SUDHIR KUMAR BHATTACHARYYA

I various fields of Pure & Applied Chemistry : Catalysis, High Pressure Chemistry, Photo- i chemistry, Chemical Kinetics & Electrochemistry. He has st...

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SUDHIR KUMAR BHATTACHARYYA (1909

- 1987)

Elected Fellow 1954

Professor SUDHIRKUMARBHAITACHARYYA was born on March 1, 1909 at Mulpara in the district of Dacca (now in Bangladesh). His father Shri Basanta Kumar Bhattacharyya was a zamindar. He passed the Matriculation Examination of the Calcutta University in 1926 and the Intermediate in Science Examination from the Dacca Board in 1928 securing 9th position in order of merit. At that time all the Intermediate Colleges were under the Dacca Board. He then joined the Dacca 1 niversity from where he passed the BSc (Honours) Examination in Chemistry in the year 1931 ranking first amongst the students securing 1st class. The University of Dacca at that time unlike most of the universities in India (with the exception of University of Madras and Andhra) offered a Three - Year Honours Course and One Year MSc. Degree. In 1932, Sudhir Kumar passed the MSc Examination in Physical Chemistry, first in the 1st Class. Hewas awarded the University Gold Medal. He worked in the same University as a Research Scholar under the guidance of the Late Professor Jnan Chandra Ghosh. He was awarded the Sir PC Ray Prize in 1933 and awarded the degree of Doctor of Science in Physical Chemistry in 1939 in recognition of his work in the field of Photochemistry. During the period he served in the Dacca University as an Assistant Lecturer for two years, 1937-1939. Dr Bhattacharyya joined the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, in 1939, where he worked in different capacities and later as an Assistant Professor and Head of the Department of Physical and Inorganic Chemistry. He left Bangdore in 1952 and joined the newly created Department of Chemistry of the Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur. He organised the Department as one of the most modern and well equipped one for both undergraduate and postgraduate teaching and research. He was the Senior Professor and Head of the Department of Chemistry, IIT, Kharagpur (1952-1970) and also the Deputy Director (Academic) of the Institute (1968-70). After retirement from the I1 Kharagpur he was Emeritus Professor of Chemistry in Banaras Hindu University, Varana ,

Biographical Memoirs (1971-78). Since then be spent sometime with his sons in the UK and then a fully retired life in Salt Lake, Calcutta where he had a house built for himself. In 1947, Professor Bhattacharyya went to Europe for advanced training in the techniques and experimentation in high pressure chemistry and also in catalysis. He worked at the Imperial College of Science and Technology, London; Chemical Research Laboratory, Teddington, UK; the Van der WaalUsLaboratory, Amstardam, Holland; High Pressure Laboratory Brussels, Belgium, and the Ultra-high Pressure Laboratory in Paris. He also visited other well-known laboratories in UK, Holland, Belgium and France. Professor Bhattacharyya attended a number of International Scientific Conferences and Congresses, delivered lectures and presided over a number of sessions. In September, 1956 he attended the 'First Intdrnational Congress on Catalysis" held at Philadelphia, USA as a delegate of the Government of India and visited a large number of Research Centres in USA. On his way back he visited some important laboratories in the UK and Germany. In July, 1960 he attended the 'Second International Congress on Catalysis' held in Paris, France and presided over a Section of the Congress. He visited a number of Research Laboratories in France and Switzerland. In June 1962, he participated in the 'International Symposium on the Physics and Chemistry of High Pressure' held in London and visited a number of Research Centres in Europe. In July, 1964 he attended the 'Third International Congress on Catalysis' held at Amsterdam, Holland and presided over a session of the Congress. He also visited a number of research centres in Holland, UK, Belgium and France. In August 1965 he attended the 'First International Conference on Researches on High Pressures' held at La Creusot, France. Dr Bhattacharyya attended the 'First International Conference on Thermal Analysis' at Aberdeen, Scotland. He visited a number of Research Centres and delivered some lectures. Professor Bhattacharyya organised a 'Symposium on Contact Catalysis' under the auspices of the National Institute of Sciences of India at Calcutta in 1956 and inaugurated a Symposium on Contact Catalysis held at Allahabad in 1964 at the Annual Convention of Chemists organised by the Indian Chemical Society. Professor Bhattacharyya was elected Acharya J m Chandra Ghosh Lecturer of the Indian Chemical Society and delivered the lecture in Calcutta on September 4, 1967, The topic of the lecture was "Recent Advances in Some Aspects of High Pr

Chemistry".

