO will send one representative to the Federation to form the Executive Committee with appropriate representation of the STs. The Federation will be a legal body and will frame its bye-laws in consultation with its members. Federation can be registered as a Cooperative or Society depending on the functions and need of federation. Producers’ Organization (PO): Members of SHGs that are engaged in same or similar livelihood activity, agriculture, livestock, handloom, etc. will come together to form a Producers’ Organisation (PO). A PO may be initiated with a minimum of 20 members and there would not be any limit on the maximum

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number of members. The PO will prefer members who have utilized initial loans effectively or have been involved in the activity traditionally or have undergone training programs related to the activity. The formation of the PO should be preceded by an Activity Identification process. All the CDOs and PFTs of the district, together with DPMU, will identify one or few inter-related value chain interventions that will impact a large number of livelihoods to a significant scale in a sustainable manner. In ST areas as mentioned above, the project will besides implementation responsibilities will hand hold and facilitate the processes through engagement of expert organizations. Capacity Building of Community Institutions: The objective of capacity building is to facilitate the establishment of robust community institutions that can access financial and other resources from various sources and to build capacities of the targeted households to optimally utilize such resources. Institutional Development Modules  Norms & Bye-laws of the institution  Conflict resolutions  Negotiations  Team building  Norms for meeting (agenda, quorum, invites, minutes)  Democratic decision making in meetings  Writing decisions  Accounts and records  NABARD guidelines for grading  Identifying opportunities for livelihoods and preparing livelihood proposals  Procedure for appraisal and sanction of livelihood proposal  Procurement norms & procedures  Values regarding use of public funds, transparency, accountability  Motivating individuals for contribution  Working with banks, line departments and other institutions All training programs will be coordinated by the Training Cell of the RRLP following the consortium approach. It is expected that 100 percent community institutions and its members would receive inputs on institutional development. It is also expected that 50-60 percent of all SHG members would receive inputs in one or more livelihood activities. CRPs in tribal areas will support functional literacy and provide training and orientation on the account and book keeping. Institutional Module will build the capacity of the group to function as a savings and credit group and promote cohesion. Social Action committee will be empowered to spearhead other social issues in the communities, specially through the capacity building programme on social empowerment.

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Community Investment Support Principles  

Enhancing the sources and practice of saving to protect households from vulnerabilities Mobilizing the communities and the SHGs to invest in protective mechanisms owned and managed by themselves

Strategy These funds (elaborated elsewhere) will be released to the CDOs and/or the SHGs following achievement of specified eligibility criteria and in single or multiple tranches. Inclusion of the marginalized and disadvantaged social groups is an important requirement. All things similar, the operations of these funds in the tribal areas will be administered and monitored through facilitative and hand holding approaches anchored by the concerned PFTs and the DPMUs under overall supervision and guidance of the SPMU. The SHG Livelihood Plan, Micro-Credit Plan, SHG Fund inclusive of (a) start up Fund and (b) Livelihood Fund will all have an inclusion plan, setting out how the needs of the poorest and the excluded (STs) is being met and prioritized. The follow up fund release will depend on performance and achievements against the inclusion plan.

S. N. 1

2

Name of Fund SHG Start-up Fund

SHG Livelihood Fund – installment 1*

Funds under the RRLP for Community Institutions Objective Process Triggers To help the SHG in stabilizing by enabling it to meet urgent requirements of its members To help SHG members in investing in their livelihoods

    

3

SHG Livelihood Fund – installment 2*

To help SHG members in investing in their livelihoods.

  

4

CDO Utthan Sansthan Fund

5

Producer Organisation Sectoral Fund –

To help Cluster Organisations HRF, Food security, Fodder security, and village entry fund To help Producer Organisation meet establishment expenses and





After two months from the date of registration. Preparation & Submission of micro-plan. Group graded A At least six months after Startup Fund Approval of Livelihood Plan Group graded A At least six months after installment 1 Effective utilization and regular repayment of installment 1 At least six months after the date of formation of CDO

Maximum Limit Rs. 15,000 per SHG

As per demand, based on livelihood plans As per demand, based on livelihood plans Rs. 2.00 lacs per CDO

Within two months of PO Up to Rs. 5,00,000 per formation PO

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Producer Organisation Sectoral Fund – installment 2

for investing in their respective value chains/ business dev. To help Producer Organisations in investing in their respective value chains

PFT Area Federation – Start up

To help in establishing the Federation and to build corpus

installment 1

6

7

  



PO graded A At least four months after installment 1 Business Plan approved by commercial nationalized bank. Within two months of formation of Federation

Up to Rs. 15,00,000 per PO

Rs. 50,000 per Federation

Livelihood Fund Priorities:    

All Livelihood Plans will be screened by the PFTs and audited by the DPMUs to ensure that no subprojects adversely affect the tribal livelihoods and their community interests The funds mentioned above will also help augment community level productive capacities as well as infrastructure The funds mentioned above will also help in up gradation, development and strengthening of indigenous knowledge and skills of the STs through innovations Foster convergence, collaborations and partnerships with various public and private institutions to support tribal livelihoods

Strategy: Tribal communities, especially in the Scheduled Areas of the South Rajasthan have significant dependence on the forest and/or natural resources available in their neighbourhood. The Social assessment findings suggest that these communities are among the poorest in the state despite being so close to various natural resources. Very few of them are land owners and do not have enough support from access and exploitation of the natural resources to even guarantee two square of meals for all family members every day. Most of them are daily wage earners with very high rate of seasonal migration to nearby cities/towns. The project and its collaborators and partners will endeavour to work closely with these tribal communities in the protection, conservation, regeneration and sustainable development of the natural resources and traditional skills including handicraft. The project will adopt regulative and proactive approach to arrest and minimize tribal exploitation mainly through land alienation and deprivations and encourage better functioning of the Village level Forest Committees supported under the JFM by the state Forest Department. The project will facilitate and encourage appraisals on such issues and concerns by the Gram Sabhas and inform concerned authorities for proper action. Equally important strategy would be to ensure and support tribal livelihoods through value chain analysis and asset creation for the producer organizations mainly by prioritizing specific options based on local context and communities’ skills and interests. Bank Linkages and convergence with line departments pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms, if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine. Get yours now!

Strategy In the Scheduled Areas, MADA Pockets, MADA Clusters and Sahariya Development Areas the project will need to have focus and put in enhanced energies to ensure better bank linkages and convergence with various departments including the Tribal Area Development Department, TRI, Department of Rural Development, Forest Department and others. In all such tribal areas, as mentioned above, the project will facilitate, support, coordinate and convene a small committee under the District Magistrate/District Collector with members from the key line departments for oversight, guidance and monitoring. Skill Development and Employment Promotion Under the Tribal Development Framework, the project proposes to ensure adherence to its adoption of inclusion principles and thus will target to train and employ at least 25 % ST youth out of total 17000 youths who will be trained in all project districts. Climate Change Adaptation Principles  

Promote and support augmentation of natural resources in the tribal neighbourhoods Ensure responsible utilization of natural resources, and Promote and support reduced dependence on natural resources

Strategy As mentioned above, it will be critical to screen the SHG Livelihood plans from the perspective of local context and inform them with potential negative impact in terms of climate change and adverse effect on the tribal lives. The PFTs and the DPMU would need to hand hold and facilitate livelihood planning processes with the tribal communities and leverage them through specific value addition(s) in the SHG – Livelihood Plan(s). The other element of this component would be awareness and knowledge building among the tribal communities. This would be two way process – on the one side efforts will be made by the project to inform the tribal communities about the adverse of the climate change and on the other the project would need to understand and learn from the tribal practices on mitigating, negotiating or adapting to the climatic changes that they understand and experience. Under the Pilots or experimental interventions, the project shall explore opportunities of testing hypotheses of climate change adaptation in tribal contexts and locations – could be the drought prone areas including the deserts, forest areas or traditional migration routes and see how certain tribal communities can benefit by synergizing their indigenous knowledge with the current and scientific knowledge on climate change and possible ways for adaptations. V.8

Project Management

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   

Change management principles are owned and have all support and guidance from the State Project Management Unit Ensuring project staff is trained in tribal development and social safeguards issues Front line staff is recruited/selected to ensure engagement with tribal communities Ensuring linkages to tribal development agencies at the state level

Strategy All project functionaries working in the tribal areas and concerned staff at the state, district and block project units would be sensitized, oriented and trained in tribal development to enable them to appreciate the importance of ‘tribal life’ and be appropriately skilled to work with the tribal communities. The Tribal Development Framework will be anchored by a senior staff positioned at the project HQ, SPMU reporting directly to the Project Director. Given the higher percentage and concentration of STs in South Rajasthan, the project will have a Regional Coordinator (Social development Specialist) stationed in Udaipur to supervise, guide, support, facilitate and monitor TDF recommendations and expectations. For rest of the project districts, the SPMU based Social Development Specialist can perform the same functions besides providing oversight to the Regional Coordinator. V.9

Monitoring and Learning

Principles   

Ensuring that tribal issues and project learning are developed and replicated in the project Developing robust methods to track tribal development objectives of the project Specialist support from a partner agency to develop specific components of the TDF including legal entitlements and inputs.

