THE COMPLETE GUIDE

viii vray - the complete guide chapter 3 - vray: renderer part 1 vray: frame buffer...

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VRay THE COMPLETE GUIDE

VRay THE COMPLETE GUIDE Francesco Legrenzi

SUMMARY

CHAPTER 1 - Introduction GENERAL …………………………………………………………………………………………….……….. 1 About the author ………………………………………………………………………….……….. 1 Acknowledgments …..…………………………………………………………………….………… 2 Preface ………………………………………………………………………………….………… 3 About the book ……………………………………………………………………….………….. 3 Structure of the book ……………………………………………………………………….………….. 4 Getting the most from the book ……………………………………………………………….………… 4 Attached DVD-ROM ……………………………………………………………………….………….. 4 What is VRay? ………………………………………………………………………………….………… 5 VRay and the hardware ……………………………………………………………………….………….. 5 The book’s webpage ……………………………………………………………………….………….. 7 VRAY AND THE INTERFACE ……………………………………………………………………….………….. 8 ORGANIZATION AND AIM OF THE BOOK

……………………………………………………….………..13

CHAPTER 2 - The complete story of Computer Graphics THE GENERAL STORY ……………………………………………………………….………………….. 16 1200 B.C. ………………………………………………...………………………………………….. 16 1500 A.D. ………………………………………………...………………………………………….. 17 1600 A.D. ………………………………………………...………………………………………….. 18 1800 A.D. ………………………………………………...………………………………………….. 19 1900 A.D. ………………………………………………...………………………………………….. 25 1910 A.D. ………………………………………………...………………………………………….. 27 1930 A.D. ………………………………………………...………………………………………….. 29 1940 A.D. ………………………………………………...………………………………………….. 32 1950 A.D. ………………………………………………...………………………………………….. 39 1955 A.D. ………………………………………………...………………………………………….. 44 1960 A.D. ………………………………………………...………………………………………….. 49 1965 A.D. ………………………………………………...………………………………………….. 54 1970 A.D. ………………………………………………...………………………………………….. 61 1975 A.D. ………………………………………………...………………………………………….. 68 1980 A.D. ………………………………………………...………………………………………….. 79 1985 A.D. ………………………………………………...………………………………………….. 93 1990 A.D. ………………………………………………...………………………………………….. 108 1995 A.D. ………………………………………………...………………………………………….. 114 2000 A.D. ………………………………………………...………………………………………….. 122 2005 A.D. ………………………………………………...………………………………………….. 126 THE STORY OF VRAY 2001 A.D. 2003 A.D. 2004 A.D. 2005 A.D. 2006 A.D. 2007 A.D.

…………………………...……………………………………………………………….. 134 ………………………………………………...………………………………………….. 134 ………………………………………………...………………………………………….. 138 ………………………………………………...………………………………………….. 139 ………………………………………………...………………………………………….. 142 ………………………………………………...………………………………………….. 144 ………………………………………………...………………………………………….. 144

SUMMARY

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CHAPTER 3 - VRay: Renderer PART 1

VRAY: FRAME BUFFER INTRODUCTION

………………………………………………………………………………….. 148

………………..………………………………………………………………………….. 148

PARAMETERS ………………………….………………………………………………………………………….. 149 Frame buffer ……………………………………………………………………………...…………….. 149 Frame buffer toolbar ………………………………..………………………………………...……….. 150 Frame buffer shortcut ………………………………………………………………………………….. 152

VRAY: GLOBAL SWITCHES ………………………………………………………………………………….. 154 INTRODUCTION

………………..………………………………………………………………………….. 154

PARAMETERS ………………………….………………………………………………………………………….. 154 Geometry ……………………………………………………………………………...…………….. 154 Lighting ………………………..………………..………………………………………...……….. 154 Materials …………...……………………………………………………………………………….. 156 Indirect illumination ……...………..………………..……………………...………………...……….. 158 Raytracing …………...........………………………………………………………………………….. 159

