RISK ASSESSMENT STUDY REPORT

2.0-3.0 Non reinforced concrete or cinder block walls shattered. 2.4-12.2 Range for 1-90% eardrum rupture among exposed populations. 2.5 50% destructi...

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Annexure: - 5.1

RISK ASSESSMENT STUDY REPORT For PROPOSED PESTICIDE TECHNICAL PRODUCT MANUFACTURING UNIT Of

FYTOCARE CHEMICALS (P) LIMITED LOCATED AT: S.F. NO. 400, VILLAGE: SEERAPALAYAM, TALUK: COIMBATORE SOUTH, DIST.: COIMBATORE – 641 105, TAMILNADU

PREPARED BY: ANAND CONSULTANTS (ISO 9001: 2008 CERTIFIED) NABET/QCI ACCREDITED 16, EVEREST TOWER, NARANPURA, AHMEDABAD – 13 TEL.: 079-27484871, FAX: 079-27480116, E-MAIL: [email protected]

SEPTEMBER 2013

INDEX

Sr. No. 1

Page No. 2

Description Introduction

2

Objective

2

3

Methodology

2

4

Hazards and Damage Criteria

3

5

Results

10

6

Preventive & Mitigative Measures

17

7

Disaster Management Plan

18

8

References

27

LIST OF TABLES Table No. 1

Page No.

Description Details of hazardous chemicals along with their properties and storage details

11

2

National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) classification

12

3

Consequences analysis for failure scenarios.

14

LIST OF ANNEXURES Annexure No. 1

2 3

Page No.

Description Threat zone for each consequence (all identified hazardous chemicals). Hazards and Response Recommendations with respect to each hazard for all hazardous chemicals as per MSIHC Rules. List of Antidotes for hazardous chemicals.

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1. INTRODUCTION: M/s. Fytocare Chemicals (P) Ltd. proposes to set up Pesticide Technical Product (Bromadiolone) manufacturing unit at S.F. No. 400, “General Industrial Use Zone”, Village: Seerapalayam, Taluk: Coimbatore South, Dist.: Coimbatore, Tamilnadu. In order to assess the risk associated with the proposed unit, M/s. Fytocare Chemicals (P) Ltd. have entrusted M/s. Anand Consultants, Ahmedabad to carry out Risk Assessment Study.

2. OBJECTIVE:  To understand the Maximum Credible Accident Scenarios.  To develop systems for preventing, controlling and containing the frequency and consequences of such major effects of emergencies and based on the same to prepare Disaster Management Plan.

3. METHODOLOGY:  Collection of data/information with respect to facility, process, hazardous chemicals etc.  Collection of meteorological data through Automatic Weather Monitor (AWM).  Identification of hazardous chemicals as per the Manufacture, Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemicals (MSIHC) Amendment Rules 2000.  Screening of hazardous nature of each chemical and confirmation with Fire Diamond.  Tabulation of chemical as well as physical properties and storage details for each hazardous chemical.  Identification of hazard associated with each chemical.  Identification of release type and determine release rates.  Simulation of each identified hazardous chemical for consequence analysis using ALOHA (Areal Locations of Hazardous Atmospheres).

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4. HAZARDS AND DAMAGE CRITERIA WITH RESPECT TO THE PROJECT: 4.1

Major Hazards: A brief description of possible major hazards is discussed as follows:

Jet Fire: A jet fire, also referred to as a flame jet, occurs when a flammable chemical is rapidly released from an opening in a container and immediately catches on fire - much like the flame from a blowtorch. Thermal radiation is the primary hazard associated with a jet fire. Other potential jet fire hazards include smoke, toxic byproducts from the fire, and secondary fires and explosions in the surrounding area. In some cases, heat from the jet fire may weaken the tank and cause it to fail completely in which case, a BLEVE may occur.

BLEVE: BLEVE stands for Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion. BLEVEs typically occur in closed storage tanks that contain a liquefied gas, usually a gas that has been liquefied under pressure. A gas can be liquefied by either cooling (refrigerating) it to a temperature below its boiling point or by storing it at a high pressure. Propane is an example of a chemical that has been involved in many BLEVE accidents. Most propane tanks contain liquid propane. These tanks are neither insulated nor refrigerated, so the tank contents are at ambient temperature. Since the ambient temperature is almost always significantly above propane's boiling point of -43.7 degrees F, the tanks are highly pressurized. A common BLEVE scenario happens when a container of liquefied gas is heated by fire, increasing the pressure within the container until the tank ruptures and fails. When the container fails, the chemical is released in an explosion. If the chemical is above its boiling point when the container fails, some or all of the liquid will flash-boil that is, instantaneously become a gas. If the chemical is flammable, a burning gas cloud called a fireball may occur if a significant amount of the chemical flash-boils. ALOHA assumes that any liquid not consumed in the fireball will form a Pool Fire.

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ALOHA estimates the thermal radiation hazard from a fireball and/or a pool fire. Other potential BLEVE hazards include overpressure, hazardous fragments, smoke, and toxic byproducts from the fire (although ALOHA does not model these hazards).

Flash Fire: When a flammable vapor cloud encounters an ignition source, the cloud can catch fire and burn rapidly in what is called a flash fire. The part of the cloud where the concentration is in the flammable range, between the Lower and Upper Explosive Limits (LEL and UEL), will burn rapidly because that portion of the cloud is already pre-mixed to the right mixture of fuel and air for burning to occur. Following the rapid burning, the part of the cloud where the fuel-air concentration is above the UEL may continue to slowly burn as air mixes with the cloud. Possible hazards associated with a flash fire include thermal radiation, smoke and toxic byproducts from the fire.

Vapor Cloud Explosion: When a flammable chemical is released into the atmosphere, it forms a vapor cloud that will disperse as it travels downwind. If the cloud encounters an ignition source, the parts of the cloud where the concentration is within the flammable range (between the Lower and Upper Explosive Limits) will burn. The speed at which the flame front moves through the cloud determines whether it is a deflagration or a detonation. In some situations, the cloud will burn so fast that it creates an explosive force (blast wave). The severity of a vapor cloud explosion depends on the chemical, the cloud size at the time of ignition, the type of ignition, and the congestion level inside the cloud. Two primary hazards are associated with a vapor cloud explosion: overpressure and hazardous fragments.

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4.2

Damage Criteria:

Thermal Damage: A Level of Concern (LOC) is a threshold level of thermal radiation, usually the level above which a hazard may exist. ALOHA uses three threshold values (measured in kilowatts per square meter) to create the default threat zones: 

Red: 10 kW/(sq. m.) -- potentially lethal within 60 sec;



Orange: 5 kW/(sq. m.) -- second-degree burns within 60 sec; and



Yellow: 2 kW/(sq. m.) -- pain within 60 sec.

The thermal radiation effects that people experience depend upon the length of time they are exposed to a specific thermal radiation level. Longer exposure durations, even at a lower thermal radiation level, can produce serious physiological effects. The threat zones displayed by ALOHA represent thermal radiation levels; the accompanying text indicates the effects on people who are exposed to those thermal radiation levels but are able to seek shelter within one minute. Below are some effects at specific thermal radiation levels and durations (on bare skin): Radiation Intensity (kw/m2) 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 10 12

Time for Severe Pain(s) 115 45 27 18 13 11 7 5 4

Time for 2nd Degree Burns (s) 663 187 92 57 40 30 20 14 11

Source: Federal Emergency Management Agency et al. 1988.

