SELAT MELAKA DAN KESELAMATAN SERANTAU

SELAT MELAKA DAN KESELAMATAN SERANTAU ISKANDAR SAZLAN PENYELIDIK KANAN ... Artikel 38 1 …all ships and aircraft enjoy the right of transit passage.. 2...

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SELAT MELAKA DAN KESELAMATAN SERANTAU

ISKANDAR SAZLAN PENYELIDIK KANAN MARITIME INSTITUTE OF MALAYSIA

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Merupakan salah satu laluan utama ekonomi dunia

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25% jumlah perdagangan dunia

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Bilangan kapal melalui Selat Melaka „ „ „ „

2003 2002 2001 2000

62,334 62,393 59,314 55,955

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Menghubungi 20 pelabuhan terminal kontena utama dunia di Asia Pasifik

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54% pergerakan kontena dunia ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ

Hong Kong (1) Singapore (2) Pusan (3) Shanghai (4) Kaoshiung (5) Shenzhen (6) Port Klang (12) Manila (19) Tokyo (20) UNCTAD 2002

1. Menjadi lebih kritikal di masa hadapan - China 2.

2002 purata 45 VLCC setiap hari – lebih 10 juta tong minyak

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Menjelang 2010 dijangka meningkat kepada 60 VLCC

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80% petroleum Jepun

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Laluan alternatif tidak effisyen kurangnya kemudahan pelayaran ƒ lebih jauh dan meningkatkan kos ƒ terdedah kepada ancaman lanun ƒ

Selat Melaka dan Instrumen Perundangan Antarabangsa 1.

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27 Okt. 1969 Agreement between the Government of Malaysia and the Government of Indonesia on Delimitation of the Continental Shelves between the two countries 17 Mac 1970 Treaty between the Republic of Indonesia on Malaysia on the Delimitation of boundary of territorial waters of the two nations at the Straits of Malacca 16 Nov 1971 Joint Statement of the Government of Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore

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6. 7. 8.

21 Dis 1971 Agreement between Thailand, Indonesia and Malaysia relating to the Delimitation of the Continental Shelf Boundaries in the Northern Part of the Straits of Malacca 24 Okt 1979 Treaty between the Kingdom of Thailand and Malaysia Relating to Delimitation of the Territorial Seas of the Two Countries 21 Dis 1979 Peta Menunjukan Sempadan Perairan dan Pelantar Benua Malaysia 19 Nov 1981 IMCO Assembly Resolution on Navigation through the Straits of Malacca and Singapore 14 Okt 1996 UNCLOS III

UNCLOS 1982 Bahagian III Straits Used for International Navigation Artikel 38 1 2

…all ships and aircraft enjoy the right of transit passage.. …transit passage means the exercise in accordance with this Part of the freedom of navigation and overflight solely for the purpose of continuous and expeditious transit of the straits…

Isu-Isu Semasa „

Jenayah Rentas Sempadan • Pelanunan • Penyeludupan

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Unsur Pihak Ketiga

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Pertikaian Sempadan Maritim

Rompakan dan Pelanunan di Selat Melaka 2003

Asia AsiaTenggara: Tenggara:2000 2000

Number of Incidents, Malacca Straits 80

74

70

Nu m b e r

60 50 40 30

18

20 10

17 2

3

0 Year

1995

1996

0 1997

1 1998

1 1999

2000

2001

2002

80

Comparison of IMB and MECC Data: Strait of Malacca, 19932002 75

70 60 50 40

40

MECC

30 20 10 0

5

4 3

1 1993 1994

5 2 1995

7 3 1996

11 4

18 12

0

1

2

1997

1998

1999

IMB

17 18

4 2000

2001

2002

Year

Penyeludupan „

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Berkait rapat dengan lain-lain unsur jenayah Kemasukan pendatang tanpa izin, barangan bercukai (rokok, alkohol, tekstil), dadah, senjata api, petroleum.