VRAY: IMAGE SAMPLER (Antialiasing) INTRODUCTION

……………………………………………………………….. 160

………………..………………………………………………………………………….. 160

PARAMETERS ………………………….………………………………………………………………………….. 163 Image sampler ……………………………………………………………………………...…………….. 163 Antialiasing filter …………………………………………………………………...……..……….. 165 NOTE ………………………….………………………………………..………………………………………….. 166 EXAMPLES ………..……….………………………………………..………………………………………….. 167 Example 1: what is antialiasing? …………………………………………………………...…………….. 167 Example 2: Adaptive subdivision sampler …………………………..……………………...…………….. 167 Example 3: Adaptive QMC sampler …………………………………….…………...…………….. 168 Example 4: DOF, bump and textures …………...…….…...…………..……………...…………….. 169 Example 5: DOF and procedural textures ………………………..………………………...……………..173 Example 6: scene without textures and DOF ….…..………………………………...…………….. 179 Example 7: textures and antialiasing ..………………………………………………...…………….. 185 Example 8: Object outline and normal ……………..…………………………………...……………..191 Example 9: random antialiasing ………………………………………………..……..…...…………….. 194 Example 10: the filters …………………………………………………………..………...…………….. 195 Example 11: moire effect ………………………………………..………...……………………………….. 203

VRAY: GLOBAL ILLUMINATION (GI) INTRODUCTION

……………………………………………………………….. 209

………………..………………………………………………………………………….. 209

CALCULATION METHODS FOR THE GI .………………………………………………………………..213 Exact and approximate calculation methods ………………………..………………………...……………..214 Shooting methods vs. Gathering methods ………………………………………………...……..………..215 Approximate methods: Dependent view vs independent View …………..………………………..……….. 217 Methods supported by VRay …………………………………………..……………….…………….. 218

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VRay - THE COMPLETE GUIDE

GLOBAL ILLUMINATION (GI) IN VRAY

………………………….……………………………………..219

PARAMETERS ……………………………………………………………….…………………………………….. 222 GI caustics …………………………………………………....………………………...…………….. 222 Post-processing ………………………………………………..…………………………...……..……….. 223 Primary bounces ………………………………………………………….………………………..……….. 224 Secondary bounces …………………..………………………………..……………….…………….. 225 METHOD ASSOCIATIONS ANIMATION

…………………………………………….…………………………………….. 225

……………………………………………………………….…………………………………….. 226

VRAY: quasi-Monte Carlo (QMC) INTRODUCTION

……………………………………………………………...………….. 228

………………..…………………………………………………………………….…….. 228

PARAMETERS ………………………….………………………………………………………………………….. 228

VRAY: IRRADIANCE MAP (IM) INTRODUCTION

……………………………………………………………...………….. 233

………………..…………………………………………………………………….…….. 233

PARAMETERS ………………………….………………………………………………………………………….. 234 Basic parameters ………..…………………..……………………....………………………...…………….. 235 Advanced option ...……...……………………………..…………………………...……..……….. 250 Mode ………..………………………………………………………….………………………..……….. 260 On render end ………..…………………..………………………………..……………….…………….. 264 METHOD ASSOCIATIONS

……………………….………………………………………………………….. 265

VRAY: PHOTON MAP (PM)

………………………………………………………………..……...………….. 272

INTRODUCTION

………………..…………………………………………………………………….…….. 272

PARAMETERS ………………………….………………………………………………………………………….. 276 NOTE …………………..……………….………………………………………………………………………….. 285 METHOD ASSOCIATIONS

…………………….…………………………………………………………….. 286

VRAY: LIGHT CACHE (LC)

………………………………………………………………..……...………….. 293

INTRODUCTION

………………..…………………………………………………………………….…….. 293

PARAMETERS ………………………….………………………………………………………………………….. 294 Calculation parameters ………..………....……………………....………………………...…………….. 294 Reconstruction parameters ...……...……………..……..…………………………...……..……….. 301 Mode ………..………………………………………………………….………………………..……….. 305 On render end ………..…………………..………………………………..……………….…………….. 310 METHOD ASSOCIATIONS