Overpressure: Overpressure, also called a blast wave, refers to the sudden onset of a pressure wave after an explosion. This pressure wave is caused by the energy released in the initial explosion, the bigger the initial explosion, the more damaging the Anand Consultants (NABET/QCI Accredited)

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pressure wave. Pressure waves are nearly instantaneous, traveling at the speed of sound. An Overpressure Level of Concern (LOC) is a threshold level of pressure from a blast wave, usually the pressure above which a hazard may exist. ALOHA uses three threshold values to create the default threat zones: 

Red: 8.0 psi (destruction of buildings);



Orange: 3.5 psi (serious injury likely); and



Yellow: 1.0 psi (shatters glass).

The following table relates overpressure values to the structural and physiological effects produced. Overpressure* (psig) 0.04 0.15 0.4 0.50-1.0 0.7 1 1.0 -2.0

Expected Damage

Loud noise (dB); sonic boom glass failure. Typical pressure for glass failure. Limited minor structural damage. Windows usually shattered. Minor damage to house structure. Partial demolition of houses; made uninhabitable. Corrugated metal panels fail and buckle. Housing wood panels blown in. 1.0-8.0 Range for slight to serious injuries from flying glass and other missiles. 2.0 Partial collapse of walls and roofs of houses. 2.0-3.0 Non reinforced concrete or cinder block walls shattered. 2.4-12.2 Range for 1-90% eardrum rupture among exposed populations. 2.5 50% destruction of home brickwork. 3.0 Steel frame building distorted and pulled away from foundation. 5.0 Wooden utility poles snapped. 5.0-7.0 Nearly complete destruction of houses. 7.0 Loaded train cars overturned. 9.0 Loaded train box cars demolished. 10.0 Probable total building destruction. 14.5-29.0 Range for 1-99% fatalities among exposed populations due to direct blast effects. Note: *These are peak pressures formed in excess of normal atmospheric pressure by blast and shock waves.

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Hazardous Fragments: One of the major hazards associated with any explosion is flying debris (hazardous fragments) propelled by the explosion's pressure wave. Hazardous fragments come from two primary sources: container fragments and debris from the surrounding area. If an explosion is likely to occur, first responders must be aware of the possibility of hazardous fragments and take necessary precautions to shield responders and others from the potentially fatal fragments. Some hazardous fragments may be projected into areas well beyond those affected by the thermal or overpressure explosion hazards.

Toxic Release: For toxic release, there are several hazard classification systems in use. Some chemicals have not been classified in every system. ALOHA determines its default toxic Level of Concern (LOC) values based on the following: a. AEGLs : Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) are Toxic Levels of Concern (LOCs) that is used to predict the area where a toxic gas concentration might be high enough to harm people. The guidelines define three-tiered AEGLs as follows: AEGL-1: The airborne concentration of a substance above which it is predicted that the general population, including susceptible individuals, could experience notable discomfort, irritation, or certain asymptomatic non sensory effects. However, the effects are not disabling and are transient and reversible upon cessation of exposure. AEGL-2: The airborne concentration of a substance above which it is predicted that the general population, including susceptible individuals, could experience irreversible or other serious, long-lasting adverse health effects or an impaired ability to escape. AEGL-3: The airborne concentration of a substance above which it is predicted that the general population, including susceptible individuals, could experience life-threatening health effects or death.

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Each of the three levels of AEGL - AEGL-1, AEGL-2, and AEGL-3 are developed which is applicable for this unit. AEGLS are available for each of five exposure periods: 10 minutes, 30 minutes, 1 hour, 4 hours, and 8 hours. ALOHA only includes AEGL values with an exposure period of 60 minutes. b. ERPGs: The Emergency Response Planning Guidelines (ERPGs) are Toxic Levels of Concern (LOCs) that is used to predict the area where a toxic gas concentration might be high enough to harm people. The ERPGs are threetiered guidelines with one common denominator 1-hour contact duration. Each guideline identifies the substance, its chemical and structural properties, animal toxicology data, human experience, existing exposure guidelines, the rationale behind the selected value, and a list of references. ERPG 1: The maximum airborne concentration below which it is believed that nearly all individuals could be exposed for up to 1 hour without experiencing other than mild transient adverse health effects or perceiving a clearly defined, objectionable odor. ERPG 2: The maximum airborne concentration below which it is believed that nearly all individuals could be exposed for up to 1 hour without experiencing or developing irreversible or other serious health effects or symptoms which could impair an individual's ability to take protective action. ERPG 3: The maximum airborne concentration below which it is believed that nearly all individuals could be exposed for up to 1 hour without experiencing or developing life-threatening health effects. The most important point to remember about the ERPGs is that they do not contain safety factors usually incorporated into exposure guidelines. Rather, they estimate how the general public would react to chemical exposure. Just below the ERPG-1, for example, most people would detect the chemical and may experience temporary mild effects. Just below the ERPG-3, on the other hand, it is estimated that the effects would be severe, although not life-threatening. The ERPG should serve as a planning tool, not a standard to protect the public.

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c. TEELs: There are three TEEL levels that are important for responders to consider:

TEEL-1: Maximum concentration in air below which it is believed nearly all individuals could be exposed without experiencing other than mild transient health effects or perceiving a clearly defined objectionable odor. TEEL-2: Maximum concentration in air below which it is believed nearly all individuals could be exposed without experiencing or developing irreversible or other serious health effects or symptoms that could impair their abilities to take protective action. TEEL-3: Maximum concentration in air below which it is believed nearly all individuals could be exposed without experiencing or developing lifethreatening health effects. d. IDLH: Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health (IDLH) level is a limit originally established for selecting respirators for use in workplaces by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). A chemical's IDLH is an estimate of the maximum concentration in the air to which a healthy worker could be exposed without suffering permanent or escape-impairing health effects. We recommend that appropriate respirator (as per NIOSH) be kept handy/easily available. The IDLH was not designed to be an exposure limit for the general population. It does not take into account the greater sensitivity of some people, such as children and the elderly.

Note: For AEGLs, ERPGs and TEELs, the rank number increase with the hazard level, so that AEGL-3 is more hazardous than AEGL-1. Typically, the “3” values are used for the most hazardous (red) threat zones because they represent the threshold concentration above which health effects may be life threatening.

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5. RESULTS: Hazardous chemicals have been identified using the Schedule-I, Part-II of MSIHC Rules 2000. The chemicals having hazardous nature but not listed in the said notification are screened and confirmed using “Fire Diamond” [National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Diamond] classification. Details of the same are depicted in Table – 1 and Table – 2. Consequence analysis for failure scenarios with respect to each hazardous chemical considered have been tabulated as Table – 3 and threat zone for each consequence analysis is drawn in Annexure – 1. Hazards and response recommendations with respect to each hazard for each hazardous chemical have been described in Annexure -2. Typical failures with respect to storage tanks and storage vessels have been decided as per “World Bank Technical Paper -55, Techniques for Assessing

Industrial Hazards – A Manual” for the presumption of consequence analysis scenarios.