Strategy Thematic studies on tribal development carried out throughout project cycle. Tribal development indicators are being developed and will be included in PME, MIS and evaluation process.

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V.10

Additional Provision as part of the TDF

The critical processes related to the prior arrangements and mechanisms that need to be set in place, for implementation of the TDF, are described below: Project Level: To ensure appropriate implementation of the TDF and its monitoring, the project will need to have a team of professionals supporting and anchoring at SPMU, DPMU, PFT and village levels. Further, specialized training, orientation and sensitization on tribal culture and practices will be required to be provided to all those who will work with the tribal communities in the project areas. On the implementation side, the project will need to develop data and information on STs at village, block, district and state level with focus on certain sectors relevant and important from livelihood perspective. The project would need to acquire information and analyze deeply on factors that have helped or worked against the successful implementation of various government and non-government schemes/programs/projects for the STs. Policy Level: The project will need to explore and work on certain policy issues that will have impact on ‘empowerment’ of the STs in the state. One such issue is devolution of funds, functions and functionaries to the PRIs/PESA to improve the local governance mechanisms. Other important area of policy interventions could be mapping of existing institutions in the state that are helpful in improving the status and conditions of the STs and if not then where are the gaps and then what can be done to fill these gaps. Information: The tribal communities have limited to no information on various programs and schemes that have been launched by the state or federal governments for their development and well being. Information dissemination of project aspects such as project components, basic principles, nonnegotiable, roles and responsibilities of different stakeholders, are critical to elicit interest and participation of the tribal communities. The IEC strategy of the project shall take into account the specifications of the tribal areas and will ensure its relevance and utility to the tribal communities. The project shall make every effort on creating resource person(s) from within the tribal communities to provide information an local insight. Grievance Redressal: A participatory monitoring sub-committee will be formed for complaints handling at Panchayat level and it will be supported and facilitated by the PFT under the supervision and guidance of the DPMU. Apart from this, contact numbers and official addresses will be displayed and made public for lodging complaints and grievance redressal. A HOTLINE number and postal address will also be provided so that community can lodge and know progress being made on redressal of its complaint. The project will also adhere to recommendations of setting up processes under the Section 4 of the Right to Information Act, 2005. Level Project Level

State Level

Arrangement/members Functions State level Steering  Providing necessary guidance Committee with Director, and support to the Project in Tribal Welfare Department tribal areas. and/or MD, THADCO as Members Functional Gender & Social  Coordination with DPUs and Development Coordinator other line depts. Activities Specialist for

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Tribal Development





District Level

Functional Capacity Building & Social Development Coordinator for Tribal Development

 



Cluster Level

Project Facilitation Team



  

 Village Level

Community Mobilisers, Community Resource Persons, para professionals

 

Support DPUs and PFTs in social mobilization and capacity building of tribals and their institutions Support DPUs and PFTs in generating and grounding community sub-projects Coordination with PFTs and s CRPs and other line depts. Staff Support PFTs in social mobilization and capacity building of tribals and their institutions Support PFTs in generating and grounding community subprojects Facilitating communities identify the poor and poorest of the poor through PRA tools. Mobilization of women/men to form into SHGs, Formation of TC and CRP Assist in the preparation of micro-plans and demand driven sub-projects Facilitate implementation of the plans Mobilization and Facilitation. Coordination with other activities. Monitoring and reporting.

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V.11

Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) Framework

The M&E Framework of the TDF is integrated into the overall M&E framework designed for the project. The overall project M&E Framework will ensure (a) input and output monitoring, (b) process monitoring and (c) impact evaluation – ensure effective and efficient implementation of the project components and also the TDF. For the purpose of M&E of the TDF, basic data relating to village wise information on tribal population, infrastructure facilities, land, land utilization, irrigation, artisans, wage labour, migration, cropping pattern, livelihoods, etc would be recorded in the village registers kept with the PFTs. The project interventions planned in the village as part of the Annual Plan and the project interventions actually implemented will also be captured in the MIS. The data collection would be the responsibility of the Cluster and village level project staff under the overall supervision and monitoring by the DPMU. The community would participate and engage itself in process monitoring mainly through Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and Participatory rural appraisals (PRAs) techniques, wherever required in order to know the quality of project implementations and inputs provided under the project. The communities will also monitor the performance of all project functionaries coming in contact with them – regularly as well as occasionally. Monthly reports on the progress of various sub-components of the project being implemented in the tribal areas would be submitted by the DPMU to the SPMU. The project will engage an external agency to conduct semiannual audit of the implementation of the TDF. This will be supervised by the Tribal Inclusion Coordinator based in the South Rajasthan divisional unit. Key issues for Monitoring and Evaluation of the TDF Major Activity

Indicators

Start up activity

Block, Habitation and Village Baseline data Present status Number of tribal situation assessments conducted

IEC Campaign

Development of tribal focused IEC materials Coverage and incidences of IEC campaigns Awareness levels among the tribal households

Institution formation

Number of institutions created by the project (segregated at various levels) Training events – number and coverage within a given time period Number of personnel (staff/Para recruited/contracted by the project

worker/volunteer)

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Mobilization & Representation

Number of tribal SHGs - quarterly Number of tribals in the SHGs – quarterly Number of Federations (ST) – total membership – quarterly Number of STs in Federations- total membership – quarterly Number of ST office bearers in non-ST SHGs Number of ST office bearers in non-ST Federations Number of ST office bearers in non-ST CDOs

CBO fundsCluster CDOs formed and functioning in ST areas – quarterly development fund (health risk fund, food security fund and SHG Livelihood Plan – formed and approved – in tribal areas fodder bank); CDO Fund, PO Special funds created and activated – number in tribal areas Sectoral Fund & PFT Fund PFT Fund created and functional in tribal areas Village Fund Livelihood (LIF)

Village Fund created and functional in tribal areas Investment

Skill development employment

Fund LIF in tribal areas and Number of STs trained in tribal areas Number of Sts trained in non-tribal areas Number of ST youth from tribal areas employed through the project Number of ST youth from non-tribal areas employed through the project

Grievance Redressal

Number of grievances received from the STs in tribal areas Number of grievances from STs in non-tribal areas Number of grievances redressed with satisfaction in tribal areas Number of grievances redressed with satisfaction in non-tribal areas

Monitoring and Learning

Number of thematic studies on tribal issues completed Number of training, workshops, seminars conducted to have dialogue with the STs at given levels

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Policy documents developed and shared with the GoR V.12

Key Monitoring Indicators for TDF implementation

Steps Baseline study

Performance Tracking

Mechanism/ Deliverable Document

Periodicity

Source

Before inception External agency of project

From/To

End use

SPMU

Identification of demand/ mid term and impact assessment (a)Tracking (b) Issue identification (c)Accounting

PFT/DPMU

Institutional Tracking

(a) Performance Six monthly External agency Report (b) Physical and financial report (c) Livelihood plan approval & appraisal report Progress Report Monthly/quarterly/ Coordinator (M&L)/ half yearly/ Specialist CMIS annually Progress Report Start after three CMIS yrs., then annually

Process Monitoring

Process monitoring

SPMU

Peer review

Summary report

Focused studies

Study report

Progress monitoring

Mid Term Report review

Impact Assessment

Impact report

Quarterly in first External Agency two years, then half yearly Annually SHG/UTTHAN SANSTHAN/PFT/PF T level Federation/ DPMU As per need External Agency/ Individuals

After utilization of External 40 percent of baseline funds or agency completion of 3 years. study End year of External project baseline agency

PFT/ DPMU/ Achievement SPMU status PFT/PO/DP MU/ SPMU

SHG SPMU

SPMU

agency/ SPMU survey

agency/ SPMU survey

Corrective measures

Tracking & corrective measures to Project learning & Tracking Project learning & Tracking Project learning Tracking & corrective measures Total output of project

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The M&E system will comprise of the following elements:     V.13

Baseline and Impact Assessment – to be done by an external agency Project MIS system Participatory Monitoring – at village/GP level Thematic studies and learning activities Dissemination Plan

Stages

Activities

Pre-Appraisal Consultation

Community level consultations Block & District level consultation State level consultations

Disclosure before Appraisal

Copy of the TDF to be send to all DCs and ZPs in districts with ST population above 10%. Translated summary posted publicly in all project districts

Project Activities

Collaborations, partnerships with NGOs/CSOs in tribal districts State level coordination, collaboration and convergence with the Tribal Development Department, Forest Department and other line agencies of the GoR & GoI. Collaboration and partnership with other large scale externally (UNICEF, UNDP, DFID, ADB, etc) funded projects

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V.14

Tribal Development Framework – Components Summary

Project Sub Component Component Institution Building & Social Empowerment Establish Project Facilitation Teams

Activity Orientation and training of the project staff- PFT members CRPs and Para workers to identify and address Tribal and Gender issues.