…………………….…………………………………………………………….. 311

SUMMARY

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CHAPTER 4 - VRay: Renderer

VRAY: ENVIRONMENT INTRODUCTION

PART 2

………………………………………………………………..……...………….. 326

………………..…………………………………………………………………….…….. 326

PARAMETERS ………………………….………………………………………………………………………….. 328 GI Environment (skylight) ………....……………………....………………………...…………….. 328 Reflection/refraction Environment ……………………..……..…....………………………...…………….. 331

VRAY: CAUSTICS

……………………..…………………………………………………..……...………….. 335

INTRODUCTION

………………..…………………………………………………………………….…….. 335

PARAMETERS ………………………….………………………………………………………………………….. 339 Rollout VRay: Caustics …………..……....……………………....………………………...…………….. 343 Mode ………………………………………………..……..…....………………………...………..…….. 348 On render end ……………………………..………..……..…....………………………...………..…….. 348

VRAY: rQMC SAMPLER INTRODUCTION

……………………..…………………………..……………..……...………….. 350

………………..…………………………………………………………………….…….. 350

PARAMETERS ………………………….………………………………………………………………………….. 351 NOTE ………………………….………………………………………………………………………..………….. 356

VRAY: COLOR MAPPING INTRODUCTION

……………………..…………………………..……………..……...………….. 357

………………..…………………………………………………………………….…….. 357

PARAMETERS ………………………….………………………………………………………………………….. 359 THE LIGHT ………………………….………………………………………………………………………….. 363 Color’s features …………..……....……………………....………………………...………………..…….. 369 Color’s spaces ………..……………………………..……..…....………………………...………..…….. 371 Colors and computer ………………..…..………..……..…....………………………...………..…….. 372 The screen and its characteristics ………....……………………....………………………...…………….. 375 Color’s management in digital environment………….…………….…………………...…………....…….. 382 Screen calibration …………………………..…....……………………………...…......……..…….. 386 Work spaces ………....………………………………………....………………………...…………….. 391 Color management in Photoshop ……………………….…………….…………………...………..…….. 394 Self-printing and laboratory printing …………..……..…....………………………...………..……..402 Conclusions ……………………………..………..……..…....………………………...………..…….. 403 LINEAR WORK FLOW (LWF) VRay 1.5 RC2

X

……………….………………………………………………………………….. 404

………………………………….………………………………………………………………….. 415

VRay - THE COMPLETE GUIDE

VRAY: CAMERA

……………………..…………………………..……………..…………….....………….. 422

INTRODUCTION

………………..…………………………………………………………………….…….. 422

PARAMETERS ………………..……………..……………………………………………………………….…….. 422 Camera type …………..……………………………..…..…....………………………...………..…….. 426 Depth of field (DOF) ……………..……..………..……..…....………………………...………..…….. 438 Motion blur (MB) ……………..……..………..……..…....………………………...………..…….. 445

VRAY: DEFAULT DISPLACEMENT INTRODUCTION

……………………………..……………..…………….....………..….. 451

………………..…………………………………………………………………….…….. 451

PARAMETERS ………………..……………..……………………………………………………………….…….. 453

VRAY: VRAY DISPLACEMENT MOD ……………………………..……………..…………….....………..….. 464 INTRODUCTION

………………..…………………………………………………………………….…….. 464

PARAMETERS ………………..……………..……………………………………………………………….…….. 464 Type …………..……………………………………....…..…....………………………...………..…….. 464 2D mapping ……………..……..………..……………....…....………………………...………..…….. 482 3D mapping/subdivs ……………..……..………..……..…....………………………...………..…….. 484

VRAY: SYSTEM

………………………………………………..……………..…………….....………..….. 490

INTRODUCTION

………………..…………………………………………………………………….…….. 490

PARAMETERS ………………..……………..……………………………………………………………….…….. 491 Raycaster params ………..……………………....…..…....………………………...………..…….. 491 Render region division ……………..……..……………....…....………………………...………..…….. 503 Frame stamp ……………..……..………..……..…....…………………………..……...………..…….. 508 Distribuite rendering ………..……………………....…..…....………………………...………..…….. 510 VRay log ……………..……..……………....…....……………..…………………...………..…….. 512 Miscellaneous options ……………..……..……..…....…………………………..……...………..…….. 513