All the scenarios and results depicted in this report are worst case situations. In actual practice, these situations would not arise up to this extent because appropriate pre-emptive precautionary measures and safety related installations would be a part of manufacturing process as well as plant. It may be noted that consequences analysis for each hazardous chemical has been carried out considering the stability class “B” and wind speed collected by Automatic Weather Station (AWS) for that area.

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TABLE – 1 Details of hazardous chemicals along with their properties & storage details Full Name of Hazardous Chemicals

State solid, liquid or gas

Sr. No. as per Schedule 1 PartII of MSIHC Rules

B.P./ M.P. (°C)

F.P. (°C)

LEL – UEL (%)

IDLH (ppm)

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

Acetone

Liquid

4

56.2

-20

2.6 – 12.8

Benzene

Liquid

56

80.1

-11.1

1.2 – 7.8

Isopropyl Alcohol (IPA)

Liquid

334

82.5

11.67

2 – 12.7

Piperidine

Liquid

514

B.P. – 106

16

Specific Gravity (Water=1)

Vapour Density (Air =1)

(8)

(9)

0.79

2.0

0.87

2.8

0.78

2.07

0.86

3.0

Mode of Storage & its capacity

Material of Construction of Storage vessel

Storage parameters

(11)

(12)

MS

NTP

HDPE

NTP

HDPE

NTP

Glass

NTP

(10) 2 nos. x 200 Liter drum (400 Liter) 2 nos. x 200 Liter drum (400 Liter) 5 nos. x 200 Liter drum (1000 Ltr.) 2 nos. x 500 ml bottle (1 Liter)

B.P.

: Boiling Point

M.P.

: Melting Point

F.P.

: Flash Point

LEL

: Lower Explosive Limit

UEL

: Upper Explosive Limit

IDLH

: Immediately Dangerous to Life & Health

MSIHC

: Manufacture Storage & Import of Hazardous Chemicals

NTP

: Normal Temperature Pressure

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TABLE - 2 National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Classification Full Name of Hazardous Chemicals

Sr. No.

NFPA Classification

1

Acetone

Flammability Hazard 1

Health Hazards 3

Reactivity Hazard 0

Special Hazard N. A.

2

Benzene

3

2

0

N. A.

3

Isopropyl Alcohol

1

3

0

N. A.

4

Piperidine

3

3

0

N. A.

Note: Interpreting NFPA 704 Codes Red – Flammability Hazard, 3 2

0

Blue – Health Hazard, Yellow – Reactivity Hazard, Special Hazard – N.A.

N.A.: Not applicable

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Quadrant

Code

Health Hazard

4

Too dangerous to enter - vapor or liquid.

3

Extremely hazardous - use full protection.

2

Hazardous - use breathing apparatus.

1

Slightly hazardous.

0

Like ordinary material.

4

Extremely flammable.

3

Ignites at normal temperatures.

2

Ignites when moderately heated.

1

Must be preheated to burn.

0

Will not burn.

4

May detonate - evacuate area if materials are exposed.

3

Strong shock or heat may detonate - use monitors.

2

Violent chemical change possible.

1

Unstable if heated - use normal precautions.

0

Normally stable.

Flammability Hazard

Reactivity Hazard

Special Hazard

OX

Meaning

W or "No water"

Indicates a material that is unusually reactive with water (such as sodium).

OX or "Oxidizer"

Indicates a material that is an oxidizer (such as ammonium nitrate).

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Risk Assessment Report

TABLE – 3 Consequences analysis for failure scenarios Sr. No.

Full Name of Hazardous Chemicals

Damage distance Scenario considered & Consequences

Red Threat Zone

Orange Threat Zone

Yellow Threat Zone

69 93 353 Direct Source (400 meters meters meters Liter) in 2 nos. of (5700 ppm = (3200 ppm (200 ppm = 200 liter drum – TEEL-3) = TEEL-2) TEEL-1) Non Burning, Evaporating Puddle – Toxic Area of Please refer to Fig. No. 1.1 Vapour Cloud

1

Acetone

Direct Source (400 Liter) in 2 nos. of 200 liter drum – Flammable chemical is burning as it escapes from carboy – Flammable Area of Vapor Cloud

Explosion of Direct Source (400 Liter) in 2 nos. of 200 liter drum – Blast Area of Vapor Cloud Explosion

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59 meters (15,600 ppm = 60% LEL = Flame Pockets)

--

145 meters (2,600 ppm = 10% LEL)

Please refer to Fig. No. 1.2 LOC will never be exceeded (8.0 psi = destruction of building)

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LOC will never be exceeded (3.5 psi = serious injury likely)

LOC will never be exceeded (1.0 psi = shatters glass)

Threat Zone was not drawn because Level of Concern will never be exceeded.

Risk Assessment Report

Sr. No.

Full Name of Hazardous Chemicals

Scenario considered & Consequences Direct Source (400 Liter) in 2 nos. of 200 liter drum – Non Burning, Evaporating Puddle – Toxic Area of Vapour Cloud

2

Benzene

Direct Source (400 Liter) in 2 nos. of 200 liter drum – Flammable chemical is burning as it escapes from drum – Flammable Area of Vapor Cloud

Explosion of Direct Source (400 Liter) in 2 nos. of 200 liter drum – Blast Area of Vapor Cloud Explosion

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Red Threat Zone 152 meters (1000 ppm = ERPG-3)

Damage distance Orange Yellow Threat Threat Zone Zone 367 meters 549 meters (150 ppm (50 ppm = ERPG-2) = ERPG-1)

Please refer to Fig. No. 2.1 79 meters (7,200 ppm = 60% LEL = Flame Pockets)

--

194 meters (1,200 ppm = 10% LEL)

Please refer to Fig. No. 2.2 LOC will never be exceeded (8.0 psi = destruction of building)

LOC will LOC will never never be be exceeded exceeded (1.0 psi = (3.5 psi = shatters glass) serious injury likely)

Threat Zone was not drawn because Level of Concern will never be exceeded.

Risk Assessment Report

Sr. No.

Full Name of Hazardous Chemicals

Damage distance Scenario considered & Consequences Direct Source (1000 Liter) in 5 nos. of 200 liter drum – Non Burning, Evaporating Puddle – Toxic Area of Vapour Cloud

3

Isopropyl Alcohol (IPA)

Direct Source (1000 Liter) in 5 nos. of 200 liter drum – Flammable chemical is burning as it escapes from carboy – Flammable Area of Vapor Cloud

Explosion of Direct Source (1000 Liter) in 5 nos. of 200 liter drum – Blast Area of Vapor Cloud Explosion

4

Piperidine

Red Threat Zone

Orange Threat Zone

Yellow Threat Zone

183 meters (2000 ppm = TEEL-3)

380 meters (400 ppm = TEEL-2)

379 meters (400 ppm = TEEL-1)

Please refer to Fig. No. 3.1 105 meters (12,000 ppm = 60% LEL = Flame Pockets)

--

255 meters (2,000 ppm = 10% LEL)

Please refer to Fig. No. 3.2 LOC will never be exceeded (8.0 psi = destruction of building)

LOC will never be exceeded (3.5 psi = serious injury likely)

LOC will never be exceeded (1.0 psi = shatters glass)

Threat Zone was not drawn because Level of Concern will never be exceeded.

