South Koreans Studying in DLSU-Manila: Challenges and

Development [OECD], 2011). This was a dramatic growth from 0.6 million in 1975. Asian students represented 52% of the foreign students studying abroad...

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DLSU Business & Economics Review 23.1 (2013), pp. 25-42

South Koreans Studying in DLSU-Manila: Challenges and Opportunities in Trade in Education Services Luz Suplico-Jeong Ramon V. Del Rosario - College of Business De La Salle University, Manila, Philippines [email protected] Rechel G. Arcilla College of Science De La Salle University, Manila, Philippines [email protected] Trade in education services plays a crucial role in economies like Australia, Canada, New Zealand, UK, and USA. The largest component of trade in education services consists of students who travel abroad to study. This market is going to grow as international student mobility continues to increase. The Philippines has been a popular destination for South Korean students who want to study abroad because English is widely spoken. It offers the same quality of English education at a lower cost. This paper examines the economic contribution and challenges of the South Korean students in the Philippines. A marketing strategy to enhance this niche market includes promoting the Philippines as an ESL (English as a Second Language) destination toward the Korean families as families play crucial role in deciding which overseas schools to study. Further, this strategy should stress the Philippine advantage of having English education at a lower cost. JEL Classifications: M30, M31, M37, M38, M39 Keywords: Trade in Services, South Korean students in Philippines, GATS Mode 2, Niche Market, English as a Second Language

In 2009, 3.7 million tertiary students were enrolled outside their country of citizenship (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development [OECD], 2011). This was a dramatic growth from 0.6 million in 1975. Asian students represented 52% of the foreign students studying abroad (Kim, 2010; OECD, 2011). As

the largest education market in the world, the AsiaPacific region enjoys advantages in the education market. In the supply side, it has very competitive educational institutions that accounted for 40% of the education market. China, India, and South Korea are the top sources of Asian students who study abroad

Copyright © 2013 De La Salle University, Philippines

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(Habermann, Franchet, Carson, Giovannini, Laurencin & Jackson, 2002). South Korean students who studied abroad reached 190,000 in 2005, which was a big increase compared to only 13,000 in 1980 (Bourke, 2000; Kim, 2010). The Bank of Korea estimated the money spent on overseas education was approximately USD4.5 billion in 2006 compared to only USD958 million in 2000 (Kim, 2010). This implies that there is a booming South Korean education market. The Philippine Bureau of Immigration (2011) reported that there were more than 26,000 foreign students in the Philippines as of August 2011. Of this number, South Koreans topped the list followed by the Chinese, and Iranians (Figure 1). The South Korean education market can be a major income source for Philippine schools and colleges, especially those who offer English as a Second Language (ESL) programs. While the normal flow of foreign students who study abroad is from developing countries to developed countries, the entry of South Korean students to the Philippines is unique as it is from a developed country to a developing country (Bourke, 2000).

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language (Magno, 2010). The Philippines offers the same quality of English education (when compared to other English speaking countries) at a lower cost. The Philippines has an ESL Tour Program organized by the Department of Tourism, which includes the study of English, games, outdoor activities, excursions, and immersions (“Philippine ESL Tour Program,” n.d.). Significance of the Study Trade in education services plays a crucial role in the economy. The largest component of trade in education services consists of students who travel abroad to study (Macaranas & Alvez, 2006). Foreign students have become a major source of income for education services. They contribute to the economy through their tuition and living expenses. Trade in education services are big business in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, UK, and the US (Macaranas & Alvez, 2006). It is expected that this market will grow over the years as international student mobility continues to increase significantly (Findlay & Tierney, 2010). Research Objectives This study has the following objectives: 1. to examine the contribution of South Korean students to the Philippine economy; 2. to examine the challenges faced by South Korean students in the Philippines; and 3. to analyze how trade in education services for the South Korean market can be enhanced.

Source: Bureau of Immigration (2011)

Scope and Limitation

Figure 1. Top three foreign students in the Philippines as of August 2011.

Although there are several modes of supply in trade in education services, this study will be limited only to Mode 2 (Consumption Abroad). Mode 2 is the biggest component of trade in education services. This is where the Philippines is likely to develop a niche market but this is where the Philippines is also experiencing a

South Koreans travel to other countries such as the Philippines to learn English. They choose the Philippines because English is widely spoken as 93.5% of Filipinos can speak and understand the

OPPORTUNITIES IN TRADE IN EDUCATION SERVICES

decline. In focusing on Mode 2, this study will be limited only to inflows of South Korean students to the Philippines. This is because South Koreans have topped the list of foreign students in the Philippines. It will not discuss the outflows of Philippine students who are studying overseas. To prevent sample bias, this study is limited to South Korean college students studying at DLSU-Manila. The results of this study cannot be generalized for the foreign students studying in the Philippines. Methodology This study used a bilingual questionnaire in English and Korean. It was pretested to South Korean students who were enrolled at DLSU. After pretesting, the questionnaire was modified. This person-assisted questionnaire was administered to 254 South Koreans selected using convenience sampling. The questionnaire used in this study collected basic socio-economic information of South Koreans as well as their pre-departure situation. It also had 16 items using a 5-point Likert scale that evaluated their experiences in learning English in the Philippines. SAS software was used to analyze the research data. Factor analysis was performed employing the principal factor method. Equamax rotation was used to extract a simpler structure of the factor pattern matrix.