Implementation Arrangements Gender & Social Development Coordinator with Manager- HR , Capacity Development & Training Coordinator at SPMU

Recruitment of women PFT members and Community Mobilization

Monitoring Maintaining and updating Trainings Database Manager-HR and Gender and Social Development Coordinator Maintaining and updating Employee Database and checking the turnover of especially the women employee

Additional Director Manager-HR (Project women as CRP and Coordination) at Para workers SPMU with the Awareness levels among poor groups with focus on support of PFT Tribal and women Area EntryIdentification, Mobilization and PFT Present socio-economic sensitization of the status (group inclusion, stakeholders links to federation etc) PFT- Coordinator with Social & Capacity Building expert , Capacity Building and Social Development Coordinator at District & Gender & Social Development Coordinator at SPMU

DPM and Gender and Social Development Coordinator.

PFT- Coordinator with Social & Development of Capacity Building communication Expert products like IEC for tribal and women

Representation of Tribal and Women groups in federations by formation of SHGs and CDOs

Facilitating and promoting Tribal and Women SHG (Quality groups) Facilitate Community Institution Inception ReportSocio- economic status of women, SC, ST

Gender and Social Development Coordinator with support of Capacity building & Social Development Coordinator

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Publication Relation & IEC Coordinator Village entry I with the support of Habitation and Village Gender & Social baseline data of Tribal Development and women Coordinator at SPMU Identification of beneficiaries Capacity Building PFT and DPMU of Community Institutions Ensure participation of Households from SC PFT and DPMU and ST/ minority community PFT

M&E - Gender & Social Development Coordinator Tribal and Women SHG groups formed and Performance Monitoring of the institution. M&E- Gender & Social Development Coordinator Representation of Tribal and Women groups in federations by formation of SHGs and CDOs. M &E- Gender and Social Development Coordinator

PFT and DPMU Graduation criteria publicly verified in DPMU and PFT General Body meeting of CDO

SHG Livelihood Plan approved and financed by the CDO.

Fund flow to the SHGLP through performance Training monitoring of the Coordinator, DPMU institution M&E- Gender and PFT and Social Development Coordinator Facilitation in Number of preparing SHG- MCP Entrepreneurship/ and SHG-LP for livelihood trainings M&E further linkages Coordinator, Gender and Social Development Coordinator

Assessment of sustainable livelihoods and priorities

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Providing training to tribal and women producers Community Investment Support

1CBO Funds a) SHG

Facilitate & build PFT capacity of SHG to meeting the eligibility criterion PFT, CDO

PFT

Fund flow to the SHGLP through performance monitoring of the institution M&E Coordinator, Gender and Specialist, Social Development Coordinator CoordinatorMicrofinance, M& E and Gender & Social Development

PFT, Capacity Building & Social SHG of Grade A and Development with approved Coordinator Livelihood Plan DPMU, District livelihood & Micro finance Coordinator, Capacity Building & Social Development Facilitate Group Coordinator members to Priorities Capacity Building & give preference to & Social those who are poorest Development among them Coordinator with Livelihood & b) CDO Microfinance coordinator PFT- Social & Build capacity of Capacity building women & Tribals to expert , DPMU, Capacity identify & Mitigate District Building & Social Health, Food Security Development and fodder issues Coordinator c)PFT Area

Gender & Social Development, Training & M&E Coordinator at SPMU Livelihood Coordinator, Gender & Social Development Coordinator Capacity Development & Training, M& E and Gender & Social Development Coordinator- SPMU

Gender & Social Development, Livelihood, M&E Coordinator at SPMU

Gender

&

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Social

Federation

Facilitate women & tribals in developing a policy & system for operationalisng CDO assistance

PFT, Sector Support Organisation, Livelihood Coordinator & DPMU Sector Support Organisations, PFTSocial & Capacity Building, DPMU

Development, Capacity Development & Training, Livelihood and M&E coordinators at SPMU.

Support in developing services and financial products which address Tribal & Women needs.

Social & Capacity Building Expert, Capacity Building & Social Development, Capacity Development & Training Coordinator

Producers Company progress monitoring- P Additional DirectorProject Coordination

Identify & Build Capacity of ST,SC, Minority & Women to become office bearers in federation

Additional DirectorSector Support Project Coordination, Organization, Gender & Social Livelihood, Gender Development Coordinator & Social Development & Training Coordinator at Division & SPMU

2) Partnership Development

Gender & Development Coordinator, Coordinator

DPMU, Divisional Livelihood & Gender & Social Development Coordinator and SSO Identification of market linkages and demand survey for products

3) Sectoral Support Training of Women, SC & ST on best Production Techniques

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Social M&E

Build Capacity of Women, SC and ST to procure and purchase quality raw material Establish market Linkages

Value Chain development for Livelihood activities of SC, ST & Women

4) Innovation support Fund Identify & support innovations which enhance livelihood of SC, ST & Women.

Skill Skill Development Development & Employment promotion

Employment promotion

Identification of youth from SC, ST, Minority & women. Identification of Skill in which Women, SC and ST can easily learn & acquire Provision for Training

PFT- Social & Capacity Building expert, DPMU, SSO, Capacity building & Social Development and Capacity Development & Training Coordinator

Gender & Social development coordinators and capacity development & Training Coordinator at SPMU with Capacity Building & Social Development Coordinator at District

SPMU

Additional Director (Project Coordination) with Gender & social Coordinator- SPMU

Support to Women, ST & SC in securing employment Project Implementatio n Support

Project Management

Governance

Gender & Social Development Coordinator at the SPMU supported by Capacity Building & Social Development and social & Capacity building expert at PFT &

Public Relation & IEC coordinator at Gender & Social SPMU with support Development, Capacity of DPMU & PFT Development & Training Coordinator- SPMU

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Accountability

Monitoring Evaluation

Grievance redressal, Transparency and information dissemination &

PFT- Coordinator with support from Gender & Social & Capacity Development Building expert Coordinator, Coordinator

Reporting on the Implementation status of the Tribal Development Framework & Gender Action Plan through regular MIS

Social M&E

Capacity Building Gender & Social & Social Development Coordinator Development Coordinator and SSO/ agency Gender & social Development Coordinator Capacity Building with Capacity Building & & Social Training coordinator at Development, SPMU Thematic studies on Capacity Gender, Tribal Development & development Training Coordinator Workshops, Seminar & Training events with Government agencies, NGO’s & other Stakeholders.

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VI. Project Communication Strategy Communication plays the role of a pure support function. The communication is seen broadly in the perspective of correspondence, and the traditional “IEC” campaign approach. The concern with this kind of approach is that it did not exploit the potential of communication to become a tool to enhance the program implementation and desired outcomes. VI.1

Designing the communication strategy

Based on the learning’s of Phase-1 of the project, some of the principles used to design this communication strategy are: a. The strategy aims to provide space for communication in both directions between the project team and stakeholders, creating opportunities for information as well as feedback and suggestions. b. The communication strategy has been designed as an evolving one, responding to the needs of different target groups at every stage. The plan laid out here is based on a current forecast of the way things will plan out over the project period. c. The core team responsible for undertaking communication work will be: State level – Communication Coordinator, District level – District Project Manager, at PFT level Coordinator PFT . d. At the CBO level, there will be concerted inputs to enhance their members’ capacities to undertake communication activities in a mode of increasing participation. e. The communication material and methods will be adapted to the local context and will factor in cultural and geographical differences. Objective The objectives of the communication strategy could be briefed as following:  To create channels and means of communication among project’s stakeholders which enhance the efficacy of the project  To use communication as a means for learning and growth among the team members. VI.2

Target groups

The target groups of Project are classified into three types as: a.

