# Sardar Patel University, Balaghat

M.Sc. PHYSICS SPU BALAGHAT 2 YEAR PG DEGREE COURSE DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS SARDAR PATEL UNIVERSITY BALAGHAT (M .P.) 5. S. Hassani, Mathematical Physics:...

M.Sc. PHYSICS

SPU BALAGHAT 2 YEAR PG DEGREE COURSE

SYLLABUS POST GRADUATE DEGREE IN PHYSICS (M.Sc. Physics)

Department of Physics

Sardar Patel University, Balaghat Sardar Patel Knowledge City, Dongariya, Balaghat (M.P.)

DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS SARDAR PATEL UNIVERSITY BALAGHAT (M.P.)

M.Sc. PHYSICS

SPU BALAGHAT 2 YEAR PG DEGREE COURSE

SARDAR PATEL UNIVERSITY, BALAGHAT Session 2018-19 Semester-I MPH101: Mathematical Physics I Unit-I: Vector analysis and matrices Dimensional analysis, vector algebra and vector calculus, gradient, divergence & curl, transformation of vectors, rotation of the coordinate axes, invariance of the scalar and vector products under rotations, vector analysis in curvilinear coordinates, General coordinate systems, Cartesian, cylindrical and spherical polar coordinates, linear algebra matrices, Clayey-Hamilton theorem, Eigen values and eigenvectors. Unit-II: Tensors analysis Introduction, definitions, contraction, directs product, quotient rule, pseudo tensors, irreducible tensors, non-Cartesian tensors, metric tensor. Christophe symbols, covariant transformation. Unit-III: Differential equations Partial differential equations of theoretical physics, ordinary differential equation, separation of variables, singular points, series solutions: Fresenius method, second solution, Bessel's equation, regular and irregular singularities. Unit-IV: Complex variables Introduction, Cauchy-Riemann conditions, Cauchy’s integral theorem, Cauchy’s integral formula, Taylor and Laurent series, singularities, calculus of residues, evaluation of definite integrals and contour integrals, dispersion relation. Unit-V: Delta and Gamma functions Dirac delta function, delta sequences for one-dimensional function, properties of delta function, orthogonal function and integral representation of delta function, gamma function, Weierstrass form, factorial notation and applications, beta function, relation with gamma function. Textbooks 1. G. Arfken and H.J. Weber, Mathematical Methods for Physicists, 6th Ed., Academic Press, SanDiego, 2005. 2. P.K. Chattopadhyay, Mathematical Physics, Wiley Eastern, New Delhi, 2005. 3. C. Harper, Introduction to Mathematical Physics, Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi, 2004. 4. M.R. Spiegel, Schaum’s Outline of Advanced Mathematics for Engineers. Scientists, 1st Ed., McGraw Hill, 2009. Unit-I : Arfken and Weber, Harper, Spiegel, Chattopadhyay Unit-II : Arfken and Weber Unit-III : Arfken and Weber, Chattopadhyay Unit-IV : Arfken and Weber, Spiegel Unit-V : Arfken and Weber, Spiegel References 1. L.A. Pipes, Applied Mathematics for Engineers and Physicists, McGraw-Hill, 1958. 2. M.L. Boas, Mathematical Methods in the Physical Sciences, 3rd Ed., John Wiley, 2005. 3. M.R. Spiegel, Seymour Lipschutz, John J. Schiller, and Dennis Spellman, Schaum’s outline of Complex Variables, 2nd Ed., McGraw Hill, 2009. 4. B.D. Gupta, Mathematical Physics, 4th Ed., Vikas Publishing House, 2009. DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS SARDAR PATEL UNIVERSITY BALAGHAT (M.P.)

M.Sc. PHYSICS

SPU BALAGHAT 2 YEAR PG DEGREE COURSE

5. S. Hassani, Mathematical Physics: A Modern Introduction to Its Foundations, 2nd Ed., Springer, 2013. 6. P.K. Chattopadhyay, Mathematical Physics, 1st Ed., New Age International, 2009.

DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS SARDAR PATEL UNIVERSITY BALAGHAT (M.P.)

