State: KARNATAKA

Medium to deep black soil 170 39.9 ... Production and Average yield of Principal crops in Karnataka for 2008-09) ... Stake & trap nets) etc.) NA...

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State: KARNATAKA Agriculture Contingency Plan for District: DHARWAD 1.0 District Agriculture profile 1.1

1.2

Agro-Climatic/Ecological Zone Agro Ecological Sub Region (ICAR)

North Sahyadris and Western Karnataka Plateau , hot dry sub humid ecosubregion (6.4)

Agro-Climatic Region (Planning Commission)

Southern Plateau and Hills Region ( X )

Agro Climatic Zone (NARP)

Northern Transitional Zone ( KA-8)

List all the districts or part thereof falling under the NARP Zone

Dharwad , Belgaum, Haveri and Gadag

Geographic coordinates of district

Latitude

Longitude

Altitude

15º 15 ’ to 15º 35’ N

75º 00’ to 75º 20’ E

768 .0 m

Name and address of the concerned ZRS/ ZARS/ RARS/ RRS/ RRTTS

Main Agricultural Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad-580 005

Mention the KVK located in the district

Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Dharwad -580 005

Rainfall

Normal RF(mm)

Normal Rainy days (number)

Normal Onset ( specify week and month)

Normal Cessation (specify week and month)

SW monsoon (June 15th –oct 15th):

478

1 st week of June

NE Monsoon (Oct 15th –Dec 31st):

159

Winter (Jan- Febraury)

14

3 rd week of October -

-

Summer (Mar -May)

134

-

-

Annual

786

-

-

58

2 nd week of October 2 nd week of November

1.3

Land use pattern of the district (latest statistics)

Area (‘000 ha)

1. 4

1.5

Geographical area (000 ha)

427.3

Major Soils (common names like shallow red soils etc.,) Medium to deep black soil Red sandy loam soil /Shallow red soil Sandy soil Sandy loam Others (specify): Agricultural land use

Forest area

Land under nonagricultural use

35.2

21.7

Area (‘000 ha) 170 123 65 69 Area (‘000 ha)

Net sown area

308.2

Area sown more than once

196.7

Gross cropped area

504.8

Net sown area

Permanent pastures

3.6

2.7

Cultivable waste land

0.2

Land under Misc. tree crops and groves 4.0

Barren and uncultivable land

34.6

Current fallows

Other fallows

6.8

427.3

Percent (%) of total 39.9 28.9 15.2 16.1 Cropping intensity % 163.8

Source: Agricultural Census 2005-06, Directorate of Economics & Statistics

2

3

1.6

Irrigation

Area (‘000 ha)

Net irrigated area

51.3

Gross irrigated area

63.2

Rainfed area

256.9

Sources of Irrigation ( DSO) Canals

Number

Area (‘000 ha) 25.0

Percentage of total irrigated area 63.2

Tanks

0.1

0.2

Open wells Bore wells

-14.2

35.9

Lift irrigation 2.0 Micro-irrigation 4.2 Other sources 0.2 Total Irrigated Area 45.7 Pump sets 13940 No. of Tractors 4520 No. of blocks/ (%) area Groundwater availability and use* (Data Tehsils source: State/Central Ground water Department /Board) Over exploited Critical Semi- critical Safe Wastewater availability and use Ground water quality *over-exploited: groundwater utilization > 100%; critical: 90-100%; semi-critical: 70-90%; safe: <70% Source : Dharwad district at a glance 2008-09

0.7 100.0

4

1.7

Area under major field crops & horticulture etc. (2008-09)

1.7 Major Field Crops cultivated 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Cotton Chilli Bengal gram Sorghum Maize Groundnut Wheat Paddy Soybean Green gram Horticulture crops - Fruits

1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

Mango Sapota Guava Banana Horticultural crops - Vegetables Onion Potato Tomato Brinjal

Kharif Irrigated 0.1 18.5 0.1 3.5 0.01 0.02

Rainfed 10.0 51.0 11.6 20.1 40.3 29.2 27.5 13.5

Irrigated 0.8 12.5 3.2 2.3 9.6 -

Area (‘000 ha) Rabi Rainfed 60.3 37.0 33.3 0.5 28.7 Total area

Summer 0.4 0.4 0.7 0.1 -

Total 71.2 51.4 49.5 48.1 41.8 41.1 38.3 32.8 27.5 13.5

4.9 1.6 0.6 0.3 Total area 27 1.3 0.4 0.5

Medicinal and Aromatic crops Total area Source : Directorate of Economics and Statistics ( Final Estimates of Area, Production and Average yield of Principal crops in Karnataka for 2008-09)

5

1 2 3

1.8

Plantation crops Coconut Arecanut Black pepper Fodder crops Total fodder crop area Grazing land Sericulture etc Others (Specify)

Total area 0.4 0.01 0.01 Total area

Livestock Non descriptive Cattle (local low yielding) Crossbred cattle Non descriptive Buffaloes (local low yielding) Graded Buffaloes Goat

1.9

1.10

Male (‘000) 112.4

Female (‘000) 66.0

Total (‘000) 178.5

6.7

34.6

41.3

-

-

100.0

-

72.4

Sheep

57.1

Others (Pig + Dogs + Rabbit)

5.39

Commercial dairy farms (Number) Poultry Commercial Backyard Fisheries (Data source: Chief Planning Officer)

No. of farms

Total No. of birds (number) 391705

A. Capture i) Marine (Data Source:

No. of

Boats

Nets

Storage facilities (Ice plants

6

Fisheries Department)

Mechanized

fishermen

Nonmechanized

Mechanized (Trawl nets, Gill nets)

Non-mechanized (Shore Seines, Stake & trap nets)

etc.)

