Summary of On-going Research

Mr Keoni Indrabayu Marzuki Student Research Analyst ... geothermal to take greater role in the energy mix. This research covers the ... Indonesia’s Po...

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Summary of On-going Research November 2014

Institute of Defence and Strategic Studies (IDSS)

South Korea’s Middle-Power Engagement Initiatives

Asian Navy Watch – Research Paper and Workshop

Ms Sarah Teo Associate Research Fellow Dr Bhubhindar Singh Associate Professor and Coordinator of Multilateralism and Regionalism Programme Dr Tan See Seng Associate Professor; Deputy Director and Head of Research of the Institute of Defence and Strategic Studies; Head of Centre for Multilateralism Studies

Prof Geoffrey Till Visiting Professor Mr Ristian A. Supriyanto Associate Research Fellow Mr Henrick Z. Tsjeng Associate Research Fellow

“South Korea’s influence has grown in various capacities that spans over areas such as trade, investment, aid, tourism and the cultural Korean Wave. Today, most analysts acknowledge South Korea’s status as a middle power—both in terms of its material capabilities as well as its foreign policy behaviour. This paper focuses on Southeast Asian perspectives of South Korea’s rise, specifically views from Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Vietnam. It examines these countries’ views of South Korea’s rise and its efforts in promoting itself as a middle power. The paper concludes that these countries generally view South Korea as a middle power, and its role in Southeast Asia is largely confined to the economic and cultural sectors. Although South Korea is perceptibly absent from Southeast Asia’s geostrategic calculus, its perceived neutrality (despite being a U.S. ally) is seen to work to its advantage in its pursuit of middle power status.”

“This project is a continuation of a project which studied naval modernisation and its consequences in Southeast Asia. It is currently focusing on the impact of naval developments in the wider Asia Pacific Region on maritime development in Southeast Asia.” theme Country and Region Studies / Maritime Security region East Asia and Asia Pacific / Southeast Asia and ASEAN entity IDSS

Indonesia’s Military Transformation Dr Leonard C. Sebastian Associate Professor and Coordinator of the Indonesia Programme

“The Indonesian military (TNI) has been undergoing a fundamental reform in the past decade. This project seeks to achieve the following objectives: 1. To analyse and understand the organisational structure, technical proficiencies, and unit’s deployment, and how they shape the future force structure of Indonesian military. 2. To analyse and understand doctrinal development at the levels of strategic, operational and tactical, and how it affects the military’s future force employment. 3. To analyse and understand the military’s recruitment, education and training system from the academy level to the staff and command colleges, and how that could influence the officer corps’ future outlook and policies. 4. To analyse and understand Indonesia’s defence management, patterns of arms acquisitions, indigenous defence industrial base and its relationship with national economy, as well as its implications for the military’s capacity in the future.

theme International Politics and Security / Regionalism and Multilateralism region East Asia and Asia Pacific / Southeast Asia and ASEAN entity IDSS / CMS

5. To project several scenarios concerning Indonesia’s future defence relations with regional countries and its implications for overall regional security outlook.” theme Country and Region Studies / International Politics and Security region Southeast Asia and ASEAN entity IDSS

Start

: 01/10/2012

Duration: 130 weeks

Start

: 01/04/2013

Duration: Multi-year

Start

: 01/01/2014

Duration: 52 weeks

Regional Security Strategies of Middle Powers in the Asia Pacific

Future Maritime Security Environment Policy Paper and Workshop

Energy Diversification and Indonesia’s Energy Security

Dr Ralf Emmers Associate Professor and Associate Dean Ms Sarah Teo Associate Research Fellow

Dr Sam Bateman Senior Fellow and Adviser Ms Jane Chan Research Fellow and Coordinator of the Maritime Security Programme Maritime Security Programme

Mr Keoni Indrabayu Marzuki Student Research Analyst (Indonesia Programme)

“This paper seeks to enrich understandings of middle-power security strategies by examining countries that lack great power capabilities but still aim to influence the regional security environment. Based on a literature review highlighting the functional and behavioural approaches of middle power diplomacy, we note that these elements could also apply to their regional security strategies. The paper focuses on regional security strategy as a subset of foreign policy and asks why some middle powers appear to go for a regional security strategy that is more functional while others adopt a strategy that is more behavioural. It argues that this divergence derives primarily from differences in resource availability and strategic environment. An analysis of Indonesia, South Korea, Australia and Vietnam highlights how each of these middle powers has adopted a particular regional security strategy, driven by their resource availability and strategic environment.”