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In his lecture he refers to the pioneering work of V Ipateiff in Russia and F Haber in Germany around 1901 and high pressure Physics by PW Bridgman in USA around 1908 and bases his talk on the work done in Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore and the Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur. He deals with "two aspects of high pressure chemistry, one on the catalytic syntheses of carboxylic acids and esters from carbonmonoxide in presence of nickel, cobalt and iron catalysts and other organic compounds not involving carbon monoxide and the other on the kinetics and mechanism of a few acid catalysed liquid phase hydration of unsaturated organic compounds and hydrolysis of lactones." Detailed consideratipn of the thermodynamics of the reactions have been highlighted. The influence of process variables on the reactions has been discussed. The useful life of the catalysts and reactivation of the spent catalysts have been stressed. Since 1933 Professor Bhattacharyya has been actively engaged in research work in various fields of Pure & Applied Chemistry : Catalysis, High Pressure Chemistry, Photochemistry, Chemical Kinetics & Electrochemistry. He has studied a large number of catalytic reactions of the vapour/gas phase involved oxidation, reduction, dehydration and dehydrogenation in both fmed and fluidized beds using raw materials benzene, toluene, xylene, crotonaldehyde, ethylene, picolines etc. which have their origin in coal and petroleum to produce maleic acid benzaldehyde, phthalic anhydride, ethylene oxide and nicotinic acid respectively. The catalysts which have been developed promises great industrial importance. He has made an extensive study on the catalytic production of butadiene from ethylalcohol by single stage and two stage processes in both fured and fluidized beds. Professor Bhattacharyya has studied the catalyttc conversion of ethanol to butadine by single stage and by two stage processes. The catalysts that evolved out of this investigation has been found to be the best of all the reported ones. Moreover, the conversion has been, for the first time, studied in a fludized bed reactor and phenomenal increase in the yield of butadiene has be& achieved. This piece of work has aroused tremendous interest throughout the world. Catalytic conversion of ethanol to acetone, has also been extensively studied and a very high conversion of acetone has been achieved. High Pressure Syntheses of large number of carboxylic acids and esters starting from simple and cheap raw materials like carbon monoxide, water, alcohols, other aldehydes, etc. at pressures ranging upto 1000 atm. Some of these processes will undoubtedly find applications in petrochemical and coal chemical industries. He has made detailed study of the kinetics and suggested possible mechanism and rate equations. A theory regarding these syntheses has been suggested which is now almost universally accepted. The extensive investigation of the synthesis of vinyl ethers, acrylates etc. from acetylence, carbon monoxide etc. has resulted in remarkable improvement in the yields of these chemicals of indust.ria1importance.