NA ii) Inland (Data Source: Fisheries Department)

No. Farmer owned ponds 14

No. of Reservoirs 1

No. of village tanks 579

B. Culture Water Spread Area (ha) i) Brackish water (Data Source: MPEDA/ Fisheries Department) ii) Fresh water (Data Source: Fisheries Department)

4.2

Yield (t/ha)

3.0

Production (‘000 tons)

12.6

Others

7

Production and Productivity of major crops (Average of last 5 years: 2004, 05, 06, 07, 08)

1.11 1.11

Name of crop

Rabi

Kharif Production ('000 t)

Productivity (kg/ha)

Production ('000 t)

Summer

Productivity (kg/ha)

Production ('000 t)

Total

Productivity (kg/ha)

Production ('000 t)

Productivity (kg/ha)

Crop residue as fodder (‘000 tons)

Major Field crops (Crops to be identified based on total acreage) 1

Maize

103.46

2682.0

8.22

3032.8

1.15

3223.3

112.8

2687.0

2 Paddy 61.01 1866.4 0 3 Bengal gram 0.0 0.0 25.24 4 Groundnut 24.93 617.0 0 5 Cotton 10714 bale 514.0 31949.0 6 Wheat 0 0 27.6 7 Greengram 3.4 254.0 0 8 Jowar 8.8 754.0 24.78 9 Soybean 17.4 634.0 0 Major Horticultural crops (Crops to be identified based on total acreage) Fruits 1 Citrus 2 Mango 3 Pomegranate 4 Sapota 5 Papaya Vegetables 1 Green Chillies * * * 2 Onion 39,880.00 20.99 4,136.00 3 Tomato 3,749.00 23.00 4,536.00 4 Brinjal * * * 5 Beans * * * Spice and Plantation crops

0 513.0 0 254.0 718.0 0 678.0 0

0.522 0.0 0.75 0 0 0 0 0

3873.0 0.0 1227.2 0 0 0 0 0

61.5 25.2 25.7 42663 bale 27.6 3.4 33.6 17.4

1873.0 513.0 625.0 326.0 718.0 254.0 696.0 634.0

* 22.00 54.00 * *

* 6,734.00 1,276.00 * *

* 26.00 22.00 * *

26,897.70 6,408.70 4,037.00 4,326.70 11,273.30

21.93 08.23 08.20 12.72 63.68

45,279.00 50,750.00 9,561.00 8,092.00 1,800.00

13.00 21.62 31.35 28.00 12.00

-

-

8

1 2 3 4 5 Flowers 1 2 3 4 5

Coconut Dry Chillies Fenugreek Coriander Tamarind

* * * -

* * * -

* * * -

* * * -

* * * -

* * * -

520.00 2,850.00 2,216.00 177.00 1,856.00

20.00 01.40 08.0 0.70 16.00

-

Marigold Jasmine Rose Chrysanthemum Crossandra

* * -

* * -

* * -

* * -

* * -

* * -

738.00 576.00 216.00 930.00 210.00

9.00 8.00 3.00 15.00 05.00

-

Source: Directorate of Economics and Statistics ( Final Estimates of Area, Production and Average yield of Principal crops in Karnataka )

1.12

Sowing window for 5 major field crops (start and end of normal sowing period)

Groundnut

Maize

Paddy

Kharif- Rainfed

1 week of June to 4 th week of July

1 st week of May to 4 th week of 4 th week of June

-

-

1 st week of June to I FN July

Kharif-Irrigated

1 st week of 1 st week of June to 4 th week of August

-

-

-

-

Rabi- Rainfed

-

-

1 st week to 4 th week of October

-

-

Rabi-Irrigated

1 st week of September to 4 th week of October

1 st week of October to 4 th week of November 1 st week of October to 4 th week of November

-

-

-

st

Bengalgram

Rabi Sorghum

Cotton

Soybean 1 st week of 1 st week of May to June to th 4 week of 2nd week of July July 1 st week of July to 4 th week of September

9

10

1.13

What is the major contingency the district is prone to? (Tick mark and mention years if known during the last 10 year period)

Regular

Occasional

---



-----



Cyclone

-----

---



Hail storm

---

---



Heat wave

---

---



Cold wave

---

---



Frost

---

---



Pests and diseases (specify)



-

Drought Flood

1.14

Sea water intrusion

-

-

Others

-

-

Include Digital maps of the district for

Location map of district within State as Annexure I

Enclosed: Yes

Mean annual rainfall as Annexure 2

Enclosed: Yes

Soil map as Annexure 3

Enclosed: Yes

None



11

12

AGROCLIMATIC ZONES OF KARNATAKA

Avg. of 1980-1990 Avg. of 1990-2000

160

Avg. of 2000-2008 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Jan -20

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

M ont hs

Fig.

: Rainfall pattern of Main Agricultural Research Station, Dharwad (1980-2008)

13

350

AGROCLIMATIC ZONES OF KARNATAKA 300

250

1. North Eastern Transition Zone 2. North Eastern Dry Zone 3. Northern Dry Zone 4. Central Dry Zone 5. Eastern Dry Zone 6. Southern Dry Zone 7. Southern Transition Zone 8. Northern Transition Zone 9. Hilly Zone 10. Coastal Zone

200

150

100

2004 2005 2006 2007 2008

50

0

-50 M ont h

Fig : Month wise rain fall distribution pattern of MARS, Dharwad( 2004-2008)

14

2.0 Strategies for weather related contingencies Source: NBSS & LUP

15

2.1

Drought

2.1.1 Rainfed situation Condition

Suggested Contingency measures

Early season drought (delayed onset)

Major Farming situation

Normal Crop/cropping system

Change in crop/cropping system

Agronomic measures

Remarks on Implementation

Delay by 2 weeks (June 3rd week)

Medium to deep black soils

Maize - Chickpea

Maize + Red gram and no other change in cropping system as the farmers has already decided and kept the inputs ready

No change

KSDA KSSC UASD

No change

-do-

Seed source : KSDA KSSC UASD

Rainfed drilled paddy situation

Condition Early season drought (delayed onset) Delay by 4 weeks (Specify month) July 1 week

Soybean - Rabi Jowar Groundnut – Rabi Jowar / Wheat Green gram-Rabi Jowar / Wheat Chilli + desi Cotton + Onion Hy. Cotton( Bt). Paddy - Green gram / Black green gram / Avare

Major Farming situation

Normal Crop/cropping system

Medium to deep black soil

Maize - Chickpea Soybean - Rabi Jowar Groundnut – Rabi Jowar / Wheat Green gram-Rabi Jowar/ Wheat Chilli + desi Cotton + Onion

Suggested Contingency measures Change in crop/cropping system Agronomic measures Avoid green gram –rabi Jowar Cropping sequence. Continued upto July 15th Maize + Redgram (4:2) Groundnut + Redgram (4:2)

Ridges and furrows method of sowing.