“The study will identify likely developments in the maritime security environment of Asia over the next decade, including shifts in the maritime balance of power and particular threats and challenges in the maritime domain. The study will take a comprehensive view of security, and will include issues such as the trends with international shipping, environmental protection and resource scarcity. The overall objective will be to identify the implications of these developments for the region and for Singapore. The geographical scope for the study will be the Indo-Pacific region.” theme Country and Region Studies / Maritime Security / Conflict and Stability region East Asia and Asia Pacific / Southeast Asia and ASEAN / Indian Ocean Region entity IDSS

“Indonesia’s energy demand is expected to rise in the coming years, particularly with parallel economic development of the country. Considering several factors such as declining oil production, fluctuating oil price in the international market and self-imposed constraints of fuel subsidy render Indonesia’s energy security vulnerable to supply constrains and/or rapid change in oil price. To combat over-dependence to oil, the Yudhoyono Administration is set to roll out energy diversification policy which will significantly reduce oil contribution in the overall consumption and introduce alternative and indigenous energy sources such as coal, gas and geothermal to take greater role in the energy mix. This research covers the main challenges and opportunities for energy diversification to succeed and provide policy recommendation.” theme Country and Region Studies / Non-Traditional Security region Southeast Asia and ASEAN entity IDSS

theme International Politics and Security / Regionalism and Multilateralism region East Asia and Asia Pacific / Southeast Asia and ASEAN entity IDSS

Start

: 01/03/2014

Duration: 52 weeks

Start

: 01/04/2014

Duration: Multi-year

Start

: 01/05/2014

Duration: 28 weeks

Japanese Security Policy: Military Crises, Threat Inflation and Security Policy Development Dr Bhubhindar Singh Associate Professor and Coordinator of Multilateralism and Regionalism Programme

“One of the most critical changes to Japan’s post-Cold War security policy has been the incorporation of the Japanese military, known as the Self-Defence Force (SDF), as a legitimate and important tool in its security policy practice. It has developed new roles both outside and within the U.S.-Japan alliance to contribute to regional/international security. The question is how has the Japanese security policymaking elite been able to bring about this critical change to the security policy practice in light of the domestic social and legal constraints that have traditionally prevented the expansion of Japan’s security role, in military terms, in regional and international affairs. This research introduces external military crises as a critical cause of this change in Japanese security policy. It argues that the security policymaking elite constructed or inflated elements of threat from an external military crisis as directly affecting both the international environment and Japan’s national security. This process allowed the security policymaking elite to circumvent the social and legal limitations and fulfil its role of a responsible and engaged actor in regional/international security. This study will focus on all military crises faced by Japan in the post-Cold War period.”

China’s Global Quest for Resources and its Global Implications Dr Wu Fengshi Associate Professor Mr Zhang Hongzhou Associate Research Fellow

“We will be publishing an edited volume and a special issue out of the papers submitted for the China’s Resources security workshop held on 1October 2014. We will be looking at various aspects of China’s global quest for resources and its international implications. ” theme Non-Traditional Security region Global entity IDSS

Indonesia’s Political System Dr Leonard C. Sebastian Associate Professor and Coordinator of the Indonesia Programme Mr Jonathan Chen Associate Research Fellow Mr Adhi Priamarizki Associate Research Fellow

“Almost fifteen years into the era known as Reformasi in Indonesia, scholars are still wrestling with how to characterise the new polity. Indonesia had democratised undoubtedly, however it is not without its recurring defects. “Hybrid regime”, “Collusive democracy”, “patrimonial democracy” and “patronage democracy” are just some of the terms that have been used to describe the new polity as Indonesia transits from a procedural form of democracy to a consolidation phase. This research highlights and evaluates both the specific “steps forward” (necessity present) as well as the contentious “steps back” (necessity absent) Indonesia had taken so far in its reformasi journey in an attempt to redefine the new polity.” theme Country and Region Studies region Southeast Asia and ASEAN entity IDSS

theme Country and Region Studies /International Politics and Security / Maritime Security region East Asia and Asia entity IDSS

Start

: 01/06/14

Duration: 162 weeks

Start

: 01/07/2014

Duration: 52 weeks

Start

: 01/08/2014

Duration: 12 weeks

Understanding Indonesia Strategic Culture: Foreign Policy and Defence Policy Practices in the Post-Reformasi Era

Chinese Fishermen in the Troubled Waters—Contributing Factors and Implications for Regional Maritime Security

Dr Leonard C. Sebastian Associate Professor and Coordinator of the Indonesia Programme Mr Emirza Adi Syailendra Research Analyst

Mr Zhang Hongzhou Associate Research Fellow

“This project seeks to examine Indonesia strategic culture and its influence on Post-Reformasi foreign and defence policy. Research on the subject remains limited. Strategic culture is embedded in the decision making culture of a country. As Indonesia’s international profile rises and it becomes more confident, strategic culture could provide the analytical tools to understand changes in the foreign policy and defence policy. Projected to be a medium economic power in the region, Indonesia has been repositioning herself as a key player in the regional affairs. During the Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono presidency (2004-2014), Indonesia has emerged as one of the most influential countries in the region, particularly in helping manage the complex security environment now evident in the Asia Pacific region with the rise if India and China, a United States pivoting back to the region and a Japan determined to become a normal power – all significant issues that may influence regional stability.”