M.Sc. PHYSICS

SPU BALAGHAT 2 YEAR PG DEGREE COURSE

SARDAR PATEL UNIVERSITY, BALAGHAT Session - 2018-19 & Onwards Semester-I MPH102- Classical Mechanics Unit-I: Introduction Review of Newtonian mechanics, principle of virtual work, Lagrange’s equations of first kind, D’Alembert’s principle, degrees of freedom, types of constraints, variational principle; generalised coordinates and velocities, Lagrangian and equations of motion, cyclic coordinates, Hamiltonian. Unit-II: Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalism Hamiltonian formalism, Hamilton’s equations of motion, Hamilton’s principle; Poisson brackets and canonical transformations, definition of canonical transformations, conditions for canonicality, Poisson brackets, Poisson’s theorem, Jacobi-Poisson theorem, Hamilton Jacobi equation, symmetry, invariance and Noether’s theorem. Unit-III: Rigid body dynamics Frames of reference, rotating frames, centrifugal and coriolis forces, rigid body dynamics, angular momentum and kinetic energy, moment of inertia and inertia tensor, Euler equations, torque free motion of rigid body, motion of heavy symmetric top. Unit-IV: Periodic motion Periodic motion, types of equilibrium and the potential at equilibrium, phase space dynamics, stability analysis; small oscillations, free vibrations, normal coordinates and its applications to chain molecules (triatomic). Unit-V: Special relativity Lorentz transformation, relativistic kinematics and dynamics, E=mc2, four-vector notation, energymomentum four-vector for a particle, relativistic invariance of physical laws. Textbooks 1. H. Goldstein, C. Poole and J. Fafko, Classical Mechanics, Pearson Education Inc., 2002. 2. K.C. Gupta, Classical Mechanics of Particles and Rigid Bodies, Wiley Eastern, 2006. 3. J.R. Taylor, Classical Mechanics, 1st Ed., University Science Books, 2005. 4. D. Morin, Introduction to Classical Mechanics, 1st Ed., Cambridge University Press, 2008. 5. R.G. Takwale, and P.S. Puranik, Introduction to Classical Mechanics, Tata McGraw. References 1. Percival and D. Richards, Introduction to Dynamics, Cambridge University press, 1982. 2. Rana and Joag, Classical Mechanics, Tata McGraw-Hill, 1991. 3.

Landau and Lifshitz, Mechanics, Butterworth-Heinemann, 1982.

4. J.W. Harald and Muller-Kirsten, Classical Mechanics and Relativity, 1st Ed., World scientific Publishing Ltd, 2008. 5. D. Strauch, Classical Mechanics - An Introduction, 5th Ed., Springer, 2009.

DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS SARDAR PATEL UNIVERSITY BALAGHAT (M.P.)

M.Sc. PHYSICS

SPU BALAGHAT 2 YEAR PG DEGREE COURSE

SARDAR PATEL UNIVERSITY, BALAGHAT Session- 2018-19 & Onwards Semester-I MPH103- Electrodynamics Unit-I: Maxwell’s equations Electrodynamics before Maxwell: Gauss law, Laplace’s and Poisson’s equations, Biot-Savart’s law, divergence and curl of magnetic field, Ampere’s law and Faraday’s law, electrodynamics after Maxwell: Maxwell’s modification to Ampere’s law, Lorentz force, Maxwell’s equations in matter, boundary conditions, continuity equation. Unit-II: Electromagnetic waves Poynting’s theorem, Poynting vector, electromagnetic waves in vacuum, transverse nature of electromagnetic waves, energy and momentum in electromagnetic fields, electromagnetic waves in matter, reflection and transmission at oblique incidence, absorption and dispersion, electromagnetic waves in conductor, skin depth, reflection at a conducting surface, frequency dependence of permittivity. Unit-III: Potentials and fields Scalar and vector potentials, gauge transformations: Coulomb gauge and Lorentz gauge, retarded potentials, Jefimenko’s equations, Lienard-Wiechert potentials, fields of moving point charge. Unit-IV: Radiation Electric dipole radiation, magnetic dipole radiation, radiation from an arbitrary source, power radiated by a point charge: Larmor formula and Lienard’s relativistic generalization, radiation reaction: Abraham-Lorentz formula, physical basis of radiation reaction. Plasma oscillations: Debye wave number and Landau damping. Unit-V: Relativistic electrodynamics Lorentz transformations, Lorentz transformation matrix, covariant and contravariant vectors, magnetism as a relativistic phenomenon, electromagnetic field transformation and field tensor, Maxwell’s equations and Lorentz force law using tensor notation, current density four-vector, relativistic potentials. Textbooks 1. D.J. Griffiths, Introduction to Electrodynamics, 4th Ed., Prentice-Hall India, 2013. 2. J.D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, 3rd Ed., Wiley 1998. References 1. J.D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, 1st Ed., Wiley, 1974. 2. E.C. Jordan, and K. G. Balmain, Electromagnetic Waves and Radiating Systems, Prentice Hall, 1995. 3. Schwinger et. al., Classical Electrodynamics, Persesus Books, 1998. 4. G.S. Smith, Classical Electromagnetic Radiation, Cambridge, 1997.

DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS SARDAR PATEL UNIVERSITY BALAGHAT (M.P.)

M.Sc. PHYSICS

SPU BALAGHAT 2 YEAR PG DEGREE COURSE

SARDAR PATEL UNIVERSITY, BALAGHAT Session - 2018-19 & Onwards Semester-I MPH1041 - Electronic Devices and Applications Unit-I: Semiconductor devices and power devices Fundamentals: Bohr’s atom model, electrons and shell, insulator, conductors and semiconductors, band gap, n-type and p-type semiconductors, understanding the p-n junction, forming a p-n junction, diffusion- “built-in” electric field, forward bias, reverse bias, I-V characteristics, breakdown voltage. Zener diode, Schottky barrier diode, varactor diode, light emitting diode (LED), surface emitting LED, edge emitting LED, seven segment display, solar cells, photodiodes, photo-conductive cells, photo transistors, laser diode, condition for laser action, tunnel diode and its working principle, uni-junction transistor, p-n-p-n devices, p-n-p-n characteristics, thyristor, silicon controlled switch (SCS). Unit-II: Operational amplifier Op-amp parameters, ideal op-amp, open loop op-amp configuration-differential amplifier, inverting amplifier, non-inverting amplifier, equivalent circuit of an op-amp, ideal voltage transfer curve; opamp linear application-dc amplifier, ac amplifier, summing amplifier, scaling amplifier, averaging amplifier, instrumentation amplifier, integrator, differentiator, solving problems using integrator and differentiator. Unit-III: Applications of operational amplifier Active filters low-pass, high-pass, band-pass, band-reject, all-pass filter, waveform generators: square wave, triangular, saw tooth, comparators: basic comparator types, characteristics, applications, zero crossing detector, Schmitt trigger, voltage limiters, log-antilog amplifiers, astable and monostable multivibrators using op-amp. Unit-IV: Analog to digital (A/D) and digital to analog (D/A) converter Basic introduction to logic gates and flip flops, different types of registers, serial in serial out, serial in parallel out, parallel in serial out and parallel in parallel out and applications, asynchronous and synchronous electronic, counters, decade counters, digital clock, applications of electronic counters, sample and hold circuits, types of D/A converter, binary weighted resistors R and 2R resistors, A/D converter, flash single slope, dual slope, successive approximation, astable and monostable multivibrators using 555 timer. Unit-V: Microprocessor and microcontroller basics Buffer registers, bus organized computers, sap-i, microprocessor, 8085 architecture, memory interfacing, interfacing i/o devices. Assembly language programming: instruction classification, addressing modes, timing diagram, data transfer, logic and branch operations- programming examples. Textbooks 1. R.L. Boylestad and L. Nashelsky, Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 9th Ed., Pearson Education, 2009. 2. T.L. Floyd, Electronic devices, 9th Ed., Pearson Education. Ltd., 2013. 3. A.R. Gayakwad, Op-amps and linear integrated circuits, 3rd Ed., Prentice-Hall, Inc., 2000. 4. D.P. Leach, A.P Malvino and G. Saha, Digital Principles and Applications, 7th Ed., 2011. 5. R.S. Gaonkar, Microprocessor Architecture, Programming & Applications with 8085, Prentice Hall, 2002. Unit-I : Boylestad, Floyd DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS SARDAR PATEL UNIVERSITY BALAGHAT (M.P.)