As very less quantity (1 Liter) of Piperidine will be stored at one point of time we assume that no risk assessment is required to be carried out.

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Risk Assessment Report

6. PREVENTIVE & MITIGATIVE MEASURES: 





 

  





Flame proof fittings will be provided to all areas where flammable chemicals are to be used. All spillages contained in dykes will be transferred back to the mother tank/ additional safety tank in a safe manner. Earthing systems will be provided at all places whenever there is a likelihood of a static charge being generated. Appropriate fire extinguishers will be installed and tested periodically. Appropriate personal protective equipments and fire extinguisher will be used in case of an emergency. In case of an emergency, affected area will be cordoned. All hot works will not be permitted or will be stopped in case of an emergency. All workers will be trained on respective Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) so as to enable them to prevent any possible mishaps. All loading/unloading will be carried out under technical guidance as per the Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) generated for the particular raw material/product. On-site Emergency Plan will be prepared, rehearsed and upgraded on a regular basis.

Occupational Health & Safety: 













Pre-employment and periodical medical examinations will be carried out to assess the health status of the workers and medical records for the same will be maintained for each employee in Form-32 & Form-33 of Gujarat Factories Rules (GFR). Register (Form No. -37, GFR) for work place air quality monitoring will be maintained. Register of accidents, major accidents and dangerous occurrences (Form-29) of Gujarat Factories Rules (GFR) will be maintained. “Health and Safety Policy” will be prepared and provided to all employees to declare Occupational Health & Safety (OH & S) commitment as per guidelines of Rule 68-O of GFR. All certificates, Licences, Registers, Examination reports will be obtained and maintained as per Chapter No. X (Supplemental) of GFR. Contract for the construction work will be given to contractor who will be registered under the Building and Other Construction Workers (Regulation of Employment and Conditions of Services) Act, 1996 and the Gujarat Rules 2003. List of antidotes for toxic chemicals is attached as Annexure – 3.

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7. DISASTER MANAGEMENT PLAN 1. Introduction An emergency is said to have arisen when operations in the plant are not able to cope up with a potential hazardous situation i.e. loss of control of an incident cause the plant cause the plant to go beyond its normal operating conditions, thus creating danger. When such an emergency evolves chain of events affect the normal working within the factory area and/or which may cause injuries, loss of life, substantial damage to property and environment both inside & outside the factory and a disaster is said to have occurred. The steps involves in the process of Disaster Management can be summarized as:  Minimize Risk Occurrence (Prevention)  Rapid Control (Emergency Response)  Effectively Rehabilitate Damaged Areas (Restoration) Disaster Management Plan is involved by careful scrutiny and interlinking of:  Types & causes of disaster  Technical know-how  Resource availability 2. Objective of Plan The disaster management plan is developed to make best possible of M/s. Sahajanand Chemical Industries to:  Rescue the victims and treat them suitable.  Safe guard others (evacuating them to safer places)  Contain the incident and control it with minimum damage  Identify the persons affected  Preserve relevant records and equipment needed as evidence in case of on inquiry  Rehabilitate the affected areas

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3. General Disaster Management Plan Based on the Risk Assessment study carried out, M/s. Sahajanand Chemical Industries will prepare Disaster Management Plan. Nevertheless, General Disaster Management Plan is explained as below: The various aspects that will be taken care during preparation of Disaster Management Plan are: 

Informative brochure, on emergency, will be distributed to each staff member of the plant and telephone number of key personnel to be contacted during an emergency will be placed at all the operator placement points in the plant.



All Plant Control Rooms, Electrical Sub-station, Maintenance Department, Instrument, Civil, and all emergency services will be connected with internal telephones network which will act as easy and immediate means of communication.



The industry will install a fire alarm and fire extinguishers.



For blocking flame propagation back in the gas flame traps will be provided.



Workers would be trained regularly on fire hazard drill, which will be organized every month by the safety officer.



24 hours vehicle service and in-plant First Aid Emergency Kit would be provided.



Once the plant is commissioned, the Collector, the Police Control Room, Civil Defense authorities and Local authorities would be informed and kept coordinate.



Coded colors for pipe line, vessels etc. will be used as per ISI.

4. Availability, Organization & Utilization of Resources & Facilities for Emergencies In order to maintain an emergency response capability, certain facilities must be kept in a state of readiness, and sufficient supplies and equipment must be available. In some cases, it may be impossible to maintain all of the equipment necessary for all possible emergencies. In these cases, agreements have to be made with neighboring facilities to provide additional support as and when necessary. Anand Consultants (NABET/QCI Accredited)

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Where the local police or private agencies may be called upon, such as volunteer fire companies and ambulance associations, agreements have to be developed ahead of time. Emergency hardware can be classified according to its use during the response operations. Typical examples are:            

Emergency operation centers Communication equipment Alarm system Personal protection equipment Fire fighting facilities, equipment and supplies Spill and vapor release control equipment and supplies Medical facilities, equipment and supplies Monitoring systems Meteorological equipment A media center Transportation systems Security and access control equipment

Some of these resources will also be available in the local municipalities, local fire departments, and at neighboring facilities.

It is the responsibility of the plant

management to ensure that the appropriate equipments and materials are available to respond to their very hazard-specific emergencies at the facility, independently from external resources. These resources can be extremely valuable, but should be used mainly in support of the main response actions that the facility personnel will have to implement in case of a serious emergency. A mutual aid from neighboring industries is also a resource that could be tapped in case of an emergency. However, even in this case, facility officials will first have to assess the emergency and provide information for their own records ahead of time. Emergency hardware can be classified according to its use during the response operations. In any case, the availability of resources within the community must be determined beforehand, so that these resources can be mobilized, if the time comes to do so.

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5. Commands, Co-Ordination & Response Organization Structure One of the most important objectives of emergency plan is to create a response organization structure capable of being developed in the shortest time possible during an emergency. Command and control of emergency condition encompasses the key management functions necessary to ensure the health and safety of employees, as well as the public, living in the vicinity. These primary functions are summarized as follows:          

Detection of the emergency condition Assessment of the condition Classification of the emergency Mitigation of the emergency conditions Notification to management personnel Notification to local, state, and government agencies Activation and response of the necessary on-site and off-site support personnel Continuous assessment and reclassifications, as necessary Initiation of protective actions Recovery and re-entry

Effective command and control to accomplish these functions necessitates personnel trained in this Emergency Response Plan with adequate facilities and equipments to carry out their duties and functions. These organizations and the facilities required to support their response are summarized in the following subsections. Main Controller - Works Manager / Chief Manager He will assume the role of Main Controller and be overall in-charge of the situation. His task will be to co-ordinate all internal and external activities from the emergency operation centre, from where all operations will be directed. He will:  Relieve the Incident Controller from responsibility of the Main Controller.  Co-ordinate to avail services from external agencies like police, fire brigade, hospitals, etc., if called for, following the declaration of a major emergency. If necessary, major installations in the vicinity like factories and nearby facilities control rooms etc. may also be informed of the situation.  Exercise direct operational control of the unaffected section of the facility.