SUPLICO-JEONG, L. T. & ARCILLA, R. G.

and (11) transport services. These services can be supplied in any of the following modes (Habermann et al, 2002): 1. Mode 1 (Cross-Border Trade). The consumer remains in his country (e.g. Country A) while the service supplier remains in his country (e.g. Country B) as well. Thus, it is only the service that crosses the border. 2. Mode 2 (Consumption Abroad). The consumer travels abroad (e.g. Country B) to avail of the service. 3. Mode 3 (Commercial Presence). The service supplier sets up an office or a branch in the consumer’s country (e.g. Country A). 4. Mode 4 (Movement of Natural Persons). The supplier from Country B travels to Country A on a temporary basis to supply the service. Figure 2 shows these modes of supply (OECD, 2004). Examples of these modes of supply in education services are presented in Table 1.

GATS and Trade in Education Services The General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) has the following sectors under trade in services: (1) business and professional services, (2) communication services, (3) construction and related services, (4) distribution services, (5) education services, (6) energy services, (7) environmental services, (8) financial services, (9) health and social services, (10) tourism services,

Country B

Country A Mode 1 Consumer from A Mode 2 Consumer from A Mode 3

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

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Consumer from A Mode 4 Consumer from A

The service crosses the border

The consumer goes abroad

Service supply

Foreign affiliate

Consumer from A

Supplier Service supply

Self employed goes to country A or employee sent by firm from B

Temporary employment

Supplier

Supplier

Supplier

Source: Habermann, et al., 2002

Figure 2. Modes of supply in GATS.

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Table 1 Modes of Supply in Education Services Mode of Supply According to GATS

Examples in the Education Sector

GATS Definition

Mode 1: Cross-border trade

-provision of a service across one’s territory but does not require the physical movement of the consumer/supplier

 Distance education  Virtual education institutions  E-learning

Mode 2: Consumption abroad

-provision of a service involving the movement of the consumer to the country of the supplier

Mode 3: Commercial presence

-service provider establishes or has existing commercial presence in another country

 Local branch or satellite campuses  Twinning partnerships  Franchising agreements with local institutions

Mode 4: Movement of natural persons

Persons travel to another country on a temporary basis to provide service

Professors, teachers, researchers working temporarily abroad

Students who travel to another country to enroll in a course/ degree program

Source: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (2004)

Philippine Experience in the Four Modes of Supply According to a study on Philippine competitiveness o n e d u c a t i o n s e r v i c e s (Macaranas & Alvez, 2006), the Philippines has a limited experience in Mode 1 through e-learning and distance education, a declining Mode 2 experience especially in the inflows of foreign students and a cautious acceptance of Mode 3. On the other hand, the Philippines has been very much involved in Mode 4 as teachers, professors, researchers, and other professionals leave for overseas jobs. Philippine Experience in Mode 2 (Foreign Students in the Philippines) Figure 3 presents the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) statistics showing a decline

in the enrolment of foreign students from the 1990s to 2001(Macaranas and Alvez, 2006). This decline was due to Executive Order 423, Series of 1997 which banned the conversion of non-student visas to student visas (Asis, 2008). This rule was relaxed in 2000 when Executive Order 423 was replaced by Executive Order 285, which provided for the conversion of tourist visa category to student visa or issuance of Special Study Permit. A Special Study Permit is issued to foreign students in elementary, high school or non-degree courses. While the number of foreign students taking college courses declined, the number of foreign students taking short-term educational programs has been significant in recent years (Asis, 2008). This has led the Bureau of Immigration to introduce the Visa Issuance Made Simple, which aimed to hasten the processing time for visa issuance on January 14, 2008.