M.Sc. PHYSICS

SPU BALAGHAT 2 YEAR PG DEGREE COURSE

Unit-II: Gayakwad Unit-III: Gayakwad Unit-IV: Leach Unit-V: Gaonkar References 1. W.D. Stanley, Operational amplifiers with linear integrated circuits, 4th Ed., Pearson Education India, 2002. 2. D.D. Givone, Digital Principles and Design, Tata McGraw-Hill, 2002. 3. K. Udaya Kumar, The 8085 Microprocessor: Architecture, Programming and Interfacing, Pearson Education India, 2008. 4. A. Sproul, Understanding the p-n Junction Solar Cells, Resources for the Secondary Science

DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS SARDAR PATEL UNIVERSITY BALAGHAT (M.P.)

M.Sc. PHYSICS

SPU BALAGHAT 2 YEAR PG DEGREE COURSE

SARDAR PATEL UNIVERSITY, BALAGHAT Session - 2018-19 & Onwards Semester-I MPH1042 - Energy Storage and Devices Unit-I: Basic concepts and energy storage Definition and units of energy, power, conservation of energy, second law of thermodynamics, renewable energy resources, introduction energy storage - need of energy storage; different modes of energy storage. capacitors, electrochemical storage, electrical and magnetic storage, chemical energy storage, hydrogen for energy storage, capacitor and batteries: comparison and application. Unit-II: Electrochemical energy storage systems Electrochemical energy storage systems batteries: primary, secondary, lithium, solid-state and molten solvent batteries; lead acid batteries; nickel cadmium batteries; advanced batteries. Role of carbon nano-tubes in electrodes. Unit-III: Magnetic and electric energy storage systems Magnetic and electric energy storage systems superconducting magnet energy storage (SMES) systems; super capacitor: electrochemical double layer capacitor (EDLC), principle of working, structure, performance and application, role of activated carbon and carbon nano-tube. Unit-IV: Fuel cell basics and storage Basics Fuel cell definition, difference between batteries and fuel cells, fuel cell history, components of fuel cells, principle of working of fuel cell advantages and disadvantages of fuel cell power plant, fuel cell types: alkaline fuel cell, polymer electrolyte fuel cell, phosphoric acid fuel cell, molten carbonate fuel cell, solid oxide fuel cell, problems with fuel cells, applications of fuel cells. Unit-V: Hydrogen production and storage methods Production: from fossil fuels, electrolysis, thermal decomposition, photochemical, photo catalytic, hybrid; Storage: Metal hydrides, metallic alloy hydrides, carbon nano-tubes. Textbooks 1. R.A. Huggins, Energy Storage, 1st Ed., Springer, 2010. 2. J. M. Treason, and Patrice Simon, Electrochemical Energy Storage, 1st Ed., Wiley, 2015. 3. F. Diaz Gonzalez, A. Simper and O. Gomis-Bellmunt, Energy storage in power systems, 1st Ed., Wiley, 2016. 4. Srinivasan, Fuel Cells from Fundamentals to Applications, 1st Ed., Springer, 2006. 5. A. Basile, A. Iulianelli, Advances in Hydrogen Production, 1st Ed., Storage and Distribution, Wood Head Publishing, 2014. References 1. N. Kularatna, Energy Storage Devices for Electronic Systems: Rechargeable Batteries and Super capacitors, Academic Press, 2014.

2. X. Feng, Nano carbonsfor advanced energy storage, Vol. 1, John Wiley and Sons, 2015. 3. M. Sylvan, Fundamentals of electrochemistry, 1st Ed., Sarup Book Publishers Pvt. Ltd., 2009. 4. A.G. Ter-Gazarian, Energy Storage for Power Systems, IET, 1994.

DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS SARDAR PATEL UNIVERSITY BALAGHAT (M.P.)

M.Sc. PHYSICS

SPU BALAGHAT 2 YEAR PG DEGREE COURSE

SARDAR PATEL UNIVERSITY, BALAGHAT Session - 2018-19 & Onwards Semester-I MPH106P:General Physic Laboratory (LAB- A) List of experiments: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

Determination of Young’s modulus of a material of a beam by uniform bending using single optic lever. To study the characteristics and dead time of a GM Counter. To study Poisson and Gaussian distributions using a GM Counter. Power delivering efficiency of cell with time using V-I plot. Characteristics of LDR by reflecting constant illumination or reflection of local mineral. Compressibility of mineral powder with pressure. Designing circuit for operating two lifts. To determine the radius of curvature of the given convex lens with help of Newton’s Ring method. To determine the wavelength of main spectral lines of mercury lamp with the help of plane transmission grating. To determine the refractive index and dispersive power of material of prism with the help of spectrometer. To measure the wavelength of laser beam by using a plane transmission grating

Virtual lab: Choose one virtual experiment from physical sciences at http://vlab.co.in/.