Primary target group

b.

Secondary target group

c.

Tertiary target group

The categorization of these groups depends upon the benefit that goes in the project. The secondary and the tertiary stakeholders though have a great role in the project but their involvement will be very indirect. Primary target groups Target groups whose participation is critical for the success of Project and are constantly involved in its implementation have been identified as: 1. Self-help groups 2.

Village Development Committee.

3.

Producer organizations

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4.

Entrepreneurs

5. 6.

Physically challenged men and women The World Bank

7.

Project team at the state, district and cluster levels

8.

State level bureaucrats

Secondary target groups Secondary target groups who have an interest and opinion about project but are not involved on a regular basis in operationalising it have been identified as the following: 1. Block level – Chief Executive Officer (CEO) Janpad Panchayat, Office bearers and members of PRIs. 2. District level – District Collector, Chief Executive Officer (CEO) Zila Panchayat Head of Zilla Parishad and other Panchayati Raj functionaries, line staff of other government departments 3. State level – political representatives, ministers ,Other line departments at the state level Tertiary target groups The target groups that need to be communicated with in order to enhance their understanding of the project and who have a right to know about the progress of the project in a larger framework of right to information, form the tertiary target groups. These groups may or may not want to communicate with the implementers of the project and have to be specially given a platform to elicit their opinion. They include: 1. Media 2. The public at large (especially in the project districts) 3. Members of other state, district and block level agencies who have an interest in poverty reduction through micro-enterprise and livelihoods enhancement – other NGOs, MFIs, banks, cooperatives and their federations, research institutions, etc 4. The project staffs of the other states who are implementing the same type of the project Keeping the different stakeholders into account the communication strategy will be an integral part in the different phase of the project. VI.3

Pre-implementation phase

The period before the implementation of the project is significant in creating an acceptance and clarity about the project among its stakeholders. This is envisaged to create better convergence of the project with related components. The focus of communication in this phase is clarification of project’s mission, vision and goal; strengthen the operational plan for the project, and creating a favourable climate towards the project among stakeholders. The pre-implementation strategy is given in table below. Table- Pre-Implementation Communication Strategy Who?

Why?

How?

State level State level (banks,

agencies  To draw from their  A consultative academic experience and knowledge in workshop is proposed after

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Who?

Why?

How?

institutions, NGOs, poverty reduction and to engage finalization of PIP. research organisations, them in a discussion on the corporate bodies) effectiveness of the proposal of project. Bureaucrats, political  To integrate the different representatives, departments of the government government departments and make them aware about the implementation of Project.

 A brief email is suggested to all department heads just prior to the launch of the project  To obtain sanctions and informing them about the approvals for the pre- implementation plan.  Written communication implementation activities  Political representatives is underway mainly for the of obtaining have wide outreach in their purpose approvals and sanctions for constituencies and getting their purchases, etc from sanction is an effective to create Body and a positive climate about the Governing Executive committee. project  It is proposed to reach out to political representatives with a letter from the team informing them about the mission, vision and plan of the project.

Media

 To reach out to a large number of people with information about the proposed project

World Bank

 To obtain support and  Electronic and verbal, capacity building inputs in one-to-one communication preparation for the is ongoing implementation and to undertake negotiations regarding operational issues

Project team

 To clarify the vision/mission  Meetings and joint of the project workshops regarding different elements of the  To orient the team about the campaign across the different elements of the project different levels of the  To elicit participation in project. designing the project

 A press conference will be organised just prior to the launch of Project in which media persons from English and local media (print and electronic) will be invited and will be told about the mission, vision and objectives of Project and its coverage area.

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Who?

Why?

How?

Category: District level District level agencies  To draw from their (including banks, NGOs experience of working in the and cooperatives) block and to orient them to the proposed project. District Collector

 He is the most important person for coordination of project district team with other departments

CEO Zila Panchayat

 CEO-ZP is also an important link towards social development in the district, including SHG development and convergence with various RD schemes.

Panchayati functionaries

 Consultative workshop in which heads of other line departments will also be present

raj  Through them we can get in touch with a large number of people in Project’s primary target outreach base in the district.

Block level Block level (banks, cooperatives)

agencies  To draw from their  Consultative workshop NGOs, experience and to elicit in the presence of CEO ZP participation from them in the wherever possible implementation of Project.

CEO Janpad Panchyat and Community Development Project Officers Panchayati representatives

VI.4

 They are a key contact point in the block who can help disseminate information to other line departments in the block

raj  They have a wide outreach  Leaflets among Project’s primary communicating the stakeholders at the village level. mission, vision, targets and objectives of Project.

Implementation phase

The focus of communication in the implementation phase is to ensure the smooth functioning of the project and to enhance its effectiveness. Communication will be an integral part of the project components of institutional building and community investment fund. Communication Strategy in Implementation phase Who?

Why?

How?

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Who?

Why?

How?

State level agencies (banks, academic institutions, NGOs, research organisations, corporate bodies)

 Share the progress of  Quarterly the project with them and SPMU. elicit suggestions for course corrections

Bureaucrats, political representatives, government departments

 Approvals and consent from administrative body will continue. It will also be updated about the progress of the project

Newsletters

from

 Written communication for approvals and sanctions from Governing Body and Executive Committee.

 Quarterly newsletters about  To reach out to the progress of project constituencies of political  Brief presentations during representatives with state/district meetings information about the project. Media

 To enhance outreach of  Press release every 6 months. information to the general  Media will be invited to all public about best practices events and workshops. and achievements  Radio and TV spots

World Bank

 Resource support and to  Quarterly progress reports, share progress status good practices reports as and when prepared

Project team (across all  Internal levels) learning and correction

sharing,  Video conferencing, meetings course and email circulation of compiled individual reports. Circulation of quarterly newsletters.

District level District level agencies  Better linkage with  Newsletters (including banks, target groups since they are meetings. NGOs and working in the target areas cooperatives) and to elicit suggestions for course corrections

and

periodic

District Collector and  Clarify concepts, vision  Newsletters CEO-Zilla Panchayat and mission of Project to meetings. time (since staff keeps changing) and to keep them updated about the progress of the report.

and

periodic

Panchayati functionaries

raj  To share progress of  Project take this information to a large stakeholder base.

Meetings and newsletters

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Who?

Why?

How?

Block level Block level agencies  Better linkage with  Meetings and pamphlets (banks, NGOs, target groups since they are containing updated progress. cooperatives) working in the target areas and to elicit suggestions for course corrections CEO Janpad Panchayat

Panchayati representatives

 People in the block  Periodic meetings and have long-term association pamphlets containing updated with community and have a progress. certain trust in their word. By keeping them informed about the progress of project the project can ensure that it reaches out to a large target base.

raj  President of Zilla and Janpad Panchayat Sarpanch and , ward members are a strong link with the community

 Posters/leaflets/newsletters/A/v material

 It is imperative to communicate on a regular basis with the primary stakeholders at the village level to ensure greater participation in and effective implementation and ownership of the project. It is hoped that the primary institutions will be strengthened so that the DPIP village level model can be replicated elsewhere by their initiative.

 Village meetings attended by staff (especially community coordinators)

 One-to-one meetings

interaction

in

Village level SHG members Producer groups Entrepreneurs Physically challenged

VI.5



A/v on livelihood options

 Annual GPLF meet where they can exchange experience as well as showcase products  Trade-based exchange meet of entrepreneurs  Large melas to showcase community produced material  Participation in functions in villages

cultural

Communication means:

Website A website in English and Hindi will be developed and managed by the SPMU. The website will cater to the public at large, especially in the project districts. The web site will be updated regularly by putting the information as major learning, reports and the achievements of the project .The website development and pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms, if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine. Get yours now!

its maintenance is a part of communication strategy but the cost will be included as a part of monitoring and evaluation. The major aspects to be included in the web site are as follows: 

Information about the mission, vision and coverage.



Progress report

 

Success stories and best practices documentation. Information about products made by entrepreneurs.



Space for suggestions and opinion from visitors.



Space for airing grievances.