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Source: Macaranas and Alvez (2006)

Figure 3. Enrolment of foreign students in the Philippines. Mode 2 is very much affected by the Philippine policy that foreign students should be given limited slots in every Higher Education Institution (HEI). This should not exceed 10% of the total enrolment in that institution (Macaranas & Alvez, 2006). Further, the standard admission eligibility credentials for foreign students should include the following: 1. Acceptability of prior education and institution where the basic education was obtained in consultation with CHED 2. Acceptable scores in the College Admission Test. 3. Authenticated Birth Certificate 4. Letter of Reference/Recommendation 5. English Proficiency as indicated in the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) 6. Certificate of Good Moral Character/ Personal History Statement signed by Principal or Guidance Counsellor 7. Passing grade normally 2.0 Grade Point Average or approximately 80% Foreign students can only study in schools accredited by Federation of Accrediting

Associations of the Philippines, CHED or the Bureau of Immigration. They represent a meager 0.2% of domestic enrolment compared to those of Australia, Canada, and US (Macaranas & Alvez, 2006) as shown in Figure 4. The limited number of foreign students in the Philippines can be due to the following barriers: 1. The Philippine Constitution provides that foreigners shall comprise no more than a third of the student population in an educational institution. 2. The Philippine Immigration Act of 1940 requires that a foreigner who wants to seek entry to the Philippines as a student must be at least 18 years of age, has sufficient means for his education and support in the Philippines, must pursue a full course of study higher than high school, and must be at a school authorized to accept foreign students by the Bureau of Immigration. 3. Foreign students are also not allowed to engage in employment without having secured the consent of the Bureau of Immigration.

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9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0



Philippines

Australia

Canada

US

China

Source: Macaranas and Alvez (2006)

Figure 4. Foreign students as percent of domestic enrolment. 4. Issues relating to the recognition of prior educational qualifications and transfer of credits likewise count as some of the obstacles to the entry of potential students from other countries. It is said that a conservative estimate of a student’s expenditure annually is USD18,000 or P774,000 (if exchange rate is USD1: P43) per year on fees and living expenses (Macaranas & Alvez, 2006). The Bureau of Immigration (2011) reported that the revenue generated from foreign students’ fees reached P54 million in 2011 compared to P42 million in 2010. This implies that an increase in foreign students in the Philippines will increase the country’s revenues. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK Figure 5 shows the model for trade in education services (Bourke, 2000). Bourke’s model was designed for medical students who want to study overseas. The model has been revised to exclude two factors: scarcity of places and funding, as these are specific to medical students. These factors are not relevant to this study as the respondents had several choices where to pursue their studies. Further, their

studies are privately funded, either by themselves or by their families. The three circles represent the nation, university, and services. The nation is the host country while the university is where the student will undertake his studies. Education is a service good. Information is the common variable among the three circles in the model as information will affect the volume of trade in education services. The efforts of the university and the nation to promote education services can direct students to go to that particular university and nation. Austrade’s aggressive marketing campaign coupled with Australian universities’ promotional efforts resulted to increase in foreign students in Australia (Bourke, 2000). Foreign students in Australia increased from 93,722 to 190,606 in 2000 and, education exports comprised 11.7% of total Australian exports in services versus 3.5% for the US and 3.2% for the UK (Tangas & Calderon, 2004; Saner & Fasel, 2003). Technology will also influence the volume of trade as the information that will encourage students to decide where to study has to be communicated in the most effective way that will transcend cultural barriers (Bourke, 2000). Thus, this is found in the overlapping segment between services and university.

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Source: Bourke (2000)

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Figure 5. Determinants of international trade in education.

The university’s organizational culture, especially its dealings with foreign students, can also affect the entry of foreign students. In DLSU-Manila, the organizational culture is favorable to foreign students. This is because there is an International Center, an office which helps foreign students with their Special Study Permit from the Philippine Bureau of Immigration. Further, it has the following programs: orientation for new foreign students, educational trips, seminars on effective study habits, international coffee hour, and awards for outstanding international students. Resources and capabilities are found between the overlapping segment of nation and university. A university in the US is likely to have more resources and capabilities than a university in the Philippines because it is based in a developed country. Foreign students in Ireland identified the friendliness of the Irish people as a positive feature of their stay in Ireland (Bourke, 2000). Thus, this is an example of a national resource that became an important resource for the university. Resources will also include the university’s networks or academic linkages. Further, resources and capabilities will include the university’s efforts to attract foreign students from handling a query to maintaining contact with them when they return to their respective countries. Reputation is found between nation and university. Foreign students are likely to be influenced by the reputation of the nation and

the university. Like any service good, education service providers are judged by their reputation (Bourke, 2000). Government policies of the home and host countries are likely to influence foreign students when they decide where to study. FINDINGS Respondents’ Profile Among 254 South Koreans interviewed, 52.36% of the respondents were females. Most of them were taking a four-year course in DLSUManila (Table 2). These students are exposed to DLSU-Manila’s organizational culture of La Sallian achievers for God and country. DLSU was ranked 71st out of 77 in Asiaweek’s ranking of schools in 2000 (Macaranas & Alvez, 2006). Other universities which made it to the list were UP (ranked 48th), Ateneo De Manila University (ranked 72 nd), and UST (ranked 74 th). Asiaweek used the following criteria in ranking these universities: 1. academic reputation, 2. student selectivity, 3. faculty resources, 4. research, and 5. financial resources. It can be gleaned from the ranking that these schools have an organizational culture that encourages academic excellence and research. Likewise, these schools have good resources and capabilities. As foreign students want to study in