CHAPTER 5 - VRay: MATERIALS AND MAPS

VRAY MATERIAL: VRayMtl …………………………………………………………………………….…….. 531 INTRODUCTION

………………..………………………………………………………………………….. 531

PARAMETERS ………………………….………………………………………………………………………….. 532 Basic parameters ……………………………………………………………………………...…………….. 532 BRDF ………………………………..…………………………………………………………...……….. 573 Options ………………………….………………………………………………………………………….. 577

SUMMARY

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VRAY MATERIAL: VRayMtlWrapper …………………..……………………………………………….…….. 582 INTRODUCTION

………………..………………………………………………………………………….. 582

VRAY MATERIAL: VRayLightMtl

……………………………………..…………………………….…….. 583

PARAMETERS ………………………….………………………………………………………………………….. 583

VRAY MATERIAL: VRay2SidedMtl INTRODUCTION

…………………………………..……………………………….…….. 588

………………..………………………………………………………………………….. 588

PARAMETERS ………………………….………………………………………………………………………….. 588

VRAY MATERIAL: VRayBlendMtl INTRODUCTION

…………………………………………..……………………….…….. 594

………………..………………………………………………………………….……….. 594

PARAMETERS ………………………….………………………………………………………………………….. 601

VRAY MATERIAL: VRayFastSSS INTRODUCTION

…………………………………………..……………………….…….. 608

………………..………………………………………………………………….……….. 608

PARAMETERS ………………………….………………………………………………………………………….. 608

VRAY MATERIAL: VRayOverrideMtl …………………………………………..……………………….…….. 614 INTRODUCTION

………………..………………………………………………………………….……….. 614

PARAMETERS ………………………….………………………………………………………………………….. 614

VRAYMAP: VRayMap ……………..………..……………………………………..……………………….…….. 617 INTRODUCTION

………………..………………………………………………………………….……….. 618

PARAMETERS ………………………….………………………………………………………………………….. 618 Reflection params ………..…………………………………………………………...…………….. 621 Refraction params ……………..…………………………………………………………...……….. 625

VRAYMAP: VRayHDRI INTRODUCTION

……………..………..……..……………………..……………………….…….. 631

………………..………………………………………………………………….……….. 631

PARAMETERS ………………………….………………………………………………………………………….. 638

VRAYMAP: VRayDirt ……………..………..……………………………………..……………………….…….. 647 INTRODUCTION

………………..………………………………………………………………….……….. 647

PARAMETERS ………………………….………………………………………………………………………….. 650

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VRay - THE COMPLETE GUIDE

VRAYMAP: VRayEdgeTex INTRODUCTION

……………..……………………………………..……………………….…….. 661

………………..………………………………………………………………….……….. 661

PARAMETERS ………………………….………………………………………………………………………….. 662

VRAYMAP: VRayBmpFilter INTRODUCTION

……………..……………………………………..……………………….…….. 666

………………..………………………………………………………………….……….. 666

PARAMETERS ………………………….………………………………………………………………………….. 669

VRAYMAP: VRayColor INTRODUCTION

……………..………..…………………………..……………………….…….... 672

………………..………………………………………………………………….……….. 672

PARAMETERS ………………………….………………………………………………………………………….. 673

VRAYMAP: VRayCompTex INTRODUCTION

……………..……………………………………..……………………….…….. 676

………………..………………………………………………………………….……….. 676

PARAMETERS ………………………….………………………………………………………………………….. 677

CHAPTER 6 - CAMERAS AND LIGHTS

THEORY

………………………………………………………………………………….…………..….. 684

THE CAMERA ………………………….....……………………………………………………………………….. 684 VIGNETTING EFFECT ………..………...……………………..………………………………………………….. 709 BOKEH EFFECT

