Segmentasi, Target, dan Positioning

Segmentasi, Target, dan Positioning Mata Kuliah: Pemasaran (TKI 4212) ... Identify and profile distinct groups of buyers who differ in their needs and...

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“Don’t buy market share. Figure out how to earn it.”

Segmentasi, Target, dan Positioning

Mata Kuliah: Pemasaran (TKI 4212)

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Target Marketing

 Target marketing requires marketers to take three major steps:  Identify and profile distinct groups of buyers who differ in their needs and preferences (market segmentation).  Select one or more market segments to enter (market targeting).  For each target segment, establish and communicate the key distinctive benefit(s) of the company’s market offering (market positioning). www.aeunike.lecture.ub.ac.id

Levels and Patterns of Market Segmentation

 Levels of Market Segmentation • Mass marketing • Micromarketing

 Segment marketing • Market segment • Flexible market offering – Naked solution – Discretionary options

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Levels and Patterns of Market Segmentation

 Niche Marketing • Niche

 Local Marketing  Individual Customer Marketing • Mass-customization • Choiceboard • Customerization – Segments – Individuals

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Levels and Patterns of Market Segmentation

 Patterns for Market Segmentation  Preference segments • Homogeneous preferences • Diffused preferences • Clustered preferences – Natural market segments – Concentrated marketing

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Levels and Patterns of Market Segmentation

 Market Segmentation Procedure • Needs-based market segmentation approach • Market partitioning – Brand-dominant hierarchy – Nation-dominant hierarchy

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Steps in Segmentation Process

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Levels and Patterns of Market Segmentation

 Effective Segmentation     

Measurable Substansial Accessible Differentiable Actionable

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Major Segmentation Variables for Consumer Markets

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Segmenting Consumer and Business Markets

 Bases for Segmenting Consumer Markets  Geographic Segmentation  Demographic Segmentation • • • • •

Age and Life-Cycle Stage Life Stage Gender Income Generation – The Depression Cohort, The World War II Cohort, The Post-War Cohort, Leading-Edge Baby Boomer Cohort, Trailing-Edge Baby Boomer Cohort, Generation X Cohort, Generation Y Cohort www.aeunike.lecture.ub.ac.id

Segmenting Consumer and Business Markets • Lifestage Analytic Matrix – – – –

Lifestages Physiographics Emotional effects Socioeconomics

• Social Class

 Psychographic Segmentation • Lifestyle – Time-constrained » multitasking – Money-constrained

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Segmenting Consumer and Business Markets • Personality – “Brand personality” examples: » Sincere » Exciting » Competent » Sophisticated » Rugged

• Values – Core values

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Segmenting Consumer and Business Markets

 Behavioral Segmentation • Occasions – Critical life events or transitions

• Benefits – Constella has identified six segments and their sizes » Enthusiast 12% » Image Seekers 20% » Savvy Shoppers 15% » Traditionalist 16% » Satisfied Sippers14% » Overwhelmed 23%

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Segmenting Consumer and Business Markets • User Status • Usage Status • Loyalty Status – – – –

Hard-core loyals Split loyals Shifting loyals Switchers

• Buyer-Readiness Stage • Attitude

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Major Segmentation Variables for Business Markets

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Segmenting Consumer and Business Markets

 Bases For Segmenting Business Markets  Business buyers seek different benefit bundles based on their stage in the purchase decision process. 1. First-time prospects 2. Novices 3. Sophisticates

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Market Targeting

 Evaluating and Selecting the Market Segments     

Single-Segment Concentration Selective Specialization Product Specialization Market Specialization Full Market Coverage • Undifferentiated marketing • Differentiated marketing

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Market Targeting  Higher costs using differentiated marketing include: • • • • •

Product modification cost Manufacturing cost Administrative cost Inventory cost Promotion cost

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Market Targeting

 Additional Considerations  Ethical Choice of Market Targets • Supersegment

 Segment-By-Segment Invasion Plans

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Segment-by-Segment Invasion Plan

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Developing and Communicating a Positioning Strategy

 Positioning  Value position

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Developing and Communicating a Positioning Strategy

 Positioning According to Ries and Trout     

Strengthen own current position Grab an unoccupied position De-position Re-position Product ladders

 Positioning According to Treacy and Wiersema  Value disciplines • Product leader; Operationally excellent firm; Customer intimate firm www.aeunike.lecture.ub.ac.id

Developing and Communicating a Positioning Strategy  Treacy and Wiersema propose that a business should follow four rules for success 1. 2. 3.

4.

Become best at one of the three value disciplines. Achieve an adequate performance level in the other two disciplines. Keep improving one’s superior position in the chosen discipline so as not to lose out to a competitor. Keep becoming more adequate in the other two disciplines, because competitors keep raising customers’ expectations.

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Developing and Communicating a Positioning Strategy

 Positioning: How many ideas to promote? • Unique selling proposition

 Four major positioning errors 1. 2. 3. 4.

Underpositioning Overpositioning Confused positioning Doubtful positioning

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Perceptual Map

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Developing and Communicating a Positioning Strategy  Theme park’s positioning possibilities: • • • • • • •

Attribute positioning Benefit positioning Use or application positioning User positioning Competitor positioning Product category positioning Quality or price positioning

 Which Positioning to Promote?

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Method for Competitive-Advantage Selection

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Mata Kuliah: Pemasaran (TKI 4212)

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