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Table 3 Length of Stay in Philippines

Table 2 Type of ESL Student ESL Type

Number

Percent

Taking ESL during school break

20

7.87

Taking a regular college course in a university

185

72.83

Taking English to be used in a particular field

19

7.48

Others No Answer

19 11

7.48 4.33

Years Less than 1

Number 15

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 No Answer

the best schools, this organizational culture can attract foreign students. Asiaweek’s ranking of Philippine schools in the top 74 schools in Asia implies that Philippine schools and the country have a good reputation in education services. Sixty-two respondents have stayed in the Philippines for four years (Table 3). If each respondent spent USD18,000 a year, then a student who stayed for four years to take a college course spent USD72,000 (Macaranas & Alvez, 2006). The Bureau of Immigration (2011) reported that there were 11,612 South Koreans who were in the country as of August 2011. If each will spend USD18,000 a year, this will be about USD209,016,000.00 per year (or P8,569,656,000/ year using the exchange rate USD1: P41). Family members accompany most of the respondents (67.72%) during their stay in the Philippines. Of the 172 respondents who were

Percent

5.91 4.33 14.57 16.93 24.41 9.45 6.30 16.93

11 37 43 62 24 16 43 3

1.18

accompanied by their nuclear family members, 111 of them were accompanied by their mothers while only 78 were accompanied by their fathers (Table 4). During the researcher’s interviews, most of the respondents replied that their mothers influenced them to study in the Philippines and their fathers have remained in South Korea to earn the money to be remitted to the Philippines. The Korean nuclear families play crucial roles in the choice of foreign universities. They tend to accompany foreign students in their stay in foreign countries. This implies that the expenses of the Korean student and his family in the host country are likely to increase. This will boost the host country’s revenues. Promotional campaigns on education services should be targeted towards the Korean nuclear families. Family themes should be used (Nickerson & Moisey, 1999; Pritchard & Morgan, 1998; Pike, 2007).

Table 4 Nuclear Family Members with Respondents Mothers

Fathers

Sisters

Brothers

Without Mothers

61

Without Fathers

94

Without Sisters

103

Without Brothers

116

With Mothers

111

With Fathers

78

With Sisters

69

With Brother

56

Total

172

Total

172

Total

172

Total

172

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Table 5 Extended Family Members with Respondents in Philippines Aunts



Uncles

Grandparents

Without Aunts

144

Without Uncles

151

Without Grandparents

163

With Aunts

28

With Uncles

21

With Grandparents

9

Total

172

Total

172

Total

172

Table 6 How Did You Learn About the Philippines? Number RP Embassy in Seoul

Percent

6

2.36

Family

131

51.57

Friends

81

31.89

Students’ Fair in South Korea

20

7.87

Others

8

3.15

No Answer

8

3.15

Respondents also reported the presence of extended family members (Table 5). There are 28 respondents who are in the Philippines with their aunts, 21 respondents with their uncles, and nine are with their grandparents. Living with their extended family members is true for most Asian and Hispanic families (Peter & Olson, 2009). Results also showed that 52.82% of the respondents learned about the Philippines through their family (Table 6). Neither the internet nor student agencies, as in the case in other research studies (Malgras-Serra, 2009), were relied upon when South Koreans decide where to study overseas. It should also be noted that 81 respondents learned about the Philippines through their friends (Table 6). During interviews with respondents, it was revealed that these friends were former students from the Philippines. This implies that satisfied foreign students are best advertisements for the Philippines as a country where to study. Testimonies from these foreign

students can be used to promote the country. Joint efforts between the universities and the government to relay this information to the South Korean target market can further promote education services. The universities and the Philippine government should sustain efforts to join the education trade fairs in South Korea. This can be further enhanced by a website in Korean that shows that education services in the Philippines are excellent and affordable. Advertisements in Korean in popular websites such as Naver can also used to promote the Philippines. These advertisements can be targeted towards the family as it is a major social factor in deciding where to study overseas. Forty-four of the respondents have an average monthly family income in the range of USD70018000 (Table 7). If each student is likely to spend USD18,000/year (Macaranas & Alvez, 2006), the respondents’ income profiles imply that they have the financial resources to pay for educational services.

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Table 8 Do You Receive Remittance from South Korea?