………...………………………………………………………………………………….. 709

THE VIDEO CAMERA ………..………...…………………………………………..…………………………….. 710

VRAY CAMERA: VRayPhysicalCamera INTRODUCTION

……………..………..……………....………………….……..713

………………..………………………………………………………………….……….. 713

PARAMETERS ………………………….………………………………………………………………………….. 713 Basic parameters ……………..…..…………………………………………………………...…………….. 714 Bokeh effects ……………..…..…………………………………………………………...…………….. 736 Sampling ………..…………………………………………………………...…………………..….. 739

SUMMARY

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VRAY LIGHT and VRAY SHADOWS ……………..………..……………....………………….…………..….. 741

TECHNICAL ILLUMINATION THEORY ………...……………………………………………………………….. 741 Geometric parameters ……………..…..………………………..………………………...…………….. 741 Physics parameters ………..…………………………………………………………...…………….. 744 Radiometric parameters ...........................................….…………………………...…………………..….. 746 Fotometric parameters ………..………..………………………………………...…………………..….. 748 3DS MAX LIGHTS

……………..….………………………………………………………………………….. 759

VRAYSHADOW

………………………………..………..……………....………………….…….. 762

INTRODUCTION

………………..………………………………………………………………….……….. 762

PARAMETERS ………………………….………………………………………………………………………….. 763

VRAYLIGHT

………………………………..………..……………....………………….…………..….. 768

INTRODUCTION

………………..………………………………………………………………….……….. 768

PARAMETERS ………………………….………………………………………………………………………….. 769 General ………………………………..…..………………………..………………………...…………….. 769 Intensity ………………………………..…..………………………..………………………...…………….. 776 Size ………………………………..…..………………………..………………………...…………….. 790 Options ………………………………..…..………………………..………………………...…………….. 790 Sampling ……………..………..…..………………………..………………………...…………….. 798 Dome light options ……………..…..………………………..………………………...…………….. 800

VRAYSUN and VRAYSKY INTRODUCTION

……………..………..………..……………....………………….…………..….. 810

………………..………………………………………………………………….……….. 810

PARAMETERS VRaySun

..……...………………………………………………………………………….. 813

PARAMETERS VRaySky

..……...………………………………………………………………………….. 819

CHAPTER 7 - VRay: OBJECT and ENVIRONMENT

VRAY OBJECTS

………………..…………………………………………………………………….…….. 824

VRAYPROXY ………………..………………..…………………………………………………………….…….. 825

INTRODUCTION

………………..………………………………………………………………………….. 825

PARAMETERS ………………………….………………………………………………………………………….. 831 NOTE ……………………..…………….………………………………………………………………………….. 832

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VRay - THE COMPLETE GUIDE

VRAYPLANE ………………..………………..…………………………………………………………….…….. 833

INTRODUCTION

………………..………………………………………………………………………….. 833

PARAMETERS ………………………….………………………………………………………………………….. 833

VRAYFUR

………………..………………..…………………………………………………………….…….. 835

INTRODUCTION

………………..………………………………………………………………………….. 835

PARAMETERS ………………………….………………………………………………………………………….. 836 Parameters ………………..……..…..………………………..………………………...…………….. 836 Maps ………………………………..…..………………………..………………………...…………….. 848 Viewport display …………………………..………………………..………………………...…………….. 854

VRAYTOON

………………………………………………..……………..…………….....………..………….... 857

INTRODUCTION

………………..…………………………………………………………………….…….. 857

PARAMETERS ………………..……………..……………………………………………………………….…….. 858 Basic parameters ………..…………..…………………....…..…....………………………...………..…….. 858 Maps ………..…………..……………..……………....…..…....………………………...………..…….. 863

VRAYSPHEREFADE ………..……………………………..……………..…………….....………..………….... 869 INTRODUCTION

………………..…………………………………………………………………….…….. 869

GENERAL ELEMENTS ………………..…………………………………………………………………….…….. 875 COMPOSITING BASIS ………………………………………………………………………………..…….…….. 875 PARAMETERS ……………………..…..…………………………………………………………………….…….. 879