Biographical Memoirs

Rate equations and mechanism of some important catalytic reactions have been suggested by studying the detailed kinetics of these processes. Kinetic of some acid-catalysed reactions has been studied under high pressure, ranging upto 4000 atm. and their mechanism has been suggested. This is a new branch of research of high current interest. Professor Bhattacharyya has studied the photochemical reactions using various colloidal dispersions and also uranyl salts as sensitieser and the Kinetics of photoiodination and photobromination of unsaturated organic compounds. Electrochemical preparations of some important organic compounds using porous carbon electrodes have been developed. Accurate measurements of conductance of salts in viscous nonaqueous solvents like ethanolamines have been taken in his laboratory. Professor Bhattacharyya has for the first time proved the importance of usefulness of Differential Thermal Analysis Techniques in the structural studies of a number of single, binary and ternary oxide catalyst systems. In most of the cases the excellent correlations between thermal characteristics of the catalysts, their surface areas and catalytic activity have been found. From his studies on chemiadsorption of oxygen, hydrogen and methanol vapour on oxide catalyst like vanadium pentoxide, silver oxide, zinc oxide and alumina and the consequent changes in their semiconductivity he has drawn conclusions which are useful in prediction of catalytic activity. He published valuable and interesting results which are theoretical and have industrial importance. He has along with his collaborators published more than 150 original research papers in Indian, foreign & international journals. More than 50 students earned their PhD degree under his guidence and supervision. Today the High Pressure Chemistry laboratory at IIT Kharagpur, is used by his able students.

He has been a Fellow of the National Institute of Science of India since 1954. H e was Vice-President of the Indian Chemical Society 1968-71, President of the Chemistry Section of the Indian Science Congress 1968 at Varanasi. Besides, he was a member of a number of committees constituted by Govt. of India, CSIR, DAE, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, UGC, various university,scientific and professional bodies in India and abroad.

Professor Bhattacharyya was a corresponding member of India for ~nternationalcongress on Catalysis held in Worcester, Mass., USA in 1968. He has written a book entitled "Some Catalytic Gas reactions of Industrial Importance" with Dr JC Ghosh & MVC Sastri as co-authors. He was married to Hemanalini, daughter of Priyanath Chakraborty, Telegraph Officer, Bombay (originally from Dacca). They had two sons who are both University Professors in UK. The elder son Susanta Kumar Bhattacharyya is Professor of Manufacturing Systems, University of Warwick, Conventery, UK. The younger Asoke Kumar Bhattacharyya is Head of the Catalyst Research Division, University of Warwick. Professor SK Bhattacharyya" interest in catalysts lives through his sons both of whom are in the area of materials science and solid state chemistry and through the group of his students (holding teaching positions) working in the High Pressure Laboratory of IIT, Kharagpur.

Professof SK Bhattacharyya was a pleasant personality. He loved his students like his own children. In this aspect Mrs. Bhattacharyya's role was not less. His students had free access to his place. Mrs Bhattacharyya always acted the hostess. The younger brother of the memoir writer was a student of Professor Bhattacharyya in Bangalore. He always shared Professor Bhattacharyya's affection. Professor Bhattacharyya did not confine himself to the ivory tower. He took active part in social activity of the Institute. He was actively associated with the Higher Secondary School, the important role of which he always appreciated. Professor Bhattacharyya passed away on December 30,1987 at his residence in Salt Lake, Calcutta. In his demise the country lost a beloved teacher and a scientist who dwelled in both academic and applied research.

SA D ~ A University College of Science & Tech. Calcutta University, 92 Acharya PC Road Calcutta-700 009

Biographical Memoirs

Bibliography 1936

(With GHOSHJC). Effect of Simultaneous action of radiations of different frequencies on the

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oxidation of Mandelic acid by bromine. Zeitschrodf fur physikalische he me, B31, 429. (With GHOSHJC AND BHATTACHARYA SC). On the bromination of acetylene dichloride in light of

