THE RISE OF

book and chapter from the reprint of 1833. Couto (IV. 5. 1.) tells us that there were originally JO books, but 2 were destroyed by order of the King o...

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THE RISE OF PORTUGUESE POWER IN INDIA 1497-1550 BY

R. S.

WHITEWAY

Bengal Civil Service (Retired)

*~ SUSIL GUPTA 7 A High Streer, Wanetead,

London, E 11

Caldereria 45, Santiago de Compoetela, Spain

... PERPUSTAl(MN NEGAAAMALAYSIA

PREFACE I KNOW of no English book which quite covers the ground that I have attempted to explore. The nearest approach to the subject was made in "The History of the Portuguese in India," published a few years since, but I have been unable to avail myself of the undoubted erudition of the author as he has not connected his narrative in any way with the general history of India. In the study of Oriental history the absence of surnames is a great drawback, each individual stands alone, and his name awakens no chord of sympathy as when we read of the Cecil under Elizabeth and of the Cecil under Victoria. The Portuguese occupy an intermediate position between the East and West; the son, as a rule, takes his father's name, but not always: it requires some research to discover that Pero da Silva, Alvaro d'Ataide and Estavao da Gama were all three sons of Vasco da Gama, and meanwhile our interest is dulled. In the matter of Oriental names the Portuguese transliteration presents some difficulties-C;;arcamdacao for Sikandar Khan, Codavascao for Khuda Bakhsh Khan, and Xacoez for Shaikh Iwaz are soluble, but some have defied indentification. Where possible the name has been taken from the "Tahafatu-I-Mujahidin It, from Elliot's "History". of India It or from Bayley's "Gujarat." Before leaving .the. subject of names it may be noted that the different systems of cataloguing the Portuguese.. writers throws some difficulty in the way of enquirers'. . One ' of the early historians is

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PREFACE

Fernao Lopez de Castanheda; he is usually quoted as Castanheda and the custom has been followed here, but in the British Museum catalogue he will be found under Lopez, and, worse than all, under Fernao in that monumental work, the Bibliotheca Lusitana of Diogo Barbosa Machado. I have endeavoured to give a history of the rise of the Portuguese power in India derived from the best available sources, and to give, not merely a record of military expeditions and of the change of governors, but also the details which throw light on the social life and on the idiosyncrasies of the chief men of the time. I hope I may have succeeded. The Portuguese connection with Ceylon has been so fully dealt with by Sir Emerson Tennant, and its connection with the Malay States by Crawfurd, that only a summary has been added to give completeness to this book;. If the subject prove of sufficient interest the work will be concluded with a volume on the decline of the Portuguese .power in India. In the first four chapters authorities have been freely quoted; in the remaining ones they are only given where the narrative is not based on the following historians: Castanheda to 1538 Correa to. 1550 Barros to . 1526 Couto from I 526 to I 550 I have to thank Sir Alfred Lyall and Mr. E. White for valuable suggestions and advice.

CONTENTS Page BIBLIOGRAPHY

C~PTI<:R

I. II.

" "

i· "

"

INTRODUCTORY

14

PORTUGUESE.-MALADAR

1II.

AR~lS A~D METHODS OF WARFARE-VOYAGES-

IV.

RELIGION-COINAGE-REMUNERATION OF OFFI-

.13

PIRACY-LAND JOURNEYS.

" " "

IX

5g

CERS - BANISHED MEN-ApPENDIX V.

VI. VIl. VIII.

J497-150I. 77 1502- 1504. 90 D. FRA:-
1509-1515 . IX.

Lopo

128

SOARES,

GOVER:-
DE SEQUIERA, GOVERNOR.

1515- 1521 .

x. D. DUARTE DE MENEZES, GOVERNOR -

"

DA

GAMA,

LOPES

VICEROY- D.

179

D. VASCO

HENRTQUE

DE

MENEZES,GOVERNOR - Lopo V AZ DE SAMPA YO,

1521-1529. ApPENDIX I : II: REVENUE

GOVERNOR,

CESSIONS-ApPENDIX

SUCSET-

TLEMENT OF GOA.

"

XI. XII.

19<)

NUNO DA CUNHA, GOVERNOR,

MARTIJIl

AFONSO

1542-1545.

DE

1538-1542 SOUSA,

"

SIMAO BOTELHO, COMPTROLLER

INDEX

279

D. JOAO DE CASTRO, GOVERNOR AND VICEROYGARCIA DE SA, GOVERNOR-JORGE CABRAL,

1545-J550

299

MALACCA-THE MOLUCCAS-CHINA.