Remarks on Implementatio n Seed source : KSDA KSSC UASD In place of GPBD 4 use JL 24

16

Hy. Cotton ( Bt). Rainfed drilled paddy situation

Condition Early season drought (delayed onset) Delay by 6 weeks July 3rd week

Paddy - Green gram / Black green gram / Avare

Major Farming situation

Normal Crop/cropping system

Medium to deep black soil

Maize- Chickpea Soybean- Rabi Jowar Groundnut - R. Jowar / Wheat

No change

Normal

Seed source : KSDA KSSC

Suggested Contingency measures Change in Agronomic measures Remarks on crop/cropping system Implementation Avoid green gram, groundnut and soybean based on cropping systems Sunflower hybrids- chickpea

Reduce Bt cotton spacing to 60 cm x 60 cm . Seed pelletting

Go for short duration varieties, viz; Amrut, MGD-101, MTU-1001 in low lands. Go for Sun hemp and fodder Maize in mid lands.

Normal

Seed source : KSDA KSSC UASD CAUTION: Cotton sowing beyond June 15th leads to reduction in yield.

Green gram-Rabi Jowar/ Wheat

Chilli + desi Cotton + Onion Hy. Cotton( Bt). Rainfed drilled paddy situation

Condition Early season drought (delayed onset)

Major Farming situation

Paddy - Greengram / Black greengram / Avare.

Normal Crop/cropping system

Seed source : KSDA KSSC UASD

Suggested Contingency measures Change in Agronomic measures Remarks on crop/cropping system Implementation

17

Delay by 8 weeks August 1st week

Medium to deep black soil

Maize- Chickpea Soybean- Rabi Jowar Groundnut – Rabi Jowar / Wheat Green gram-Rabi Jowar/ Wheat Chilli + desi Cotton + Onion Hy. Cotton ( Bt).

Avoid green gram, groundnut and soybean based on cropping systems

Adopt 60 x 60 cm spacing for Bt cotton Seed palletting Compartment bunding

Sunflower hybridschickpea

Seed source : KSDA KSSC

Fallow-Rabi sorghum Field bean Little millet

Rainfed drilled paddy situation

Paddy - Green gram / Black green gram/ Avare

Go for short duration varieties, viz; Amrut, MGD-101, MTU-1001 in low lands. Sunhemp and fodder Maize in mid lands.

Normal

Seed source : KSDA KSSC UASD

18

Condition Early season drought (Normal onset)

Normal onset followed by 15-20 days dry spell after sowing leading to poor germination/crop stand etc.

Major Farming situation

Normal Crop/cropping system

Crop management

Medium to deep black soil

Maize- Chickpea

Thinning and gap filling

Soybean- Rabi Jowar

Suggested Contingency measures Soil nutrient & moisture Remarks on conservation measues Implementation

Conservation furrows, Frequent intercultivation mulching

Supply of implements through RKVY Seed source : KSDA KSSC UASD

Intercultivation and withholding of fertilizer application till dry spell is over

-

Re-sowing Groundnut- Rabi Jowar / Wheat Green gram -Rabi Jowar/ Wheat Chilli + desi Cotton + Onion Hy. Cotton( Bt). Rainfed drilled paddy situation

Paddy - Green gram / Black green gram/ field bean

19

Condition Mid season drought (long dry spell, consecutive 2 weeks rainless (>2.5 mm) period)

At vegetative stage

Suggested Contingency measures Soil nutrient & Remarks on moisture Implementation conservation measures

Major Farming situation

Normal Crop/cropping system

Crop management

Medium to deep black soil

Maize - Chickpea

Thinning of alternate rows. Spraying of anti- transpirants Weed control

Surface mulching. Foliar application of N & K (2 %), protective irrigation if available.

Weed control

Intercultivation. Foliar application of N &K

Soybean - R. Jowar Groundnut – Rabi Jowar / Wheat Green gram -Rabi Jowar/ Wheat Chilli + desi Cotton + Onion Hy. Cotton( Bt). Rainfed drilled paddy situation

Condition Mid season drought (long dry spell)

Paddy - Green gram / Black green gram/ field bean

Major Farming situation

Normal Crop/cropping system

Medium to deep

Maize - Chickpea

Suggested Contingency measures Soil nutrient & Remarks on moisture Implementation conservation measues Intercultivation Farm pond through Foliar application of N & K ( Compartment

Crop management

20

At flowering/ fruiting stage

black soil

Chilli + desi Cotton + Onion

Intercultivation Compartment bunding in early harvested crop Intercultivation Compartment bunding in early harvested crop Intercultivation Compartment bunding in early harvested crop -

Hy. Cotton( Bt).

-

Soybean- Rabi Jowar

Groundnut- R. Jowar / Wheat

2%), Harvesting Maize for fodder purpose Go for early rabi sowing Protective irrigation

Green gram-Rabi Jowar/ Wheat

Rainfed drilled paddy situation Condition Terminal drought

Major Farming situation Medium to deep black soil

Paddy - Green gram / Black green gram/ field bean

Plant protection measures for sucking/defoliators/cutworms

Foliar application of N & K Suggested Contingency measures Rabi Crop planning

Normal Crop/cropping system

Crop management

Maize- Chickpea

Harvesting early at physiological maturity and plan for early rabi cropping. In case of maize, go for green cob/ fodder purpose

Soybean- Rabi Jowar

INSM

Rabi Sorghum Chickpea Wheat

Remarks on Implementation Farm pond Threshing implants through RKVY

Safflower Wheat + Safflower/ Chickpea( 4:2) Rabi Sorghum + Chickpea / Linseed( mixed cropping)

21

Rabi Sorghum Chickpea Wheat safflower

Groundnut- R. Jowar / Wheat

Rabi Sorghum Chickpea Wheat safflower -

Green gram-Rabi Jowar/ Wheat

Chilli + desi Cotton + Onion Hy. Cotton ( Bt).