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different frequencies in the gas phase and solution of carbon tetrachloride. Ibid, B32, 145. (With MUKHERJEE N AND BANERJEE T). The photochemical oxidation of glucose and lacvulose by methylene blue with ferric bydroxide sol. as the photosensitiser. J. Indian Cherni. SOC.14 603. (With GHOSH JC AND BANERJEE T). The potochemical oxidation of glucose by potassum-indigotetresulphonate with Tungstic acid sol. as photocatalyst. 14, 589. (With DASGUPTA SK AND BANERJEE T). Photochemical reduction of tungstic acid sol. by glucose, lacvulose, formaldehyde, lactic acid, sodium hypophosphite, leucine and glautamic acid. Ibid 14, 551. (With GHOSHJC). Effect of the simultaneous action of radiations of different frequencies on the bromination of cinnamic acid and stilbene. Ibid, 14, 452. w i t h GHOSHJC AND NARASIMHA MURTHYML). On the bromination of acetylene dichloride in the gas phase in wave-length 546. Ibid, 14, 425. Iodination. Party-V Studies on the Photoiodination of phenyl acetylene in light of different frequencies in polar solvent. Ibid 18, 259. Iodination. Part-IV. Studies on the photo-iodination of different unsaturated organic compounds in the light of different frequencies in non-plar solvents. J. Indian Chem Soc. Ind News. Ed 18, 257. (With ROY MJ). Iodination. Part IV. Studies on the iodination of different unsaturated organic compounds in the dark in polar solvents. Ibid, 18, 253. (With GHOSHJC, DATTAMM AND RAO MJ). Iodination. Part 11. Studies on the iodination of different unsaturatated organic compounds in the dark in different non-plar solvents. Ibid 18, 245. (With GHOSHJC, D A T ~ A MM AND RAO MJ). Iodination. Part I. Studies on the Equilibrium in Systems of Iodine and various unsaturated organic compounds in the dark in different non-plar solvents. Ibid 18, 171. (With SUBBARAO BC). Ultilisation of Seqage Digester Gas-Production of Formaldehyde from Seqage Digester Gas. J. Indian Chem Soc. Ind. News. Ed. 15, 118. (With SOUFURAJAN S). Synthesis of Acetic Acid from Methanol and Carbon monoxide in the Vapour phase in presence of Nickle Catalysts at High pressures. Ibid 11B, 123. (With SOURIRAJAN S). Synthesis of Acetic Acid from Methanol and Carbon monoxide in the Vapour phase in presence of Cobalt Catalysts at High pressures. Indus. Res. LIB, 263. (With SOURIRAJAN S). Synthesis of Acetic Acid from Methanol and-Monoxide in the Vapour phase in presennce of Iron Catalysts at High Pressure. Ibid 11B, 309. (With RAMACHANDRAN VS). Differential Thermal Analysis of Catalyst powders : Part 111- ~ i f f k r e ~ ~ i ~ l Thermal Analysis of Zinc Oxide-Cgrinuc Oxide Mixtures. Ibi4 l l B , 550. (With RAMACHANDRAN VS). Differential Thermal Analysis of Catalyst Powders : Part-11. Differential Thermal Analysis of Zinc Oxide. Ibid 11B, 549. (With GHOSHJC, GOPALSWAMI SN AND RAMACHANDRA VS). Differential Thermal Analysis of Catalyst Powden; Part I- differential Thermal analysis of chromic Oxide gel. Scient. In&. Re., 11B, 547. (With GULVADYSHARDA). Photochemical Studies in Uranyl Salts. Part-111-The Photochemical Oxidation of Ethyl Alcohol and Mandelic Acid by Maldola's Blue using Uranyl Nitrate as the Photo-Sensitiser in Ligh of different frequencies. Ibid 29, 731. (With GULVADY SHARDA).Photochemical studies on Uranyl Salts. Part 11- The Photochemical Oxidation of Ethyl Alchool annd Mandelic Acid by Potassium Indigo-Tetrasulphonate usi Nitrate and Srllphate as Photosensitisers in Light of different Frequencies. Ibi4 29;6