“The paper will examine the factors contributing to growing number of incidents involving Chinese fishermen in the regional waters, particularly the disputed waters of South China Sea and East China Seas, and it will analyse its impacts on regional maritime security. ” theme Maritime Security / Non-Traditional Security / Regionalism and Multilateralism region East Asia and Asia Pacific entity IDSS

: 01/08/2014

Duration: 32 weeks

Multilateralism and Regionalism Programme

“One of the biggest challenges for the East Asian region today is the Sino-Japanese relationship. Starting from the fishing trawler incident in September 2010 followed by Japan’s nationalisation of the Senkaku/Diaoyu Islands, this relationship is experiencing an escalation of tensions in most, if not all, areas of the bilateral relationship. The response strategies for both China and Japan have been to strengthen their relations with the ASEAN institution and individual states that make up ASEAN. The impact of this outcome on ASEAN, as an institution and region, can be seen in three main areas – major power competition on specific bilateral relationships; maritime security; and regionalism and institutional-building. The main objective of this report is to obtain a more comprehensive understanding of the impact of probably the most important bilateral relationship in East Asia on ASEAN so that there is better preparedness on responding to any outcome in the short- or mid-term future.” theme International Politics and Security / Regionalism and Multilateralism region East Asia and Asia Pacific / Southeast Asia and ASEAN entity IDSS

theme Country and Region Studies / International Politics and Security region Southeast Asia and ASEAN entity IDSS

Start

Southeast Asian Perspectives of the Sino-Japanese Competitive Relationship’s Impact on ASEAN as a Region and Institution

Start

: 01/09/2014

Duration: 25 weeks

Start

: 01/09/2014

Duration: 25 weeks

The Six-Party Talks and its Relations to Regime Theories Mr Lee Il Woo Associate Research Fellow

“Special attention is paid to regime theories laid out in the works of Stephen Krasner, Ernst B. Haas, as well as others mentioned throughout this bit of study. In the end, regimes, defined here as sets of implicit or explicit principles, norms, rules, and decision-making procedures around which actors' expectations converge in a given area of international relations, will be displayed as not useless concepts as strict structural realists might suggest, but that under certain conditions, can make a difference. By delineating the chronology of the nuclear threat, this essay will seek to evaluate whether fundamental power and structural concepts have failed to adequately explain events on the Korean Peninsula, and if so, why the notion of a security regime may be better suited to explicate such occurrences.” theme General / Conflict and Stability / Country and Region Studies / Cybersecurity, Biosecurity and Nuclear Safety / International Politics and Security / Regionalism and Multilateralism region East Asia and Asia Pacific entity IDSS

Start

: 07/09/2014

Duration: 16 weeks

Indonesia’s Security Concerns Mr Adhi Priamarizki Associate Research Fellow

“Several notable security concerns and challenges stand in the way of a post-SBY government in the coming decade. Recent chain of events occurring both regionally and internationally have raised new security concerns including growing tensions in the South China Sea and the threat of identification with extremist ideologies and outfits like the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIS). Domestically, Joko Widodo’s presidency will inherit an Indonesian state with large current account deficit and will have to carefully tread through a slew of economic discrepancies including the controversial fuel subsidy scheme and social unrests from labour disputations. This research will cover both internal and external security concerns and issues Indonesia will face in the next few years following the presidential transition from SBY to Jokowi.”

The People’s Liberation Army and Civil-Military Relations in China since the 18th CCP Party Congress Mr James Char Research Analyst

“The paper seeks to identify and study the changes in civil-military relations in the People’s Republic of China since the ascension of Chinese Communist Party (CCP) Secretary General Xi Jinping’s to the Chairmanship of the Central Military Commission (CMC) since the 18th Party Congress. In particular, it aims to analyse the measures the newly-appointed Chinese leader has adopted to strengthen civilian supremacy over the military chain of command.” theme Country and Region Studies / International Politics and Security region East Asia and Asia Pacific entity IDSS

theme Country and Region Studies / International Politics and Security / Maritime Security / Non-Traditional Security region Southeast Asia and ASEAN entity IDSS

Start

: 01/10/2014

Duration: 12 weeks

Start

: 01/12/2014

Duration: 12 weeks

International Centre for Political Violence and Terrorism Research (ICPVTR)

On Violence, An Edited Volume Dr Irm Haleem Assistant Professor and Manager (Research & Publications)

“The contributors of this volume shall analyse violence from various perspectives: theological; philosophical; temporal; and deconstructive. The introduction to the volume shall be written by me and shall comprise a theoretical, conceptual and philosophical broad brush stroke of the propensity of violence in our histories and our present.” theme Terrorism Studies region Global entity ICPVTR

Book Chapter on Family and Social Rehabilitation for Violent Extremist Offender Mr Muhammad Saiful Alam Shah Bin Sudiman Associate Research Fellow Ms Nur Irfani Binte Saripi Associate Research Fellows

“This literature examines the practice of family and social rehabilitation in selected countries including Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka and Singapore. This paper proposes the initiative to be adopted by countries affected by terrorism activity and underline the multi-faceted challenges that countries have faced or may face in implementing it. Lastly, this paper recommends probable measures to overcome the difficulties. Examining the existing literature in terrorist rehabilitation and interviews of experts and practitioners of this field will be the methods used in conducting this study.”