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 In consultation with the Incident Controller, expedite the shutting down of operations at the affected installation, and if necessary instruct to remove the road tankers (if any) or to take any other appropriate action advised by the facility supervisor.  Ensure that all the employees are evacuated from the affected area and the casualties, if any, are given necessary medical attention. Instruct security and transport department for rushing casualties to hospitals, if required.  Liaise with fire and police officials, Pollution Control Boards and others statutory bodies and advise them of all possible consequent effects outside the facility premises.  Arrange for obtaining the count of all the personnel within the factory.  Liaise with factory supervisor to regulate vehicular movement within the factory premises.  Instruct the security staff to remove the unaffected tanks-lorries, cars and park them in a safe area.  Arrange for relief of personnel when emergency is prolonged.  Issue authorized statement or press release to the news media.  Ensure preservation of evidence for enquiries to be conducted by statutory authorities.  Authorize the sounding of the “all clear” siren, which will be one continuous long siren for one minute. Incident Controller – Manager / Shift – In - Charge He will assume the role of Incident Controller and take charge of the situation. Keep the main Controller informed of the situation from time to time. He will:  Proceed to the scene of emergency and assess the situation.  Direct all operations within the affected areas with the following priorities: 

Safety of personnel.



Minimize damage to property and loss of material.



Co-ordinate with the Security In-charge of the factory, Fire Controller and local fire fighting service in case of fire emergency.

 Arrange for rescue of trapped workers and those in a state of shock.  Advise Medical Officer to send medical staff to provide first aid and instruct the transport department to rush causalities to hospital.

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 Get all non-essential persons safely evacuated after stopping all the engineering/hot jobs.  Set up a communication system with the emergency operation center / main control center through walkie-talkie, telephone and/or messenger system.  Pending arrival of the Main Controller, direct the shutting down and evacuation of the factory. In extreme emergency instruct the factory supervisor for moving of the road tanker from the factory. Call outside emergency service, if necessary. Allot jobs to the emergency squad.  Report all developments to the Main Controller.  Nominate a person / operator to maintain the chronological log of event during the entire period of emergency.  Preserve all evidence for use in the subsequent inquiry. Head of Administration Department/ Administrative Officer He will:  Proceed immediately to the emergency operation center.  Also work as a liaison officer during emergency.  Under the direction of the Main Controller, handle police, press and other inquiries, receive reports of roll call from emergency assembly areas and pass on the absenteeism information to the Incident Controller. Ensure the system for logging in the roll call for persons in the premises.  Ensure that causalities receive adequate and immediate attention. Inform the relatives of causalities, if necessary.  Control Traffic into the factory and ensure that alternate transport is available when need arises and ensure free access is available for temporary causalities.  Check the availability of emergency equipments in the emergency operation center and make up for shortages.  Arrange the cash required for handling critical situations during the emergency. Safety Officer He will:  Co-ordinate with the Incident Controller and assume overall responsibility of the fire fighting operation.  Advise the Main Controller if additional fire tanker/fire fighting equipments /materials / aid from other agencies is required.

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 Rush to the emergency operation center. Report to the Incident Controller and advice suitably on mitigation measures, keeping in mind the type of emergency and the chemical involved.  Assist First-aiders.  Liaise with the utilities and arrange for external Water supply.  Liaise with all external agencies, which could render assistance for fire fighting.  Keep all vehicles and drivers in readiness and maintain continuous contact with the Main Controller / Medical Officer / Security In- charge and dispatch the vehicles as per their needs.  Keep a minimum of two cars, as standby, at the factory for the emergency use. Do not use the cars for any purpose other than trips in the factory and for transporting critically injured to hospital. Engineering / Technical Personnel The main responsibility of this team is to provide technical support during the emergency. They will:  Prepare elaborated plans for providing a continuity of emergency supplies and services such as fire, water, electric power, emergency lighting, and other required utilities.  Suggest optional strategies for conducting emergency isolation operations of damaged process equipments, the emergency transfer of materials to safe vessels, and all other process-related emergency operations.  Assess damages and provide technical assistance to determine the operability of damaged units.  Carry out or assist the accident investigation.  Act as the main technical advisory team during the emergency. Office Personnel They will:  Remain at work place until instructed otherwise by Incident controller and take steps to safeguard important documents, if the area is likely to be affected. Evacuate the work place as instructed by the Incident Controller along the preidentified emergency exit and escape route.

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Emergency Squad Member of the emergency squad drawn up from security department and various departments of the factory will respond to the alarm and report to the Incident Controller. They will:  Carry out fire fighting and assist firemen in fire fighting and salvaging operations after the arrival of fire brigade.  Rescue the persons from the affected area and provide first aid to the injured due to fire or inhalation of toxic gas.  Assist for rushing casualties to hospitals and report details of causalities to Main Controller.  Act as runners and messengers.  Evacuate non-essential personnel and visitors.  Maintain records of evacuated personnel.  Any other job assigned by the Incident Controller. Personnel of the Affected Area They will:  Do as directed by the Main/Incident Controller.  Continue to handle the emergency as per the laid down practice and codes and as guided by the Incident Controller.  Stop all hot work.  Remove unwanted persons from the affected area to the “Safe Assembly Area”  Stop all non-essential operations. Personnel of Non-Affected Areas They will:  Promptly relieve the Emergency Squad personnel and direct them to rush to the scene of incident.  Those employees who may be in the canteen or toilet or any other place, on hearing the alarm will:  Immediately rush back to their work area.  Act as per the instructions of the Incident Controller.  All the employees shall confine themselves at the place of work and wait for further instructions. Anand Consultants (NABET/QCI Accredited)

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 Take adequate steps to safeguard important documents in case their areas likely to be affected.  Contractor employees shall stop their work and report at the assembly areas. Environmental Chemist He will:  Be responsible for minimizing the impact of an accident on the environment. In this regard, he could develop methodologies to control hazardous spills and co-operate with emergency response squads to conduct the actual clean-up work during and after the emergency. In case of fire, his function will be responsible for containing the runoff of firewater from the damaged unit.  Be responsible for determining the level of contamination of the site as a result of an accident. Therefore, he will be in-charge of developing the analytical techniques as well as obtaining the appropriate instruments, supplies and equipments for this purpose.  Advise the Main Controller and his staff on whether the law requires reporting the spill to the appropriate local or governmental agencies, and also suggest possible counter measure to reduce the impact of the accident on the environment. 6. Post Disaster Analyses and Evaluation When an emergency is over, it is desirable to carry out a detailed analysis of the causes of accidents to evaluate the influence of various factors involved and to propose methods to eliminate or minimize them in future. Simultaneously, the adequacy of the disaster preparedness plan can be evaluated and any shortcomings can be rectified.

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8. REFERENCES: 

ALOHA (Areal Locations of Hazardous Atmosphere) developed by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.