CHAPTER 8 - RENDER ELEMENTS

VRAY RENDER ELEMENTS ………..………………………………………………………….…………..….. 892 INTRODUCTION

...………………………………………………………………………………………….. 892

PARAMETERS ...……………..…………………………………………………………………………………….. 893 Render Elements …………..…………………....…..…....………………………...………..…….. 907 COMPOSITING

...………………………………………………………………………………………….. 946

SUMMARY

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CHAPTER 9 - UPDATES

VRay v1.5 RC3 ………..…………………………………………………………………………….…………..….. 952 INTRODUCTION

...………………………………………………………………………………………….. 952

PARAMETERS ...……………..…………………………………………………………………………………….. 953 Frame buffer rollout …………..……………..………....…....………………………...………..…….. 953 VFB …………..……………..................…....…………………………………………...………..…….. 953 Image sampler (Antialiasing) .……………..…………..…....…....……………………………..…….. 953 Adaptive rQMC (Antialiasing) ……………..…………...…....…....……………………………..…….. 954 Adaptive subdivision (Antialiasing) …….………..……....…....……………………………..…….. 956 Adaptive subdivision (Antialiasing) …….………..……....…....……………………………..…….. 956 Adaptive subdivision (Antialiasing) …….………..……....…....……………………………..…….. 956 Irradiance Map …….………..……....……………..………………....……………………………..…….. 958 Light cache …….…………………………..………....…....……….......……………………………..…….. 963 rQMC Sampler ………………...……..…………..…..................…....……………………………..…….. 963 Color Mapping …….………..……..........…………..………..……....……………………………..…….. 964

VRay v1.5 FINAL ……..…………………………………………………………………………….…………..….. 965 INTRODUCTION

...………………………………………………………………………………………….. 965

PARAMETERS ...……………..…………………………………………………………………………………….. 967 New Render Elements …………………..………….....…………....…...………..……...………..…….. 967 Quad menu …………..……………..…..................…....……………………………...………..…….. 971 Irradiance Map .……………..……..............................................…....……………………………..…….. 972 Sampling ……………..….…....…....………………………………………………..………..…….. 973 Legacy models and Use 3ds Max photometric scale ………..…..…....……………………………..…….. 974 VRayLight …….………..……....…....…………………..……………………………………..…….. 976 VRayPhysicalCamera …….………..……....…....………………..……………………………....…….. 979 VRayProxy …….………..……....……………………………......……………………………..…….. 982 Textures and shaders: VRayHDRI, VRayMtl, VRayDirt, VRayFastSSS, VRayEdgesTex ..…….... 982 Color Mapping ………………...……..……..................…....…………………………………………….. 990 Renderer …….………..……..........…………..……....………………..……………………..…….. 993

VRay v1.5 FINAL SP1 and SP2 ………...………………………………………………………….…………..…..994 INTRODUCTION

………………………………………………………………………………………...…..994

PARAMETERS ...……………..…………………………………………………………………………………….. 995 VRayMtl (Anisotropy) …………………..………….....…………....…...………..……...………..…….. 995 VRayProxy (Scale) …………………..………….....…………....…...………..……...………..…….. 999 VRayFur (Taper) ………..…………………..………….....…………....…...………..……...………..…….. 1000 VRayMtl (Soften) …..……………..………….....…………....…...………..……...……………….. 1001 VRaySimbiontMtl …..……………..………….....…………....…...……..…..……...………..…….. 1001 VRayProxy (Animation) …..……………..………….....…………....…...………..……...………....…….. 1007 VRayIES ……………..……………..………….....…………....…...………..……...………..…….. 1010 VRayLight (Texture) …..……………..………….....…………....…...………..……...……………….. 1015 VRayMapShadows …..……………..………….....…………....…...………..……...……………….. 1017 VRayPhysicalCamera (White Balance) …..……………..…….…………....…...……...………..……..1015 Render Elements …..……………..……………...…………....…...……...………………..…..….. 1021

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VRay - THE COMPLETE GUIDE