TEST Routine Urinalysis

TEST Routine Urinalysis SYNONYM/S Urinalysis, UR LAB SECTION Clinical Microscopy AVAILABILITY ... specimen collected by catheterization is the ideal. ...

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TEST

Routine Urinalysis

SYNONYM/S

Urinalysis, UR

LAB SECTION

Clinical Microscopy

AVAILABILITY

Daily (24 hours)

TURN AROUND TIME (TAT) (upon receipt of the laboratory)

STAT : within 2 hours Routine : within 4 hours

PATIENT PREPARATION

Collect a clean-catch urine specimen as follows: Males: Soap and water should be used to clean the glans. Rinse area. Begin voiding with the foreskin retracted in uncircumcised males. After several volume of urine has passed, collect midstream portion without stopping flow of urine. Place the cap on the cup and tighten securely. Promptly forward to the lab. Female: Thoroughly clean urethral are with soap and water. While holding the labia apart, begin voiding. After several volume of urine has passed, collect midstream portion without stopping flow of urine. Place the cap on the cup and tighten securely. Promptly forward to the lab.

SPECIMEN

Ideally first morning urine, Random urine

VOLUME OF SPECIMEN

3 - 10 ml

CONTAINER

Clear, clean, dry, wide mouth, screw cup container.

CAUSES OF REJECTION

Contamination with feces, menstrual blood, specimen decomposition (e.g., pH>9.0); bacterial overgrowth

COLLECTION AND TRANSPORT

A clean-catch, mid-stream specimen is acceptable while specimen collected by catheterization is the ideal. First morning urine specimen is most desirable in all manner of collection.

SPECIMEN STABILITY AND STORAGE

Formed elements in the urine including casts disintegrate rapidly; therefore, the specimen should be analyzed as soon as possible after collection. If testing cannot be performed within one hour after collection, refrigerate at 2-8ºC immediately. It is important to test using a fresh urine specimen when making bilirubin and urobilinogen determinations, as these compounds are very unstable at room temperature and light. Unpreserved urine at room temperature may undergo pH changes due to microbial proliferation, which may interfere with protein determination.

LIMITATIONS

Insufficient volume, <2.0 mL, may limit the extent of procedures performed. High Vitamin C intake may cause an underestimate of glucosuria, or false-negative nitrite test. Survival of WBC’s is decreased by low osmolality, alkalinity, and lack of refrigeration. Specific gravity is affected by glucosuria, mannitol infusion, or prior administration of iodinated contrast material for radiologic studies. False-positive tests for protein can also be due to contamination of the urine by an ammoniumcontaining cleaning solution.

METHODOLOGY

Flow imaging microscopy and Auto particle recognition