 Contact information. Newsletter: Documentaries: The documentaries serve twin purpose - First visual documentation and second learning materials. Short duration documentary films on successful initiatives will be produced with a motto to disseminate learning’s and inspire the potential beneficiaries. Photo Bank The visual photographs are the important evidence of the project success and help to maintain transparency. A photo bank will be developed by the project. Each PFT will be provided with the camera to document events of importance on a regular basis.

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Appendix 1 : A brief sketch on important Tribals in Rajasthan

1. The Bhils The state of Dungarpur, Banswara, Chitorgarh and Maewar( Udaipur) formed a compact tract predominantly inhabited by the Bhil tribes. In ancient times, the rugged and hilly area covered by the erstwhile State of Dungarpur and Banswara was known as Vagad and were ruled by the Bhils and to a smaller extent, by Chauhan and Paramara Rajputs. The Bhils formed bulk of the population in the States of Dungarpur, Banswara and Chittorgarh, though the other cultivating classes such as the Patels and Kunbis, Brahmins, Mahajans and Rajput also lived in the area. The Mewar Hill tracts, inhabited by Bhils and Girassis, was taken under the control of the British Political Superintendent (1828) with his headquarters at Kherwara for exercising control over the Bhil population sprawling the Southern Rajputana States. The Mewar Bhil crops were raised in Mewar Hill Tract in 1840, under the command of a British Officer with cantonments at Kherawar and Kotra. They were indifferent cultivators and relied to a large extent on forest products, hunting, and cattle but their practice of resorting to plundering for paying bride price (dapa) as well as their habit of drinking liquor and under its influence indulging in fighting among themselves or between one village and another, earned them notoriety as a criminal tribe during the pre independence period. They lived in unhygienic environment and practiced nonvegetarianism, resorted to black magic for the treatment. They expressed repugnance to the use of vaccination and allopathic medicines.

2. Sahariyas Kishanganj and Shahababad block concentrated on tribal population. The Sahariya are the traditional forest dwellers. The household are basically nuclear family and major occupation is agriculture labour or other labour. Even the collection of minor forest produce has become difficult for them and therefore they were left with no livelihood. Sahariya, the only primitive tribe of the Rajasthan state, resides in the Shahabad and Kishanganj Panchayat Samiti's of Baran district. They are mostly under privileged group. The name Sahariya is said to have derived from the Arabian word 'Sehara' or 'wilderness'. The Muslim rulers found them residing in jungle, gave them their present name 'Sahr' which means 'Jungle' and accordingly they came to be called 'Sahariya' meaning residents of jungle. Even in the absence of genuine historical account it may be stated that the Sahariyas have been one of the earliest settlers in Rajasthan. Rajasthan Government has announced this area as a Sahariya region. Sahariya live in infrastructural weak and remote areas, not well connected through road/bridge network even now. Lack of exposure to modern life and historic exploitation by landlords who paid them fewer wage, has left Sahariya extremely primitive and backward. In the last one decade there has been some interest and efforts towards 'Sahariyas' development. After the emergency period, state government has constituted 'Sahariya Innovative Project' whose office is in Shahabad. There are large number of NGO's working for the upliftment of Sahariyas, prominent among them being, ASSEFA, SANKALP, Adim Jati Sangh, Lok Jumbish and DPIP. Most of them have produced successful results in one area or the other. Sahariyas generally reside in separate basti in the village which is called Saharana. The religious practice by these tribals is Hinduism and they speak a dialect influenced by Hadoti. The Sahariyas maintained ecological equilibrium with their environment for ages, despite low level of technology. Mostly they were gatherers of minor forest. The main business are gathering and selling of forest wood, Gum, Tendu leaf, Honey, fruits and vegetables.

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The male of this tribe are uninterested in economic activities. The entire burden of earning is on the shoulders of women on this tribe. Sahariya’s takes seasonal 'Kandmul' fruits and vegetables found in forests. Vegetables leafs of 'Senjna', 'Phang', 'Bichotiya', 'Kanna', 'Bansi', 'Charetha', 'Churangli', 'Barsak', 'Lahaylai', 'Chaurai', 'Totam', 'Chani', 'Bajar', 'Rajan' etc. are very commonly taken by Sahariyas in their foods. Crushed dry 'ber' with salt is also eaten with interest. They are non-vegetarian also. 'Sawa' is the seeds of the special grass found in the jungle. Sahariyas made delicious foods from the seeds of these grasses. The seeds of the sawa grass are crushed to flour and chapatis are made. The sawa flour is also used to make ‘kheer’, 'Rabri' etc. The sawa seeds flour is a nutritive value which is also used by the urban people in their fast (Upwas). Like fertility, mortality was also higher among tribes in comparison to general population of the state. The table 4 reveals that among the tribes 58 births per 1000 live births do not survive the First month of life, about 37 percent of infants die in between age of one month to 12 months and 95 percent infant die before reaching their first birthday. Child mortality (1.5 years) was calculated to be 155. The major causes of infant and child mortality in tribes were acute Respiratory infections, fever, diarrhea and anemia. It is suggested that for reduction in mortality specially infant mortality, existing infrastructure of health and medical facilities should be improved and RCH Programme should be popularized more among them through modern and traditional methods of motivation and Communication. Unlike in Rajasthan's southern districts of Banswara, Dungarpur and Udaipur where Bheels and other smaller communities of tribals still continue to brew their traditional liquor out of `mahuwa' flowers, Sahariyas, drink the Indian Made Foreign Liquor (IMFL). The Tribal Sub Plan programme, in existence for the past many years in 23 blocks in the districts of Banswara, Dungarpur, Chittorgarh, Sirohi and Udaipur, is not applicable to Sahariya dominated blocks of Shahabad and Kishanganj as the latter constitute only one-third of the population. For TSP status, the Adivasis should constitute a minimum 50 per cent of the area's population. Sahariya tribe has a peculiar custom called “Nautra”. Under this custom they contribute to each other social function some amount of money. And as a return the receiver has to pay more than the contribution made to him. 3. Minas Originally Meenas were a ruling cast, and were ruler of Matsya, i.e., Rajasthan, but their slow downfall began and was completed when the British government declared them a “Criminal Tribe”. This very action was taken to support their alliance with Rajput kingdom then in Rajasthan, and Meenas were still in war with Rajputs, carrying out gurilla mode of war and attacks to retain their lost kingdoms. Members of the Meena community are found in the northern part of Rajasthan. Meenas share the Brij and Matsya Area of Rajasthan i.e.Sawai Madhopur, Dausa, Jaipur, Dholpur and Karauli districts in Jaipur and Bharatpur region (also the Bharatpur and Bayana districts) with other communities. In north western part of MP state too Meenas are found. The Meenas, community of Rajasthan, are an agricultural people occupying one of the most fertile regions of the state. The Meena kings were the early rulers of major parts of Rajasthan including (Jaipur). People form Mina community is associated with farming profession, and most of them are economically good from early period of the settlement.

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Appendix 2: 11The Scheduled Areas (State of Rajasthan) Order, 1981

In exercise of the powers conferred by sub-paragraph (2) of paragraph 6 of the fifth schedule to the Constitution of India, the President hereby rescinds the scheduled Area (Part B State) Order, 1950, in so far as it relates to the areas now comprised in the State of Rajasthan, and in consultation with the Governor of the State, is pleased to make the following order, namely:1. (1) This Order may be called the scheduled Areas (State of Rajasthan) order, 1981. (2) It shall come into force at once. 2. The areas specified below are hereby redefined to be the Scheduled Areas within the State of Rajasthan:(1) (2) (3)

Banswara district. Dungapur district. The following in Udaipur district.