Table 7 Average Monthly Family Income Income in US Dollars

Number

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Percent

Below 500

8

3.15

501-1000

5

1.97

1001-2000

14

5.51

2001-3000

25

9.84

3001-4000

34

13.39

4001-5000

20

7.87

5001-6000

20

7.87

6001-7000

27

10.63

7001-8000

44

17.32

8001-9000

23

9.05

9001 and above

12

4.72

No Answer

22

8.66

While foreign education is a product used solely by the student, family funds are used to purchase this. Majority of the respondents received remittances from their families in South Korea to finance their education (Table 8). Only 95 respondents finance their education with individual funds. All respondents used private funds to finance their education. Of the 150 respondents receiving remittances from South Korea, 33.47% receive a monthly remittance of below USD500 (Table 9). This supports studies that show that the cost of living in the Philippines for those studying English is USD350-USD500 a month (“Study in Philippines,” 2011). This presents evidence that the competitive advantage of the Philippines for education services will be its competitive price. Thus, the Philippines should adopt this positioning advantage. Using factor analysis, the 16 items that encouraged respondents to study in the Philippines were grouped into four factors (Table 10). These factors were Course Content, Facilities and Teachers (F1), Philippine Environment (multicultural environment, hospitable Filipinos,

Remittance from South Korea Yes No No Answer Total

Number

Percent

150 95 9 254

59.05 37.40 3.54 100

Table 9 Monthly Remittances in US Dollars from South Korea Amount Below 500 501-1000 1001-2000 More than 2000

Number 82 39 15 14

Percent 54.67 26.00 5.90 5.51

peaceful country, warm weather, four hours away from South Korea, and presence of Korean establishments) (F2), English Advantage (better job, travel overseas, and global language) (F3), and Cost and Practice Opportunities (F4). Of these 16 items, respondents ranked the item on “English is a global language” as the most important factor that encouraged them to study in the Philippines. Results also showed that respondents who have more family members staying with them in the Philippines tend to have higher satisfaction level for F2. This implies that South Koreans gravitate towards the family. As consumers, one of the social factors that will influence their behavior will be the family. Thus, media communications should target the family especially their parents as they decide where their children will study overseas. Respondents who have stayed longer in the Philippines tend to have higher satisfaction level for F2. This implies that there should be concerted efforts between the university and the Department of Tourism to make the stay of foreign students worthwhile so that they will stay longer.

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Table 10 Factors Encouraging Respondents to Study in the Philippines Item English is a global language. I can get a better job. English makes it easy to travel overseas. Knowledgeable teachers Conducive school facilities Cheaper to study in Philippines than Singapore, etc. Cheaper to study in Philippines than in South Korea Satisfactory course content Opportunities to practice everywhere in Philippines Teachers motivated me to learn. Multicultural environment Hospitable Filipinos Near South Korea Presence of Korean establishments Peaceful Warm Weather

Schools in the US charge foreign students higher tuition fees. DLSU-Manila charges the same tuition fees to local and foreign students. Thus, studying in the Philippines is affordable. Aside from using competitive price as an advantage for the Philippines, competent teachers (ranked 4th out of 16 items) and encouraging teachers (ranked 10th out of 16 items) can be another competitive advantage. These competitive advantages can be in the media materials in promoting the Philippines. Ratings for F1, F2, and F4 imply that respondents were satisfied with resources and capabilities. F1 referred to university resources and capabilities such as teachers, facilities, and courses while F2 and F4 referred to national resources and capabilities such as cheaper costs, opportunities to practice English everywhere, multicultural environment, hospitable Filipinos, presence of Korean establishments, and peaceful environment. It should be noted that a significant number of South Korean students did not like the

Factor Analysis Grouping

Mean

Rank

F3 F3 F3 F1 F1 F4 F4 F1 F4 F1 F2 F2 F2 F2 F2 F2

4.27 3.85 3.75 3.69 3.56 3.54 3.50 3.43 3.38 3.35 3.21 3.08 2.88 2.62 2.60 2.25

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

hot weather in the Philippines. This had the lowest ranking and a mean score of 2.25. The weather along with loneliness, cross-cultural adjustment, safety, traffic, transport, the inability to understand Tagalog as some professors speak Tagalog in classes and the Filipino accent in speaking English were the responses of South Korean students when asked what they did not like in studying in the Philippines. This imply that a student counsellor for foreign students or a Center for Foreign Students can be included as part of the university’s resources and capabilities. Counseling services for foreign students is important to identify any problems as promptly as possible (Bourke, 2000). Two hundred forty-six respondents or 97% did not have a pre-departure orientation before coming to the Philippines. Only four respondents had pre-departure orientation organized by the Filipino school representatives. This implies that there should be joint efforts by the universities and the Philippine government to promote the country’s education services through pre-