Book Chapter on Religious Rehabilitation for Terrorists Mr Ahmad Saiful Rijal Bin Hassan Senior Analyst

“This research will focus on the rationale of implementing religious rehabilitation programmes for terrorists. It also provides analyses to countries that possess religious aspects of rehabilitation in their terrorist rehabilitation programme. It also provides recommendations for stakeholders to adopt such programmes in countries affected by terrorism.” theme Terrorism Studies / Singapore and Homeland Security region Global entity ICPVTR

theme Terrorism Studies / Singapore and Homeland Security region Global entity ICPVTR

Start

: 01/05/2014

Duration: 56 weeks

Start

: 05/09/2014

Duration: 15 weeks

Start

: 05/09/2014

Duration: 15 weeks

Key Terrorist Personalities (Counter Terrorist Trends and Analysis, November 2014) Dr Arabinda Acharya Adjunct Fellow Ms Iromi Dharmawardhane Senior Analyst Mr Anton Chan Research Analyst

“Review of individuals that have contributed significantly to the transnational threat of terrorism, covering the period from September 2013 to mid-August 2014.” theme Conflict and Stability / International Politics and Security / Terrorism Studies region Africa / East Asia and Asia Pacific / South Asia / Middle East and North Africa (MENA) entity ICPVTR

Start

: 01/10/2014

Duration: 6 weeks

Short Essay on the Role of Religion in Motivating Violence Dr Irm Haleem Assistant Professor and Manager (Research & Publications)

“A short academic essay for the University of Chicago forum for debate on issues related to religion. The essay analyses the distinction between political violence and religious violence by engaging in notions of struggles for recognition, moral consequentialism and notions of deontological morality. The essay uses as reference the justifications for violence and brutality as offered by ‘The Islamic State’ (IS).”

Annual Country Threat Assessments (Counter Terrorist Trends and Analysis, December 2014) Dr Arabinda Acharya Adjunct Fellow Ms Iromi Dharmawardhane Senior Analyst Mr Anton Chan Research Analyst

“Comprehensive analysis of key developments in 2014 from ICPVTR’s regional and country desks, with projections for the year ahead.” theme Conflict and Stability/ Country and Region Studies/ International Politics and Security/ Terrorism Studies region Global entity ICPVTR

theme Terrorism Studies region Global entity ICPVTR

Start

: 15/10/2014

Duration: 4 weeks

Start

: 31/10/2014

Duration: 6 weeks

Book Chapter on The Terrorist Threat in South Asia Mr Vikram Rajakumar Senior Analyst

“This chapter is part of a book project that assesses the terrorist threats in different regions such as South Asia, Southeast Asia, Middle-east, Africa and Central Asia. The chapter on “South Asia: India” addresses the unique terrorist threats that India faces and identifies the key groups involved in the conflict(s). A short assessment of the implications of the threat within the region will also be included.” theme Conflict and Stability / Country and Region Studies / Terrorism Studies region South Asia entity NTS / RSIS

Start

: 01/11/2014

Duration: 10 weeks

A Conceptual Analysis of Martyrdom Dr Irm Haleem Assistant Professor and Manager (Research & Publications)

“The study analyses notions of death and existence in the glorification and romanticisation of martyrdom through drawing upon Jewish, Christian and Islamic martrologies. The project does not aim a theological study but a conceptual study of the phenomena of martyrdom. This analysis is intended to shed light on the popularity and surge in the radical Islamist ‘suicide missions’ as well as to bring to light deconstructive notions of death and existence that play, and have played such a central role in the challenging of the fear of death.” theme Terrorism Studies region Global entity ICPVTR

Start

: 01/11/2014

Duration: 28 weeks

Centre of Excellence for National Security (CENS)

Disillusioned and Repentant Fighters: Future Assets or Permanent Foes?

Governance and Popular Support: The Islamic State’s Litmus Test

Mr Romain Quivooij Associate Research Fellow

Mr Romain Quivooij Associate Research Fellow

“This commentary focuses on the issue of

involving ‘disillusioned’ and ‘repentant’ returning fighters from Syria and Iraq in counter-radicalisation programmes. By doing so, it addresses the following questions: (i) On what basis can these individuals be relied on as trustworthy partners, especially in view of the successes and failures of similar initiatives in the past?; (ii) to what extent does the experience of the Syrian and Iraqi battlefields represent a break from other Jihadist fronts, in particular in terms of counter-narratives?; and (iii) does the role of these individuals have to go beyond the sharing of experiences, and, if so, how may it be defined and what could this role be?” theme Conflict and Stability / Terrorism Studies region Global entity CENS

“This essay explores the potential for longevity of the ‘Caliphate’ through an analysis of the relationship between the Islamic State’s ideological appeal, its methods of governance and the popular support it allegedly enjoys among different local populations. The main purpose is to critically engage the notion of ‘proto-state’ and the assumed united approval of the Sunni populations living in distinct areas under the control of the IS, thus questioning the long-term capacity of the organisation to attract Iraq/Syria-based followers. This involves the examination of the balance between ideological reasons and rational calculations for support, the latter being closely linked with the running of functioning local economies by the IS.” theme Conflict and Stability / Terrorism Studies region Middle East and North Africa (MENA) entity CENS

Making and Breaking Social Resilience: Bridging Theory and Practice (Edited Book) Ms Nur Diyanah Anwar Research Analyst