World Bank Technical Paper – 55, “Techniques for Assessing Industrial Hazards” – A Manual.



“Manual of EHS Management” by Dr. Ram S. Hamsagar.



Manufacture,

Storage

and

Import

of

Hazardous

Chemicals

(MSIHC)

Amendment Rules- 2000.

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Annexure-1 Threat Zone for Consequence Analysis

ACETONE Scenario: 1 - Direct Source (400 Liter) in 2 nos. of 200 liter drum – Non Burning, Evaporating Puddle – Toxic Area of Vapour Cloud

FIGURE 1.1

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Scenario: 2 - Direct Source (400 Liter) in 2 nos. of 200 liter drum - Flammable chemical is burning as it escapes from carboy - Flammable Area of Vapor Cloud

FIGURE 1.2

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BENZENE Scenario: 1 - Direct Source (400 Liter) in 2 nos. of 200 liter drum – Non Burning, Evaporating Puddle – Toxic Area of Vapour Cloud

FIGURE 2.1

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Scenario: 2 - Direct Source (400 Liter) in 2 nos. of 200 liter drum – Flammable chemical is burning as it escapes from drum – Flammable Area of Vapor Cloud

FIGURE 2.2

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ISOPROPYL ALCOHOL Scenario: 1 - Direct Source (1000 Liter) in 5 nos. of 200 liter drum barrel – Non Burning, Evaporating Puddle – Toxic Area of Vapour Cloud

FIGURE 3.1

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Scenario: 2 - Direct Source (1000 Liter) in 5 nos. of 200 liter drum – Non Burning, Evaporating Puddle – Toxic Area of Vapour Cloud

FIGURE 3.2

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ANNEXURE - 2 Hazardous and Response Recommendations ACETONE General Description: 

Acetone is a colorless liquid having a fruity, mint-like odor at room temperature.



Easily soluble in cold water and hot water.



A hazard to the environment.



Immediate steps should be taken to limit spread to the environment.

NFPA Diamond: Red 3 - Flammability: Flammable 3 0

1 -

Blue 1 - Health Hazard: Hazardous - use full protection Yellow 0 - Reactivity: Stable

Reactivity Alerts: 

Reactive with oxidizing agents, reducing agents, acids, alkalis.



Keep away from excess heat, ignition sources, exposure to moisture, air, or water, incompatible materials.

Fire Hazard: 

Highly flammable in presence of open flames and sparks, of heat.



Flammable liquid, soluble or dispersed in water.



Vapor may travel considerable distance to source of ignition and flash back.



Explosion hazard: Slightly explosive in presence of open flames and sparks, of oxidizing materials, of acids.



Forms explosive mixtures with hydrogen peroxide, acetic acid, nitric acid, nitric acid + sulfuric acid, chromic anydride, chromyl chloride, nitrosyl chloride, hexachloromelamine, nitrosyl perchlorate, nitryl perchlorate, permonosulfuric acid, thiodiglycol + hydrogen peroxide, potassium ter-butoxide, sulfur dichloride, 1-methyl-1,3-butadiene, bromoform, carbon, air, chloroform, thitriazylperchlorate.



Main products of combustion are carbon oxides (CO, CO2).

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Health Hazard: 

Exposure Routes: inhalation, ingestion, skin and/or eye contact. Hazardous in case of skin contact (irritant), of eye contact (irritant), of ingestion, of inhalation.



The substance is toxic to central nervous system (CNS).



The substance may be toxic to kidneys, the reproductive system, liver, skin. Repeated or prolonged exposure to the substance can produce target organs damage.

Firefighting: 

Dilute with water and mop up, or absorb with an inert dry material and place in an appropriate waste disposal container.



Keep unnecessary people away; stay upwind; keep out of low areas.



Do not breathe gas/fumes/ vapor/spray.



Wear self-contained breathing apparatus; wear goggles if eye protection not provided.



Use water spray curtain to divert vapor drift.



Small fires: Use dry chemical powder. Large fires: Use alcohol foam, water spray or fog.



Do not get water inside container.

Protective Clothing: Skin

: No recommendation is made specifying the need for personal protective equipment for the body.

Eyes

: Wear appropriate eye protection to prevent eye contact. Splash goggles.

Wash skin

: No recommendation is made specifying the need for washing the substance from the skin (either immediately or at the end of the work shift).

Remove

: No recommendation is made specifying the need for removing clothing that becomes wet or contaminated.

Change

: No recommendation is made specifying the need for the worker to change clothing after the work shift. (NIOSH, 2003)

First Aid: Eye: 

If this chemical contacts the eyes, immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, keeping eyelids open.

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Get medical attention immediately.



Cold water may be used.



Contact lenses should not be worn when working with this chemical.

Skin: 

If this chemical contacts the skin, immediately flush skin with plenty of water, while removing contaminated clothing and shoes.



Cover the irritated skin with an emollient. Cold water may be used.



Get medical attention immediately.



Wash clothing and thoroughly clean shoes before use.



Get Medical Attention.

Serious Skin Contact: 

Wash with a disinfectant soap and cover the contaminated skin with an antibacterial cream. Seek medical attention.

Breathing: 

If a person breathes large amounts of this chemical, move the exposed person to fresh air at once.



If breathing has stopped, perform mouth-to-mouth resuscitation.



If breathing is difficult, give oxygen.



Keep the affected person warm and at rest.



Get medical attention if symptoms appear.

Ingestion: 

Do not induce vomiting unless directed to do so by medical personnel.



Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person.



Loosen tight clothing such as a collar, tie, belt or waistband.



If large quantities of this material are swallowed, call a physician immediately.

Physical Properties: 

Molecular Formula: C3H6O



Boiling Point: 56.2° C



Flash Point: -20° C



Lower Explosive Limit: 2.6 %



Upper Explosive Limit: 12.8 %



Auto ignition Temperature: 465° C



Melting Point: -95.35° C



Vapor Pressure: 24 kPa

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Vapor Density: 2



Specific Gravity: 0.79



Molecular Weight: 58.08 g/mol



Water Solubility: Easily soluble in cold water, hot water.



TEEL-1: 200 ppm



TEEL-2: 3200 ppm



TEEL-3: 5700 ppm

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BENZENE General Description: 

Colorless and highly volatile and flammable liquid with a sweet smell.



It has the potential to cause mass casualties.



Natural constituent of crude oil and one of the most elementary petrochemical.



It is an aromatic hydrocarbon.



As a vapor, benzene is heavier than air and may accumulate in low-lying areas.



Used as a precursor to heavy chemicals, such as ethylbenzene .



Important component of Gasoline.



A hazard to the environment.



Immediate steps should be taken to limit spread to the environment.

NFPA Diamond: Red 3 - Flammability: Extremely flammable 3 0

2 -

Blue 2 - Health Hazard: Extremely hazardous - use full protection Yellow 0 - Reactivity: normally stable

Reactivity Alerts: 

Highly reactive with oxidizing agents, acids.



Benzene vapors + chlorine and light causes explosion.