Rainfed drilled paddy situation

Paddy - Green gram / Black green gram/ field bean

Harvesting early at physiological maturity

Green gram Black gram Field bean

22

2.1.2

Irrigated situation

Condition Delayed release of water in canals due to low rainfall

Major Farming situation Canal irrigated black soil

Normal Crop/cropping system

Suggested Contingency measures Change in crop/cropping system Agronomic measures

Maize - Chickpea

Sunflower-Chickpea

Maize- Wheat

Sunflower-Wheat

Hy. Cotton ( Bt).

Maize- Chickpea

Remarks on Implementation

Alternate furrow irrigation Mulching Ridges and furrows

Maize- Wheat Hy. Cotton ( Bt.)

Condition Limited release of water in canals due to low rainfall

Major Farming situation Canal irrigated black soil

Normal Crop/cropping system Maize - Chickpea

Maize- Wheat Hy. Cotton ( Bt).

Suggested Contingency measures Change in crop/cropping Agronomic measures system Sunflower-Chickpea Alternate furrow irrigation Green gram- R. Jowar/ Mulching Wheat/Chickpea/Safflower Sunflower / Chickpea No change

Remarks on Implementation

Deep Intercultivation Foliar application of N & K -do-

23

Condition Non release of water in canals under delayed onset of monsoon in catchment

Major Farming situation Canal irrigated black soil

Normal Crop/cropping system Maize - Chickpea

Chilli + Onion+ Jayadhar Cotton Sunflower-Safflower/Chickpea

Early sowing Intercultivation

Maize- Wheat

Fallow-Sunflower/ Chickpea/ Safflower/R.Sorghum Fallow-Sunflower/ Chickpea/ Safflower/R.Sorghum

-do-

Hy. Cotton ( Bt)

Condition Lack of inflows into tanks due to insufficient /delayed onset of monsoon

Major Farming situation

Normal Crop/cropping system

Drill sown paddy

Paddy

Condition Major Farming situation Insufficient groundwater recharge due to low rainfall

Suggested Contingency measures Change in crop/cropping system Agronomic measures

Normal Crop/cropping system

Medium deep black Soils,

Maize

Loamy/laterite soils

paddy

Suggested Contingency measures Change in crop/cropping Agronomic measures system Go in for mixed cropping Maize

Remarks on Implementation

Paddy + Sorghum / Mai

Remarks on Implementation The component crops will give sustainable yield in total

Suggested Contingency measures Change in crop/cropping Agronomic measures system

Remarks on Implementation

Groundnut

Use of sprinjlers, Adopt ridges-furrow method of irrigation

Maize

24

Condition Major Farming situation

Normal Crop/cropping system

Suggested Contingency measures Change in crop/cropping Agronomic measures system

Remarks on Implementation

Any other condition (specify)

2.2 Unusual rains (untimely, unseasonal etc) (for both rainfed and irrigated situations) Condition Continuous high rainfall in a short span leading to water logging Maize Soybean Green gram Groundnut Paddy

Suggested contingency measure Vegetative stage Drain out excess water Top dress the crop with N & K Intercultivation & weeding Plant protection measures Spraying of growth retardants

Hy. Cotton

Flowering stage Drain out excess water Top dress the crop with N & K. Hormonal spray for retention of flower in Hy. Cotton. Staking in maize& paddy. Plant protection measures, particularly use of fungicides in cotton, chillies.

Drain out excess water. Harvest at physiological maturity. Proper dying. Spraying of fungicides to protect quality of grain. Prophylactic against store grain pests. Staking in maize& paddy.

Post harvest Proper drying and storage of grains

De-top maize

Chilli + Cotton Horticulture -Fruits Citrus

Providing drainage trench (1.5 cu. ft) across the slope

Mango

Providing drainage trench (1.5 cu. ft) across the slope and spray of 10 ppm NAA

Pomegranate

Providing drainage trench (1.5 cu. ft) across the slope

Sapota

Crop maturity stage

-do-

-do-

Storing in Cold storage -do-

-

25

Papaya Vegetable crops Green Chillies Onion

Providing drainage trench (1.5 cu. ft) across the slope

Application of 10 ppm NAA spray

Providing drainage trench (1.5 cu. ft) across the slope

Providing drainage trench (1.5 cu. ft) across the slope

Tomato

Application of 10 ppm NAA spray

Brinjal

Application of 10 ppm NAA spray

Beans Spice and Plantation Crops Coconut

-do-

Providing drainage trench (1.5 cu. ft) across the slope

Fenugreek

Providing drainage trench (1.5 cu. ft) across the slope -do-

Tamarind Flowers Marigold

Store in well ventilated structure

Providing drainage trench (1.5 cu. ft) across the slope Application of 10 ppm NAA spray

-do-

2000 ppm of MH spray 15 days before the harvest to control sprouting in storage

-

Application of 10 ppm NAA spray

Dry Chillies

Coriander

-

-doProviding drainage trench (1.5 cu. ft) cross the slope

Providing drainage trench (1.5 cu. ft)across the slope

-do-

-do-

Jasmine Rose Chrysanthemum Crossandra

26

Heavy rainfall with high speed winds in a short span2 Maize Soybean

Drain out excess water Top dress the crop with N & K Intercultivation & weeding Plant protection measures Spraying of growth retardants

Green gram Groundnut

Drain out excess water Top dress the crop with N & K. Hormonal spray for retention of flower in Hy. Cotton. Staking in maize& paddy. Plant protection measures- particularly use of fungicides in cotton, chillies.