(a) Tehsils of Phalasia, Kherwara, Kotra, sarda, Salumber and Lasadial; (b) The eighty-one villages of Girwa tehsil as mentioned below:(i) Bisarma ,Devali, Baleecha, Sethji Ki Kundal, Rayta, Kodiyat and Peepliya village of Sisarma panchayat, (ii) Bujra, Naya Gurha, Popalti and Naya Khera villages of Bujra Panchayat, (iii) Nai village of Nai Panchayat, (iv) Bodawali, Kaliwas, Karnali, Surana, Borawara Ka Khera, Madri, Bachhar and Keli villages of Dodawali Panchyat, (v) Bari Undri, Chhoti Undri, Peepalwas and Kumariya Kherwa village of Bari Undri Panchyat, (vi) Alsigarh, Pai and Aar villages of Alsigarh Panchyat, (vii) Padoona amarpura and Jawalal village of Padoona Panchyat, (viii) Chandwana village of Chanadwada Panchyat, (ix) Saroo and baran village of Saroo panchyat, (x) Teeri, Borikuva anf Gojiya village of Teeri Panchyat, (xi) Jawar, Rawan Dhawari Talai, Nayakhera, Kanpur and udaiya Khera village of Jawar Panchyat, (xii) Barapal, Torana Talab and Kadiya Khet villages of Barapal Panchyat, (xiii) Kaya and Chandani villages of Kaya Panchyat, (xiv) Teetardi, Phanda, Biliya, Dakankotra, Dholiya ki Pati and Saweena Khera village of Teeradi panchyat, (xv) Kanpur village of Kanpur Panchayat. (xvi) Wali, Boodel, Lalpira, Parawal, Kheri and Jas-pura villages of wali panchyat, (xvii) Chansada, Damaron Ka Guda, Mamadeo, Jhamar Kotra, sathpura Gujaran, sathpura Meenan, Jali Ka Gurha, Kharwa, Manipura and Jodhipuriya Villages of Chansada Panchayt, (xviii) Jagat village of Jagat Panchyat, (xix) Dateesaer, Runeeja, Basu and Rodda villages of Dateesar panchyat, (xx) Lokarwas and Parola villages of Lakarwas Panchyat. 11

th

G.S.R 61 (E)- New Delhi , the 12 February, 1981. Published in the Gazette of India, Extra. Part II, section 3(i) No th 51, dated 12 February, 1981 pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms, if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine. Get yours now!

(xxi) Bhala ka Gurha, Karget, Bhesadha and Bichhri villages of Bhala ka Gurha Panchyat, (xxii) Pratapgarh tehsil in Chittaurgarh district. (xxiii) Abu road Block of Abbu road tahsil in Sirohi district. (xxiv) Any reference in the preceding paragraph to a territorial division by whatever name indicated shall be construed as a reference to the territorial division of that name existing at the commencement of this Order.

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Annex

Stakeholder Consultations The Social Assessment study involved holding interviews, consultations and focus group discussions at the village, block, and district and state levels. The purpose of the consultations was to i) inform about the RRLP; and ii) understand the key priorities, perspectives and concerns of the stakeholders to issues of social exclusion, governments livelihood and rural poverty schemes, functioning of PRI processes. Another objective of these consultations was to understand the perceived impacts and benefits of RRLP, document community willingness and support for the project, and opportunities to enhance people participation in the project and identify options for implementation arrangements.

Village Level – This involved in-depth interviews with the surveyed households, public consultations with the village communities which involved SC, ST, BPL and other households, consultations with the representatives and officials of the GP, focus group discussions involving the BPL households and members of SHGs. Given their significance, Participation of the Panchayati Raj leaders was ensured.

Prior information on the village survey and consultations was disseminated through the GP representatives and community leaders. Special attention was given to consulting with the tribal groups in Chittorgarh, Pratapgarh and Baran districts, where sizable population of tribals reside. Consultations were also held with the Saharia, who are the only identified primitive tribe group (PTG) living in Shahbad and Kishanganj blocks of Baran district.

Informed consent of the participants was ensured by holding the consultations in a public place, emphasizing the participation of the tribal leaders with no restrictions of participation. At the end of the consultation, the participants were encouraged to sign on the record of the meeting. The social assessment team moderated and discussions on behalf of RRLP, and recorded the community views and support for RRLP.

The villagers were first informed about the RRLP in detail. The key issues discussed in the meetings included land, water, employment, participation, education, health services, credit, PDS, state programs, assets, PRIs, forest, inputs, market, training, community institutions, social functions, cultural events, grazing lands, political power, state/ community sponsored livelihood options, compensation by state/community on conflicts, Usefulness of proposed project, role of SHGs in livelihood promotion among others. As part of the consultation process, the participants were also asked suggestions on preferred livelihood options and other activities that could be taken up under the project.

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Block Level - Meetings were also held with block level officials dealing with government schemes on rural livelihoods and poverty alleviation, particularly SJSY, ICDS, IAY, NREGA, TSP, MADA etc. Meetings and consultations were also held with the locally active NGOs. District-level: Consultations were held in two districts namely, Rajsamand and Banswara with district level officials dealing with government schemes on rural livelihoods and poverty alleviation, particularly SGSY, ICDS, IAY, MGNREGA, TSP, MADA, NGOs etc. Suggestions were sought for both structure and implantation of the program. The feedbacks from these workshops are as follows: Rajsamand District  Selection of poor households should be on public forum. The “jajam” methodology should e used in the Gram sabhas.  Horticulture production and processing (especially of custard apple and bair) could be a major livelihood activity.

Banswara District *

There is a need to have a strong checks and balance system for the people/organizations/institutions involved in formation of SHG.

*

The dynamics and process of SHG needs to be looked into sensitively.

State- level: Consultation was held at the state level with officials dealing with government schemes on rural livelihoods and poverty alleviation, particularly SGSY, ICDS, IAY, MGNREGA, TSP, MADA etc. Various NGOs also participated in it. During the workshop the following suggestions come up regarding the structure of RRLP:

*

The interest rates for loans in SHG’s should be lower.

*

To make the groups more viable there is a need to look into the SHG and bank linkage and this needs lot of flexibility.

*

The grading of SHG’s by the banks should not be a hindrance in the functioning of SHG’s.

*

RRLP should work in convergence with all its stakeholders.

*

NGO coordination should be incorporated in the PIP.

*

What will happen to the existing SHG’s?

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*

Attitudinal changes of the community and even at household level need to be built in the program.

*

The poor are not a homogeneous category.

*

Identification criterion of poor should be flexible and open.

*

Activities should be based on available local resources. There were doubts about producer association linkage and value chains.

*

RRLP should work in coordination with the “Sathin/ Pracheta”.

*

Already the exciting ICDS groups are at 3 stages: Formation, Livelihood activity and Marketing. Now if RRLP SHG’s come on scene what will be the dynamic of both old and new groups.

*

Revolving fund need to be released at the starting stage itself.

*

Market linkages should be strong. KEY FINDINGS

Land, Agriculture and Water



In some districts the common lands also are encroached by the powerful groups in the village. Especially in districts of Chittorgarh, Banswara and Karuali, it was mentioned that the CPR’s need to be protected as the fodder for animals is not available.



The basic source of water in western and Southern Rajasthan is the canal for irrigation. The rest of the districts have to solely depend on ground water, which is depleting drastically. In some districts it has gone down up to 500ft. For drinking water there is dependency on hand pumps. Though most of the houses have tanks but due to lack of rain these do not get rejuvenated.



Agriculture and agriculture labor is an important livelihood activity which is suffering because of lack of irrigation facilities. Agriculture in the six covered districts is largely dependent on rain. Even though in districts like Karauli, Rajsamand and Baran where the land is fertile the farmers are unable to make use of the land due to scarcity of water.



The groundwater is depleting in all these districts. At places especially in Karauli it was found the farmers were paying up to Rs.500 per bigha for purchase of water for irrigation purposes.

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The villagers suggested that if there is proper irrigation facility, crop insurance and financial support could help them in increasing agricultural production. In districts like Banswara and Rajsamand the farmers felt that if there is collective farming it would help them in not only maximizing the production but it would also lead to increase in income also.



Main occupation is Agriculture related activities, NREGA, and casual labor. It was mentioned that largely the landholdings are very small.



Apart from NREGA in Chittorgarh and Pratapgarh area, opium cultivation is also done by nearly 5 percent of farmers. Most of the traditional artisans have left their hereditary occupations and shifted to labor activities.



Most of the small and marginal farmers either do not have marketable surplus or are nor able to find proper market at the right time for their surplus produce. Attempt should be to cluster the activity for bunch of villages that result into production of goods, which can be marketed locally. One possible way out is to link them with producers companies by extending their outreach to all these villages. Backward and forward linkages for the poor and marginal farmers for timely supply of agri-input and production buy-back on a reasonable price.



Agriculture produce does not fetch good prices. Most sell at lower prices. Need to improve extension services and familiarize the farmers with new seeds etc.