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departure orientation and education fairs. There is also a need to review the existing government policy where foreign students are given limited slots in tertiary education. To boost revenues from foreign students, the government policy that foreign students should not be more than 10% of the total enrolment in tertiary education should be liberalized if the Philippines will be a competitive education services provider in Asia. CONCLUSION The Bureau of Immigration records show that South Koreans have topped the list of foreign students in the Philippines. South Korean students have contributed to the Philippine economy through their tuition fees and living expenses. If each will spend a conservative estimate of USD18,000/year/student, this is about USD72,000 for four years that they will be in the Philippines should they pursue a college course. Considering that most respondents are accompanied by their families, this expense is likely to increase. The South Korean market can be a market niche for the Philippine educational services. Aside from the weather, language, and cultural adjustment, the respondents faced challenges in safety, transport, and traffic. In the universities, they faced challenges in the mixed use of Tagalog and English (Taglish) in classes and the Filipino accent in speaking English. The universities can have a student counselor for foreign students who will help them adjust to these challenges. As part of the university’s resources and capabilities, teachers can be encouraged to use English as the medium of instruction when there are foreign students. The Philippine government can also improve their resources and capabilities to improve transport, traffic, and safety in the country. Further, the government can relax the policy of giving limited slots to foreign students in tertiary education. The top five reasons that encouraged the respondents to choose the Philippines were knowledgeable teachers (F1), conducive facilities

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(F1), competitive cost (F4), satisfactory course content (F1), and encouraging teachers (F1). Competent teachers and competitive price should be the Philippine competitive advantage to attract the South Korean education services market. Media campaign to promote educational services can be targeted towards the family. As a social factor, the South Korean family is crucial in choosing educational services. Respondents who have stayed in the Philippines for a longer time tend to have higher satisfaction level. Thus, the universities and the Philippine Department of Tourism can have concerted efforts to make the stay of foreign students worthwhile. Future studies can include cost comparisons of studies in Singapore, Malaysia, and so forth. It can also consider other nationalities (Chinese, Japanese, etc.) and find out their reasons in choosing some universities and countries for their studies. REFERENCES Asis, M. M.B. (2008). The Philippines. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, 17(3-4), 349–378. Bourke, A. (2000). A model of the determinants of international trade in higher education. The Service Industries Journal, 20(1), 110–138. Bureau of Immigration. (2011). Koreans topped the list of foreign students in RP. Retrieved March 18, 2012 from http://www.immigration. gov.ph Findlay, C., & Tierney, W. (Eds.). (2010). Globalization and tertiary education in the Asia-Pacific: The changing nature of a dynamic market. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte Ltd. Habermann, H., Franchet, Y., Carson, C. S., Giovannini, E., Laurencin, H. & Jackson, R. (2002). Manual on Statistics of International Trade in Services. United Nations Publication. Kim, Y.-C. (2010). The Asia-Pacific education market and modes of supply. In C. Findlay & W. Tierney (Eds.). Globalization and tertiary education in the Asia-Pacific: The changing

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nature of a dynamic market (pp. 17-38). Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte Ltd. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development [OECD]. (2011). Education at a glance 2011. OECD Indicators. Paris, France: OECD. OECD (2004). Internationalization and Trade in Higher Education: Opportunities and Challenges. Paris, France: OECD. Macaranas, F., & Alvez, L. (2006). Competitiveness study on the education services of the Philippines. A paper Submitted to the Philippine Services Coalition/Department of Foreign Affairs, Manila, Philippines. Magno, C. (2010). Korean students’ learning language strategies and years of studying English as predictors of proficiency in English. Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages Journal, 2, 39–61. Malgras-Serra, A. (2009). Using private language schools as marketing tools for the tourism in Montreal, Canada (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Bournemouth University, UK. Nickerson, N. P., & Moisey, R. N. (1999). Branding a state from features to positioning: Making it simple? Journal of Vacation Marketing, 5(3), 217–226.

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Peter, P. J., & Olson, J. C. (2009). Consumer behavior and marketing strategy. USA: McGraw-Hill International Edition. Philippine ESL Tour Program. (n.d.). Retrieved August 11, 2011 from Department of Tourism website, www.tourism.gov.ph Pritchard, A., & Morgan, N. (1998). ‘Mood marketing’—the new destination branding strategy: A case of ‘Wales’ the brand. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 4(3), 215–229. Pike, S. D. (2007). Consumer-based brand equity for destinations: Practical DMO performance measures. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 22(1), 51–61. Saner, R., & Fasel, S. (2003). Negotiating trade in educational services within the WTO/GATS context. Aussenwirtschaft, 58 (2), 257–308. Study in Philippines.(2011). Study in Philippines. Retrieved 2011 from www.studyinphilippines. com. Tangas, J., & Calderon, A. (2004). The general agreement on trade in services and educational services: An Australian perspective. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 26(1), 123–128.

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ANNEX 1 Survey Form August 18, 2010 Dear Respondent: I am interested to know how you will assess Philippines as a country where to learn English as a second language. I will appreciate it very much if you can take time to answer this questionnaire. Please fill up the blanks or write X on the boxes corresponding to your answers. There are no right or wrong answers. We want your honest opinion. Your answers will be kept confidential. Kamsahamnida. Dr. Luz Suplico-Jeong Marketing Management Department, De La Salle University-Manila Telefax: 632 5671539 Email: [email protected] or [email protected] .Mobile 09189125960 Basic Socio-Economic Information (기본인적사항) 1.