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(With GULVADY SARDA).Photochemical Studies on Uranyl Salts. Part I. The Photochemical Oxidation of Ethyl Alcohol, Lactic Acid and Mandelic Acid by Uranyal nitrate in Light of Different Frequencies. Indian Chem. Soci. 29, 649. (With SUBBARAOBC). Studies on 0x0-process: Part I-Synthesis of Propionaldehyde from Ethylene, Carbon Monoxide and Hydrogen in the Gas phase in presence of Cobalt Catalysts at High Pressures. Indus. Res. 11B, 80. (With VENKATARAMAN N AND GULATIIB). Studies on Catalytic Oxidation of Ethylene to Ethylene Oxide. Cum. Sci 21, 9. (With GULATI IB). Catalytic Oxidation of Oxylene in the vapour phase. Indus. Res. 12B, 450. S). Synthesis of Propionic Acid from Ethylene, Carbon monoxide and water in (With SOUR~RANJAN the vapour phase. Sciemt. Indus. Res. 13B, 609. (With GuLAn IB). Catalytic Oxidation or Oxygen: Activity of Fused Vanadium Catalysists. chem. Indus. p. 1425 (London) (With RAMACHANDRAN VS). Differential Thermal Analysis- Technique and its application. Scient. Indus. Res. 1 3 4 365. (With SEN WN, ROY CHOUDHURY DK AND GHOSHJC). The synthesis or Menhyl Vinyl EtherReaction of Acetylene and Methanol. Petroleum, October, (London). (With SOURIRANJAN S). Synthesis of Acetic Acid from Methanol and Carbon Monoxide in the vapour phase in presence of Nickel Catalysts at High pressure. Appl. Chem. 6,442, (London).

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(With SUBBARAO BC). Studies on 0x0 Process-I synthesis of Propionaldehyde from Ethylene, Carbon monozide and hydrogen in the Gaseous phase in presence of Cobalt Catalysts at High Pressure. Petroleum, April (London). 1957 . (With VIR DH.VLI).High Pressure Synthesis of Glycolic Acid from Formaldehyde, Carbon monoxide and water in presence of Nickel, Cobalt and Iron Catalysts. Advances in Catalysis and Related Subject. Proceedings of the First International Congress on Catalysis held in 1956 at Philadelphia, USA.39, 625, (USA). - (With RAMACHANDRAN VS). Application of Differential Thermal Analysis to the study of Solid Catalysts-Systems : Titanium diozide gel. Sci. Engin. Res. 1, 73. - (With GUHAAK AND CHAKRAVARTI JK). Detection and estimation of Glycolic Acid by Paper Chromatography in the High Pressure Synthesis product from formaldehyde, carbon monoxide and water. Scien~Indus. Res. 16B, 137. - (With RAMACHANDRAN VS AND GHOSH JC). Application of Differential Thermal Analysis to the Study of Solid Catalysts-Systems: Cr203 and Cr203. Advance in Catalysis and Ralated subjects (Proceedings of the First International Congress ond Catalysis held in 1956 at Philadelphia, USA, 9, 114, (NY USA). 1958 (With G U M ~IB). Catalytic Vapour-phase Oxidation of Xylenes. I n w Engine. C h m 50, 1719, (USA). N). Catalytic Vapour-phase Oxidatbn of Croton-aldehyde to Maleic acid. 1958 (With VENKATARAMAN AppL Chem. 8, 737 (London). - (With VENKATARAMAN N). Catalytic Vapour-phase Oxidation of Croton-aldehyde to Maleic acid. Appl Chem. 8, 728 (London). 1959 (With KAMESWARY S). Application of differntial Thermal Analysis to the study of solid Catalysts-Systems: Cr203, Nio, Zro2 : Nio- Car203, Zro2-Nio; ~ r 2 d 3- Nio - Zro2. Journal de Chimie. Physique, p 823, (Paris). - (With KRISHNAMURTHY S). Oxidation of Xylenes in the Fluidized bed. CW. SC~,2B, 363. - (With SENSN). Synthesis of Ethylvinyl Ether from Acetylene and Ethanol at Atmospheric and Superatornospheric pressures. Scient. Indux Res. 188, 405. 1947 (With BHADRAAK). Conductance of Salts in Diethanolamine as a nonaqueous solvent. Cum. Sci, 16. 117. MS AND PAR~KH RK). Electrolytic Reactions on Porous Carbon Anod 1952. (With GHOSHJC, MATHANA V.The Preparation of Chloral from Alcohol. Ibi4 11B, 317. '