Paddy Horticulture Fruits Citrus

Providing drainage trench (1.5 cu. ft) across the slope and providing support with locally available material at the initial stage of the crop

Drain out excess water. Harvest at physiological maturity. Proper dying. Spraying of fungicides to protect quality of grain. Prophylactic against store grain pests. Staking in maize& paddy De-top maize

Proper drying and storage of grains

Storing in Cold storage

-do-

-do-

Mango

Providing drainage trench (1.5 cu. ft) across the slope

Providing drainage trench (1.5 cu. ft) across the slope

Pomegranate

Providing drainage trench (1.5 cu. ft) across the slope and application of 10 ppm NAA spray

-do-

Storing in Cold storage

Providing drainage trench (1.5 cu. ft) across the slope and application of 10 ppm NAA spray

-do-

-

Providing drainage trench (1.5 cu. ft) across the slope and application of 10 ppm NAA spray

-do-

-

-

-

Sapota

-do-

Papaya Vegetable crops Green Chillies

Onion

Providing drainage trench (1.5 cu. ft) across the slope -do-

-

Application of 10 ppm NAA spray

Providing drainage trench (1.5 cu. ft) across the slope

Tomato

Application of 10 ppm NAA spray

Brinjal

Application of 10 ppm NAA spray

2000 ppm of MH spray 15 days before the harvest to control sprouting in storage

Store in well ventilated structure

-

27

Beans Spice and Plantation Crops Coconut Dry Chillies Fenugreek Coriander Tamarind Flowers Marigold Jasmine Rose Chrysanthemum Crossandra

Providing drainage trench (1.5 cu. ft) across the slope

Providing drainage trench (1.5 cu. ft) across the slope

-

Providing drainage trench (1.5 cu. ft) across the slope

Providing drainage trench (1.5 cu. ft) across the slope

-

-do-

Application of 10 ppm NAA spray

Providing drainage trench (1.5 cu. ft) across the slope

Providing drainage trench (1.5 cu. ft) across the slope

-do-

Providing drainage trench (1.5 cu. ft) across the slope

-do-

Providing drainage trench (1.5 cu. ft) across the slope

Providing drainage trench (1.5 cu. ft)across the slope

Providing drainage trench (1.5 cu. ft) cross the slope

-do-do-do-doVegetative stage

-do-do-do-doFlowering stage

Crop maturity stage

Post harvest

Outbreak of pests and diseases due to unseasonal rains Maize

Plant Protection measures for TLB (Mancozeb 2.5g/l)

PP measures for Stalk rot/rust//TLB by spraying Hexaconazole @ 0.1 %

-

28

Hy cotton

Plant Protection measures for Mirid bug (acephate 1g/l) particularly use of fungicides in cotton, chillies.

PP measures for Reddening (MgSO4 1% 10g/l)/Mirid bug (acephate 1g/l)

Soybean

PP measures for Defoliators

PP measures for rust by spraying Hexaconazole @ 0.1 %

PP measures for rust by spraying Hexaconazole @ 0.1 %

Green gram

PP measures for Anthracnose, Powdery mildew

PP measures for Defoliators Spray Monocrotophos (0.1%)1.0 ml/lit

For Powdery mildew control spray (Mancozeb 2.5g/l)

PP measures for Seedling rot/wilt/defoliators

Plant Protection for Seedling rot /wilt (Captan 2g/kg seed treatment) /defoliators ([email protected] 2ml/l)

PP measures for LLS/wilt (Chlorothaloni 0.2 %)

Pruning of dried and dead twigs for better aeration and sunlight Spraying of COC 0.2 % + Streptomycine sulphate 0.5 g/l. of water

Spraying of COC 0.2 % + Streptomycine sulphate 0.5 g/l. of water

Spraying of COC 0.2 % + Streptomycine sulphate 0.5 g/l. of water

Spraying of NSKE (5.0 %) + imidacloprid 0.5 ml/l

Spraying of NSKE (5.0 %) + imidacloprid 0.5 ml/l

-

Powder mildew: Spraying of hexaconazole @ 1.0 ml/l

Powder mildew: Spraying of hexaconazole @ 1.0 ml/l

Powder mildew: Spraying of hexaconazole @ 1.0 ml/l

Mango hoppers : Spraying of carbaryl @ 4.0 g/l

Spraying of carbaryl @ 4.0 g/l

Mango hoppers : Spraying of carbaryl @ 4.0 g/l

Groundnut / Rabi Sorghum/Chickpea/Wheat Horticulture Fruits Citrus Citrus canker

Leaf minor Mango

Removal of the disease affected fruits form the produce and pack in well ventilated package

29

Pomegranate Wilt: Spraying of Chloryriphos 0.2 % + Propiconazole 0.2 %+ Bioagents (P. Fluroescens, T. harzianum

Bacterial blight: Schedules of spraying consisting of UAS, Dharwad package

Wilt: Spraying of Chloryriphos 0.2 % + Propiconazole 0.2 %+ Bioagents (P. Fluroescens, T. harzianum Bacterial blight: Schedules of spraying consisting of UAS, Dharwad package Anar Butterfly : Application of NSKE 5 % + spraying of cypremethrin/ imidacloprid 0.05 %

Bacterial blight:

Schedules of spraying consisting of UAS, Dharwad package

Anar Butterfly : Application of NSKE 5 % + spraying of cypremethrin/ imidacloprid 0.05 %

Sapota

Leaf spot : Spraying of Mancozeb @ 2.0 g/l Papaya Ring spot virus : Remove affected plants and burn .Spraying systemic insecticide for the control of vectors

Ring spot virus : Remove affected plants and burn .Spraying systemic insecticide for the control of vectors

Ring spot virus : Remove affected plants and burn .Spraying systemic insecticide for the control of vectors

Spraying systemic insecticide like dimethoate (1.7 ml/l) and imidacloprid 0.05 %

-

Vegetable crops Green Chillies Murda complex

Spraying systemic insecticide like dimethoate (1.7 ml/l) and imidacloprid 0.05 %

Onion Thrips :Spraying of dimethoate @ 1.7 ml/l and for Purple blotch : Spraying of Mancozeb @ 2.0 g/l Tomato Thrips and mites : Spraying of Oxydemeton methyl @ 1.0 ml/l Brinjal

30

Fruit and shoot borer

Application of Neem cake @ 250 kg /ha at the time of transplanting Later two applications at the same concentrations has to be applied the once in a month 2-3 Sprayings of carbaryl @ 4.0 /l with 15 days interval starting from 15 days before flowering.