326

GOVERNOR. APPENDIX.

26,

GOVERNOR,

OF REVENUE XIV.

22J

D. GARCIA DE NORONHA, VICEROy-D. ESTAYAO DA GAMA, GOVERNOR.

XIII.

1529-1538 .

341

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Except where specially stated below, the quotations in the Notes give the reference to the page of the edition mentioned here. ALBUQUERQUE, AFONSO D', Cartas, quoted as Cartas. Vol. . I, published by the Royal Academy of Lisbon in 1884. Vol. II, promised, but not yet published. Where they are contemporaneous the Letters supersede the Commentaries, but they do not cover so long a period. ALBUQUERQUE, AFONSO D', Commentaries. Translation. Hakluyt Society. 4 volumes. 1875-1884. ALVAREZ, FATHER FRANCISCO, Narrative of the Portuguese

Embassy to Abyssinia, I520-I527. Translation. Hakluyt Society. 1881. ANDRADE, J. F. D', Vida de D. :loao de Castro, quoted in the text as Vida. The Edition used is that edited by Fr. Francisco de S. Luiz and published by the Royal Lisbon Academy in 1835. It is a bombastic and untrustworthy work. ANNAES MARITIMOS E COLONIAES, quoted as An. Mar. e Col. A periodical in 6 volumes or series, 1840-46. The reprints of original papers are contained in the non·olficial part. They unfortunately follow no order of any kind, alphabetical or chronological. The documents appear to have been literally transcribed and are very important.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

ARCHlVO PORTUGUEZ ORIENTAL, quoted as Ar. Port. Or.

Most of the quotations give the number of the Fasciculus and of the document, a few, when the fact is noted, give the page of the volume. These are publications of State papers from the Goa Archives. They commence from ISIS and are of the greatest interest. Fasciculo I. Letters from the King of Portugal to the City of Goa.-2nd Edition, One Volume. 1877 . Fasciculo 2. Privileges of the City of Goa, including copies of complaints made to the King by the City.One Volume. 1857Fasciculo 3. Letters and Orders of the King of Portugal to Viceroys and Governors.-Two Volumes. 1861. Fasciculo 4. Ecclesiastical Councils of Goa and the Synod of Diamper.-One Volume. 1862. Fasciculo 5. Miscellaneous Documents.-Three Vol. umes. 1863. Fasciculo 6. Miscellaneous orders of the King and Viceroy, commencing with the 17th century.-One Volume. 1875. BAYLEY, Sir

E. C., Gujarat, 1886.

A collection of the local histories of Guzerat, translated on the principle of Elliot's "History of India." Unfortunately only Vol. I was ever published. BARBOSA, DUARTE,

The Coasts of East Africa and Malabar.

Translation from the Spanish. Hakluyt Society. 1866. Barbosa went to India as early as 1500. Correa frequently praises his learning and his knowledge of the Indian languages. BARBOSA, DUARTE, Same work in Portuguese.

Published by the Royal Lisbon Academy in 1867. BARROS, JOAO DE,

COUTO, DlOGO DE,

}

Decadas. 24 Volumes. 177 8- 1 788.

The quotations are given by Decades, Books and Chapters. Barros is an official historian: he is rhetorical and was never in India. His facts are well arranged, but as an authority he ranks below those who knew the country. His

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XI

statements sometimes clash with those of the original documents and occasionally show extreme ignorance of India. Three Decades, ending with the death of Henrique de Menezes, were published between 1552 and 1563, in the author's lifetime. The fourth Decade, which purports to have been made up from notes, was published in 1615 ; its value is small. Couto, who continued the work from the end . of the third decade, was also an official historian, but he spent almost all, if not all, his life in India after 1556. His 4th, 5th, 6th and 7th Decades alone were printed during the author's lifetime; the 6th Decade was burned after printing, before publication, and we learn from Barbosa Machado in his work, Bibliotheca Lusitana, s. v. Adeodato da Trinidade, that Adeodato, who was Couto's brother-in-law, touched up the sixth Decade previous to reprinting into the form we now have it, to please certain persons who did not like the unvarnished narrative of Couto. The remainder of Couto's papers came also into the possession of this brother-in-law. The 8th and 9th Decades were stolen in Couto's lifetime from his house while still in manuscript- . what we have now is an abstract prepared by him. The 11th, though it was written, has never been found; its place has been supplied by a compilation of the Editor in the edition used here. The 8th Decade was published in 1673 the 9th in 1736; 5 Books of the 12th (all that exist), to the end of the term of D. Francisco da Gama, in 1645. The loth Decade, which was the first composed, was not printed in full until 1788. Couto died in 1616. Where his history is untouched it is of great value. BERMUDEZ,

D. JOAO DE, Breve rela{ao da embaixada.

Published in 1565 and reissued by the Royal Lisbon Academy in 1875. BOCARRO, ANTONIO DE,

Decada XIII. Written in 1635.