Reacts explosively with bromine pentafluoride, chlorine, chlorine trifluoride, diborane, nitric acid, nitryl perchlorate, liquid oxygen, ozone, silver perchlorate.



Benzene + pentafluoride and methoxide (from arsenic pentafluoride and potassium methoxide) in trichlorotrifluoroethane causes explosion.



Uncontrolled contact with benzene may cause explosion.

Fire Hazard: 

Extremely flammable liquid and vapor.



Vapor may cause flash fire.



Highly flammable in presence of open flames and sparks, of heat.



Slightly flammable in presence of oxidizing materials.



Reacts on contact with iodine heptafluoride gas.



Contact with sodium peroxide with benzene causes ignition.



Benzene ignites in contact with powdered chromic anhydride.



Main products of decomposition are carbon oxides (CO, CO2).

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Explosion hazard: Explosive in presence of oxidizing materials, of acids.

Health Hazard: 

Exposure Routes: inhalation, ingestion, skin and/or eye contact.



Acute :  Eye contact – Causes eye irritation. Inflammation of the eye is characterized by redness, watering, and itching.  Skin contact – Causes skin irritation. It can be absorbed through intact skin and affect the liver, blood, metabolism and urinary system.  Inhalation – Causes respiratory tract and mucous membrane irritation. Can be absorbed through the lungs. May affect behavior/Central and Peripheral nervous systems, gastrointestinal tract (nausea), blood metabolism, urinary system.  Ingestion - May cause gastrointestinal tract irritation including vomiting. May affect behavior/Central and Peripheral nervous systems (convulsions, seizures, tremor, irritability, initial CNS stimulation followed by depression, loss of coordination, dizziness, headache, weakness, pallor, flushing), respiration (breathlessness and chest constriction), cardiovascular system, (shallow/rapid pulse), and blood.



Chronic :  May cause adverse reproductive effects (female fertility, Embryotoxic and/or foetotoxic in animal) and birth defects.  May affect genetic material (mutagenic).  May cause cancer (tumorigenic, leukemia).

Firefighting: 

Flammable liquid. Keep away from heat. Keep away from sources of ignition.



Flammable liquid, soluble or dispersed in water.



Keep unnecessary people away; stay upwind; keep out of low areas. Isolate for 1/2 mile in all directions if tank car or truck is involved in fire.



Wear self-contained breathing apparatus; wear goggles if eye protection not provided.



Use water spray curtain to divert vapor drift.



Small fire: Use dry chemical powder. Large fire: Use alcohol foam, water spray or fog.

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Protective Clothing: Skin Eyes Wash skin Remove Change

: No recommendation is made specifying the need for personal protective equipment for the body. : Wear appropriate eye protection to prevent eye contact. : No recommendation is made specifying the need for washing the substance from the skin (either immediately or at the end of the work shift). : No recommendation is made specifying the need for removing clothing that becomes wet or contaminated. : No recommendation is made specifying the need for the worker to change clothing after the work shift. (NIOSH, 2003)

First Aid: Eye: 

If this chemical contacts the eyes, immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes. Cold water may be used. WARM water MUST be used.



Get medical attention immediately.



Contact lenses should not be worn when working with this chemical.

Skin: 

If this chemical contacts the skin, immediately flush skin with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes.



Cover the irritated skin with an emollient.



Get medical attention immediately.



Wash clothing and thoroughly clean shoes before use.

Serious Skin Contact: 

Wash with a disinfectant soap and cover the contaminated skin with an antibacterial cream. Seek immediate medical attention.

Breathing: 

If a person breathes large amounts of this chemical, move the exposed person to fresh air at once.



If breathing has stopped, perform mouth-to-mouth resuscitation.



If breathing is difficult, give oxygen.



Keep the affected person warm and at rest.



Get medical attention as soon as possible if symptoms appear.

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Ingestion: 

Do not induce vomiting unless directed to do so by medical personnel.



Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person.



If large quantities of this material are swallowed, call a physician immediately.

Physical Properties: 

Molecular Formula: C6H6



Boiling Point: 80.1° C



Flash Point: -11.1° C



Lower Explosive Limit: 1.2 %



Upper Explosive Limit: 7.8 %



Auto ignition Temperature: 497.78° C



Melting Point: 5.5° C



Vapor Pressure: 10 kPa



Vapor Density: 2.8 (Air=1)



Specific Gravity: 0.8787



Molecular Weight: 78.11 g/mol



Water Solubility: 1.79 g/L (15°C)



ERPG-1: 50 ppm



ERPG-2: 150 ppm



ERPG-3: 1000 ppm



IDLH: 500 ppm

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ISOPROPYL ALCOHOL General Description: 

Clear colorless liquid having alcohol like smell



A hazard to the environment.



Immediate steps should be taken to limit spread to the environment.

NFPA Diamond: Red 3 - Flammability: Extremely flammable 3 0

1

Blue 1 - Health Hazard: hazardous - use full protection

-

Yellow 0 - Reactivity: normally stable

Reactivity Alerts: 

Reactive with oxidizing agents, acids, alkalis.



Reacts violently with hydrogen + palladium combination, nitroform, oleum, COCl2, aluminum triisopropoxide, oxidants.



Incompatible with acetaldehyde, chlorine, ethylene oxide, isocyanates, acids, alkaline earth, alkali metals, caustics, amines, crotonaldehyde, phosgene, ammonia.



Reacts with metallic aluminum at high temperatures.



Attacks some plastics, rubber and coatings.



Vigorous reaction with sodium dichromate + sulfuric acid.

Fire Hazard: 

Flammable liquid.



Highly flammable in presence of open flames and sparks, of heat.



Flammable in presence of oxidizing materials.



Non-flammable in presence of shocks.



Vapor may travel considerable distance to source of ignition and flash back.



Caution: may burn with near invisible flame.



When heated to decomposition it emits acrid smoke and fumes.



Main products of decomposition are carbon oxides (CO, CO2).



Explosion hazard: Slightly explosive in presence of open flames and sparks, of heat. Explosive in the form of vapor when exposed to heat or flame. It reacts with oxygen to form dangerously unstable peroxides which can concentrate and explode during distillation or evaporation.

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Health Hazard: 

Exposure Routes: inhalation, ingestion, skin and/or eye contact.



Acute :  Eye contact – Causes eye irritation.  Skin contact – Causes mild skin irritation, and sensitization.  Inhalation – Breathing in small amounts of this material during normal handling is not likely to cause harmful effects. However, breathing large amounts may be harmful and may affect the respiratory system and mucous membranes (irritation), behavior and brain (Central nervous system depression - headache, dizziness, drowsiness, stupor, incoordination, unconciousness, coma and possible death), peripheral nerve and senstation, blood, urinary system, and liver.  Ingestion - Swallowing small amounts during normal handling is not likely to cause harmful effects. Swallowing large amounts may cause gastrointestinal tract irritation with nausea, vomiting and diarrhea, abdominal pain. It also may affect the urinary system, cardiovascular system, sense.



Chronic :  May cause adverse reproductive / teratogenic effects (fertility, fetoxicity, developmental abnormalities.  The substance may be toxic to kidneys, liver, skin, central nervous system (CNS).