Textbooks 1. D. Chattopadhyay, P.C. Rakshit, and B. Saha, An Advanced Course in Practical Physics, 6th Ed., 2002. 2. Worsnop and Flint, Advanced Practical Physics for Students, 2nd Ed., Methuen Publishers, 2007. 3. J. Singh, Semiconductor Devices: Basic Principles, John Wiley, 2001. 4. D.R. Behekar, S.T. Seman, V.M. Gokhale., and P.G. Kale, Practical Physics, Kitab Mahal Publication, 2000. 5. A.C. Mellissinos, Experiments in Modern Physics, 2nd Ed., Academic Press, 2003. 6. D.P. Khandelwal, A Laboratory Manual of Physics for Undergraduate Classes, Vani Publishing House, 2002. 7. G.L. Squires, Practical Physics, 4th Ed., Cambridge University Press, 2001.

DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS SARDAR PATEL UNIVERSITY BALAGHAT (M.P.)

M.Sc. PHYSICS

SPU BALAGHAT 2 YEAR PG DEGREE COURSE

SARDAR PATEL UNIVERSITY, BALAGHAT Session - 2018-19 & Onwards Semester-I MPH107P : Electronics Laboratory (Lab – B) List of experiments: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

To study of solar cell and its characteristics. To study FET and draw its characteristics curve. To study MOSFET and draw its characteristics curve. To study and verify truth table of logic gates. To study of operational amplifier and draw its characteristics curve. To study of Tunnel Diode and draw its characteristics curve. To study and draw the V – I characteristics of LED and determine the Planck constant. To verify the network theorem. To study the characteristics of the Current vs. voltage relationship of a semiconductor. To study the characteristics of the Rectifiers. To study the characteristics of the Filtering and ripple. To study the characteristics of the Diode clamps. To obtain common emitter/base/collector characteristics of npn/pnp transistor. To understand working of transistor as a switch and to draw DC load line for the given circuit. To observe input-output waveforms of common emitter (CE) amplifier and to measure gain of amplifier at different frequencies and plot frequency response. To observe input-output waveforms of common collector (CC) amplifier and to measure gain of amplifier at different frequencies and plot frequency response. To measure the gain of two stage RC coupled amplifier. To measure the gain of FET common source (CS) amplifier. UJT characteristics and design of sawtooth wave oscillator. To observe the input and output characteristics of adder, subtractor, differential amplifier, inverting amplifier and non-inverting amplifier. Summing amplifier by using IC 741. Design of square wave generator using IC 741 and Timer 555 ICs. Design of monostable multivibrator using the ICs 741 and 555 timer- study of frequency divider. Design of Schmitt’s trigger using the ICs 741 and 555 timer. Counters and shift registers using ICs 7476/7473. Design of binary weighted and R/2R Ladder DAC using the IC 741. Construction of ADC using DAC, comparator and counter. Study the Braod bread model & verify the truth tables. Write a program in 8086 assembly language to find out the addition of two characters. Write a program in 8089 assembly language to find out the subtraction of two characters.

DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS SARDAR PATEL UNIVERSITY BALAGHAT (M.P.)

M.Sc. PHYSICS

SPU BALAGHAT 2 YEAR PG DEGREE COURSE

Textbooks 1. D.A. Bell, Laboratory manual for Electronic Devices and Circuits, 4th Ed., Oxford University Press, 2009. 2. N. Ahlhelm, Lab Experiments in Digital Electronics, Create Space Independent Publishing Platform, 2010. 3. A. Gaykwad, Operational Amplifier and Linear Integrated Circuits, 11th Ed., Prentice Hall, 2006. 4. D.A. Bell, Fundamentals of Electrical Circuits: Lab Manual, 4th Ed., Oxford University Press, 2009. 5. L.K Maheswari and M.M.S. Anand, Laboratory Manual for Introductory Electronic Experiments, New Age, 2010. 6. M. Wiesner, Lab Experiments-Digital Electronics: A Practical Approach, Prentice Hall, 2009. 7. S. Salivahanan and N. Suresh Kumar, Electronic Devices and Circuits, Tata McGraw-Hill, 2011.

DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS SARDAR PATEL UNIVERSITY BALAGHAT (M.P.)