Biographical Memoirs (With MATHANA MS AND PATANKAR AD). Electrolytic reactions on Porous Carbon Anodes : IVThe preparation of Ethylene Glycol from Ethylene. Ibid 11B, 369. (With MUTHANA MS AND-PATANKAR AD). Electrolytic Reactions on Porous Carbon Anodes : 111The Preparation of Ethylene Chlorohydrin from Ethylene. Ibid LIB, 365. (With RAOMRA, MUTHANA MS, PATANIKRB AND GHOSHJC). Electrolytic Reactions on Porous Carbon Anodes : 11- The Preparation of Chrolobenzene from Benzene. Ibid 11B, 361. MS AND MITRACR). Electrolytic Reactions on Porous Carbon Anodes (With GHOSHJC, MUTHANA : I-The Preparation of P-Benzoquinone by the Oxidation of benzene. Scient. Indus. Ra. 11B, 356 (With SHAMAIM). Thermal Polymerisation of Ethylene at High Pressures. Petroleum, December (London). (With KAR KR AND SURAR). Studies on Photochemical~Reactionbetween Ammonium molybdate and various Organic agents in wave length 366. Ibid, 19, 510. (With GHOSHHC). On the Photobromination of Cinnamic Acid in Ultraviolet Light of 254. Ibi4 19, 503. (With SUR AR). The reduction of ammonium Molybdate by 1-Sodium Hydrogen Ascrobate in the Dark. Indian Chern. Soci 19, 514. (With GHOSHJC). Photochemical Studies in gels Part-11. Nari. Ins. Sci. India. (With GHOSHJC). Photochemical Studies in Gels Part-I. Ibid 20, 377. Conductance of Salts in Triethanolamine as non-aqueous solvent. Ibid Conductance of Salts in Monoethanolamine as non-aqueous. Indian Chern. Soci. (With GHOSHJC, SlRUR MV AND MATHANA MS). Studies on physico-Chemical Propderties of Phthalocyanines. Proc. Nat. Inst. 23, 141. (With KAME~WARI S). Application Differential Thermal Analysis to the study of solid Catalysts-Systems : Cr20, A1203- Ibid No. 12, 43. VS). Application of Differential Thermal Analysis to the study of Solid (With RAMACHANDRAN Cataysts-Systems : Cr203, Zno and Cr203- Zno, Ibid No. 12, 23. (With SEN SK). Studies on Vinylation Reactions to the Vapour Phase using various Contact Catalysts. Ibid No. 12, 261. N AND GULATI IB). Studies on the Catalytic Vapour phase Oxidation of (With VENKATARAMAN Ethylene Oxide- Part 11. Ibid. No. 12, 171. (With VENKATARAMAN N AND GULATIIB). Studies on the Catalytic Vapour Phase Oxidation of Ethylene to Ethylene Oxide- Part 1. Ibid No. 12, 147. SP). High Pressure Synthesis of Glycolic Acid from Formaldehyde Carbon Monoxide (With SENGUPTA and Water in presence of Nickle, Cobalt and Iron Iodldes as catalysts. Ibid No. 12, 127. (With DHARAMVir). High Pressure Synthesis of Glycolic Acid from Formaldehyde Carbon Monoxide and Water in Presence of Nickel Iodide KieselgJhr as a Catalyst, Proceeding of the Symposium on Contact Catalysis Bulletin of the National Institute of Sciences of India, No. 12, 139. Synthesis of Carboxylic Acids from Carbon monoxide at High Pressures in Presence of Nickel, Cobalt and Iron Catalysts. Proceeding of the ~ymposiumon Contact CataIysis, Bulletin of the National Institute of Sciences of India. No. 12, 103. (with NANDIDK). High Pressure Synthesis of Delta-Valerolactone and Adipic acid. Ibid 51, 143. (USA). (With DHARAMVir). Synthetics of Methyl and Ethyl Glycolates. Industrial and Eng. Chemistry, 51, 139, (USA). (With GUNGULY ND). Catalytic Production of Butadiene from Ethyl alcohol by Single-step process in fixed bed. Ibid 19B, (With GANGULY ND AND AWASrrll BN). Catalytic Production of Butadiene from Ethyl alcohol by single-step process in fluidised bed. Ibid 19B, 33. (With KAR AK). Catalytic Oxidation of Crotonaldehyde to Maleic acid in fluidised bed. Scient. Indus. Res. 19B, 78. (With KAMESWARI S AND SNNIVASAN G). The Application of Differential Thermal Analysis to the study of solid catalysts - Systems : T h o 5 A1203 and binary mixtures T h o 2 A1203, Sio3and Fe203-Al203, "Zeitschr.fur physikalizche Chemie" (Gennany) 214, 191.