“Making and Breaking Social Resilience: Bridging Theory and Practice aims to illustrate theoretically and empirically the following: (i) how social resilience may be conceptualised; (ii) how social resilience may be operationalised; (iii) how social resilience may be measured; (iv) the best practices and tools – qualitative and/or quantitative – that academics and policy-makers use to understand and explain social resilience better for the best policy outcomes; (v) how social resilience policy outcomes may be measured and evaluated; and (vi) what can be done to close the gaps between academic research outputs and policy outcomes. Chapters included would also show how various themes and issues eminent in the society do affect social resilience, and how societies and the agents involved can build its resilience capacity over time.” theme Country and Region Studies / Singapore and Homeland Security / Religion in Contemporary Society region Global entity CENS

Start

: 21/10/2014

Duration: 4 weeks

Start

: 21/10/2014

Duration: 16 weeks

Start

: 01/08/2014

Duration: 52 weeks

The Islamic State Mr Romain Quivooij Associate Research Fellow

“This working paper is designed to provide an exhaustive overview of the Islamic State (IS). The paper pursues three objectives: (i) to understand the genesis and the rise of the IS; (ii) to explore the security impact associated with its activities; and (iii) to assess the effectiveness of implemented counter-strategies. The first part examines the nature of the insurgent organisation viewed through a historical, ideological, organisational, financial and political prism. The second part is devoted to local, regional and global security implications, with specific focus on the Middle East and Southeast Asia. The third part explores the wide spectrum of diplomatic, political, legal, military and counter-ideological game plans against the IS.” theme Conflict and Stability / International Politics and Security / Terrorism Studies region Middle East and North Africa (MENA) / Global entity CENS

Start

: 15/08/2014

Duration: 12 weeks

Centre for Non-Traditional Security Studies (NTS)

Food Security Research Programme Phase II: Food Security and Climate Change: Regional Dynamics and Implications for Singapore Prof Paul Teng Adjunct Senior Fellow Dr Jonatan Lassa Research Fellow Dr Tamara Nair Research Fellow Ms Goh Tian Associate Research Fellow Mr Jose Ma. Luis P. Montesclaros Associate Research Fellow Mr Maxim Shrestha Associate Research Fellow

The research consists of three separate but interlinked studies. The first study aims to identify the downscaled impacts of climate change on the supply of key food commodities in key production regions (in Asia, North and South America and Australia) and identify policy implications and measures required to safeguard food security in Singapore and Southeast Asia. The second study looks at stocks and stockpiling practices and mechanisms in the ASEAN region (plus India, China, Japan) and the impacts of such policies on food security and international trade of food commodities. The final study aims to develop a dynamic systems model that will allow evaluation of Singapore’s current strategies and policies to ensure sufficient food, and allow suggestions for new strategies in response to anticipated changes in the internal and external food security ecosystem. Together these projects aim to understand specific drivers of change in selected food production regions and its implications for Singapore and the region.

ASEAN-Canada Joint Research Partnership

From Human Security to Non-Traditional Security: Concepts, Issues and Cases

Dr J. Jackson Ewing Adjunct Fellow Ms Margareth Sembiring Research Analyst Dr Mely Caballero-Anthony Head of Centre for Non-Traditional Security Studies Ms Cheryl Lim Programme Manager (formerly)

Dr Mely Caballero-Anthony Head of Centre for Non-Traditional Security Studies Dr Alistair D. B. Cook Research Fellow Pro Paul Teng Adjunct Senior Fellow Mr Julius Cesar I. Trajano Senior Analyst

“This project manages the research projects of 11 Junior ASEAN Fellows throughout Southeast Asia. It is made possible through funding from the IDRC in Canada, and works in conjunction with the IDRC and the University of British Columbia. Research supervisors will help the Fellows with research design and will ultimately review the papers that they produce.” theme General /Country and Region Studies / Non-Traditional Security region Southeast Asia and ASEAN entity RSIS / NTS

“This book is framed as a modular textbook that could be used by instructors to propose, design and teach courses on non-traditional security (NTS), international relations and security studies. The proposed textbook, by focusing exclusively on NTS, aims to provide students with a broader and deeper understanding of the concepts and applications underpinning the study of NTS. This textbook will be modelled along the lines of Alan Collins’ Contemporary Security Studies. The Collins volume, while valuable, covers both traditional and non-traditional security concepts and issues. Most research and texts on NTS have focused on the debates that have swirled around NTS as a security concept; or they have focused on specific threats, for example, threats related to conflicts (genocide, migration), environmental concerns (climate change, pollution), health emergencies (pandemics) and disasters. This textbook aims to bring together these different strands.” theme Non-Traditional Security region Global entity NTS

theme Country and Region Studies / International Political Economy / Non-Traditional Security / Regionalism and Multilateralism / Singapore and Homeland Security region East Asia and Asia Pacific / South Asia / Southeast Asia and ASEAN / North and South America entity NTS

Start

: 01/06/2013

Duration: 128 weeks

Start

: 15/02/2014

Duration: 52 weeks

Start

: 01/03/2014

Duration: 50 weeks

The Sustainability of Nuclear Energy in Southeast Asia: Opportunities and Challenges Dr Mely Caballero-Anthony Head of Centre for Non-Traditional Security Studies Dr Alistair D. B. Cook Research Fellow Mr Julius Cesar I. Trajano Senior Analyst Ms Margareth Sembiring Research Analyst

