SISTEM INFORMASI GEOGRAFIS (SIG) DALAM BIDANG …

and color; definitiOn of the event which will be presented. Usually, the presentation format is developed by combining map, graph and table. Simplific...

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SISTEM INFORMASI GEOGRAFIS (SIG) DALAM BIDANG KESEHATAN MASYARAKAT Endang lndriasih1

ABSTRACT

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Decentraliz~tion in health sector has enable to identify many health problems, population characteristics, and locally and more specific incidences. Health problems can be categorized based on geographic areas (national. regional, and local). The Geographic Information System (GIS) is one of tools for depicting the seventy of health problems and identifying health determinants specifically, as inputs for decision making process, also for epidemiological analysis and public health management. The basic framework of GIS is identification of Input, storage, data processing and output. The GIS main application consist of 1) the spatial description of a health event, 2) risk factors, high risk groups, and high risk areas identification, 3) health situation analysis, diseases pattern analysis, 4) surveillance and monitoring of public health, 5) the planning and programming of health activities; and (5) evaluation on health intervention. In Indonesia, the GIS has been used in many work divisions of Ministry of Health, especially for diseases surveillance mapping. Beside the GIS is able to perform high quality products such as map, graph, and tables. The GIS map can be in the different form of various types and contents. The quality of GIS map depends on geographical precision, the representatiOn of object's pattern and color; definitiOn of the event which will be presented. Usually, the presentation format is developed by combining map, graph and table. Simplification on GIS data management, integration with public health data, and availability of GIS user friendly software will support policy making process according to geographical position. This article presents case m 1997-2001, on the spread of malaria cases in Ciamis District concentrated in some villages in southern coast, where mangrove forest and lagoon are usually found. It tends to spread from west to the east. Malaria cases spread mostly in areas at the height between 0-100 meters above sea level, and just a few cases were found in areas at more than 100 meters above sea level. Finally, the capability of GIS to manage spatial data is enable to perform various scenarios as conducting strategic analysis. In order to minimtze bias and uncertain results, it recommends to conduct GIS analysis by multidiscipline members. It should be reminded that the final objective of GIS application in health sector is to improve the ability in plannmg, diagnosing, and intervention of health problems in many governmental administratton level due to support the achievement of health development goals.

Key words: geographic information system, public health, policy making process

PENDAHULUAN Adanya Desentra lisasi Sektor Kesehatan di Indonesia berdasarkan UU No. 22/1999 dan akhirnya diperbaharui dengan UU No. 32/2004 tentang Pemerintahan Daerah memungkinkan kita untuk melakukan identifikasi masalah kesehatan , berdasarkan karakteristik populasi dan waktu kejadian secara lokal dan lebih spesifik Kita mengetahui begitu banyak masalah kesehatan d1 negara kita in1 Sehingga diperlukan beberapa pengelompokan guna mengidentifikasi permasalahan

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dan mendapatkan cara untuk mengatasi agar lebih efektif dan efisien. Pengelompokan tersebut juga ditentukan oleh bermacam-macam faktor dari berbagai macam di siplin ilmu. Salah satu pengelompokan permasal a han kesehatan yaitu berdasarkan lingkungan. Beberapa teori mengemukakan di mana lingkungan merupakan salah satu faktor yang harus diperhitungkan di kesehatan mula i dari Hipokrates dan dilanj utkan oleh yang lain (Finke , 1792-1795; Fuchs, 1853; Hirsch, 1883-1886) (Han Kusnanto, 2004) kemudian diteruskan dengan memahami pola

Pusat Penelltian dan Pengembangan Sistem dan Keb1jakan Kesehatan, Jl. Percetakan Negara No. 23A. Jakarta 10560 Korespondensi: Endang lndnasih Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Sistem dan Kebijakan Kesehatan Jl Percetakan Negara No 23A, Jakarta 10560 E-mail: [email protected]

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