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High Pressure Synthesis of Carboxylic acids and Esters from carbon monoxide in presence of Nickel cobalt and Iron Catalysts. Ibid 3, 24011. (With GANGULY ND). Catalytic Production of Butadiene from Ethyl alcohol by single step process in Fixed as well as in Fluidised beds. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Cataljsis (Paris), 3, 2385. (With NAND1 DK). Synthesis of p-Aminosalicyclic acid from m-Aminophenol and carbon dioxide at high pressure. Ibid 20D, 69. (With SINGHLN AND NANDIDK). Synthesis of Potassium Salicylate from Phenol, Carbon dioxide and potassium carbonate under High Pressure. J. Sci Indust. Res. 20, 146. (With GANGULY ND). Application of Differential Thermal Analysis to the Study of single, binary ,and ternary of oxides catalyst system. Proc. Natio. Ins. Sci India (Silver Jubilee volume) 27.4, No. 6, 588. (With GANGULY ND). Catalytic Vapour Phase Oxidation of Organic Compounds in the Fixed as well as in Fluidised beds. Journal of Indian Chemical Society. (P. C. Ray Birthday Centenary Volume), 38, 463. (With GANGULY ND). One-step catalytic conversion of ethanol to butadienein the fixed bed I. Single oxide catalysts. Ibid 12, 105-110. (With GANGULY NN). One-step catalytic conversion of ethanol to butadienein the fiied bed I. Single oxide catalysts. J. App. Chem. (London), 12, 97-104. (With NAG SN). Catalytic synthesis of methyl propoinate from ethylene, Carbon monoxide and methanol under high pressure. Brennstoff-Chemie,43, No. 4, 114-118 Germany. (With NAGSN). Catalytic synthesis of ethyl propionate from ethylene, carbon monoxide and ethanol at high pressure. J. App. Chem. (London) 12, 182-190. (With PALIT SK). Catalytic synthesis of ethyl propionate from diethyl ether and carbon monoxide at high pressure. J. App. Chem. (London) 13, 174-82. (With PALK SK). Catalytic Synthesis of ethyl propionate from ethylene, carbon monoxide at high pressure. Brennstoff-Chemic, 43, No. 1, 169-173. Germany. (With KAR AK). Catalytic vapour phase oxidation of crotonaldehde to maleic acid in fluidised bed. CataZysis, 1, 293-300, USA. Catalytic activities of nickel, cobalt and iron halides in the high pressure synthesis of carboxylic acids and esters from carbon monoxide. Proceedings on the 'International Symposium on the Physics and Chemishy of High Pressure held at London, June, 1962: Published by the Society of Chemical Industry, London, p. 202. (With Ah'-I BN). One step-catalytic conversion of Ethanol to butadiene in fluidised bed. Indust. Engg. Chem. (Process Design and Dev.) USA, 2, p. 45, Jan. (With KRISHNAMURTHY R). Catalytic vapour phase oxidation of xylenes in fluidised bed. Ibid 13, pp 547-552. (With LAHIRI CR). Catalytic esterificatiorl of saturated carbozylic acids with ethylene under high pressure. Ibid 13, pp 544-547. (With SEN AK). Catalytic synthesis of methyl acrylated from acetylene, carbon monoxide and methanol under pressure. AppL C h m London, 13, pp 498-505. (With A W m I BN). Conversion Catalyque en Une seule estape de l'ethanol butadiene par la technique du lit fluidise. Sciennce et ~ e c h i o l o ~ iR e , G C, 40, No. 12, (France). (With GANGULY ND AND SRINIVASAN G). Application of D. T. A. Technique to the study of solid catalyst systems- Al203: Zno: A1203 : Zro2 : A1203 : Mgo and Zro2 : Fe203. Indian Chem Soci. 41, No. 4. (With DE KS, PANDAO SN AND CANDRASEKHARGV). Chemisorption and Electrical Conductivity studies on Alumina-Zinc oxide catalysts. Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress on Catabsk, July, 1964. Amsterdam published by North-Holland Pub. Co., Amsterdam. p. 814. (With SEN AK). Catalytic synthesis of acrylic acid and ethyl acrylate from acetylene, carbon monoxide and water or ethanol under pressure. Indusmmaland Engg. Chemistry, (Process Design and Developmennt) 3, p. 169. April, USA.