First published in two volumes by the Royal Lisbon Academy in 1872. BOTELHO, SIMAO,

0 Tombo do Estado da · India.

Written

in 1554. First published in Subsidios by the Royal Academy of Lisbon in 1868.

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XII

BOTELHO, SIMAO, Car/as. Letters dated from 1547-1552. Contained in the same volume as the Tombo with separate paging. CABRAL, PEDRO ALVAREZ, Navega~ao. A Contemporary account of his voyage written by an anonymous pilot. Published first in Ramusio, Vol I, and translated from Italian into Portuguese and Published by the Royal Lisbon Academy in 1867. CALCOEN. A Dutch narrative of the second voyage of Vasco da Gam a, translated into English by J. Ph. Berjean and published in 1874-very valuable, but wants editing. CAMOENS, LUlZ DE, OS Lusz'adas. CASTANHEDA, FERNAO LOPEZ DE, Historia do descobrz'nunto

e Conquista da India. A history in 8 books, ending with the term of Nuno da Cunha. Quoted in the text with the number of the book and chapter from the reprint of 1833. Couto (IV. 5. 1.) tells us that there were originally JO books, but 2 were destroyed by order of the King on the complaint of certain persons that the truth was told too plainly. Castanheda went to India in 1528 and staved there about ten years. All his history is very valuable indeed, more especially the first six books. Where his work can be compared with original documents it stands the test well. Books I to 6 were printed partly in 1552 and partly in 1554, the last two in 1561 after the author's death. CASTANHOSO, MIGUEL, Historia das cousas , que

0 muy capitlto D. Christovlto da Gama fez. nor Reynos do Preste Joao.

esfor~ado

A history of the Abyssinian expedition under Christovao da Gama in 1541, by a member of it. Printed in 1564 and republished by the Royal Lisbon Academy in 1855. A most noteworthy narrative. CASTRO, D. JOAO, Roteiro no anno de I54I. Published in 1833.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

CASTRO,

Xlll

Primeiro roteiro do Cosla da India.

D. JOAO,

(153 8 - 1 539·)

Published 1843. Both the above logs contain passages of considerable value; that of his voyage out as Governor in 1545 is of little use. His letters are scattered over several periodicals. See Investigador Portuguez-Instituto-Revista Univers~l. COLERIDGE, Father H.

J.,

Life of St. Francis Xavier.

2 Vols. 18<}0. CORREA, GASPAR,

Lendas da India.

First published bv the Royal Lisbon Academy in 4 Volumes. 1858-61. Correa went out first in 1512, part. of his history was written as late as 1566; the date of his death is unknown. It would be easy to prove from the work that he had Castanheda's history before him when he wrote. Vol. I is legendary, the atmosphere is. oriental and the facts are very dubious. The other volumes beginning with the term of Albuquerque, whose secretary Correa was, are of the very highest interest. A translation of the three voyages of Vasco da Gama from the Lendas was published by the Hakluyt Society in 186<). COUTO, DIOGO DE,

Deeadas. See BARROS.

COUTO, DIOGO DE,

Soldado Pratieo.

Published in 1790. A diffuse work on the evils that afflicted the Portuguese Government of India at the end of the 16th century, written with much parade of learning. The author died in 1616. DELLA VALLE, PIETRO,

Travels.

Translation. Hakluyt Society. 2 Vols. 1892. ELLIOT, Sir H.,

History ·of India.

EMPOLI JOAO DE,

8 Vols. 1867-77.

Viagem. (1503.)

Published in Ramusio Vol. I, translated into Portuguese and published by the Royal Lisbon Academy in ]867.

Livro em que se toda a fazenda e real pllirimonio (1612) 1859.

FALCAO, LUIZ DE FIGUEIREDO,

al1l/em

A monument of the industry of the Secretary to Philip HI of Spain and II of Portugal, first published in 1859.