Name (이름) ____________________________

2. Age (나이)____ Sex(성별) Female (여)____

Male (남)____

3. Address in Philippines (필리핀주소) ______________________________________ ______________________________________ ______________________________________ 4. Address in S Korea (한국주소) ______________________________________ _____________________________________ ______________________________________ 5.

Highest Educational Attainment. Please check one only.(최종학력, 하나만 답해주세요) College (대졸)__________________________ Graduate Studies(대학원졸)_______________ If you are a graduate student, please check if Masteral/MBA Level____ or DBA/Ph.D. level_____

6. Name of School in the Philippines (필리핀학교) ______________________________________ Course (전공 ) ______________________________________

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Please check one only: _____I am taking ESL only during my school break in S Korea (나는 한국방학기간동안 ESL 과정을 하고 있다. ) _____I am taking a regular course in a university or in an international school (나는 대학교 또는 국제학교에서 정기적인 영어 수업을 받고 있다. ). _____I am studying English to be used in a particular field (e.g. medicine, nursing, golf, etc.) _____Other option. Please specify (기타,구체적으로 설명해주세요 ______________________ ______________________________________ Who is/are the family members that are with you in the Philippines? _____mother (엄마) ____father (아빠) ____aunt (이모) ___uncle (삼촌) ___sister (언니,누나, 여동생 ) ____brother (형,오빠,남동생 ) ____grandparents ( 할머니,할아버지 ) _____no family member in the Philippines (필리핀에 거주하는 가족이 없음.)

9. Just for classification purposes, can you tick off your average monthly household income? (단순분류용으로, 댁의 한달평균 가구소득에 대략 체크해 주시겠습니까?)

below USD500____ USD501-USD1000____ USD1001-USD2000___ USD2001-USD3000___ USD3001-USD4000___ USD4001-USD5000___ USD5001-USD6000___ USD6001-USD7000___ USD7000-USD8000___ USD8001-USD9000___ USD9001 and above

Exchange Rates as of August 3, 2010: USD1.00: P45.10. USD1.00= Korean Won 1,170

10. Do you receive monthly remittances from South Korea? (한국에서 매달 용돈을 받습니까?) ___Yes ___No. If yes, please check one: below USD500_______ USD501-USD1000____ USD1001-USD2000___ More than USD2000_____ 11. How much do you spend monthly in US dollars? (달러로 한 달에 얼마나 씁니까?) below USD500____ USD501-USD1000____ USD1001-USD2000___ More than USD2000_____ 12. How long have you been in the Philippines? (얼마나 필리핀에서 거주하였습니까? ) ___less than a year ___1 year _____2 years ___3 years ____4 years ___5 years ____6 years ____more than 6 years B. Pre-Departure Situation (출발전 상황) 1. How did you learn about the Philippines as a country where you can learn English? 행사)____ Philippine Embassy in Seoul(주한 필리핀대사관) ____ Family (가족)____ Friends (친구)_____ Students’ Fair in S Korea _______Others. Please specify.________________________________(기타등은 구체적인 답변부탁드립니다.)

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2. Please check your mode of entry to the Philippines: (필리핀 입국형태에대해 체크해주세요) Student(학생)_____ tourist(여행자)____ others____.Please specify.______________________. (기타등은 구체적인 답변부탁드립니다.) 3. How much did you spend in going to the Philippines? Please use US Dollars. (필리핀에 가기위해 비용은 얼마나 쓰셨나요? 사용하셨던 비용에 대해 답변부탁드립니다.) Passport (여권)_______ Visa(비자)__________ Airfare (항공료)________ Others.Please specify. _________________________. (기타등은 구체적인 답변부탁드립니다.) 4. Did you face any pre-departure problems? Yes___ No___. (출발전 어떤문제에 직면한적 있나요?) if yes, please check: (만약있다면 체크해주세요) Visa(비자)____ Ticket(항공권)____ Lack of funds(자금부족)_____ Others. Please specify________________________________. (기타등은 구체적인 답변부탁드립니다.) 5. Did you receive any orientation prior to coming to the Philippines? Yes___ No ___ If yes, what did you learn_____________________________________________________________? (필리핀 오시기전 오리엔테이션 받으신적 있나요? 만약 있었다면, 무엇을 배우셨나요?). Who gave the orientation? ____Philippine Embassy in S Korea ____Philippine School Representative _______Others. Please specify.________________________________________________ C. Evaluation. Please indicate the level of agreement that most accurately reflects your opinion about learning English in the Philippines by encircling the appropriate number: 5 Strongly Agree, 4 Agree, 3 Neutral, 2 Disagree and 1 Strongly Disagree. (평가하시오. 필리핀에서 영어를 배우는 것에 대해 너의 의견들이 가장 정확한 것들을 반영하여, 각자의 맞는 숫자에 동그라미를 해줘서 표시해주세요. 5.매우 동의한다. 4. 동의한다 3. 보통 2. 동의하지 않는다. 1. 매우 동의하지 않는다.) Courses, Facilities and Teachers 1. The content of the course(s) are satisfactory. (교육과정에 만족한다.) Strongly Agree 5 4 3 2 1 Strongly Disagree 2. The school facilities are conducive to learning. ( 학교시설이 배우는데 도움을 준다. ) Strongly Agree 5 4 3 2 1 Strongly Disagree 3. The teachers are knowledgeable. (선생님들이 과목에 대해 잘 알고 있다.) Strongly Agree 5 4 3 2 1 Strongly Disagree 4. The teachers motivated me to learn. (선생님들이 나를 배우는 것에 대해 동기부여 해준다.) Strongly Agree 5 4 3 2 1 Strongly Disagree Philippines 5. I like studying English in the Philippines because it is cheaper than studying in S Korea. (나는 한국에서 영어공부하는 것보다 필리핀에서 영어공부하는 것이 더 비용이 적기 들기 때문에 필리핀에서 공부하는 것을 선호한다.) Strongly Agree 5 4 3 2 1 Strongly Disagree