Application of Neem cake @ 250 kg /ha at the time of transplanting Later two applications at the same concentrations has to be applied the once in a month 2-3 Sprayings of carbaryl @ 4.0 /l with 15 days interval starting from 15 days before flowering.

2-3 Sprayings of carbaryl* @ 4.0 /l with 15 days interval starting from 15 days before flowering.

Collect the infected fruits from produce and destroy

* Harvesting should be done 10-15 days after spraying

Beans Fruit borer : Spraying of Carbaryl @ 4.0 g/l of water Mosiac: Spraying of systemic insecticide to control vectors Mosiac: Spraying of systemic insecticide to control vectors Flowers Marigold Sucking pests : Spraying of systemic insecticides Jasmine Powdery mildew Powdery mildew : Spraying with Oxythioquinox (Moreston) @ 2 .0 g/l Mites : Spraying of Dicofole @ 2.5 ml /l of water Rose Sucking pests and flower bud borer : Spraying of Systemic insecticide Powdery mildew: Spraying of Carbendizim @ 1 g/l

Chrysanthemum Thrips : Spraying of systemic insecticides

31

Crossandra

2.3

Sucking pests : Spraying of systemic insecticide Root rot: Drenching with Carbendizim @1.0 g/l

Floods

Condition Transient water logging/ partial inundation Maize Soybean Green gram Groundnut Paddy Hy. Cotton Chilli + Cotton Horticulture Fruit Crops Citrus

Suggested contingency measure Seedling / nursery stage

At harvest

Drain out excess water Top dressing nitrogen Intercultivation & weeding Plant protection measures

Drain out excess water Topdressing Plant protection measures Harvesting at physiological maturity stage.

Drain out excess water, Harvesting and drying of produce

Providing drainage trench (1.5 cu. ft) across the slope

Providing drainage trench (1.5 cu. ft) across the slope and application of 10 ppm NAA spray Providing drainage trench (1.5 cu. ft) across the slope Providing drainage trench (1.5 cu. ft) across the slope and application of 10 ppm NAA spray -do-

Providing drainage trench (1.5 cu. ft) across the slope

Storing in Cold storage

Pomegranate -do-

Onion

Reproductive stage

Drain out excess water Top dressing Intercultivation & weeding Plant protection measures

Mango

Sapota Papaya Vegetable Crops Green Chillies

Vegetative stage

Providing drainage trench (1.5 cu. ft) across the slope Providing drainage trench (1.5 cu. ft) across the slope

Application of 10 ppm NAA spray Providing drainage trench (1.5 cu. ft) across the slope

-doProviding drainage trench (1.5 cu. ft) across the slope

2000 ppm of MH spray 15 days before the harvest to

Storing in Cold storage

Store in structure

well

ventilated

32

control sprouting in storage Tomato -doBrinjal Beans Spice and Plantation Crops Coconut

-do-do-

Coriander

-do-

Tamarind Flowers Marigold

-do-

Providing drainage trench (1.5 cu. ft) across the slope Application of 10 ppm NAA spray Providing drainage trench (1.5 cu. ft) across the slope Providing drainage trench (1.5 cu. ft) across the slope -do-

Providing drainage trench (1.5 cu. ft) across the slope -do-do-do-do-

Providing drainage trench (1.5 cu. ft) across the slope -do-do-do-do-

Re-sowing Draining the excess water in sunflower, groundnut, Bt.cotton. Avoid green gram, black gram, soybean

Drain out excess water Top dressing Intercultivation Re-sowing with suitable crop like maize, sunflower in the vent of crop failure

Providing drainage trench (1.5 cu. ft) across the slope

Providing drainage trench (1.5 cu. ft) across the slope and

Dry Chillies Fenugreek

Jasmine Rose Chrysanthemum Crossandra Continuous submergence for more than 2 days2 Maize Soybean Green gram Groundnut Paddy Hy. Cotton Chilli + Cotton Fruit Crops Citrus

Providing drainage trench (1.5 cu. ft) across the slope -do-

Application of 10 ppm NAA spray Application of 10 ppm NAA spray -

-do-

-

Drain out excess water Topdressing Plant protection measures Harvesting at physiological maturity stage

Providing drainage trench (1.5 cu. ft) across the slope

Drain out excess water, Harvesting and drying of produce

Storing in Cold storage

33

Mango Pomegranate -doSapota Papaya Vegetable Crops Green Chillies

Providing drainage trench (1.5 cu. ft) across the slope

Onion Tomato Brinjal Beans Spice and Plantation Crops Coconut Dry Chillies

-do-

Providing drainage trench (1.5 cu. ft) across the slope Providing drainage trench (1.5 cu. ft) across the slope

Fenugreek Coriander Tamarind Flowers Marigold Jasmine Rose Chrysanthemum

-do-

application of 10 ppm NAA spray Providing drainage trench (1.5 cu. ft) across the slope Providing drainage trench (1.5 cu. ft) across the slope and application of 10 ppm NAA spray -doApplication of 10 ppm NAA spray Providing drainage trench (1.5 cu. ft) across the slope

-do-do-

2000 ppm of MH spray 15 days before the harvest to control sprouting in storage

Store in structure

well

ventilated

Application of 10 ppm NAA spray Application of 10 ppm NAA spray Providing drainage trench (1.5 cu. ft) across the slope Application of 10 ppm NAA spray Providing drainage trench (1.5 cu. ft) across the slope -do-

Providing drainage trench (1.5 cu. ft) across the slope

Providing drainage trench (1.5 cu. ft) across the slope -do-

-do-

34

Crossandra Sea water intrusion

2.4 Extreme events: Heat wave / Cold wave/Frost/ Hailstorm /Cyclone Suggested contingency measurer

Extreme event type Seedling / nursery stage

Vegetative stage

Reproductive stage

At harvest

Heat Wave Cold wave Frost

NOT APPLICABLE

Hailstorm Cyclone

35

2.5.