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Daily problem of collecting drinking water takes both time and energy that needs to be meeting out with central water supply system. It adds to drudgery of women and keeps them away from labor market that can generate income Link road was reported as crucial especially for marketing the agriculture produce and dairy. Transport facilities improvement is required by public transport Set up micro- small industries in rural clusters

Labor and Migration. MGNREGA ahs become important for poor as a livelihood source in the recent times. With labor now shifting to NREGA works agricultural labor is getting scarce and expensive.

Long and frequent stretches of drought have led to poor kharif crops. This also leads to seasonal and permanent migration to neighboring states and towns. Due to scarcity of water and long periods of droughts farmers have shifted to labor work.

Health and Education

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Out of the 24 villages covered only three villages have a PHC. ANM services also are not available on regular basis in all the villages. The distance covered for emergency and other health service is from 5-15 kms., though in Bikaner and Rajsamand 108 ambulance facility is available in the villages. As regards education the villagers especially the tribal are sending their children to school. Mid-day meals are also available in the schools.

Though in Fazlabad of Karauli district and in Mokhampura of Pratapgarh it came out that the children face exclusion at the time of serving of meals and they are even made to sit separately in the class. Not all villages have middle and primary schools. The distance covered to middle and senior secondary schools ranges from 2- 8 kms.

Government Schemes

All the villages covered have BPL households listed but in the consultations it came out very clearly that some groups, communities and households, who actually need to be listed are not covered. The reason for this was basically the village politics. At places, even the ward member could not get himself listed in the BPL in spite of the fact that he comes under that category as per the norms of BPL.

NREGA currently is the most popular schemes in the villages covered. In all the villages it is largely women who are working in NREGA. The maximum average wage earned is coming up to Rs.75.00. Interestingly, men felt that women now leave the household chores and rush for NREGA work. The other schemes are Indira Awas Yojana, Widow Pension, Old Age pension, Handicap Pension, PDS and ICDS etc.

The PRI leaders suggested that very often the government schemes are not able to reach the people due to lack of awareness of the community. The Arnod PRI officials suggested that Pamphlets about each schemes should be distributed. Similarly, other government officials mentioned that Verbal information does not get registered with the rural community. Continuous information system needs to be strengthened. The other reason why this schemes often do not take off is the fact the there is lack of government force i.e. manpower.

The problems cropping up because of NREGA is unavailability of agricultural laborers and is expensive.

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Most groups formed under DPIP are now defunct. Two districts were covered by the survey were DPIP-1 districts. DPIP-1, though not a very popular program is commonly identified as “10 percent contribution wala programme”

In the tribal area TADA budget is not fully spent. In fact, the budget lapses each year. Tribal sub-plans are not implemented properly.

NREGA, Indira Awas Yojana and pensions, ICDS, mid-day meal is the most popular. Though, the stakeholders were of the opinion that “NREGA has also converted youth into lethargic and redundant in the village”. In all the villages more than 70 percent are working for NREGA. Of which large section is of women. Even though Widow pension, old age pension and handicap pension is available to the people but a large section of the community still is left out. In districts like Banswara and Rajsamand it was pointed out that the Indira Awas Yojana is not able to reach to the poorest.

According to the Zila Parishad official in Rajsamand there are 372 SGSY groups out of which 22 are of 1st grade and others are 160 as per bank loan amount. Mostly SGSY groups are of animal husbandry especially goat unit are successful. SGSY group is implemented by District Rural develop Agency.

The officer felt that by limiting the loan approval power of bank manager up to 2 lacks has created difficulty for the loanee groups. Due to low literacy level of the villagers the paper work for applying of loan is extremely difficult for them. The group members are not able to prepare the project proposals for the loans. Very often they have to pay Rs.10000 for this work. Apart from this bank’s branch manager’s power to sanction loan for the groups needs to be increased from Rs.2.00 lakh.

As for the activities to be undertaken in RRLP the natural conditions of the district need to be kept in mind. Rajasmand has a hilly tract and therefore goat and sheep related activities would be ideal for this place.

Social Exclusion

Through discussions it came out that there are still pockets existing where certain caste groups or communities are facing social exclusion. The cases of exclusion are especially found in mixed caste group villages.

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Similarly, in Karauli district in Faizalabad village the Harijans face exclusion. The village is of mixed caste group and the Harijan mohalla is on the periphery of the village. This caste group is not allowed to enter the temple nor are they allowed to take out public procession of the marriage ceremonies. Moreover, the children of this caste are not sent to schools because they have to face discrimination in the school. The teachers make them sit separately and they even are offered mid-day meals separately. The social exclusion is not limited to a particular caste or community group but cases of even one family are also come up in the FGD’s. In village of Rajsamand district Kucholi village Rangaswami household face exclusion. As he is SC’s Brahmin they travel to Gujarat as astrologers. But in the village they are not allowed to enter the caste temples. Similarly, Sahariyas are not allowed to enter the temple in Khalda village of Baran district.

District: Banswara Village: Parnala

Labana’s of village Parnala are powerful groups in the village them politically active in the village. These tribals own massive agriculture land and transport vehicles. Thus, being economically powerful they have a tendency to overrule the other casts and community people. For instant the poor Rajputs are pressure by them. When there is a serve in the village for BPL families these Labana’s do not allow the poor Rajput families to be in listed in the BPL list. This is done in order to keep these families under their control. Due to this reason these Rajput families are unable to take any benefit of the Government schemes.

District: Pratapgarh Village: Mohkampura

20 Muslims families of Mohkampura village are living in externally poor conditions. They are involved in metal work basically related to repairing metal tins and such others items. These households today find it difficult to organize 2 square meals for themselves. It is very difficult for them to survive without proper earning. According to Mr. Dulhey Miya “Our households are not involved in any SHG present in the village. Moreover we are not allowed even approach the gram panchayat of village.”

These families do not have any BPL cards and therefore they are not able to get any government benefits. Mr. Dulha Miya further added that if our community is given some help we could organize our self and manufacture trunks and boxes.

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Self Help Groups

SGSY, which is now implemented through SHGs and other government program groups for e.g. ICDS, NHRM are present in the village. But largely they are either defunct or simply working as savings groups. The AWW workers specially mentioned that group formation should not be on target basis. Proper formation of groups needs lot of time. The reason for not proper functioning of groups is basically related to the financial capacity of the group members, internal politics of the members, most group members cannot handle paper work due to low educational level.

SHG’s are not functioning in all the districts. The SHGs formed under the ICDS, SGSY and DPIP are functioning poorly as per the intended norms and guidelines related to frequency of meeting, weekly contribution, internal lending and bank linkages.

The reasons for SHG’s being defunct are basically internal politics of the groups and inability of members to pay back the loans or monthly contributions. Women mentioned that due to their inability to pay the monthly contribution they have not joined these groups. This came out in Chittorgarh- Praptapgarh, Baran (Sahariya tribe women). The problems faced by women in sustaining SHG’s are as follows:

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Convincing women to become members Maintenance of records Making of Project proposals Too much paper work, because of which projects agents have entered SHG’s.

Since most of the women are illiterate and therefore, it becomes difficult for them to handle numbers etc, some mechanism should be evolved for easy handling of group accounts etc.

But in spite of these drawbacks some of the SHG’s are functioning well in the districts covered. These groups, which are functioning is basically due to the following reasons as mentioned by women themselves:  Homogeneity of the group members  Strong leadership in the form of President and Secretary of the group  Paying capacity of the loanees pdfMachine A pdf writer that produces quality PDF files with ease! Produce quality PDF files in seconds and preserve the integrity of your original documents. Compatible across nearly all Windows platforms, if you can print from a windows application you can use pdfMachine. Get yours now!

 Groups members are known to the ICDS worker or the President and Secretary of the group

District: Pratapgarh Village: Mohkampura

Sangam SHG Group: 10 Members and 50 Rs. monthly contributions. Currently the group is functioning well. The group took 1st loan of Rs. 20,000 and 2nd time it was 1, 20,000. They have already paid 60,000. The remaining amount will be paid soon. The group members do have internal politics, as some members are unable to pay the loan money in time. Therefore the group cannot deposit the loan amount in bank at the due time.

Mrs. Sandhya Vaishnav AWW mentions that due to pressure from the higher authority she had to form groups in a specific period of time. Thus, as a strategy she decided to make group of those women whom she knew.

The Sangam group is of mixed caste - Bairagi, Rajput, and Gairy. The group is functioning since last 5 years and is a totally saving group. The loan taken by the members of this group are basically for domestic use. She mentioned that the village has other 5-6 SHG groups of BPL families. Some of this group will be taking training of soap making etc. But her group is not interested in such activities.