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6. I like studying English in the Philippines because it is cheaper than in other countries (e.g. Singapore). ( 다른 나라에서 영어공부하는 것보다 필리핀에서 영어공부하는 것이 비용이 적기 때문에 필리핀에서 공부하는 것을 선호한다.) Strongly Agree 5 4 3 2 1 Strongly Disagree 7. I like studying English in the Philippines because there are opportunities to practice it everywhere (어디에서나 영어를 쓸 수 있는 기회를 가질 수 있기 때문에 필리핀에서 영어공부하는 것을 선호한다. ) Strongly Agree 5 4 3 2 1 Strongly Disagree 8. I like studying English in the Philippines because of its multicultural environment. (다문화 사람들의 환경 때문에 필리핀에서 영어공부하는 것을 선호한다.) Strongly Agree 5 4 3 2 1 Strongly Disagree 9. I like studying English in the Philippines because of hospitable Filipinos. (착한 필리핀 사람들 때문에, 필리핀에서 영어공부하는 것을 선호한다.) Strongly Agree 5 4 3 2 1 Strongly Disagree 10. I like studying English in the Philippines because it is peaceful. (평화롭기때문에, 필리핀에서 영어공부하는 것을 선호한다.) Strongly Agree 5 4 3 2 1 Strongly Disagree 11. I like studying English in the Philippines because of its warm weather. (날씨가 따뜻하기 때문에, 필리핀에서 영어공부하는 것을 선호한다.) Strongly Agree 5 4 3 2 1 Strongly Disagree 12. I like studying English in the Philippines because it is only 4 hours away from South Korea by plane. (한국에서 필리핀으로 비행기를 타고 4시간 밖에 소요되지 않기 때문에, 필리핀에서 영어공부하는 것을 선호한다. ) Strongly Agree 5 4 3 2 1 Strongly Disagree 13. I like studying English in the Philippines because there are Korean establishments such as restaurants, groceries, Internet café, etc.. (한국음식점, PC방, 마트 등과 같은 한국 건물들이 많기 때문에, 필리핀에서 영어 공부하는 것을 좋아한다.) Strongly Agree 5 4 3 2 1 Strongly Disagree Why Study English 14. I like studying English because I can get a better job. (내가 더 나은 직업을 가질수 있기 때문에, 영어 공부하는 것을 좋아한다.) Strongly Agree 5 4 3 2 1 Strongly Disagree 15. I like studying English because I want to travel overseas. (나는 전세계를 여행하고 싶기 때문에, 영어 공부하는 것을 좋아한다.) Strongly Agree 5 4 3 2 1 Strongly Disagree

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16. I like studying English because it is a global language. (영어가 세계 공용어이기 때문에 영어를 배우는 것을 좋아한다.) Strongly Agree 5 4 3 2 1 Strongly Disagree 17. What do you like about studying English in the Philippines? (필리핀에서 공부하는 것에 대해 무엇이 좋습니까?) __________________________________________________________________________________ 18. What don’t you like about studying English in the Philippines? (필리핀에서 영어 공부하는 것에 대해 무엇이 싫습니까?) ____________________________________________________________________________________ D. After Completing Your English Studies (너의 영어 공부를 마친 후에 ) 1. Do you plan to live in the Philippines after completing your English studies? (너의 영어공부를 마친 후에,필리핀에서 더 살 계획이 있으십니까?)

Yes _________

No__________.

2.

What recommendations can you give to the S Koreans who want to study English in the Philippines? (필리핀에서 영어 공부를 하고 싶어하는 한국인들에게 어떤 말 또는 추천을 해주시겠습니까?) ____________________________________________________________________________________ 3. You can write additional comments that you may have in the space below: (아래빈칸에 기타 부가적인 의견을 쓰실수 있습니다.) _________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________