“This project focuses on policy-relevant aspects of nuclear energy programmes in Vietnam, Indonesia and Malaysia. It analyses the achievements made by the three countries in (i) developing human resources in the nuclear energy field; (ii) strengthening legal and regulatory framework; (iii) drafting nuclear waste management plan; and (iv) enforcing safety and security measures. It also looks into the challenges that need to be addressed by the three ASEAN states in these four critical areas which have policy implications on upholding nuclear safety, security and safeguards (3S) in the ASEAN region. This project highlights regional implications of these nuclear energy programmes and recommends policy options for the ASEAN, including its nuclear-aspiring member-states. Data for this project are being derived from desk research and field research/investigation, including interviews with relevant government officials and civil society members from Vietnam, Indonesia and Malaysia. Deliverables include a full research report, commentaries and a journal article.” theme Energy Security / Cybersecurity, Biosecurity and Nuclear Safety / Non-Traditional Security region Southeast Asia and ASEAN entity NTS

Start

: 01/04/2014

Duration: 40 weeks

Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief in the Asia Pacific Dr Mely Caballero-Anthony Head of Centre for Non-Traditional Security Studies Dr Alistair D. B. Cook Research Fellow Ms Gianna Gayle Amul Senior Analyst Ms Margareth Sembiring Research Analyst Mr Julius Cesar I. Trajano Senior Analyst

“This project focuses on: (i) the global impact of crises and conflict; (ii) today’s conflicts and crises through new media and the realities of communicating with those affected by conflict, those actively participating in conflict (factions) and those seeking to influence conflict; and (iii) the spill over effects of the globalisation of modern conflict. It also looks into the emerging trends in humanitarian assistance and disaster relief (HADR) in the Asia Pacific region. It explores appropriate mechanisms strengthening the effectiveness of humanitarian civil-military coordination in natural disaster response operations and humanitarian assistance in complex emergencies. It addresses issues at the global level while seeking to enhance regional, sub-regional and national civilian-military response coordination mechanisms. Deliverables include: (i) ICRC Track 2 meeting (28 Nov 2014); and (ii) Regional Consultation on HADR (8 April 2015)” theme Conflict and Stability / Non-Traditional Security / Regionalism and Multilateralism region East Asia and Asia Pacific / South Asia / Southeast Asia and ASEAN / Global entity NTS

Start

: 01/10/2014

Duration: 32 weeks

Health Governance and Dengue in Southeast Asia: Threats and Opportunities in Climate Change, Urbanisation and Globalisation Dr Mely Caballero-Anthony Head of Centre for Non-Traditional Security Studies Dr Alistair D. B. Cook Research Fellow Ms Gianna Gayle Amul Senior Analyst Ms Akanksha Sharma Research Analyst

“This project focuses on health governance of dengue in Southeast Asia, analysed from the context of threats and opportunities brought about by climate change, urbanisation and globalisation. It aims to provide an overview of regional health governance including the mechanisms and frameworks in ASEAN that have been established to promote health security. It looks at dengue in Southeast Asian countries as a case study and explores the economic burden of the disease, risks and threats from both globalised (trans boundary) and demographic factors, and the regional and national prevention and control measures that have been implemented so far. The project aims to provide evidence-based policy recommendations for further integration, cooperation and sustainability of regional frameworks and domestic measures.” theme Non-Traditional Security region Southeast Asia and ASEAN entity NTS

Start

: 27/10/2014

Duration: 22 weeks

Reintegration Programmes for Migration in ASEAN Dr Mely Caballero-Anthony Head of Centre for Non-Traditional Security Studies Dr Alistair D. B. Cook Research Fellow Ms Gianna Gayle Amul Senior Analyst Ms Margareth Sembiring Research Analyst

“This project focuses on reintegration programmes for returning migrant workers. It aims to investigate best practices and lessons learned from different countries, with the purpose of replicating them at regional level. The outcome of the project will assist in reintegration policy design and implementation.” theme Non-Traditional Security / Regionalism and Multilateralism region Southeast Asia and ASEAN entity NTS

Start

: 18/11/2014

Duration: 24 weeks

Centre for Multilateralism Studies (CMS)

Asia’s Stakeholders: The Builders and Users of Asia’s Multilateral Architecture

India’s Economic Linkages with the West and the Rest of the World

Dr Tan See Seng Deputy Director of Institute of Defence and Strategic Studies; and Head of Centre for Multilateralism Studies

Dr Pradumna Bickram Rana Coordinator of the International Political Economy Programme Dr Chia Wai Mun Assistant Professor Division of Economics, HSS, NTU Mr Don Rodney Ong Junio Associate Research Fellow

“Single-author book project on the material and ideational contributions of 4 non-ASEAN “stakeholders” (Australia, China, Japan, the U.S.) to the formation, maintenance and (potential) reform of Asia’s evolving multilateral architecture. Against the conventional wisdom that the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) has been chiefly responsible for the perceived successes and failures of that architecture – thanks in no small part to the principle of “ASEAN centrality” – I argue that far from mere norm-takers, those four external stakeholders have had just as much influence as ASEAN, if not more, in defining the shape and substance of Asia’s architecture. The book undertakes a cross-national comparative assessment of the contributions of those four powers and those of a fifth (emerging) power and ASEAN member, Indonesia.”