REGIONAL MARITIME SECURITY INITIATIVE – SELAT MELAKA

Terletak di tengah-tengah peta operasi US Pacific Fleet

Kenyataan Thomas Fargo

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“… Expeditionary forces (naval and marine forces), collected with appropriate high-speed lift and interdiction assets, ensure we can respond with regionally tailored power in short notice…tailored air packages, based and launched from capable maritime platform … provide security in littoral regions…”

1 Jun 2003, Shangri-la Dialogue

“… this initiative will complement other efforts already underway to enhance security in places like Singapore and Malaysia … we need to gain an awareness of the Maritime Domain … particularly important in the challenging littoral regions of Southeast Asia… I have to say this initiative appears to have very broad appeal… “… We are moving toward a Strategic Framework Agreement with Singapore … these alliance are focused on guarding Southeast Asia from terrorism, piracy, drugs, and other transnational threats …” 13 Feb. 2004: Remarks at Singapore Command and Staff College, Singapore

“… RMSI is USPACOM’s effort to operationalize these initiative … working first with other navies of the region, our approach is to assess and then provide detail plans to build and synchronize interagency and international capacity to fight threats … we have found this concept well received by our friends and allies in the region.” “ … Singapore … with outspoken support for a strong US presence in Southeast Asia...” 31 Mac 2004: Testimony before the House of Armed Services Committee, Washington D.C

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Penafian “…I’m told that it was misreported and then repeated, as happens in life… and pretty soon it becomes fact almost...I’m not going to get into it. What’s important is that we have a lot of friends and a lot of good allies in the region, and the United States is not going to be doing anything that we haven’t discussed with them and coordinated with and cooperated with…” Donald Rumsfeld, 3 Jun 2004

2 “… there are lots of strange stories. We have no intentions in the Straits of Malacca…” James A. Kelly, US Assistant Secretary of State for East Asia and Asia Pacific, 11.Mei.2004

3. “… it will not be US forces that do that. It will not be US forces coming down unnecessarily and do anything aggressive..” Adm. Walter Doran, Commander US Pacific Fleet, 6.Jun 2004

Instrumen RMSI Capt. William Wesley, Pengarah Rancang dan Polisi, Pacific Fleet menyatakan matlamat asal RMSI ialah membina rangkaian negara-negara serantau untuk mengenalpasti, memantau dan mengekang jenayah rentas sempadan mengikut perundangan antarabangsa dan domestik. maklumat yang diterima membolehkan agensi terbabit menguatkuasakannya di perairan wilayah masing-masing.

RMSI dan Selat Melaka Peranan Singapura ƒ

Mempromosikan Amerika Syarikat

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Status hubungan ketenteraan

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Pangkalan logistik dan Changi

ƒ Penggantungan maritim – ekonomi $474 billion 2003 ƒ Sektor petroleum menyumbang $58.2 iaitu peningkatan 15% pada tahun 2003

ƒ pro aktif tahap keselamatan serantau – PSI & SUA ƒ mengaitkan perlanunan dan keganasan maritim – Dewi Madrim ƒ non-state-actor

ƒ strategi maritim ƒ peningkatan fasa tentera laut – kuasa baru ASEAN

2003 Brunei

2004

2005

2 X Yarrow FS

Cambodia Indonesia Malaysia

4 X AS 555 SN 3 X Super Lynx

2 X Meko 100 FGS 3 X Super Lynx 2 X AS 555 SN

Myanmar Philippines Singapore

3 X Sjoormen Class

Thailand

2 X Super Lynx

Vietnam

1 X Class

Lafayette

2006

2007

2008

Brunei Cambodia Indonesia Malaysia

1 X Scorpene 1 X Agosta 12X SU 30MKM

1 X Scorpene 6 X SU 30MKM

Myanmar Philippines Singapore 1 X Class Thailand Vietnam

Lafayette 1 X Lafayette Class

1 X Lafayette Class

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Tekanan ke atas Malaysia ƒ Mengutarakan konsep RMSI melalui perbincangan negara terpilih sahaja ƒ Mengaitkan perlanunan/rompakan di laut dengan aktiviti pengganas ƒ Cubaan mengelirukan status Selat Melaka ƒ CSI – eksport senjata ƒ PSI

Tindakan Malaysia „

Coordinated patrol • Melaka Straits-Singapore Coordinated Patrols (MSSCP) • Malaysia-Indonesia-Singapura

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Penubuhan Agensi Penguatkuasaan Maritim Malaysia Menolak penglibatan langsung oleh pihak asing (Amerika Syarikat, India, Jepun)

Pertikaian Sempadan Maritim „ „

Malaysia-Indonesia Tafsiran baru mengenai persempadanan maritim berdasarkan UNCLOS III • Bahagian 2, Artikel 3 – 12 batu nautika • Kedudukan Pulau Jarak dan Pulau Perak

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Perluasan ZEE Indonesia di Selat Melaka

Kesimpulan „

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Adanya usaha-usaha sistematik Membabitkan isu perlanunan dan keganasan • Keganasan maritim

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Dominasi Selat Melaka

Terima kasih