Contingent strategies for Livestock, Poultry & Fisheries

2.5.1

Livestock Suggested contingency measures

Drought Feed and Fodder availability

Before the event

During the event

After the event

As the district is frequently prone for drought, it should have reserves (feeding 5000 ACU (maintenance ration) for about 1-3 weeks period) of the following at any point of the year for mobilization to the needy areas Silage:20-50 t Urea molasses mineral bricks (UMMB):50100 t Hay:100-250 t Concentrates: 20-50 t Minerals and vitamin supplements mixture:1-5 t Top dressing of N in 2-3 split doses @ 20-25 kg N/ha in CPRs with the monsoon pattern for higher biomass production Increase area under short duration fodder crops of sorghum/bajra/maize(UP chari, MP chari, HC-136, HD-2, GAINT BAJRA, L-74, K-677, Ananad/African Tall, Kisan composite, Moti, Manjari, B1-7 Chopping of fodder should be made as mandatory in every village through supply and establishment of good quality crop cutters. Avoid burning of maize stover Harvesting and collection of perennial vegetation particularly grasses which grow during monsoon Proper drying, bailing and densification of harvested grass

Harvest and use all the failed crop (Maize, Rice, Bengal gram, Groundnut, Wheat, green gram, jowar, soyabean) material as fodder. Harvest the top fodder (Neem, Subabul, Acasia, Pipol etc) and unconventional feeds resources available and use as fodder for livestock (LS). Available feed and fodder should be cut from CPRs and stall fed in order to reduce the energy requirements of the animals Supply silage / hay to farmers having productive stock on subsidized rates Mild drought: hay should be transported to the drought affected villages Moderate drought: hay, silage and vitamin & minerals mixture should be transported to the drought affected villages Severe drought: UMMB, hay, concentrates and vitamin & mineral mixture should be transported to the drought affected villages. All the hay should be enriched with 2% Urea molasses solution or 1% common salt solution and fed to LS Herd should be split and supplementation should be given only to the highly productive and breeding animals during severe drought Provision of emergency grazing/feeding (Cowcalf camps or other special arrangements to protect high productive & breeding stock) Encourage mixing available kitchen waste with

Short duration fodder crops of Sorghum / Bajra / Maize (UP Chari, Pusa Chari, HC136, HD-2/Rajkoo, Gaint Bajra, L-74, K6677, Ananand / African tall, Kissan composite, Moti, Manjari, BI-7) should be sown in unsown and crop failed areas Capacity building to stake holders on drought/flood mitigation in livestock sector Flushing the stock to recoup Replenish the feed and fodder banks

36

Creation of permanent fodder, feed and fodder seed banks in all drought prone villages Capacity building and preparedness of the stakeholders and official staff for the unexpected events

Cyclone

NA

Floods

In case of early forewarning (EFW), harvest all the crops (Maize, Rice, Bengal gram, Groundnut, Wheat, green gram, jowar, soyabean) that can be useful as fodder/feed in future (store properly) Don’t allow the animals for grazing if severe floods are forewarned Procure and stock water sanitizing tablets Motivate the farmers to store a minimum required quantity of hay (25-50kg) and concentrates (25kgs) per animals in farmer / LS keepers house / shed for feeding animals during floods Arrangement for transportation of animals from low lying area to safer places and also for rescue animal health workers to get involve in rescue operations

Heat & Cold wave Health and Disease manageme nt

NA Timely vaccination (as per enclosed vaccination schedule) against all endemic diseases Procure and stock emergency medicines vaccines for important endemic diseases of the area Surveillance and disease monitoring network to be established at Joint Director (Animal Husbandry) office in the district

dry fodder while feeding to the milch animals Arrangements should be made for mobilization of small ruminants across the districts where no drought exits Unproductive livestock should to be culled during severe drought Create transportation and marketing facilities for the culled and unproductive animals (1000020000 animals) Subsidized loans (5-10 crores) should be provided to the livestock keepers

Transportation of animals to elevated areas Stall feeding of animals with stored hay and concentrates Let loose the animals in shed Proper hygiene and sanitation of the animal shed In severe floods, un-tether or let loose the animals Emergency outlet establishment for required medicines or feed in each village Spraying of fly repellants in animal sheds

Repair of animal shed Bring back the animals to the shed Cleaning and disinfection of the shed Bleach (0.1%) drinking water / water sources Deworming with broad spectrum dewormers Vaccination against possible disease out breaks like HS, BQ, FMD and PPR Proper disposable of the dead animals / carcasses by burning / deep burying (4-8 feet) with lime powder (1kg for small ruminants and 5kg for large ruminants) in pit Drying the harvested crop material and proper storage for use as fodder.

Carryout deworming to all animals entering into relief camps Identification and quarantine of sick animals Constitution of Rapid Action Veterinary Force Performing ring vaccination (8 km radius) in case of any outbreak Restricting movement of livestock in case of any

Keep close surveillance on disease outbreak. Undertake the vaccination depending on need Keep the animal houses clean and spray disinfectants Farmers should be advised to breed their milch animals during JulySeptember so that the peak milk production

37

epidemic Rescue of sick and injured animals and their treatment Organize with community daily lifting of dung from relief camps

does not coincide with mid summer

Submission for insurance claim and availing insurance benefit Purchase of new productive animals Bleach (0.1%) drinking water / water sources Provide clean drinking water

Insurance

Encouraging insurance of livestock

Listing out the details of the dead animals

Drinking water

Identification of water resources Rain water harvesting and create water bodies/watering points (when water is scarce use only as drinking water for animals) Construction of drinking water tanks in herding places/village junctions/relief camp locations

Restrict wallowing bodies/resources

of

animals

in

water

Vaccination schedule in small ruminants (Sheep & Goat) Disease Foot and mouth disease (FMD) PPR Black quarter (BQ) Enterotoxaemia (ET) Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) Sheep pox (SP)

Season Preferably in winter / autumn All seasons, preferably in June-July May / June May March / June December / march