“This project looks at India’s economic integration with Europe, the United States and the rest of the world using various measures including trade, investment, and capital flows. India’s increasing participation in managing global economic governance is also examined. An output for this project includes a working paper.” theme Country and Region Studies / International Political Economy / Regionalism and Multilateralism region South Asia / Global entity CMS / IPE / HSS

theme Regionalism and Multilateralism region East Asia and Asia Pacific entity IDSS / CMS

Start

: 01/07/2014

Duration: 24 weeks

Start

: 15/10/2014

Duration: 15 weeks

International Political Economy (IPE) Programme

The Globalisation of Natural Resources: How External Actors Affect Political Survival in Resource Rich Countries Dr Chia-yi Lee Assistant Professor

“This project examines how foreign involvement in the oil sector affects domestic politics, especially leadership survival in oil producing countries. This project primarily relies on a large-N, statistical analysis, and also looks at a few case studies in Latin America and Africa. Using data on oil ownership and oil nationalisation, this project analyses the effect of (un)cooperative behaviour with foreign oil companies on the leader’s survival prospect. This project will serve as the basis of at least one journal article that will be submitted soon and a book manuscript.”

Why are Oil Producing Countries Prone to Terrorism? Dr Chia-yi Lee Assistant Professor

“This project explores the mechanisms through which oil producing countries are prone to terrorism, and uses statistical analyses to test these mechanisms. Based on the literature, there are at least three mechanisms through which oil may be linked to terrorism: oil money funding terrorist activities, oil facilities being an easy target, and oil causing grievances which are channelled into terrorist attacks. This project uses data from various sources and examines a few cases in-depth to investigate which mechanism(s) is more likely.”

theme International Political Economy / Conflict and Stability / Energy Security region Global entity IPE

theme Conflict and Stability / International Political Economy / International Politics and Security / Terrorism Studies / Energy Security region Global entity IPE

Start

Start

: 01/03/2012

Duration: 156 weeks

: 01/02/2014

Duration: 52 weeks

ASEAN’s Long-Term Economic Potential and Vision (Special Issue of Singapore Economic Review and Edited Book) Dr Pradumna Bickram Rana Coordinator of the International Political Economy Programme

“This project looks at ASEAN’s economic potential and vision beyond 2015 specifically looking at five sub topics: (i) strategic issues in ASEAN including long-term aspirations; (ii) modalities for integration; (iii) institutional issues; (iv) progress in key pillars of the AEC; and (v) ASEAN centrality and its engagement with the rest of Asia. A conference will be organised in mid-November under the theme and accepted peer-reviewed papers will be published in a special issue of the Singapore Economic Review (SER) where I will edit.” theme Country and Region Studies / International Political Economy / Regionalism and Multilateralism region East Asia and Asia Pacific / Southeast Asia and ASEAN entity CMS / IPE

Start

: 01/03/2014

Duration: 78 weeks

Jump-starting South Asia: Round Two of Reforms and Look East Policies (Book)

Electoral Institutions, Particularism, and the Skill-Bias of Trade Protection

“IMF = I’M Fired?: IMF Programme Participation and Workers’ Rights”

Dr Pradumna Bickram Rana Coordinator of the International Political Economy Programme Dr Chia Wai Mun Assistant Professor, Division of Economics, HSS, NTU

Dr Lee Su-Hyun Assistant Professor

Dr Lee Su-Hyun Assistant Professor

“This book’s main focus will be on how South Asian countries can jump-start their economies through a second round of economic reforms and by linking themselves to production networks in East Asia. This is the first book of its kind bringing in discussions of production networks and supply chain trade (or the so-called 21st century trade issues) to South Asia-East Asia economic relations. This book also focuses on infrastructure connectivity issues and, in particular, the revival of land connectivity and ICT development in Asia which were not discussed in earlier studies. It also conducts a perception survey of opinion leaders from both South Asia and East Asia to assess the robustness of the findings and recommendations made in various chapters. The book will comprise an introductory chapter and 8 main chapters.” theme Country and Region Studies / International Political Economy / Regionalism and Multilateralism region East Asia and Asia Pacific / South Asia / Southeast Asia and ASEAN / Global entity CMS / IPE / HSS

Start

: 11/08/2014

Duration: 52 weeks

“A single-authored project: Why do some countries have trade protection biased toward skill-intensive industries than others? While the literature on endogenous protection commonly argues that the skill-bias of trade policy has features of public goods, much previous research does not explain clearly the conditions under which governments maintain higher tariff rates for skill-intensive industries over unskilled-intensive ones. Using time-series cross-section data on 28 industries in 52 democracies, this research argues that the extent to which governments protect skill-intensive industries is explained by the interaction between two factors: first, a country’s factor endowments that determine the median voter’s sector-specific trade policy preferences; and second, the degree of political particularism that affects the responsiveness of representative policymakers to the rent-seeking behaviour of special interest groups. Preliminary findings were presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association in September 2014. The final manuscript will be submitted to Journal of Politics.