Firefighting: 

Flammable liquid soluble or dispersed in water. Keep away from heat. Keep away from sources of ignition.



Keep unnecessary people away; stay upwind; keep out of low areas. Isolate for 1/2 mile in all directions if tank car or truck is involved in fire.



Wear self-contained breathing apparatus; wear goggles if eye protection not provided.



Small fire: Use dry chemical powder. Large fire: Use alcohol foam, water spray or fog.

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Protective Clothing: Skin Eyes Wash skin Remove Change

: No recommendation is made specifying the need for personal protective equipment for the body. : Wear appropriate eye protection to prevent eye contact. : No recommendation is made specifying the need for washing the substance from the skin (either immediately or at the end of the work shift). : No recommendation is made specifying the need for removing clothing that becomes wet or contaminated. : No recommendation is made specifying the need for the worker to change clothing after the work shift. (NIOSH, 2003)

First Aid: Eye: 

If this chemical contacts the eyes, immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes. Cold water may be used.



Get medical attention immediately.



Contact lenses should not be worn when working with this chemical.

Skin: 

If this chemical contacts the skin, immediately wash skin with soap and plenty of water for at least 15 minutes.



Cover the irritated skin with an emollient.



Get medical attention if irritation develops.



Wash clothing and thoroughly clean shoes before use.

Breathing: 

If a person breathes large amounts of this chemical, move the exposed person to fresh air at once.



If breathing has stopped, perform mouth-to-mouth resuscitation.



If breathing is difficult, give oxygen.



Keep the affected person warm and at rest.



Get medical attention as soon as possible if symptoms appear.

Ingestion: 

Do not induce vomiting unless directed to do so by medical personnel.



Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person.



Get medical attention if symptoms appear.

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Physical Properties: 

Boiling Point: 82.5° C



Flash Point: 18.3° C



Lower Explosive Limit: 2.0 %



Upper Explosive Limit: 12.7 %



Auto ignition Temperature: 399° C



Melting Point: -88.5° C



Vapor Pressure: 4.4 kPa



Vapor Density: 2.07 (Air=1)



Specific Gravity: 0.84



Molecular Weight: 60.10 g/mol



Water Solubility: Easily soluble in cold and hot water.



TEEL-1: 400 ppm



TEEL-2: 400 ppm



TEEL-3: 2000 ppm



IDLH: 2000 ppm

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PIPERIDINE General Description: 

Flammable liquid



A hazard to the environment.



Immediate steps should be taken to limit spread to the environment.

NFPA Diamond: Red 3 - Flammability: flammable 3 0

3 -

Blue 3 - Health Hazard: hazardous - use full protection Yellow 0 - Reactivity: stable

Reactivity Alerts: 

The product is stable.

Fire Hazard: 

Flammable liquid.



Flammable in presence of open flames and sparks.



Main products of decomposition are carbon oxides (CO, CO2).

Health Hazard: 

Exposure Routes: inhalation, ingestion, skin and/or eye contact.



Extremely hazardous in case of skin contact (corrosive, irritant), of eye contact (irritant), of ingestion, of inhalation.



Acute :  Eye contact – Liquid or spray mist may produce tissue damage particularly on mucous membranes of eyes, mouth and respiratory tract. Inflammation of the eye is characterized by redness, watering, and itching.  Skin contact – Produce burns. Skin inflammation is characterized by itching, scaling, reddening, or, occasionally, blistering.  Inhalation – Produce severe irritation of respiratory tract, characterized by coughing, choking, or shortness of breath. Severe over-exposure can result in death.



Chronic :  The substance is toxic to lungs, the nervous system, mucous membranes.  Repeated or prolonged exposure to the substance can produce target organs damage.

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 Repeated or prolonged contact with spray mist may produce chronic eye irritation and severe skin irritation. Firefighting: 

Flammable liquid soluble or dispersed in water. Keep away from heat. Keep away from sources of ignition.



Keep unnecessary people away; stay upwind; keep out of low areas. Isolate for 1/2 mile in all directions if tank car or truck is involved in fire.



Wear self-contained breathing apparatus; wear goggles if eye protection not provided.



Small fire: Use dry chemical powder. Large fire: Use alcohol foam, water spray or fog.

Protective Clothing: Skin Eyes Wash skin Remove Change

: No recommendation is made specifying the need for personal protective equipment for the body. : Wear appropriate eye protection to prevent eye contact. : No recommendation is made specifying the need for washing the substance from the skin (either immediately or at the end of the work shift). : No recommendation is made specifying the need for removing clothing that becomes wet or contaminated. : No recommendation is made specifying the need for the worker to change clothing after the work shift. (NIOSH, 2003)

First Aid: Eye: 

If this chemical contacts the eyes, immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes, keeping eyelids open. Cold water may be used.



Do not use an eye ointment.



Get medical attention immediately.



Contact lenses should not be worn when working with this chemical.

Skin: 

If the chemical got onto the clothed portion of the body, remove the contaminated clothes as quickly as possible, protecting your own hands and body.

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Risk Assessment Report



Place the victim under a deluge shower. If the chemical got on the victim's exposed skin, such as the hands: Gently and thoroughly wash the contaminated skin with running water and non-abrasive soap.



Be particularly careful to clean folds, crevices, creases and groin. Cold water may be used. If irritation persists, seek medical attention. Wash contaminated clothing before reusing.



Cover the contaminated skin with an anti-bacterial cream.



Get medical attention.

Breathing: 

Allow the victim to rest in a well ventilated area.



Seek immediate medical attention.

Ingestion: 

Do not induce vomiting unless directed to do so by medical personnel.



Examine the lips and mouth to ascertain whether the tissues are damaged, a possible indication that the toxic material was ingested.



If the victim is not breathing, perform mouth-to-mouth resuscitation.



Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person.



Get medical attention if symptoms appear.

Physical Properties: 

Chemical Formula: C5H11N



Boiling Point: 106° C



Flash Point: 16.1° C



Lower Explosive Limit: N.A.



Upper Explosive Limit: N.A.



Auto ignition Temperature: N.A.



Melting Point: -9° C



Vapor Pressure: 40 mm of Hg



Vapor Density: 3 (Air=1)



Specific Gravity: 0.86 (Water = 1)



Molecular Weight: 85.15 g/mol



Water Solubility: Easily soluble in cold water.



TEEL-1: 6.6 ppm



TEEL-2: 33 ppm



TEEL-3: 110 ppm

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Risk Assessment Report

ANNEXURE -3 List of Antidotes for Toxic Chemical Sr. No. 1 2

Name of Toxic Chemical Acetone

Possible Antidotes Not Available

Benzene

Diazem – 1 mg/kg. (Intravenous), Epenephia, Efidrine Wash the skin area plenty of water if affected. Fresh air or Oxygen, 0.1 mg/kg slowly through injection rest in bed. Don’t apply Epinefrin, Ifridin etc. Don’t apply milk, vegetable oil or alcohol.

3

Isopropyl Alcohol

Novasine Eye Drops

4

Piperidine

Not Available

Anand Consultants (NABET/QCI Accredited)

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Risk Assessment Report