District: Baran Panchayat Samiti: Shabad Village: Hatri

Anganwari: Mrs. Kamla Bai Meena is an Aganwari worker. She formed the Durga group in 2004. This group has 11members. A Radhey group too was formed in 2004 and has 13 members. Mrs. Jagannath Bai Nagar who also is an Anganwari worker formed the Radhey group.

Durga Group: In the Durga group 11 women are registered in this group. Main objective of this group is saving. This group supplies Panjiri meal to the Aganwari. The group maintains hygienic regulation in packing and production of nutritional food. Group is working since 2004 and all loans responsibility is on the President and the Accountant of the group. Interestingly, whoever contributes in the making of Panjiri is given wages.

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Radhey Group: Mrs. Kamla Bai Meena since 2004 runs this group. 13 women are members of this group. This group is heterogeneous in nature. Meena, Ahedi and Dhakad caste women are member of this group. Main objective of this group is saving. Every women member of this group is depositing Rs. 50 per month for the last 75 months. This group is making panjari the nutritional meal for Anganwaris. Their production is supplied to 3 centers and group members are paid their wages for this work. They are getting wheat from their own farms and the other items are purchased from market.

These two groups have annually taken loan from Hadoti Gramin Bank, Jhalawara. It was Rs.24000 in 1st year, Rs.36000 in 2nd year, Rs.70000 in 3rd year, Rs.100000 in 4th year, Rs.140000 in 5th year, Rs100000 and Rs.70000 in 6th year. They are collect repayment money from the group members and deposit in the bank in the month of March each year. Women participation has increased in the financial decisions making within the family. As per their need and capacity only women take loans from the group.

Apart from the ICDS and SGSY groups the DPIP groups were also existent in Baran and Rajsamand district. In Baran and Rajsamand district villages DPIP groups were formed but now they are defunct. Largely loans were taken for purchase of animals, Tent house material, purchase of instrument for music band, kutti machine, sewing machines.

Shiva Group

Shiva group was basically a goat unit of DPIP. This had male members. Now this group is non functional. It had 11 members in it of which one was a Chamar. And the rest 10 were from Sahariya members. Ms. Pappu Lal President of this group informed that 14 goats and 1 doe were purchased. Two Goats according to him were “given in rishvat (bribe to government officials) to pass the loan and the entire loan was later waived.

Problems related to SHGs identified by stakeholders are as follows: 

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Unable to include low caste/ community groups mainly due social discrimination in the society and also the inability of these groups to pay monthly contribution. The main beneficiaries of SHGs are those caste or communities who are powerful in the village society. Low educational level leads to difficulty in handling paper work of the group. Some of the powerful members tend to grasp the entire money for themselves.

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Management capacity is lacking. The marginalized groups/ households are left even though the membership is based on BPL selection. This is because very often the APL families manage to acquire the BPL card and they tend to join the SHGs. The trainings for SHG capacity building are mere formalities. There is no proper marketing facility of the SHG productions. If the SHGs want to take direct loan they do not have any security. Dalits are not able to join the SHGs due to low educational levels.

Mr. Daulat Singh Shakawat of Jai Ma Durga Seva Samiti, Rajsamand mentioned that “Project work is very tuff, so paper work should be less and easy to handle. SHG formation process and banking process should be easy. President and secretary of the group should have more authorities.

The suggestions for improved SHG functioning are:

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At the time of formation of SHGs the entire village meetings should be held. District specific availability of raw material should be kept in mind while selection of activities. Selection of group members and activities should be done sensitively. The president and Secretary of the group should be from the marginalized groups. Activities should not be enforced on the members. RRLP should not be on target mode. Officers/ NGO’s in-charge of making the group should also be responsible to get loan for the group. The financial limit on the SHGs should be removed. Systematic training, follow- ups and capacity building of SHGs should be strongly enforced. For proper functioning of SHGs literacy skills of adult women should be enhanced. Subsidy should be provided. Youth should be included in RRLP activities. Once earning takes off then the follow-up of families needs to be undertaken to see whether the family has been able to get out of fold of continuous poverty. Inter- community relationships must be carefully considered before the formation of the SHGs. It is advisable to form socially homogeneous groups. The same group should also not have members who are close to different centers of influence in the village. Suggestion for the group making by Society for Sustainable Development, Karauli

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1.

Animal husbandry and Co-operative diary’s groups should be encouraged in the district Karauli. Villagers can collect milk at one point. But the major necessity is to have veterinary hospitals at the village level. 2. Goat husbandry groups can be very successful here as 40% Land is on mountain area which provides lot of fodder. 3. NGO should be attach as a partner in Rajasthan Gramin Aajivika Yojna of R.R.L.P 4. Program should be framed for every family not just for one person. 5. The role of agents in SHGs should be negated. 6. Proper training of official handing SHG and also the group members. Intense capacity building is need of the group members.

The major activities identified by the SHG members are:            

Dairy and animal husbandry (all districts) Traditional work: mojari and embroidery (Banswara and Chittorgarh) Pattal Dauna, rope, soap and aggarbatti making Vermi compost production (Karauli and Paratapgarh) Making of organic fertilizer (Baran, Karauli) Vegetable and horticulture (Baran) Bakery (Baran) Bamboo work (Chittorgarh and Banswara) Furniture making (Bikaner and Banswara) Khadi weaving (Bikaner) Bangle making (Karauli) Products to produce with local raw material like Mahau (Chittorgarh)

Credit Facilities

PACS, banks and LAMPS (tribal areas) are available to farmers. These facilities are available at a minimum distance of 5-6 kms. Crop loans, seeds and fertilizers are available from PACS and LAMP. The villagers mentioned that PACS does not provide them with DAP fertilizer.

Loans for social function are still taken from money lenders (Mahajans), relatives or/and neighbors. The main social occasions when loans are taken are weddings and death ceremonies. The tribes have nautra system, which helps them to avoid taking of loans.

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Village Institutions

Gram Sabhas lack broader and informed public participation, and are frequently conducted to complete formalities and documentary requirements In mixed caste villages, the Dalit PRI leaders are marginalized and not able to articulate adequately. Similarly, in cases of women also though they attend the meeting they are not given proper opportunity to speak.

In Fazlabad village the ward Panch is from Harijan caste. He informed that nobody listens to his suggestions and comments in the PRI meetings. Samunder further added, “I myself could not get listed in the BPL list”. The powerful caste groups do not allow us to take advantage.

The caste panchayats in village exists mainly among the tribes. In Soya and Faraday village of Rajsamand district, the Bhils of Siya informed that their Jati Panchayat of Bheel Gamete’s is very strong and all decisions regarding them are taken by the jati panchayat. Similarly in Kachroda village of kaurali district the Meena have a strong caste panchayat. All the mina households have taken a decision of being vegetarian and abstain from alcohol.

The community of Kachroda has taken a decision that no body can cut trees in the forest area of the village. It was through community decision that nobody can enter the forest area with an axe. In case found guilty a penalty of Rs.1100 is to be paid. For firewood the dried twigs fallen on the ground can only be collected.

Other Suggestions and Recommendations

Institutions

Schemes

Support and linkages respect to RRLP

Gram Panchayat/ PRI

NREGS

Sarpanch plays dominant role to decide where the employment guarantee schemes work will start. Institutional infirmity is due to lack of community participation and monitoring.

Welfare scheme e.g. IAY, pension, drinking water Provide information about government schemes

with

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participative mode by raising awareness in the community based institutions formed under RRLP.

Project facilitated village organization like the CDO can ensure improved performance of schemes like IAY.

Peer information system will work effectively about all the govt. schemes School

Education

Once again the CDO dominated by women can monitor the quality and inclusion of girl in the schools and school drop out students. For this the CDOs must be strengthened as social institutions also and not just a financial intermediary

Bank

Financial support for rural development

Project facilitated community based institution can develop and nurture better clientele which is mutually beneficial to Banks and poor people.

Forest

Protection and regeneration

Again CDO can effectively coordinate with the JFMs where ever required

Aganwaadi

Health and nutrition education and socio physical- mental development of children

CDO can monitor it properly and Angawaadis may be invited as an ex-officio of the CDO.

Revenue Staff

Land record etc

CDO and SHG led empowerment will help in better delivery of the services as it shall empower people with the knowledge about

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their rights. Health

Health and maternity services

The project must invest in the communication like developing IEC for health awareness. CDO and federation can increase the access to health services by coordinating with health department.

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