Biographical Memoirs

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(With NANDIDK AND AGARWA~ SC). Synthesis of diphenylamine under high pressure. Indian . b ~ m a l of Technology, 2, No. 3, PP. 99-101. (With GANGULY ND AND A W ~BN). I On the Comparative Cataytic conversion of ethanol to butadiene, kinetics and Catalysis, USSR, Ibid 6, No. 1. Application of D. T. A. technique to the study of Solid Catalysis. Proceedings of the First ~ntemational Congress on 'Thermal Analysis' Held at Aberdeen, 1965. p 239. Published by McMillan and Co., London. (With PALIT SKANDDASAR). Catalytic synthesis of Lactic acid and its esters from carbon monoxide, acetaldehyde and water/alcohols under high pressure. Proc. International Conference on the researches on high pressure held at Le Creusol, France, August. 1965. (With SEN AK AND BHA'ITACHARYYA DP). Catalytic synthesis of Butyl acrylate from acetylene, carbon monoxide and methanol under pressure. Ibid 16, 202. (With BHA'ITACHARYYA DP). Synthesis of propyl acrylate from acetyiene, carbon monoxide and propanol under pressure. Applied chemirhy) London 16, 18. (With KAR AK AND SHANKAR V). Catalytic Vapour phase oxidation of monomethyl pyridines to pyridine carboxilic acids. Industrial [email protected] Chemisny. (Product Research and Development), 5, 65, USA. (With A B m I BN). Catalytic conversion of ethanol to butadiene by two-step process in fluidized bed. Appd Chemisny, 16, No. 8, p. 239. (With KAR AK). Catalytic Vapour phase oxidation of 4-picoline to isonicotinic acid in fludized bed. Ibid 30, No.1-2, p.42. (With KAR AK). Catalytic vapour phase vxidation of 3-picoline to Nicotinic acid in fludised bed. Indian Appd Chemisny, 30, No. 1-2, p. 35. (With NANDI DK AND AVASTHI BN). Synthesis of Methyl formate from methanol and carbonmonoxide at high pressure using alkali activated charcoal as a catalyst. Ibid 5, NO. 7 . (With NANDIDA AND DWA VP). Synthesis of p-cresotic acid from p-cresol and carbonoxide at high pressure. Ibid 5, No. 7 . (With NANDi DJ AND RAo VS). Synthesis of 2-nitrodiphenylamine from enibine and 0-chlornitrobenzene under pressure. Indian Journal Technology, 5, No. 7 , p. 232. (With JANAKIRAM K AND GANGULY ND). Kinetics of the Vapour-phase oxidation of methyl alcohol on vanadium pentoxide catalyst. Cata&sis, 8, No. 2. p. 128. (With SANYALSK). Kinetic study on the mechanism of the catalytic conversion of ethanol to butadiene. CataIysk, 7, No. 2. p. 152 (USA).