Co-authored project with Professor Byung-Won Woo at Oakland University: How do International Monetary Fund (IMF) programmes and conditions included affect labour rights? Critics of the IMF contend that participation in an IMF programme is detrimental to workers’ rights as the IMF tries to impose pro-business labour policies via conditionality. In this paper, we argue that while the IMF might have tried to make IMF programmes more beneficial to workers, those efforts are too little to reverse the overall negative effects on labour rights in both short-term and long-term. Utilising a labour rights dataset and IMF labour-market conditionality dataset, we demonstrate that IMF programmes with stricter labour-market conditions have more detrimental effects on both de jure labour rights and de facto labour practices. The final manuscript will be submitted to one of high-ranked journals in Political Science: American Journal of Political Science, International Organization, or International Studies Quarterly. theme General / International Political Economy region Global entity IPE

theme General / International Political Economy region Global entity IPE

Start

: 20/09/2014

Duration: 24 weeks

Start

: 01/10/2014

Duration: 20 weeks

Studies in Inter-Religious Relations in Plural Societies (SRP) Programme

Evolving Inter-religious Relations in Singapore: 50 Years of Managing Religious Diversity

Review of Completed Qualitative and Quantitative Studies on Inter-religious Relations in Singapore

Resources within Religious Traditions for Inter-religious Dialogue, Discourse and Relations

Mr Mohamed Imran Mohamed Taib Associate Research Fellow Mr Mohammad Alami Musa Head of Studies in Inter-Religious Relations in Plural Societies Programme

Mr Salim Mohamed Nasir Associate Research Fellow Mr Mohamed Imran Mohamed Taib Associate Research Fellow

Mr Mohamed Imran Mohamed Taib Associate Research Fellow Mr Salim Mohamed Nasir Associate Research Fellow

“To chart out the evolution of religious harmony in Singapore since independence, highlighting positive developments, episodes that disrupt harmony, role of legislation, policies and community-based activities.”

“To produce an annotated bibliography of the studies reviewed with a purpose of informing readers of what has been researched in the area of inter-religious relations in Singapore. An intended outcome of this project is to develop a repository of information/studies for SRP.”

“To identify teachings within major religions in Singapore that enable and promote positive inter-religious relations, through interviews with key religious leaders and documentation of inter-religious activities in each religious community.”

theme Country and Region Studies / Religion in Contemporary Society region Southeast Asia and ASEAN entity SRP

theme Country and Region Studies / Religion in Contemporary Society region Southeast Asia and ASEAN entity SRP

theme Country and Region Studies / Religion in Contemporary Society region Southeast Asia and ASEAN entity SRP

Start

Start

Start

: 01/07/2014

Duration: 24 weeks

: 01/07/2014

Duration: 24 weeks

: 01/07/2014

Duration: 36 weeks

Idea of Caliphate/Islamic State and Views on Relations with Non-Muslims Dr Rozlan Giri Principal Coordinator

“To seek interpretation, understanding and thoughts that legitimises negative relations, hostility towards non-Muslims and disruption of social harmony/cohesion.” theme Country and Region Studies / Religion in Contemporary Society region Southeast Asia and ASEAN entity SRP

Survey of Al-Wala’ wal Bara’ (Loyalty and Disavowal) Sentiments within the Muslim Community in Singapore Dr Mohamed Ali Assistant Professor

“The research aims to explore the Islamic doctrine of Al-Wala’ wal Bara’ (WB) within the Muslim community in Singapore. In particular, it aims to discover to what extent the ‘extreme’ manifestations of WB have influenced and penetrated the Muslim community here. Towards this objective, the study will do a survey of specific WB ideas that might have taken root in the Muslim community. The survey will be conducted through analysing these ideas encapsulated in the teachings of Muslim preachers as well as through interviewing key religious elites and leaders. In the broad sense, this research attempts to study how religious ideas and concepts such as WB are used by Muslims to incite hatred against the non-Muslims, and thus cause disruption to social harmony and cohesion in a multi-religious society.” theme Religion in Contemporary Society region Southeast Asia and ASEAN entity SRP

Start

: 01/10/2014

Duration: 36 weeks

Start

: 01/12/2014

Duration: 24 weeks

Graduate Programmes Office (GPO)

Southeast Asia and the Cold War: An International History Dr Ang Cheng Guan Associate Professor and Head of Graduate Studies

“This is the first survey text as well as a state-of-the-field study of the Cold War International History of Southeast Asia. It fills a gaping hole in the historiography of the international history of the Cold War. The book will address all the key and controversial episodes and issues of the Cold War in the region based on a combination of primary and secondary literature, archival sources and the most recent scholarship by both the right and left. The book will interrogate the ‘orthodox’ (prevailing) narrative and present a fresh interpretation of the period.” theme General / Conflict and Stability / Country and Region Studies / International Politics and Security / Regionalism and Multilateralism region East Asia and Asia Pacific / Southeast Asia and ASEAN entity GPO

Start

: 02/01/2014

Duration: 104 weeks