38

Vaccination programme for cattle and buffalo:

Disease Anthrax HS BQ FMD

Age and season at vaccination In endemic areas only, Feb to May May to June May to June November to December

2.5.2

Poultry

Before the eventa Drought Shortage ingredients

of

feed

Drinking water Health and management

Floods Shortage ingredients

of

Storing of house hold grain like maize, broken rice, bajra etc, Culling of weak birds Rain water harvesting

Suggested contingency measures During the event Supplementation only for productive birds with house hold grain Supplementation of shell grit (calcium) for laying birds Sanitation of drinking water

disease

Culling of sick birds. Deworming and vaccination against RD and fowl pox

Mixing of Vit. A,D,E, K and B-complex including vit C in drinking water

feed

In case of EFW, shift the birds to safer place Storing of house hold grain like maize, broken rice, bajra etc, Culling of weak birds

Use stored feed as supplement Don’t allow for scavenging

After the event Supplementation to all

Give sufficient water as per the bird’s requirement Hygienic and sanitation of poultry house Disposal of dead birds by burning / burying with line powder in pit

Routine practices are followed

39

Drinking water Health and management

disease

Cyclone Heat wave and cold wave

Provide clean drinking water

Sanitation of drinking water

Sanitation of drinking water

In case of EFW, add antibiotic powder in drinking water to prevent any disease outbreak

Sanitation of poultry house Treatment of affected birds Prevent water logging surrounding the sheds Assure supply of electricity Sprinkle lime powder to prevent ammonia accumulation due to dampness

Disposal of dead birds by burning / burying with line powder in pit Disposal of poultry manure to prevent protozoal problem Supplementation of coccidiostats in feed Vaccination against RD

NA NA

2.5.3 Fisheries/ Aquaculture: Suggested contingency measures Before the eventa

During the event

After the event

No intervention

No intervention

No intervention

(i) Shallow water depth due to insufficient rains/inflow

Stocking of advnced fingerlings in half or even less than the normal stocking density or stocking of common carp seed

Immediate harvesting or decreasing the density commensurate with the water quantity.

De weeding and deepening of tank to ensure retention of water for a longer period and provision of employment under MGNREGP

(ii) Changes in water quality

Regular monitoring of water quality parameters and application of geolites, soil probiotics, etc to maintain water qaulity

Immediate harvesting or changing the water quality by application of sanitisers.

Removal of top layer, deep ploughing of tank and application of lime

Crop holiday or going for stocking of

Harvesting of fish and leaving the pond

Removal of top layer, deep ploughing

1) Drought A. Capture Marine Inland

(iii) Any other B. Aquaculture (i) Shallow water in

40

ponds due to insufficient rains/inflow

yearlings by reducing the density according to availability of water

fallow till next season

of tank and application of lime

(ii) Impact of salt load build up in ponds / change in water quality

Stocking of salinity tolerant fish / shrimp, application of geolites and other buffers

Frenquent change of water with fresh water

Frequent draining of the pond with fresh water, removal of top layers

No intervention

No intervention

No intervention

Shifting the people from low lying areas to relief camps

Deployment of specially trained persons for rescue operations by providing life bouys, jackets, ropes, boats, etc Shifting and relocating boats and nets to safer places

Payment sufficient ex-gratia to the families

(iii) Any other 2) Floods A. Capture Marine Inland (i) Average compensation paid due to loss of human life (ii) No. of boats / nets/damaged

Shifting and relocating boats and nets to safer places when warnings are issued, to avoid fishing, etc

Assessment of damages to boats and nets and provision of boats and nets for restoration of livelihoods

(iii) No.of houses damaged

Avoidance of construction of houses in flood prone ares, construction of pucca houses at elevated places,

Shifting of people by relief boats to the relief camps

Assessment of damages to houses and provision of compensation in case of partial damage and sanction house under existing schemes

(iv) Loss of stock

Avoidance of surface species like catla, silver carp since they are vulnerable in tanks prone to floods, erection of nets across the spill way or just beyond it

Erection of nets at spill ways

Taking up compensatory stocking

(v) Changes in water quality

(vi) Health and diseases

When dissolved oxygen levels go down, aerators, recirculation of water, etc are to be attempted to maintain DO levels, going for partial harvest, etc Sometimes there may be heavy accumulation

There may be break out of

Removal of weeds, top layer of soil, 41

of nutrients and organic matter.

Heamorrhagic septicimea. Addition of antibiotics like Chloro Tetra Cycline or Oxy Tetra Cycline to the feed to constrol the disease

deep ploughing of tank and application of lime, exposing to sun light

Raising and rivetting the bunds, construction of spill way to release excess water, erection of nets to avoid escape of fish

Continuous pumping of excess water, erection of nets low lying areas

Strengthening of bunds, excavating channels along the sides of the ponds for free escape of water

B. Aquaculture (i) Inundation with flood water (ii) Water continuation and changes in water quality

When dissolved oxygen levels go down, aerators, recirculation of water, etc are to be attempted to maintain DO levels, going for partial harvest, etc

(iii) Health and diseases

Sometimes there may be heavy accumulation of nutrients and organic matter.

There may be break out of Heamorrhagic septicimea. Addition of antibiotics like Chloro Tetra Cycline or Oxy Tetra Cycline to the feed to constrol the disease

Removal of weeds, top layer of soil, deep ploughing of tank and application of lime, exposing to sun light

(iv) Loss of stock and inputs (feed, chemicals etc)

Advance erection of nets, strengthening of bunds where they are prone to breaches, harvesting or reducing the density

Suspension of feeding, application of organic manures

Compensatory stocking, assessment of values and payment of subsidy on inputs

(v) Infrastructure damage (pumps, aerators, huts etc)

Insuring pond, accessories, etc., Shifting of aerators, pumps soon after warnigs are issued

Relocating pumps, aerators to elevated places

Assessment of damages and provision of them on subsidy

(vi) Any other 3. Cyclone / Tsunami

NA

4. Heat wave and cold wave a

based on forewarning wherever available 42